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(a) 21
Of the following name/symbol combinations of (b) 2.2
elements, which one is WRONG? (c) 30.
(a) uranium/U (d) 1.3
(b) sulfur/S (e) 14
(c) nitrogen/N 8.
(d) potassium/K Nitric acid is a very important industrial chemical:
(e) iron/I 1.612 x 1010 pounds of it were produced in 1992. If
2. the density of nitric acid is 12.53
Of the following symbol/name combinations of pounds/gallon, what volume would be occupied by
elements, which one is WRONG? this quantity? (1 gallon = 3.7854 liters)
(a) C/carbon (a) 7.646 x 1011 liters
(b) B/barium (b) 8.388 x 109 liters
(c) F/fluorine (c) 1.287 x 109 liters
(d) N/nitrogen (d) 5.336 x 1010 liters
(e) U/uranium (e) 4.870 x 109 liters
3. 9.
The chemical symbol for manganese is Identify the INCORRECT statement.
(a) Mn (a) Helium in a balloon: an element
(b) Mo
(c) Ma (b) Paint: a mixture
(d) Ga (c) Tap water: a compound
(e) Mg (d) Mercury in a barometer; an element
4. 10.
The number 0.005436 has how many significant An unused flashbulb contains magnesium and
figures? oxygen. After use, the contents are changed to
(a) 7 magnesium oxide but the total mass does not
(b) 3 change. This observation can best be explained by
(c) 4 the
(a) Law of Constant Composition.
(d) 5 (b) Law of Multiple Proportions.
(e) 6 (c) Avogadro's Law.
5. (d) Law of Conservation of Mass.
The number 10.00 has how many significant 11.
figures? Which answer includes all the following that are
(a) 1 chemical changes and not physical changes?
(b) 2 I. freezing of water
(c) 3 II. rusting of iron
(d) 4 III. dropping a piece of iron into hydrochloric acid
(e) 5 (H2 is produced)
6. IV. burning a piece of wood
What is the volume of a 2.50 gram block of metal V. emission of light by a kerosene oil lamp
whose density is 6.72 grams per cubic centimeter? (a) III and IV
(a) 16.8 cubic centimeters (b) II and V
(b) 2.69 cubic centimeters (c) I, II, III, IV, and V
(c) 0.0595 cubic centimeters (d) II, III, and V
(d) 0.372 cubic centimeters (e) II, III, IV, and V
(e) 1.60 cubic centimeters 12.
7. Which response lists all of the following properties
A cube of 1.2 inches on the side has a mass of 36 of sulfur that are physical properties and not other
grams. What is the density in g/cm3? properties?
I. It reacts with hydrogen when heated. (d) 1.5
II. It is a yellow solid at room temperature. (e) 3.2
III. It is soluble in carbon disulfide. 6.
IV. Its density is 2.97 g/cubic centimeter How many aluminum atoms are there in 3.50 grams
V. It melts at 112�C. of Al2O3?
(a) II, III, IV, and V (a) 4.13 x 1022
(b) II, IV, and V (b) 4.90 x 1022
(c) I (c) 2.07 x 1022
(d) II, III, and IV (d) 1.68 x 1022
(e) III, IV, and V (e) 2.45 x 1022
Answers: Which one of the samples contains the most atoms?
1. (e) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (d) 7. (d) 8. (e) (a) 1 mol of CO2(g)
9. (c) 10. (d) 11. (e) 12. (a) (b) 1 mol of UF6(g)
(c) 1 mol of CH3COCH3(l)
1.The formula weight of the compound, Al2(SO4)3 (d) 1 mol of He(g)
18H2O is: (e) all contain the same number of atoms
(a) 394.4 g Which one of the samples contains the most
(b) 666.4 g molecules?
(c) 110,900 g (a) 1 mol of CO2(g)
(d) 466.8 g (b) 1 mol of UF6(g)
(e) 561.2 g
2. (c) 1 mol of CH3COCH3(l)
The weight of a millimole of (NH4)2HPO4 is: (d) 1 mol of He(g)
(a) 132 g (e) all contain the same number of molecules
(b) 114 g 9.
(c) 1.14 x 103 Which one of the samples has the largest mass?
g (a) 1 mol of CO2(g)
(d) 0.132 g (b) 1 mol of UF6(g)
(e) 6.02 x 1020 g (c) 1 mol of CH3COCH3(l)
3. How many moles of alanine, C3H7NO2, are (d) 1 mol of He(g)
there in 159 g of alanine? (e) all have the same mass
(a) 1.42 x 104 10.
(b) 1.78 Which of the following statements is(are) FALSE?
(c) 0.992 1. The percent by mass of each element in a
(d) 0.560 compound depends on the amount of the compound.
(e) 3.31 2. The mass of each element in a compound
depends on the amount of the compound.
4. 3. The percent by mass of each element in a
How many atoms are in one mole of CH3OH? compound depends on the amount of element
(a) 6 present in the compound.
(b) 6.0 x 1023 (a) 2 and 3
(c) 12.0 x 1023 (b) 1 only
(d) 3.6 x 1024 (c) 1 and 2
(e) 3 (d) 1, 2 and 3
5. (e) another combination
The mass in grams of 2.6 x 1022 chlorine atoms is: 11.
(a) 4.4 Guanidin, HNC(NH2)2, is a fertilizer. To three
(b) 11 significant figures, what is the percent by mass of
(c) 0.76 nitrogen in the fertilizer?
(a) 45.2% (e) C4H7O2
(b) 49.4% 17.
(c) 54.8% What mass of cerussite, PbCO3, would contain 35.0
(d) 65.1% grams of lead?
(e) 71.1%
12. (a) 27.1 g
Calculate the percent, by weight, of carbon in 154 g (b) 45.1 g
of C4H8O3? (c) 42.4 g
(a) 46% (d) 35.6 g
(b) 31% (e) 51.7 g
(c) 72% Answers:
(d) 27% 1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (b) 4. (d) 5. (d) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (e)
(e) 55% 9. (b) 10. (b) 11. (e) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (c)
15. (e) 16. (b) 17. (b)
Analysis of a sample of a covalent compound 1.
showed that it contained 14.4% hydrogen and
Balance the following equation with the smallest
85.6% carbon by mass. What is the empirical
whole number coefficients. Choose the answer that
formula for the compound?
is the sum of the coefficients in the
(a) CH
balanced equation. Do not forget coefficients of
(b) CH2
(c) CH3
PtCl4 + XeF2 PtF6 + ClF + Xe
(d) C2H3
(a) 16
(e) none of these
(b) 22
14. (c) 24
An oxide of lead contains 90.65% Pb, by weight. (d) 26
The empirical formula is: (e) 32
(a) Pb 2.
(b) PbO
Balance the following equation with the smallest
(c) Pb3O4
whole number coefficients. Choose the answer that
(d) Pb2O3
is the sum of the coefficients in the
(e) PbO2
balanced equation. Do not forget coefficients of
15. "one."
A 0.500 g sample of a compound containing only Cr2(SO4)3 + RbOH Cr(OH)3 + Rb2SO4
antimony and oxygen was found to contain 0.418 g (a) 10
of antimony and 0.082 g of oxygen. What (b) 12
is the simplest formula for the compound? (c) 13
(a) SbO (d) 14
(b) SbO2 (e) 15
(c) Sb3O4 3.
(d) Sb2O5
Balance the following equation using minimum
(e) Sb2O3
integral coefficients:
16. NH3 + O2 =NO2 + H2O
A compound contains, by mass, 40.0% carbon,
6.71% hydrogen, and 53.3% oxygen. A 0.320 mole The stoichiometric coefficient for oxygen gas O2 is:
sample of this compound weighs 28.8 g. (a) 1
The molecular formula of this compound is: (b) 4
(a) C2H4O2 (c) 3
(b) C3H6O3 (d) 7
(c) C2H4O (e) 5
(d) CH2O 4.
When iron pyrite (FeS2) is heated in air, the process (d) 19.8 g
known as "roasting" forms sulfur dioxide and (e) 27.2 g
iron(III) oxide. When the equation for this 8.
process is completed and balanced, using the Calculate the mass of hydrogen formed when 25
smallest whole number coefficients, what is the grams of aluminum reacts with excess hydrochloric
coefficient for "O2"? acid.
___ FeS2 + ___ O2 ___ SO2 + ___ Fe2O3 2Al + 6HCl Al2Cl6 + 3H2
(a) 2 (a) 0.41 g
(b) 4 (b) 1.2 g
(c) 7 (c) 1.8 g
(d) 8 (d) 2.8 g
(e) 11 (e) 0.92 g
5. 9.
How many moles of KBrO3 are required to prepare When 12 g of methanol (CH3OH) was treated with
0.0700 moles of Br2 according to the reaction: excess oxidizing agent (MnO4
KBrO3 + 5KBr + 6HNO3 6KNO3 + 3Br2 + 3H2O ),
(a) 0.210 14 g of formic acid (HCOOH) was obtained. Using
(b) 0.0732 the
(c) 0.0704 following chemical equation, calculate the percent
(d) 0.220 yield. (The reaction is much more complex than
(e) 0.0233 this; please ignore the fact that the charges
6. do not balance.)
Which of the following statements is FALSE for the 3CH3OH + 4MnO4
chemical equation given below in which nitrogen 3HCOOH
gas reacts with hydrogen gas to form + 4MnO2
ammonia gas assuming the reaction goes to (a) 100%
completion? (b) 92%
N2 + 3H2 2NH3 (c) 82%
(a) The reaction of one mole of H2 will produce 2/3 (d) 70%
moles of NH3. (e) 55%
(b) One mole of N2 will produce two moles of NH3. 10. A commercially valuable paint and adhesive
(c) One molecule of nitrogen requires three stripper, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), (CH3)2SO,
molecules of hydrogen for complete reaction. can be prepared by the reaction of oxygen with
(d) The reaction of 14 g of nitrogen produces 17 g dimethyl sulfide, (CH3)2S, using a ratio of one mole
of ammonia. oxygen to two moles of the sulfide:
(e) The reaction of three moles of hydrogen gas will O2 + 2(CH3)2S 2(CH3)2SO
produce 17 g of ammonia. If this process is 83% efficient, how many grams of
DMSO could be produced from 65 g of dimethyl
7. sulfide and excess O2?
Calcium carbide, CaC2, is an important preliminary (a) 68 g
chemical for industries producing synthetic fabrics (b) 75 g
and plastics. CaC2 may be produced by (c) 83 g
heating calcium oxide with coke: (d) 51 g
CaO + 3C CaC2 + CO (e) 47 g
What is the amount of CaC2 which can be produced 11.
from the reaction of excess calcium oxide and 10.2 The formation of ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH) by the
g of carbon? (Assume 100% efficiency fermentation of glucose (C6H12O6) may be
of reaction for purposes of this problem.) represented by:
(a) 18.1 g C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
(b) 28.4 g
(c) 20.8 g
If a particular glucose fermentation process is If 100 g of SiO2 and 100 g of C are reacted as far as
87.0% efficient, how many grams of glucose would possible, which one of the following statements will
be required for the production of 51.0 g of be correct?
ethyl alcohol (C2H5OH)? (a) 111 g of SiO2 will be left over.
(a) 68.3 g (b) 44 g of SiO2 will be left over.
(b) 75.1 g (c) 82 g of C will be left over.
(c) 115 g (d) 40 g of C will be left over.
(d) 229 g (e) Both reactants will be consumed completely,
(e) 167 g with none of either left over.
12. 17.
The limiting reagent in a chemical reaction is one Calculate the mass of 6.00% NiSO4 solution that
that: contains 40.0 g of NiSO4?
(a) has the largest molar mass (formula weight). 667 g(b) 540 g
(b) has the smallest molar mass (formula weight). (c) 743 g
(c) has the smallest coefficient. (d) 329 g
(d) is consumed completely. (e) none of these
(e) is in excess. 18.
13. How many grams of water are contained in 75.0
If 5.0 g of each reactant were used for the the grams of a 6.10% aqueous solution of K3PO4?
following process, the limiting reactant would be: (a) 75.0 g
2KMnO4 +5Hg2Cl2 + 16HCl 10HgCl2 + 2MnCl2 + (b) 73.2 g
2KCl + 8H2O (c) 70.4 g
(a) KMnO4 (d) 68.1 g
(b) HCl (e) 62.8 g
(c) H2O The mass (in grams) of FeSO4 7H2O required for
(d) Hg2Cl2 preparation of 125 mL of 0.90 M solution is:
(e) HgCl2 (a) 16 g
14. (b) 25 g
What mass of ZnCl2 can be prepared from the (c) 13 g
reaction of 3.27 grams of zinc with 3.30 grams of (d) 31 g
HCl? (e) 43 g
Zn +2HCl ZnCl2 + H2 20.
(a) 6.89 g What is the molarity of phosphoric acid in a
(b) 6.82 g solution labeled 20.0% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) by
(c) 6.46 g weight with a density = 1.12 g/mL?
(d) 6.17 g (a) 0.98 M
(e) 6.02 g (b) 2.3 M
15. (c) 2.7 M
How many grams of NH3 can be prepared from (d) 3.0 M
77.3 grams of N2 and 14.2 grams of H2? (Hint: (e) 3.6 M
Write and balance the equation first.) 21.
(a) 93.9 g How many mL of 17 M NH3 must be diluted to
(b) 79.7 g 500.0 mL to make a 0.75 M solution?
(c) 47.0 g (a) 13 mL
(d) 120.0 g (b) 22 mL
(e) 13.3 g (c) 39 mL
16. (d) 73 mL
Silicon carbide, an abrasive, is made by the reaction (e) none of these
of silicon dioxide with graphite. 22. How many grams of Ag2CO3 are required to
SiO2 +3C SiC + 2CO react with 28.5 mL of 1.00 M NaOH solution?
Ag2CO3 +2NaOH Ag2O + Na2CO3 + H2O (d) HCl
(a) 7.87 g (e) HNO3
(b) 3.93 g 4.
(c) 15.7 g Which one of the following is likely to be the most
(d) 10.8 g soluble base?
(e) 8.16 g (a) Ca(OH)2
23. (b) Cu(OH)2
How many milliliters of 0.200 M NH4OH are (c) Ga(OH)3
needed to react with 12.0 mL of 0.550 M FeCl3?
FeCl3 + 3NH4OH Fe(OH)3 + 3NH4Cl (d) Zn(OH)2
(a) 99.0 mL (e) Zr(OH)3
(b) 33.0 mL 5.
(c) 8.25 mL Which one of the following statements is TRUE?
(d) 68.8 mL (a) One mole of any acid will ionize completely in
(e) 132 mL aqueous solution to produce one mole of H+ ions.
24. (b) Solutions of weak acids always have lower
When 250. mL of a 0.15 M solution of ammonium concentrations of H+ than solutions of strong acids.
sulfide (NH4)2S is poured into 120. mL of a 0.053 (c) There are several common acids that are
M solution of cadmium sulfate CdSO4, insoluble.
how many grams of a yellow precipitate of (d) All of the IA and IIA metal hydroxides are
cadmium sulfide CdS are formed? The other soluble.
product is (NH4)2SO4. (Hint: Write out and balance (e) All weak acids are insoluble.
the equation. Is this a limiting reagent problem? ) 6.
(a) 5.4 g Consider the following reaction:
(b) 0.92 g NH3(g) + H2O(l) NH4
(c) 2.6 g +(aq) + OH(
(d) 1.9 g aq)
(e) 530 g Which one of the following statements is false?
Answers: (a) The double arrows indicate that ammonia, NH3,
1. (a) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (e) 5. (e) 6. (e) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9. is only very slightly soluble in water.
(c) 10. (a) 11. (c) 12. (d) 13. (d) 14. (d) 15. (b) 16. (b) The reaction is reversible.
(d) 17. (a) 18. (c) 19. (d) 20. (b) 21. (b) 22. (b) (c) When ammonia is added to water, NH4
23. (a) 24. (b) 1. + and OHions
What alkaline earth metal is located in period 3? are produced in a 1:1 ratio.
(a) Li (d) When solutions of NH4Cl and NaOH are mixed,
(b) Na some ammonia is produced.
(c) Ca (e) Ammonia is considered to be a weak base.
(d) Mg 7.
(e) Sr Which one of the following salts is insoluble?
2. (a) NH4Cl
Which of the following is classified as a metal? (b) Ca(NO3)2
(a) Ge (c) BaCO3
(b) As (d) Na2S
(c) F (e) Zn(CH3COO)2
(d) V 8.
(e) Ar What salt is formed in the following acid/base
3. reaction?
Which of the following is a weak acid? HClO3 + Ba(OH)2
(a) H2SO4 (a) BaCl2
(b) HClO3 (b) ClOBa
(c) HF (c) H2O
(d) BaClO3(e) Ba(ClO3)2 13.
9. What is the net ionic equation for the acidbase
The precipitate formed when barium chloride is reaction that occurs when nitric acid is added to
treated with sulfuric acid is _______ . copper(II) hydroxide?
(a) BaS2O4 (a) H+(aq) + OH(
(b) BaSO3 aq) H2O(l)
(c) BaSO2 (b) 2H+(aq) + Cu(OH)2(s) Cu2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)
(d) BaSO4 (c) 2HNO3(aq) +Cu(OH)2(s) Cu(NO3)2(s) +
(e) BaS 2H2O(l)
10. (d) 2H+(aq) + 2NO3
The spectator ion(s) in the following reaction is/are: (
Na2CO3(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq) BaCO3(s) + aq) + Cu2+(aq) + 2OH(
2NaNO3(aq) aq) Cu(NO3)2(s) + 2H2O(l)
(a) Na+ and Ba2+ (e) 2H+(aq) + 2NO3
(b) Ba2+ and CO3 (
2( aq) + Cu2+(aq) + 2OH(
c) CO3 aq) Cu2+(aq) + 2NO3
2and (
NO3 aq) + 2H2O(l)
( 14.
d) Na+ only Which of the following statements is FALSE given
(e) Na+ and NO3 the following net ionic equation?
11. H3PO4(aq) + 3OH(
Which one of the following statements is FALSE? aq) PO4
(a) For the reaction of a strong acid with a strong 3(
soluble base, the net ionic equation is always aq) + 3H2O(l)
H+ + OHH2O (a) If all the water evaporated away, the salt
(b) "Spectator ions" appear in the total ionic remaining could possibly be Na3PO4.
equation for a reaction, but not in the net ionic (b) The acid, H3PO4, is a weak electrolyte.
equation. (c) The base involved must be a strong soluble base.
(c) HF, HCl, and HNO3 are all examples of strong (d) This is classified as a neutralization reaction.
acids. (e)This could be the net ionic equation for H3PO4
(d) Titration is a process which can be used to reacting with Al(OH)3.
determine the concentration of a solution. 15.
(e) In a neutralization reaction, an acid reacts with Which of the following statements is FALSE given
base to produce a salt and H2O. the following net ionic equation?
12. 2H+(aq) + Cu(OH)2(s) Cu2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)
What is the net ionic equation for the acidbase (a) If all the water evaporated away, the salt
reaction that occurs when acetic acid and potassium remaining could possibly be CuS.
hydroxide solutions are mixed? (b) The acid involved must be a strong electrolyte.
(a) H+(aq) + OH( (c) The base, Cu(OH)2, is an insoluble base.
aq) H2O(l) (d) This could be the net ionic equation for HNO3
(b) H+(aq) + KOH(s) K+(aq) + H2O(l) reacting with Cu(OH)2.
(c) CH3COOH(aq) + KOH(s) KCH3COO(aq) + (e) This is classified as a neutralization reaction.
H2O(l) 16.
(d) CH3COO( Determine the oxidation number of carbon in
aq) + H+(aq) + K+(aq) + OH( K2CO3.
aq) K+(aq) + CH3COO( (a) 0
aq) + H2O(l) (e) CH3COOH(aq) + OH( (b) +2
aq) CH3COO( (c) +4
aq) + H2O(l) (d) 2
(e) some other value17. Which of the following has a positive charge?
Which assignment of oxidation number is (a) proton
INCORRECT for the blinking element? (b) neutron
(a) K2Cr2O7; +6 (c) anion
(b) NH3; +3 (d) electron
(c) H2PO2 (e) atom
; 2.
+1 Rutherford carried out experiments in which a beam
(d) SeO3 of alpha particles was directed at a thin piece of
2; metal foil. From these experiments he
+4 concluded that:
(e) Cu(NO3)2; +2 (a) electrons are massive particles.
18. (b) the positively charged parts of atoms are moving
Consider the following reaction: about with a velocity approaching the speed of
4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O light.
The element being oxidized and the oxidizing agent (c) the positively charged parts of atoms are
are: extremely small and extremely heavy particles.
(a) N and NH3 (d) the diameter of an electron is approximately
(b) N and O2 equal to that of the nucleus.
(c) O and NH3 (e) electrons travel in circular orbits around the
(d) O and O2 nucleus.
(e) H and NH3 3.
19. Consider the species 72Zn, 75As and 74Ge. These
Given that the Activity Series is: species have:
Na>Mg>Cu>Ag>Au, which one of the following (a) the same number of electrons.
answers represents the ions that would not be (b) the same number of protons.
displaced (c) the same number of neutrons.
from aqueous solution (reduced) by metallic (d) the same number of protons and neutrons.
magnesium? (e) the same mass number.
(a) Na+ 4.
(b) Cu2+ The neutral atoms of all of the isotopes of the same
(c) Cu2+ and Au+ element have
(d) Cu2+, Ag+ and Au+ (a) different numbers of protons.
(e) Na+, Cu2+, Ag+ and Au+ (b) equal numbers of neutrons. (c) the same number
20. of electrons.
Which name/formula combination is WRONG? (d) the same mass numbers.
(a) phosphorous acid / H3PO4 (e) the same masses.
(b) nitrogen oxide / NO 5.
(c) acetate ion / CH3COO( What is the atomic weight of a hypothetical element
d) sodium chromate / Na2CrO4 consisting of two isotopes, one with mass = 64.23
(e) calcium hypobromite / Ca(BrO)221. amu (26.0%), and one with mass =
Which name/formula combination is WRONG? 65.32 amu?
(a) chlorous acid / HClO2 (a) 65.3 amu
(b) dinitrogen tetroxide / N2O4 (b) 64.4 amu
(c) ammonium nitrate / NH4NO3 (c) 64.9 amu
(d) copper(II) periodate / CuIO4 (d) 65.0 amu
(e) potassium permanganate / KMnO4 (e) 64.8 amu
Answers: 6.
1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (a) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (e) 9. Naturally occurring rubidium consists of just two
(d) 10. (e) 11. (c) 12. (e) 13. (b) 14. (e) 15. (a) 16. isotopes. One of the isotopes consists of atoms
(c) 17. (b) 18. (b) 19. (a) 20. (a) 21. (d) 1. having a mass of 84.912 amu; the other of
86.901 amu. What is the percent natural abundance The Heisenberg Principle states that
of the heavier isotope? _____________.
(a) 15% (a) no two electrons in the same atom can have the
(b) 28% same set of four quantum numbers.
(c) 37% (b) two atoms of the same element must have the
(d) 72% same number of protons.
(e) 85% (c) it is impossible to determine accurately both the
7. position and momentum of an electron
What is the frequency of light having a wavelength simultaneously.
of 4.50 x 106 (d) electrons of atoms in their ground states enter
cm? energetically equivalent sets of orbitals singly
(a) 2.84 x 1012 before they pair up in any orbital of the set.
s1 (e) charged atoms (ions) must generate a magnetic
(b) 2.10 x 104 s1 field when they are in motion.
(c) 4.29 x 1014 s1 11.
(d) 1.06 x 1022 s1 Which statement about the four quantum numbers
(e) 6.67 x 1015 s1 which describe electrons in atoms is incorrect?
8. (a) n = principal quantum number, n = 1, 2, 3, ......
The emission spectrum of gold shows a line of (b) l = subsidiary (or azimuthal) quantum number, l
wavelength 2.676 x 107 = 1, 2, 3, ... , (n+1)
m. How much energy is emitted as the excited (c) ml = magnetic quantum number, ml = (l),
electron falls to the .... , 0, .... , (+l)
lower energy level? (d) ms = spin quantum number, ms = +1/2 or 1/
(a) 7.43 x 1019 2.
J (e) The magnetic quantum number is related to the
(b) 5.30 x 1020 orientation of atomic orbitals in space.
J 12.
(c) 6.05 x 1019 Which atomic orbital is spherical in shape? (Note:
J you should know and be able to recognize the
(d) 3.60 x 1020 shapes of the s orbital, px, py, and pz orbitals,
J and dxy, dyz, dxz, dx2y2
(e) 5.16 x 1020 and dz2 orbitals.)
J9. (a) 2s
Which of the responses contains all the statements (b) 3p
that are consistent with the Bohr theory of the atom (c) 3d
(and no others)? (d) 4f
(1) An electron can remain in a particular orbit as (e) they are all spherical
long as it continually absorbs radiation of a definite 13.
frequency. The maximum number of electrons that can be
(2) The lowest energy orbits are those closest to the accommodated in a sublevel for which l = 3 is: (a) 2
nucleus. (b) 10
(3) An electron can jump from the K shell (n = 1 (c) 6
major energy level) to the M shell (n = 3 major (d) 14
energy level) by emitting radiation of a (e) 8
definite frequency. 14.
(a) 1,2,3 The ground state electron configuration for arsenic
(b) 2 only is:
(c) 3 only (a) [Ar] 4s2 4p13
(d) 1,2 (b) [Kr] 4s2 4p1
(e) 2,3 (c) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d12 4s2 4p1
10. (d) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d8 4p5
(e) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p3 (b) anything about the element's chemical
15. properties.
Which of the following electron configurations is (c) the total number of electrons in s orbitals.
correct for nickel? (d) the total number of electrons in p orbitals.
(a) [Ar] 4s1 3d8 (e) the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
(b) [Kr] 4s1 4d8 of the element.
(c) [Kr] 4s1 3d8 Answers:
(d) [Kr] 4s2 3d8 1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (d) 6. (b) 7. (e) 8. (a) 9.
(e) [Ar] 4s2 3d8 (b) 10. (c) 11. (b) 12. (a) 13. (d) 14. (e) 15. (e) 16.
16. (e) 17. (a) 18. (c) 19. (b) 20. (e) 1.
The outer electronic configuration ns2np4 The atom having the valenceshell
corresponds to which one of the following elements configuration 4s2 4p5 would be in:
in its ground state? (a) Group VIA and Period 5
(a) As (b) Group IVB and Period 4
(b) Ca (c) Group VIB and Period 7
(c) Cr (d) Group VIIA and Period 4
(d) Br (e) Group VIIB and Period 4
(e) S 2.
17. Select the term best describing the series of
In the ground state of a cobalt atom there are _____ elements: Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu.
unpaired electrons and the atom is _____. (a) dtransition
(a) 3, paramagnetic metals
(b) 5, paramagnetic (b) representative elements
(c) 2, diamagnetic (c) metalloids
(d) 0, diamagnetic (d) alkaline earth metals
(e) 2, paramagnetic18. (e) halogens
Which one of the following sets of quantum 3.
numbers could be those of the distinguishing (last) Which element has the largest atomic radius?
electron of Mo? (a) Li
(a) n = 4, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = +1/2 (b) Na
(b) n = 5, l = 1, ml = 9, ms = 1/ (c) Rb
2 (d) F
(c) n = 4, l = 2, ml = 1, (e) I
ms = +1/2 4.
(d) n = 5, l = 2, ml = +2, ms = 1/ Which of the following terms accurately describes
2 the energy associated with the process:
(e) n = 3, l = 2, ml = 0, ms = +1/2 Li(g) Li+(g) + e(
19. a) electron affinity
How many p electrons are there in an atom of (b) binding energy(c) ionization energy
rubidium? (d) electronegativity
(a) 12 (e) none of these
(b) 18 5.
(c) 24 The species that contains 24 protons, 26 neutrons
(d) 9 and 22 electrons would be represented by the
(e) 6 symbol:
20. (a) 50V3+
A neutral atom of an element has 2 electrons in the (b) 26Cr2+
first energy level, 8 in the second energy level and 8 (c) 50Cr2+
in the third energy level. This (d) 50Mn2+
information does not necessarily tell us: (e) none of these
(a) the atomic number of the element. 6.
Which element has the lowest first ionization (d) atomic mass
energy? (e) atomic volume
(a) He 12.
(b) Ne Which of the following is an ionic hydride?
(c) Ar (a) PH3
(d) Kr (b) H2S
(e) Xe (c) HI
7. (d) KH
Which element has the highest first ionization (e) CH4
energy? (Note: this is an exception to the general 13.
trend see Which of the following is the most basic oxide?
notesyou (a) N2O3
may be responsible for (b) N2O5
this.) (c) P4O6
(a) Be (d) P4O10
(b) B (e) Bi2O5Answers:
(c) C 1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (c) 6. (e) 7. (d) 8. (b) 9.
(d) N (d) 10. (c) 11. (b) 12. (d) 13. (e) 1.
(e) O The valence electrons of representative elements are
8. (a) in s orbitals only.
Which of these isoelectronic species has the (b) located in the outermost occupied major energy
smallest radius? level.
(a) Br( (c) located closest to the nucleus.
b) Sr2+ (d) located in d orbitals.
(c) Rb+ (e) located in the innermost occupied shell.
(d) Se2( 2.
e) They are all the same size because they have the Which of the following pairs of elements and
same number of electrons. valence electrons is incorrect?
9. (a) Al 3
Which of the following elements has the greatest (b) Br 7
attraction for electrons in a covalent bond? (a) Ge (c) S 4
(b) As (d) Sr 2
(c) Se (e) Tl 3
(d) Br 3.
(e) Bi With regard to the species 16O2,
10. 19Fand
Which statement is wrong? 20Ne, which of the following statements is correct?
(a) The atomic weight of carbon is about 12. (a) All three species contain 10 electrons.
(b) The most stable ion of lithium is Li+. (b)The sum of the neutrons in all three species is 27.
(c) A phosphorus atom is larger than an antimony (c) The sum of the protons in all three species is 28.
atom. (d) Both 19Fand
(d) The radius of a sodium atom is larger than that 20Ne contain 20 neutrons.
of a sodium cation. (e) none of the above
(e) Oxygen has a less negative electron affinity than 4.
fluorine. Which of the following does not have a noble gas
11. electron configuration? (or Which of the following
All of the following properties of the alkaline earth is not isoelectronic with a noble gas?)
metals increase going down the group except (a) S2(
(a) atomic radius b) Ba+(c) Al3+
(b) first ionization energy (d) Sb3(
(c) ionic radius e) Sc3+
5. (d) 2 NCl
Which one of the formulas for ionic compounds bonds, 1 N=Cl bond and 8 lone pairs of electrons.
below is incorrect? (e) 3 NCl
(a) SrCl2 bonds and 9 lone pairs of electrons.
(b) Cs2S 10.
(c) AlCl3 What is the total number of electrons in the correct
(d) Al3P2 Lewis dot formula of the sulfite ion?
(e) CaSe (a) 8
6. (b) 24
Which is classified as nonpolar covalent? (c) 26
(a) the HI (d) 30
bond in HI (e) 32
(b) the HS 11.
bond in H2S In the Lewis structure for the OF2 molecule, the
(c) the PCl number of lone pairs of electrons around the central
bond in PCl3 oxygen atom is
(d) the NCl (a) 0
bond in NCl3 (b) 1
(e) the NH (c) 2
bond in NH3 (d) 3
7. (e) 4
Which one of the compounds below is most likely 12.
to be ionic? The electronic structure of the SO2 molecule is best
(a) GaAs represented as a resonance hybrid of ____
(b) ScCl3 equivalent structures.
(c) NO2 (a) 2
(d) CCl4 (b) 3
(e) ClO2 (c) 4
8. (d) 5
The correct electrondot (e) This molecule does not exhibit resonance.
formulation for hydrogen cyanide shows: 13.
(a) 2 double bonds and two lone pairs of electrons Consider the bicarbonate ion (also called the
on the N atom. hydrogen carbonate ion). After drawing the correct
(b) 1 CH Lewis dot structure(s), you would see:
bond, 1 C=N bond, 1 lone pair of electrons on the C (a) two double bonds around the central carbon
atom and 1 lone pair of electrons on the N atom. atom.
(c) 1 CH (b) three single bonds around the central carbon
bond, 1 CN atom.
bond, 2 lone pairs of electrons on the C atom and 3 (c) four single bonds around the central carbon
lone pairs of electrons on the N atom. atom.
(d) 1 triple bond between C and N, 1 NH (d) two equivalent resonance forms.
bond and 2 lone pairs of electrons on the C atom. (e) three equivalent resonance forms.
(e) 1 triple bond between C and N, 1 CH 14. Draw one of the resonance structures of SO3.
bond and 1 lone pair of electrons on the N atom. The formal charge of S is
9. The correct dot formulation for nitrogen (a) +2
trichloride has: (b) +1
(a) 3 NCl (c) 0
bonds and 10 lone pairs of electrons. (d) 1
(b) 3 N=Cl bonds and 6 lone pairs of electrons. (e) 2
(c) 1 NCl 15.
bond, 2 N=Cl bonds and 7 lone pairs of electrons. Which one of the following violates the octet rule?
(a) PCl3 Which polyatomic ion is incorrectly matched with
(b) CBr4 its ionic geometry?
(c) NF3 (a) SiCl6
(d) OF2 2trigonal
(e) AsF5 bipyramidal
Answers: (b) PH4
1. (b) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (d) 6. (d) 7. (b) 8. (e) 9. + tetrahedral
(a) 10. (c) 11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (d) 14. (a) 15. (e) (c) ClO2
1. (d) NH4
Choose the molecule that is incorrectly matched + tetrahedral
with the electronic geometry about the central atom. (e) SO4
(a) CF4 tetrahedral 2tetrahedral
(b) BeBr2 linear 6.
(c) H2O tetrahedral Which of the following species is planar?
(d) NH3 tetrahedral (a) NH3
(e) PF3 pyramidal (b) H3O+
2. (c) SO3
Choose the species that is incorrectly matched with 2(
the electronic geometry about the central atom. d) PF3
(a) NO2 (e) NO3
trigonal 7.
planar What kind of hybrid orbitals are utilized by the
(b) ClO4 carbon atom in CF4 molecules?
tetrahedral (a) sp
(c) SO3 (b) sp2
2pyramidal (c) sp3
(d) ClO3 (d) sp3d
tetrahedral (e) sp3d2
(e) BrO4 8.
tetrahedral A neutral molecule having the general formula AB3
3. has two unshared pair of electrons on A. What is the
Which of the following pairs of molecules and their hybridization of A? (a) sp
molecular geometries is WRONG? (b) sp2
(a) NF3 trigonal (c) sp3
planar (d) sp3d
(b) H2O bent (e) sp3d2
(c) BF3 trigonal 9.
planar What hybridization is predicted for sulfur in the
(d) AsF5 trigonal HSO3
bipyramidal ion?
(e) SeF6 octahedral4. (a) sp
Which molecule has a linear arrangement of all (b) sp2
component atoms? (c) sp3
(a) CH4 (d) sp3d
(b) H2O (e) sp3d2
(c) CO2 10.
(d) NH3 Which of the following four molecules are polar:
(e) BF3 PH3 OF2 HF SO3?
5. (a) all except SO3
(b) only HF
(c) only HF and OF2 (d) 2 lone pairs, 3 bonds, and 4 bonds.
(d) none of these (e) 11 lone pairs, no bonds, and 5 bonds. 17.
(e) all of these Draw a complete linebond
11. or electrondot
Which molecule is nonpolar? formula for acetic acid and then decide which
(a) H2Se statement is incorrect.
(b) BeH2 (a) One carbon is described by sp2 hybridization.
(c) PF3 (b) The molecule contains only one bond.
(d) CHCl3 (c) The molecule contains four lone pairs of valence
(e) SO2 electrons.
12. (d) One carbon is described by sp3 hybridization.
The FSF (e) Both oxygens are described by sp3
bond angles in SF6 are ______. hybridization.
(a) 109o28' Answers:
(b) 120o only 1. (e) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (e) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9.
(c) 90o and 120o(d) 45o and 90o (c) 10. (a) 11. (b) 12. (e) 13. (d) 14. (d) 15. (d) 16.
(e) 90o and 180o (e) 17. (e) 1.
13. Which statement is false? A sigma molecular orbital
Which response contains all of the characteristics (a) may result from overlap of p atomic orbitals
listed that should apply to phosphorus trichloride, perpendicular to the molecular axis (sideon).
PCl3, and no other characteristics? (b) may result from overlap of p atomic orbitals
(1) trigonal planar along the molecular axis (headon).
(2) one unshared pair of electrons on P (c) may result from overlap of two s atomic orbitals.
(3) sp2 hybridized at P (d) may result from overlap of one s and one p
(4) polar molecule atomic orbitals.
(5) polar bonds (e) may be either bonding or antibonding.
(a) 1, 4, 5 2.
(b) 2, 3, 4 Carbon monoxide has ten bonding electrons and
(c) 1, 2, 4 four antibonding electrons. Therefore it has a bond
(d) 2, 4, 5 order of
(e) another combination (a) 3
14. (b) 7
A (pi) bond is the result of the (c) 1
(a) overlap of two s orbitals. (d) 5/2
(b) overlap of an s and a p orbital. (e) 2
(c) overlap of two p orbitals along their axes.
(d) sidewise overlap of two parallel p orbitals.
(e) sidewise overlap of two s orbitals.
A triple bond contains ___ sigma bond(s) and ___
pi bond(s).
(a) 0, 3
(b) 3, 0
(c) 2, 1
(d) 1, 2
(e) 3, 2
The perchloric acid molecule contains:
(a) 13 lone pairs, 1 bond, and 4 bonds.
(b) 9 lone pairs, no bonds, and 6 bonds.
(c) 8 lone pairs, 2 bonds, and 7 bonds.
(e) One of the shortcomings of valence bond theory
is its inability to account for the paramagnetism of
the oxygen molecule, O29.
Antibonding molecular orbitals are produced by
(a) constructive interaction of atomic orbitals.
(b) destructive interaction of atomic orbitals.
(c) the overlap of the atomic orbitals of two
negative ions
(d) all of these
5. (e) none of these
Draw the molecular orbital diagram for the 10.
molecular ion, N2 Which statement regarding stable heteronuclear
+. The number of electrons in the 2p molecular
diatomic molecules is false?
orbital is: (a) All have bond orders greater than zero.
(a) 0 (b) The antibonding molecular orbitals have more
(b) 1 of the character of the more electropositive element
(c) 2 than of the more electronegative element.
(d) 3 (c) Their molecular orbital diagrams are more
(e) 4 symmetrical than those of homonuclear diatomic
6. molecules.
What is the bond order in O2 (d) The bonding molecular orbitals have more of the
+? character of the more electronegative element than
(a) 3.5 of the less electronegative element.
(b) 2.0 (e) The greater is the difference in energy between
(c) 1.5 two overlapping atomic orbitals, the more polar the
(d) 2.5 resulting bond is, due to electrons
(e) 0 occupying the resulting bonding molecular orbital.
7. Answers:
Draw the molecular orbital diagram for B2. The 1. (a) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (e) 5. (b) 6. (d) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9.
number of unpaired electrons in the B2 molecule is (b) 10. (c) 1.
_____. Arrhenius defined an acid as:
(a) zero (a) a species that can donate a proton.
(b) 1 (b) a species that can accept a proton.
(c) 2 (c) a source of OHions
(d) 3 in water.
(e) 4 (d) a sourse of H+ ions in water.
8. (e) a species that can accept a pair of electrons.
Which one of the following statements is false? 2.
(a) Valence bond theory and molecular orbital In the BronstedLowry
theory can be described as two different views of system, a base is defined as:
the same thing. (a) a proton donor.
(b) When one considers the molecular orbitals (b) a hydroxide donor.
resulting from the overlap of any two specific (c) an electronpair
atomic orbitals, the bonding orbitals are always acceptor.
lower in energy than the antibonding orbitals. (d) a waterformer.
(c) Molecular orbitals are generally described as (e) a proton acceptor.
being more delocalized than hybridized atomic
In the equation: HF + H2O H3O+ + F(
(d) One of the shortcomings of molecular orbital
a) H2O is a base and HF is its conjugate acid.
theory is its inability to account for a triple bond in
(b) H2O is an acid and HF is the conjugate base.
the nitrogen molecule, N2.
(c) HF is an acid and Fis
its conjugate base. Which one of the following represents the net ionic
(d) HF is a base and H3O+ is its conjugate acid. equation for the reaction of nitric acid with
(e) HF is a base and Fis aluminum hydroxide?
its conjugate acid. (a) 3H+ + Al(OH)3 Al3+ + 3H2O
4. For the system shown here: HOBr + OHH2O (b) 3HNO3 + Al(OH)3 Al(NO3)3 + 3H2O
+ OBrBronsted (c) HNO3 + OHNO3
would classify the base species as: +
(a) OHand H2O
HOBr (d) H+ + OHH2O
(b) H2O and OH( (e) 3NO3
c) OBrand +
OH( Al3+ Al(NO3)3
d) OBrand 9.
HOBr Which one of the following is an amphoteric metal
(e) H2O and HOBr hydroxide?
5. (a) KOH
Which is the strongest acid? (b) Ba(OH)2
(a) HClO4 (c) Pb(OH)2
(b) HClO3 (d) LiOH
(c) HClO2 (e) Mg(OH)2
(d) HClO 10.
(e) HF According to the Lewis theory, a base _____ .
6. (a) is a proton acceptor.
Which of these species is probably the weakest (b) is a proton donor.
acid? (c) makes available a share in a pair of electrons.
(a) HCl (d) produces OHions
(b) H3PO4 in aqueous solution.
(c) H2PO4 (e) accepts a share in a pair of electrons.
( Answers:
d) HPO4 1. (d) 2. (e) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (d) 7. (d) 8. (a) 9.
2( (c) 10. (c) 1.
e) HNO3 How many grams of Ca(OH)2 are contained in 1500
7. mL of 0.0250 M Ca(OH)2 solution?
Consider the neutralization reactions between the (a) 3.17 g
following acidbase (b) 2.78 g
pairs in dilute aqueous solutions: (c) 1.85 g
(1) CH3COOH + NaOH (d) 2.34 g
(2) HNO3 + Mg(OH)2 (e) 4.25 g
(3) H3PO4 + Ba(OH)2 2.
(4) HCl + KOH What volume of 12.6 M HCl must be added to
(5) H2CO3 + LiOH enough water to prepare 5.00 liters of 3.00 M HCl?
For which of the reactions is the net ionic equation: (a) 1.19 L
H+ + OHH2O (b) 21.0 L
? (c) 0.840 L
(a) 1, 3(b) 1, 4, 5 (d) 7.56 L
(c) 2, 3 (e) 2.14 L
(d) 4 3.
(e) 1 What is the molarity of the salt produced in the
8. reaction of 200 mL of 0.100 M HCl with 100 mL of
0.500 M KOH?
(a) 0.0325 M
(b) 0.0472 M (e) 150. mL
(c) 0.0667 M 9.
(d) 0.0864 M How many grams of NaOH would be required to
(e) 0.0935 M neutralize all the acid in 75.0 mL of 0.0900 N
4. What volume of 0.50 M KOH would be required H2SO4?
to neutralize completely 500 mL of 0.25 M H3PO4 (a) 0.540 g
solution? (b) 0.270 g
(a) 2.5 x 102 mL (c) 1.32 g
(b) 1.4 x 103 mL (d) 0.660 g
(c) 83 mL (e) 0.859 g
(d) 7.5 x 102 mL 10.
(e) 5.2 x 102 mL What is the oxidation number for carbon in
5. CaC2O4?
A 0.6745 gram sample of KHP reacts with 41.75 (a) 0
mL of KOH solution for complete neutralization. (b) +2
What is the molarity of the KOH solution? (c) +3
(Molecular weight of KHP = 204 g/mol. KHP has (d) +4
one acidic hydrogen.) (e) +6
(a) 0.158 M 11.
(b) 0.099 M Balance the molecular equation for the following
(c) 0.139 M redox reaction. What is the sum of the coefficients?
(d) 0.079 M Don't forget coefficients of one. Use the
(e) 0.061 M smallest whole number coefficients possible.
6. H2SO4(aq) + HI(aq) I2(s) + SO2(g)
How many equivalents of phosphoric acid are (a) 7
contained in 300 mL of 4.00 M phosphoric acid? (b) 9
(Assume the acid is to be completely (c) 11
neutralized by a base.) (d) 13
(a) 0.600 eq (e) 5
(b) 1.20 eq 12.
(c) 2.40 eq For the reaction between permanganate ion and
(d) 3.60 eq sufite ion in basic solution, the unbalanced equation
(e) 4.80 eq is:
7. MnO4
Calculate the normality of a solution that contains +
4.5 g of (COOH)2 in 3000 mL of solution? (Assume SO3
the (COOH)2 is to be completely 2MnO2
neutralized in an acidbase + SO4
reaction.) 2When
(a) 0.033 N this equation is balanced using the smallest whole
(b) 0.045 N number coefficients possible, the number of OHions
(c) 0.066 N is
(d) 0.090 N (a) two on the right.
(e) 0.12 N (b) two on the left.
8. (c) three on the right.
What volume of 0.100 N HNO3 is required to (d) four on the right.
neutralize 50.0 mL of a 0.150 N solution of (e) four on the left. 13.
Ba(OH)2? Balance the following redox equation in acidic
(a) 50.0 mL solution with the smallest whole number
(b) 75.0 mL coefficients possible. What is the sum of all the
(c) 100. mL(d) 125 mL coefficients? (Do not forget coefficients of one.)
Cu + SO4 +
2Cu2+ MnO4
+ SO2 (in acidic solution) NO3
(a) 9 +
(b) 10 Mn2+ (in acidic solution)
(c) 11 What is the molarity of a sodium nitrite, NaNO2,
(d) 12 solution if 30.0 mL of it just reacts with 0.238
(e) 13 grams of KMnO4?
14. (a) 0.410 M
When the following equation is balanced with the (b) 0.126 M
smallest possible set of integers, what is the sum of (c) 0.0502 M
all the coefficients? (Do not forget (d) 0.251 M
coefficients of one.) (e) 0.0316 M
Cr2O7 18.
2+ What is the equivalent weight (in grams) of
H2S Cr3+ + S (in acidic solution) copper(II) nitrate for use in a reaction involving the
(a) 13 conversion of copper(II) to copper metal?
(b) 24 (a) 46.9 g/eq
(c) 19 (b) 93.8 g/eq
(d) 7 (c) 187.6 g/eq
(e) 29 (d) 375.2 g/eq
15. (e) 562.8 g/eq
When the following equation is balanced with the 19.
smallest possible set of integers, what is the sum of What is the normality of a K2Cr2O7 solution
all the coefficients? (Do not forget prepared by dissolving 5.00 g of K2Cr2O7 in 200
coefficients of one.) mL of solution, which will be used in the
MnO4 following unbalanced reaction?
+ Cr2O7
Se2MnO2 2+
+ Se (in basic solution) SO3
(a) 20 2Cr3+
(b) 22 + SO4
(c) 24 2(
(d) 26 in acidic solution)
(e) 28 (a) 0.733 N
16. (b) 0.226 N
Consider the following unbalanced equation in (c) 0.510 N
acidic solution: (d) 0.441 N
NaClO3 + H2O + I2 HIO3 + NaCl (e) 0.810 N
A 25.0 mL sample of 0.0833 M NaClO3 reacted 20.
with 30.0 mL of an aqueous solution of I2. How What mass of KMnO4 must be dissolved to prepare
many grams of I2 were contained in the I2 1.25 L of 0.110 N KMnO4 solution? It is used in the
solution? reaction in which MnO4
(a) 0.264 g ions
(b) 0.397 g oxidize
(c) 0.236 g(d) 0.159 g Fe2+ into Fe3+ ions and are reduced to Mn2+ ions
(e) 0.317 g under acidic conditions?
17. (a) 4.34 g
Consider the following unbalanced net ionic (b) 23.8 g
equation: (c) 115 g
NO2 (d) 19.1 g(e) 70.6 g
21. 25.
A 0.250 M solution of Na2C2O4 is to be used in a What is the sum of all coefficients when the
reaction in which the C2O4 following net ionic equation is balanced using the
2will smallest whole number coefficients possible? Do
be oxidized to CO2. What is the normality of this not forget coefficients of one.
Na2C2O4 solution? MnO4
(a) 0.250 N +
(b) 1.00 N Mn2+ MnO2 (in basic solution)
(c) 0.125 N (a) 19
(d) 0.0625 N (b) 16
(e) 0.500 N (c) 13
22. (d) 11
What volume of a 0.150 N KI solution is required to (e) 7
react in basic solution with 34.1 mL of a 0.216 N Answers:
solution of KMnO4? The products in the 1. (b) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (d) 6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (b) 9.
reaction include MnO2 and IO3 (b) 10. (c) 11. (a) 12. (a) 13. (b) 14. (b) 15. (b) 16.
. (e) 17. (b) 18. (b) 19. (c) 20. (a) 21. (e) 22. (e)
(a) 25.4 mL 23. (a) 24. (e) 25. (b) 1.
(b) 37.9 mL Which statement is false?
(c) 12.6 mL (a) The density of a gas is constant as long as its
(d) 98.2 mL temperature remains constant.
(e) 49.1 mL (b) Gases can be expanded without limit.
23. (c) Gases diffuse into each other and mix almost
Calculate the normality of a NaClO solution if immediately when put into the same container.
35.00 mL of the solution is required to react with (d) The molecular weight of a gaseous compound is
0.615 g of Zn according to the following a nonvariable
unbalanced equation: quantity.
Zn + ClOZn( (e) Pressure must be exerted on a sample of a gas in
OH)2 + Cl( order to confine it.
in basic solution) 2.
(a) 0.537 N A sample of oxygen occupies 47.2 liters under a
(b) 0.275 N pressure of 1240 torr at 25oC. What volume would
(c) 0.108 N it occupy at 25oC if the pressure were
(d) 0.366 N decreased to 730 torr?
(e) 0.791 N (a) 27.8 L
24. (b) 29.3 L
A solution of nitrous acid was standardized in a (c) 32.3 L
reaction where HNO2 NO3 (d) 47.8 L
and (e) 80.2 L
its concentration was determined to be 0.100 N 3.
nitrous A sample of nitrogen occupies 5.50 liters under a
acid. What volume of this 0.100 N nitrous acid pressure of 900 torr at 25oC. At what temperature
solution would be required to oxidation of 0.200 g will it occupy 10.0 liters at the same
of CoCl2 to CoCl3 according to the pressure?
following net ionic equation? (a) 32oC
Co2+ + HNO2 Co3+ + NO (in acidic solution) (b) 109oC
(a) 33.9 mL (c) 154oC
(b) 15.4 mL (d) 269oC
(c) 7.70 mL (e) 370oC
(d) 67.8 mL 4.
(e) 30.8 mL
Under conditions of fixed temperature and amount 10.
of gas, Boyle's law requires thatI. P1V1 = P2V2 What is the molecular weight of a pure gaseous
II. PV = constant compound having a density of 4.95 g/L at 35
III. P1/P2 = V2/V1 oC and 1020 torr?
(a) I only (a) 24
(b) II only (b) 11
(c) III only (c) 72
(d) I, II, and III (d) 120
(e) another combination (e) 44
5. 11.
The volume of a sample of nitrogen is 6.00 liters at A 0.580 g sample of a compound containing only
35oC and 740 torr. What volume will it occupy at carbon and hydrogen contains 0.480 g of carbon
STP? and 0.100 g of hydrogen. At STP, 33.6 mL
(a) 6.59 L of the gas has a mass of 0.087 g. What is the
(b) 5.46 L molecular (true) formula for the compound?
(c) 6.95 L (a) CH3
(d) 5.67 L (b) C2H6
(e) 5.18 L (c) C2H5
6. (d) C4H10
The density of chlorine gas at STP, in grams per (e) C4H12
liter, is approximately: 12.
(a) 6.2 A mixture of 90.0 grams of CH4 and 10.0 grams of
(b) 3.2 argon has a pressure of 250 torr under conditions of
(c) 3.9 constant temperature and volume. The
(d) 4.5 partial pressure of CH4 in torr is:
(e) 1.3 (a) 143
7. (b) 100
What pressure (in atm) would be exerted by 76 g of (c) 10.7
fluorine gas in a 1.50 liter vessel at 37oC? (d) 239
(a) 26 atm (e) 26.6
(b) 4.1 atm 13. What pressure (in atm) would be exerted by a
(c) 19,600 atm mixture of 1.4 g of nitrogen gas and 4.8 g of oxygen
(d) 84 gas in a 200 mL container at 57oC?
(e) 8.2 atm (a) 4.7
8. (b) 34
What is the density of ammonia gas at 2.00 atm (c) 47
pressure and a temperature of 25.0oC? (d) 27
(a) 0.720 g/L (e) 0.030
(b) 0.980 g/L 14.
(c) 1.39 g/L A sample of hydrogen gas collected by
(d) 16.6 g/L(e) 0.695 g/L displacement of water occupied 30.0 mL at 24oC on
9. a day when the barometric pressure was 736 torr.
A container with volume 71.9 mL contains water What volume would the hydrogen occupy if it were
vapor at a pressure of 10.4 atm and a temperature of dry and at STP? The vapor pressure of water at
465oC. How many grams of the gas are 24.0oC is 22.4 torr.
in the container? (a) 32.4 mL
(a) 0.421 g (b) 21.6 mL
(b) 0.183 g (c) 36.8 mL
(c) 0.129 g (d) 25.9 mL
(d) 0.363 g (e) 27.6 mL
(e) 0.222 g 15.
Which one of the following statements is not (a) Every methane molecule that reacts produces
consistent with the kineticmolecular two water molecules.
theory of gases? (b) If 32.0 g of oxygen reacts with excess methane,
(a) Individual gas molecules are relatively far apart. the maximum amount of carbon dioxide produced
(b) The actual volume of the gas molecules will be 22.0 g.
themselves is very small compared to the volume (c) If 11.2 liters of methane react with an excess of
occupied by the gas at ordinary temperatures and oxygen, the volume of carbon dioxide produced at
pressures. STP is (44/16)(11.2) liters.
(c) The average kinetic energies of different gases (d) If 16.0 g of methane react with 64.0 g of
are different at the same temperature. oxygen, the combined masses of the products will
(d) There is no net gain or loss of the total kinetic be 80.0 g.
(translational) energy in collisions between gas (e) If 22.4 liters of methane at STP react with 64.0 g
molecules. of oxygen, 22.4 liters of carbon dioxide at STP can
(e) The theory explains most of the observed be produced.
behavior of gases at ordinary temperatures and 20.
pressures. What total gas volume (in liters) at 520oC and 880
16. torr would result from the decomposition of 33 g of
A mixture of 0.50 mol H2(g) and 0.50 mol N2(g) is potassium bicarbonate according to the
introduced into a 15.0 liter container having a equation:
pinhole leak at 30oC. After a period of time, 2KHCO3(s) K2CO3(s) + CO2(g) + H2O(g)
which of the following is true? (a) 56 L
(a) The partial pressure of H2 exceeds that of N2 in (b) 37 L
the container. (c) 10 L
(b) The partial pressure of N2 exceeds that of H2 in (d) 19 L
the container. (e) 12 L
(c) The partial pressures of the two gases remain 21.
equal. Calculate the weight of KClO3 that would be
(d) The partial pressures of both gases increase required to produce 29.5 L of oxygen measured at
above their initial values. 127oC and 760 torr.
(e) The partial pressure of H2 in the container 2KClO3(s) 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)
increases above the initial value. (a) 7.82 g
17. (b) 12.2 g
If helium effuses through a porous barrier at a rate (c) 14.6 g
of 4.0 moles per minute, at what rate (in moles per (d) 24.4 g
minute) would oxygen gas diffuse? (e) 73.5 g22.
(a) 0.20 Which of the following statements is false?
(b) 0.50(c) 2.0 (a) The properties of N2(g) will deviate more from
(d) 8.0 ideality at 100oC
(e) 1.41 than at 100oC.
18. (b) Van der Waal's equation corrects for the
A real gas most closely approaches the behavior of nonideality
an ideal gas under conditions of: of real gases.
(a) high P and low T (c) Molecules of CH4(g) at high pressures and low
(b) low P and high T temperatures have no attractive forces between each
(c) low P and T other.
(d) high P and T (d) Molecules of an ideal gas are assumed to have
(e) STP no significant volume.
19. (e) Real gases do not always obey the ideal gas
Which one of the following statements about the laws.
following reaction is false? 23.
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(g)
The ideal gas law predicts that the molar volume Which response includes only those compounds that
(volume of one mole) of gas equals: can exhibit hydrogen bonding?
(a) gRT/PV CH4, AsH3, CH3NH2, H2Te, HF
(b) (MW)P/RT (a) AsH3, H2Te
(c) 1/2ms2 (b) AsH3, CH3NH2
(d) RT/P (c) CH4, AsH3, H2Te
(e) 22.4 L at any temperature and pressure (d) CH3NH2, HF
24. (e) HF, H2Te
Three 1.0 liter flasks are filled with H2, O2 and Ne, 4.
respectively, at STP. Which of the following boils at the highest
Which of the following statements is true? temperature?
(a) Each flask has the same number of gas (a) CH4(b) C2H6
molecules. (c) C3H8
(b) The velocity of the gas molecules is the same in (d) C4H10
each flask. (e) C5H12
(c) The density of each gas is the same. 5.
(d) There are twice as many O2 and H2 molecules as Which probably has the lowest boiling point at 1.00
Ne atoms. atm?
(e) None of the above is true. (a) HF
25. (b) HCl
For a gas, which pair of variables are inversely (c) HBr
proportional to each other (if all other conditions (d) HI
remain constant)? (e) H2SO4
(a) P, T 6.
(b) P, V The normal boiling point of a liquid is
(c) V, T (a) the temperature at which the vapor pressure
(d) n, V equals 760 torr.
(e) n, P (b) the temperature above which the substance
Answers: cannot exist as a liquid regardless of the pressure.
1. (a) 2. (e) 3. (d) 4. (d) 5. (e) 6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. (c) the temperature at which the gas molecules have
(e) 10. (c) 11. (d) 12. (d) 13. (d) 14. (d) 15. (c) 16. more kinetic energy than the molecules in the
(b) 17. (e) 18. (b) 19. (c) 20. (d) 21. (e) 22. (c) 23. liquid.
(d) 24. (a) 25. (b) 1. (d) the only temperature at which there can be
What type of intermolecular forces are due to the equilibrium between liquid and gas.
attraction between temporary dipoles and their (e) the temperature at which the liquid will usually
induced temporary dipoles? boil.
(a) metallic bond 7.
(b) London dispersion Which of the following changes would increase the
(c) hydrogen bond vapor pressure of a liquid?
(d) ionic bond 1. an increase in temperature
(e) covalent bond 2. an increase in the intermolecular forces in the
2. liquid
What type of interparticle forces holds liquid N2 3. an increase in the size of the open vessel
together? containing the liquid
(a) ionic bonding (a) 1 and 2 only
(b) London forces (b) 1 and 3 only
(c) hydrogen bonding (c) 1 only
(d) dipoledipole (d) 2 only
interaction (e) 3 only
(e) covalent bonding 8.
3. For water (m.p. 0oC, b.p. 100oC)
Heat of fusion = 333 J/g @ 0oC 12.
Heat of vaporization = 2260 J/g @ 100oC Where on a phase diagram can you locate
Specific Heat (solid) = 2.09 J/goCSpecific Heat conditions under which only one phase exists?
(liquid) = 4.18 J/goC (a) at an intersection of two lines
Specific Heat (gas) = 2.03 J/goC (b) at the normal boiling point
Calculate the amount of heat (in kJ) that must be (c) at an intersection of three lines
absorbed to convert 108 g of ice at 0oC to water at (d) in an area bounded by lines
70oC. (e) at the triple point
(a) 77 13.
(b) 68 In any cubic lattic, an atom lying at the corner of a
(c) 64 unit cell is shared equally by how many unit cells?
(d) 57 (a) one
(e) 50 (b) two
9. (c) eight
For mercury (m.p. 39oC, (d) four
b.p. 357oC) (e) sixteen
Heat of fusion = 11.6 J/g @ 39oC 14.
Heat of vaporization = 292 J/g @ 357oC Which statement is false?
Specific Heat (solid) = 0.141 J/goC (a) Molecular solids generally have lower melting
Specific Heat (liquid) = 0.138 J/goC points than covalent solids.
Specific Heat (gas) = 0.104 J/goC (b) Metallic solids exhibit a wide range of melting
Calculate the amount of heat that must be released points because metallic bonds cover a wide range of
to convert 20.0 g of mercury vapor at 387 oC to bond strength.
liquid mercury at 307oC (in kJ). (c) The metallic solid can be viewed as positive ions
(a) 61.9 closely packed in a sea of valence electrons. (d)
(b) 6.56 Most molecular solids melt at lower temperatures
(c) 6.04 than metallic solids.
(d) 5.69 (e) The interactions among the molecules in
(e) 5.10 molecular solids are generally stronger than those
10. among the particles that define either covalent or
Which of the following phase changes is(are) ionic crystal lattices.
endothermic? 15.
1. melting 3. sublimation 5. deposition Which one of the following classifications is
2. vaporization 4. condensation 6. freezing incorrect?
(a) 1, 2, and 3 (a) H2O(s), molecular solid
(b) 4, 5, and 6 (b) C4H10(s), molecular solid
(c) 1 and 2 only (c) KF(s), ionic solid
(d) 4 and 6 only (d) SiC(s), covalent solid
(e) some other combination (e) S(s), metallic solid
11. According to the phase diagram given for 16.
Compound Y, what description is correct? Which of the following compounds would be
(a) At the temperature and pressure at point 4, Y(g) expected to have the highest melting point?
will spontaneously convert to Y(l). (a) BaF2
(b) At 0oC and 1200 torr, Y exists as a solid. (b) BaCl2
(c) At the pressure and temperature of point 1, Y(s) (c) BaBr2
will spontaneously convert to Y(g) and no Y(l) is (d) BaI2
possible. (e) H2O
(d) At the pressure and temperature at point 3, Y(s) 17.
Y(g). Which one of the following substances can be
(e) At the temperature and pressure at point 2, Y(l) melted without breaking chemical bonds?
Y(g) (a) sodium sulfate
(b) zinc chloride 5.
(c) sulfur dioxide Calculate the mole fraction of C2H5OH in a
(d) silicon dioxide solution that contains 46 grams of ethanol,
(e) diamond C2H5OH, and 64 grams of methanol, CH3OH.
Answers: (a) 1/3
1. (b) 2. (b) 3. (d) 4. (e) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (b) 9. (b) 0.42
(c) 10. (a) 11. (a) 12. (d) 13. (c) 14. (e) 15. (e) 16. (c) 1/2
(a) 17. (c) 1. (d) 2/3
Consider the three statements below. Which (e) none of these
statement(s) is(are) true? 6.
1. Hydration is a special case of solvation in which Which observation(s) reflect(s) colligative
the solvent is water. properties?
2. The oxygen end of water molecules is attracted (I) A 0.5 m NaBr solution has a higher vapor
toward Ca2+ ions. pressure than a 0.5 m BaCl2 solution.
3. The hydrogen end of water molecules is attracted (II) A 0.5 m NaOH solution freezes at a lower
toward Clions. temperature than pure water.
(a) 1 only (III) Pure water freezes at a higher temperature than
(b) 2 only pure methanol.
(c) 3 only (a) only I
(d) 1 and 2 only (b) only II
(e) 1, 2, and 3 (c) only III
2. (d) I and II
Consider the following pairs of liquids. Which pairs (e) I and III
are miscible? 7.
1. benzene, C6H6, and hexane, C6H12 The vapor pressure of pure water at 85oC is 434
2. water and methanol, CH3OH torr. What is the vapor pressure at 85oC of a
3. water and hexane solution prepared from 100 mL of water (density
(a) 1, 2 only 1.00 g/mL) and 150 g of diglyme, C6H14O3, a
(b) 2 only nonvolatile substance?
(c) 1 only (a) 361 torr
(d) 1, 2, 3 (b) 390 torr
(e) 2, 3 only (c) 425 torr(d) 388 torr
3. (e) 317 torr
Calculate the molality of a solution that contains 8.
51.2 g of naphthalene, C10H8, in 500 mL of carbon The vapor pressure of a solution containing a
tetrachloride. The density of CCl4 is 1.60 nonvolatile solute is directly proportional to the
g/mL. (a) molality of the solvent.
(a) 0.250 m (b) osmotic pressure of the solute.
(b) 0.500 m(c) 0.750 m (c) molarity of the solvent.
(d) 0.840 m (d) mole fraction of solvent.
(e) 1.69 m (e) mole fraction of solute.
4. 9.
What is the molality of a solution labeled "8.6% If 4.27 grams of sucrose, C12H22O11, are dissolved
glucose (C6H12O6) by weight?" (Note: If the in 15.2 grams of water, what will be the boiling
question does not give the solvent, assume it is point of the resulting solution? (Kb for
water.) water = 0.512 oC/m) (Note: If the Kf and Kb are not
(a) 0.26 m given on the exam, you can find them on the back
(b) 0.34 m of the exam envelope.)
(c) 0.44 m (a) 101.64 oC
(d) 0.52 m (b) 100.42 oC
(e) 0.67 m (c) 99.626 oC
(d) 100.73 oC This is a freezing point depression problem note
(e) 101.42 oC the Kf of camphor camphor
10. is the solvent.)
What are the ideal van't Hoff factors for the (a) 353 g/mol
following compounds: (b) 285 g/mol
Ba(OH)2, C6H12O6, K3PO4, HNO3 ? (c) 231 g/mol
(a) 1, 1, 1, 1 (d) 185 g/mol
(b) 2, 1, 2, 2 (e) 166 g/mol
(c) 3, 1, 4, 2 15.
(d) 6, 3, 5, 5 Calculate the osmotic pressure associated with 50.0
(e) none of the above g of an enzyme of molecular weight 98,000 g/mol
11. dissolved in water to give 2600 mL of
Calculate the approximate initial boiling point (in solution at 30.0 oC.
oC) of a solution of 285 g of magnesium chloride in (a) 0.484 torr
2.0 kg of water. (Assume complete (b) 1.68 torr
dissociation of the salt.) (c) 1.96 torr
(a) 103.1 oC (d) 2.48 torr
(b) 101.6 oC (e) 3.71 torr
(c) 102.3 oC 16. A 250 mL solution containing 21.4 g of a
(d) 100.8 oC polymer in toluene had an osmotic pressure of
(e) 104.8 oC12. 0.055 atm at 27 oC. What is the apparent formula
A solution made by dissolving 9.81 g of a weight of the polymer?
nonvolatile nonelectrolyte in 90.0 g of water boiled (a) 15,000 g/mol
at 100.37 oC at 760 mm Hg. What is the (b) 18,000 g/mol
approximate molecular weight of the substance? (c) 26,000 g/mol
(For water, Kb = 0.51 oC/m) (d) 32,000 g/mol
(a) 240 g/mol (e) 38,000 g/mol
(b) 150 g/mol Answers:
(c) 79 g/mol 1. (e) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (d) 5. (a) 6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9.
(d) 61 g/mol (b) 10. (c) 11. (c) 12. (b) 13. (c) 14. (d) 15. (e) 16.
(e) 34 g/mol (e) 1.
13. Which one of the following thermodynamic
What is the freezing point of an aqueous 1.00 m quantities is not a state function?
NaCl solution? (Kf = 1.86 oC/m) (Assume complete (a) Gibbs free energy
dissociation of the salt.) (b) enthalpy
(a) 1.86 (c) entropy
oC (d) internal energy
(b) +1.86 oC (e) work
(c) 3.72 2.
oC At a constant temperature, an ideal gas is
(d) 0.93 compressed from 6.0 liters to 4.0 liters by a constant
oC external pressure of 5.0 atm. How much work is
(e) 0.0 oC done on the gas?
14. (a) w = +10 liter atm
A 17.3 mg sample of an organic compound (a (b) w = 10
nonelectrolyte) liter atm
was ground up with 420 mg of camphor to form a (c) w = +30 liter atm
homogeneous mixture melting (d) w = 30
at 170.0 oC. What is the apparent formula weight of liter atm
the organic compound? (Kf of camphor = 37.7 (e) The answer cannot be calculated.
oC/m, m.p. of camphor = 178.4 oC) (Note: 3.
A system suffers an increase in internal energy of The Ho for the following reaction at 298 K is 36.4
80 J and at the same time has 50 J of work done on kJ.
it. What is the heat change of the system? 1/2 H2(g) + 1/2 Br2(l) HBr(g)
(a) +130 J Calculate Eo at 298 K. The universal gas constant,
(b) +30 J R, is 8.314 J/mol K.
(c) 130 (a) 35.2
J kJ
(d) 30 (b) +35.2 kJ
J (c) 36.4
(e) 0 J kJ
4. (d) 37.6
A 5.000 g sample of methanol, CH3OH, was kJ
combusted in the presence of excess oxygen in a (e) +37.6 kJ
bomb calorimeter conaining 4000 g of water. 7.
The temperature of the water increased from 24.000 Calculate the amount of work done for the
oC to 29.765 oC. The heat capacity of the conversion of 1.00 mole of Ni to Ni(CO)4 in the
calorimeter was 2657 J/oC. The specific heat of reaction below, at 75oC. Assume that the gases are
water is 4.184 J/goC. Calculate E for the reaction in ideal. The value of R is 8.31 J/mol K.
kJ/mol. (a) 314 Ni(s) + 4 CO (g) Ni(CO)4(g)
kJ/mol (a) 1.80 x 103 J
(b) 789 (b) 8.68 x 103 J
kJ/mol (c) 1.80
(c) 716 x 103 J
kJ/mol (d) 8.68
(d) 121 x 103 J
kJ/mol (e) 494
(e) 69.5 J8.
kJ/mol All of the following have a standard heat of
5. formation value of zero at 25oC and 1.0 atm except:
A coffee cup calorimeter having a heat capacity of (a) N2(g)
451 J/oC was used to measure the heat evolved (b) Fe(s)
when 0.0300 mol of NaOH(s) was added to (c) Ne(g)
1000 mL of 0.0300 M HNO3 initially at 23.000 oC. (d) H(g)
The temperature of the water rose to 23.639 oC. (e) Hg(l)
Calculate H (in kJ/mol NaNO3) for this 9.
reaction. Assume the specific heat of the final For which of the following reactions would the Ho
solution is 4.18 J/goC; the density of each solution for the reaction be labeled Hf
is 1.00 g/mL; and the addition of solid does o?
not appreciably affect the volume of the solution. (a) Al(s) + 3/2 H2(g) + 3/2 O2(g) Al(OH)3(s)
HNO3(aq) + NaOH(s) NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) (b) PCl3(g) + 1/2 O2(g) POCl3(g)
(a) 63.7 (c) 1/2 N2O(g) + 1/4 O2(g) NO(g)
kJ/mol (d) CaO(s) + SO2(g) CaSO3(s)
(b) 151 (e) The Ho for all these reactions would be labeled
kJ/mol Hf
(c) 2.55 o.
kJ/mol 10.
(d) 81.4 Calculate Ho for the reaction:
kJ/mol Na2O(s) + SO3(g) Na2SO4(g)
(e) 98.6 given the following information:
kJ/mol Ho
6. (1) Na(s) + H2O(l) NaOH(s) + 1/2 H2(g) 146
kJ Estimate the heat of reaction at 298 K for the
(2) Na2SO4(s) + H2O(l) 2NaOH(s) + SO3(g) +418 reaction shown, given the average bond energies
kJ below.
(3) 2Na2O(s) + 2H2(g) 4Na(s) + 2H2O(l) +259 kJ Br2(g) + 3F2(g) 2BrF3(g)
(a) +255 kJ Bond Bond Energy
(b) 435 BrBr
kJ 192 kJ
(c) 581 FF
kJ 158 kJ
(d) +531 kJ BrF
(e) 452 197 kJ
kJ (a) 516
11. kJ
Calculate Ho (b) 410
rxn for the following reaction at 25.0 oC: kJ
Fe3O4(s) + CO(g) 3FeO(s) + CO2(g) Hf (c) 611
o (kJ/mol) 1118 kJ
110.5 (d) 665
272 kJ
393.5 (e) 720
(a) 263 kJ
kJ 14.
(b) 54 kJ What is the standard entropy change of the reaction
(c) 19 kJ below at 298 K with each compound at the standard
(d) 50 pressure?
kJ N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) So
(e) 109 kJ 298 (J/mol K) 191.5 130.6 192.3
12. (a) 198.7
Calculate the standard heat of formation, Hf J/K
o, for FeS2(s), given the following information: (b) 76.32 J/K
2FeS2(s) + 5O2(g) 2FeO(s) + 4SO2(g) (c) 303.2 J/K
Ho (d) 129.7
rxn = 1370 J/K
kJ (e) 384.7 J/K
Hf 15.
o for SO2(g) = 297 The entropy will usually increase when
kJ/mol I. a molecule is broken into two or more smaller
Hf molecules.
o for FeO(s) = 268 II. a reaction occurs that results in an increase in the
kJ/mol number of moles of gas.
(a) 177 III. a solid changes to a liquid.
kJ IV. a liquid changes to a gas.
(b) 1550 (a) I only
kJ (b) II only
(c) 774 (c) III only
kJ (d) IV only
(d) 686 (e) I, II, III, and IV
kJ 16.
(e) +808 kJ Calculate Go for the reaction given the following
13. information:
2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)
Gf (c) spontaneous at temperatures less than 600 K.
o for SO2(g) = 300.4 (d) spontaneous at temperatures greater than 600 K.
kJ/mol (e) spontaneous only at 25oC.
Gf 21.
o for SO3(g) = 370.4 How much heat is absorbed in the complete reaction
kJ/mol of 3.00 grams of SiO2 with excess carbon in the
(a) 70.0 reaction below? Ho for the reaction is
kJ +624.7 kJ.
(b) +70.0 kJ SiO2(s) + 3C(s) SiC(s) + 2CO(g)
(c) 670.8 (a) 366 kJ
kJ (b) 1.13 x 105 kJ(c) 5.06 kJ
(d) 140.0 (d) 1.33 x 104 kJ
kJ (e) 31.2 kJ
(e) +140.0 kJ 22.
17. The standard heat of combustion of ethanol,
For the following reaction at 25oC, Ho = +115 kJ C2H5OH, is 1372 kJ/mol ethanol. How much heat
and So = +125 J/K. Calculate Go for the reaction at (in kJ) would be liberated by completely
25o. burning a 20.0 g sample?
SBr4(g) S(g) + 2Br2(l) (a) 686 kJ
(a) +152 kJ (b) 519 kJ
(b) 56.7 (c) 715 kJ
kJ(c) +77.8 kJ (d) 597 kJ
(d) +37.1 kJ (e) 469 kJ
(e) 86.2 23.
kJ Which statement is incorrect?
18. (a) At constant pressure, H = E + P V
The heat of vaporization of freon, CCl2F2, is 17.2 (b) The thermodynamic symbol for entropy is S.
kJ/mol at 25oC. What is the change of entropy for (c) Gibbs free energy is a state function.
one mole of liquid freon when it vaporizes (d) For an endothermic process, H is negative.
at 25oC? (Hint: The vaporization process is at (e) If the work done by the system is greater than
equilibrium and what is true for G at equilibrium?) the heat absorbed by the system, E is negative.
(a) 57.7 J/K 24.
(b) 0.688 J/K Which statement is false?
(c) 5.13 x 103 kJ/K (a) The thermodynamic quantity most easily
(d) 3.16 J/K measured in a "coffee cup" calorimeter is H.
(e) 239 J/K (b) No work is done in a reaction occurring in a
19. bomb calorimeter.
Estimate the boiling point of Br2(l) ( H = 30.9 kJ; S (c) H is sometimes exactly equal to E.
= 93.0 J/K). (d) H is often nearly equal to E.
Br2(l) Br2(g) (e) H is equal to E for the reaction:
(a) 85oC 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(g)
(b) 373oC Answers:
(c) 177oC 1. (e) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (c) 5. (e) 6. (d) 7. (b) 8. (d) 9.
(d) 59oC (a) 10. (c) 11. (c) 12. (a) 13. (a) 14. (a) 15. (e) 16.
(e) 44oC (d) 17. (c) 18. (a) 19. (d) 20. (d) 21. (e) 22. (d) 23.
20. (d) 24. (e) 1.
For the reaction, A + B C, Ho = +30 kJ; So = +50 The combustion of ethane (C2H6) is represented by
J/K. the equation:
Therefore the reaction is: 2C2H6(g) + 7O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)
(a) spontaneous at all temperatures. In this reaction:
(b) nonspontaneous at all temperatures.
(a) the rate of consumption of ethane is seven times 2.
faster than the rate of consumption of oxygen. The speed of a chemical reaction
(b) the rate of formation of CO2 equals the rate of (a) is constant no matter what the temperature is.
formation of water. (b) is independent of the amount of contact surface
(c) water is formed at a rate equal to twothirds of a solid involved.
the rate of formation of CO2. (c) between gases should in all cases be extremely
(d) the rate of consumption of oxygen equals the rapid because the average kinetic energy of the
rate of consumption of water. molecules is great.
(e) CO2 is formed twice as fast as ethane is (d) between ions in aqueous solution is extremely
consumed. rapid because there are no bonds that need to be
2. broken.
The speed of a chemical reaction (e) varies inversely with the absolute temperature.
(a) is constant no matter what the temperature is. 3.
(b) is independent of the amount of contact surface For a reaction 2A + B 2C, with the rate equation:
of a solid involved. Rate = k[A]2[B]
(c) between gases should in all cases be extremely (a) the order with respect to A is 1 and the order
rapid because the average kinetic energy of the overall is 1.
molecules is great. (b) the order with respect to A is 2 and the order
(d) between ions in aqueous solution is extremely overall is 2.
rapid because there are no bonds that need to be (c) the order with respect to A is 2 and the order
broken. overall is 3.
(e) varies inversely with the absolute temperature. (d) the order with respect to B is 2 and the order
3. overall is 2.
For a reaction 2A + B 2C, with the rate equation: (e) the order with respect to B is 2 and the order
Rate = k[A]2[B] overall is 3.
(a) the order with respect to A is 1 and the order 4.
overall is 1. Given the following data for this reaction: NH4
(b) the order with respect to A is 2 and the order +(aq) + NO2
overall is 2. (
(c) the order with respect to A is 2 and the order aq) N2(g) + 2H2O(l)
overall is 3. EXPT [NH4
(d) the order with respect to B is 2 and the order +] [NO2
overall is 2. ]
(e) the order with respect to B is 2 and the order RATE
overall is 3. 1 0.010 M 0.020 M 0.020 M/s
4. 2 0.015 M 0.020 M 0.030 M/s
Given the following data for this reaction: 1. 3 0.010 M 0.010 M 0.005 M/s
The combustion of ethane (C2H6) is represented by The rate law for the reaction is:
the equation: (a) Rate = k[NH4
2C2H6(g) + 7O2(g) 4CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) +][NO2
In this reaction: ]
(a) the rate of consumption of ethane is seven times (b) Rate = k[NH4
faster than the rate of consumption of oxygen. +]2[NO2
(b) the rate of formation of CO2 equals the rate of ]
formation of water. 2
(c) water is formed at a rate equal to twothirds (c) Rate = k[NH4
the rate of formation of CO2. +]2[NO2
(d) the rate of consumption of oxygen equals the ]
rate of consumption of water. (d) Rate = k[NH4
(e) CO2 is formed twice as fast as ethane is +][NO2
consumed. ]
(e) none of the above reaction is 32 s. What was the original
5. concentration if, after 2.0 minutes, the reactant
What are the units of k for the rate law: Rate = concentration is 0.062 M?
k[A][B]2, when the concentration unit is mol/L? (a) 0.84 M
(a) s1 (b) 0.069 M
(b) s (c) 0.091 M
(c) L mol1 (d) 0.075 M
s1 (e) 0.13 M
(d) L2 mol2 10.
s1 Given that a reaction absorbs energy and has an
(e) L2 s2 mol2 activation energy of 50 kJ/mol, which of the
6. following statements are correct? (Hint: Draw the
Given: A + 3B 2C + D potential energy diagram.)
This reaction is first order with respect to reactant A (1) The reverse reaction has an activation energy
and second order with respect to reactant B. If the equal to 50 kJ/mol.
concentration of A is doubled and the (2) The reverse reaction has an activation energy
concentration of B is halved, the rate of the reaction less than 50 kJ/mol.
would _____ by a factor of _____. (3) The reverse reaction has an activation energy
(a) increase, 2 greater than 50 kJ/mol.
(b) decrease, 2 (4) The change in internal energy is less than zero.
(c) increase, 4 (5) The change in internal energy is greater than
(d) decrease, 4 zero.
(e) not change (a) (1) and (4)
7. (b) (2) and (4)
The decomposition of carbon disulfide, CS2, to (c) (3) and (4)
carbon monosulfide, CS, and sulfur is first order (d) (2) and (5)
with k = 2.8 x 107 (e) (3) and (5)
s1 11. If reaction A has an activation energy of 250 kJ
at 1000oC. and reaction B has an activation energy of 100 kJ,
CS2 CS + S which of the following statements must be
What is the halflife correct?
of this reaction at 1000oC? (a) If reaction A is exothermic and reaction B is
(a) 5.0 x 107 s(b) 4.7 x 106 endothermic then reaction A is favored kinetically.
s (b) At the same temperature the rate of reaction B is
(c) 3.8 x 105 s greater than the rate of reaction A.
(d) 6.1 x 104 s (c) The energy of reaction A must be greater than
(e) 2.5 x 106 s the energy of reaction B.
8. (d) The energy of reaction B must be greater than
The decomposition of dimethylether at 504 oC is the energy of reaction A.
first order with a halflife (e) The rate of reaction A at 25 oC equals the rate of
of 1570 seconds. What fraction of an initial amount reaction B at 100 oC.
of 12.
dimethylether remains after 4710 seconds? If the activation energy in the forward direction of
(a) 1/3 an elementary step is 52 kJ and the activation
(b) 1/6 energy in the reverse direction is 74 kJ, what is
(c) 1/8 the energy of reaction E for this step?
(d) 1/16 (a) 22 kJ
(e) 1/32 (b) 22
9. kJ
The halflife (c) 52 kJ
for a firstorder (d) 52
kJ (a) the same as its balanced chemical equation.
(e) 126 kJ (b) obvious if its heat of reaction is known.
13. (c) obvious if its reaction order is known.
Suppose the reaction: A + 2B AB2 occurs by the (d) sometimes difficult to prove.
following mechanism: (e) obvious if its activation energy is known. 17.
Step 1 A + B AB slow Suppose the activation energy of a certain reaction
Step 2 AB + B AB2 fast is 250 kJ/mol. If the rate constant at T1 = 300 K is
Overall A + 2B AB2 k1 and the rate constant at T2 = 320 K is
The rate law expression must be Rate = _________. k2, then the reaction is __ times faster at 320 K than
(a) k[A] at 300 K. (Hint: Solve for k2/k1.)
(b) k[B] (a) 3 x 1029
(c) k[A][B] (b) 0.067
(d) k[B]2 (c) 15.0
(e) k[A][B]2 (d) 525
14. (e) 3 x 1028
A possible mechanism for the reaction, 2A + B C + 18.
D, is: What is the activation energy (in kJ) of a reaction
(1) A + A A2 fast, equilibrium whose rate constant increases by a factor of 100
(2) A2 + A A3 slow upon increasing the temperature from 300 K
(3) A3 + B A + C + D fast to 360 K?
According to the mechanism, the rate law will be: (a) 27
(a) Rate = k[A]2 (b) 35
(b) Rate = k[A][B] (c) 42
(c) Rate = k[A]2[B] (d) 53
(d) Rate = k[A] (e) 69
(e) Rate = k[A]3 19.
15. Most reactions are more rapid at high temperatures
At 300 K, the following reaction is found to obey than at low temperatures. This is consistent with:
the rate law: Rate = k[NOCl]2: (I) an increase in the activation energy with
2NOCl 2NO + Cl2 increasing temperature.
Consider the three postulated mechanisms given (II) an increase in the rate constant with increasing
below. Then choose the response that lists all those temperatures.
that are possibly correct and no others. (III) an increase in the percentate of "high energy"
Mechanism 1 NOCl NO + Cl slow collisions with increasing temperature.
Cl + NOCl NOCl2 fast (a) only I
NOCl2 + NO 2NO + Cl2 fast (b) only II
Overall: 2NOCl 2NO + Cl2 (c) only III
Mechanism 2 2NOCl NOCl2 + NO slow (d) only I and II
NOCl2 NO + Cl2 fast (e) only II and III
Overall: 2NOCl 2NO + Cl2 20.
Mechanism 3 NOCl NO + Cl fast, equilibrium Which items correctly complete the following
NOCl + Cl NO + Cl2 slow statment?
Overall: 2NOCl 2NO + Cl2 A catalyst can act in a chemical reaction to:
(a) 2, 3 (I) increase the equilibrium constant.
(b) 3 (II) lower the activation energy.
(c) 1 (III) decrease E for the reaction.
(d) 2 (IV) provide a new path for the reaction.
(e) 1, 2 (a) only I & II
16. (b) only II & III(c) only III & IV
A correct reaction mechanism for a given reaction (d) only I & III
usually is: (e) only II & IV
21. For the reaction, 2H2S(g) + O2(g) 2S(s) + 2H2O(l),
A catalyst: which one of the following statements is absolutely
(a) actually participates in the reaction. true?
(b) changes the equilibrium concentration of the (a) The reaction is first order with respect to H2S
products. and second order with respect to O2.
(c) does not affect a reaction energy path. (b) The reaction is fourth order overall.
(d) always decreases the rate for a reaction. (c) The rate law is: rate = k[H2S]2[O2].
(e) always increases the activation energy for a (d) The rate law is: rate = k[H2S][O2].
reaction. (e) The rate law cannot be determined from the
22. information given.
Which statement is false? Answers:
(a) If a reaction is thermodynamically spontaneous 1. (e) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (d) 5. (d) 6. (b) 7. (e) 8. (c) 9.
it may occur rapidly. (a) 10. (d) 11. (b) 12. (b) 13. (c) 14. (e) 15. (d) 16.
(b) If a reaction is thermodynamically spontaneous (d) 17. (d) 18. (e) 19. (e) 20. (e) 21. (a) 22. (e) 23.
it may occur slowly. (b) 24. (b) 25. (e) 1.
(c) Activation energy is a kinetic quantity rather When the system A + B C + D is at equilibrium,
than a thermodynamic quantity. (a) the sum of the concentrations of A and B must
(d) If a reaction is thermodynamically equal the sum of the concentrations of C and D.
nonspontaneous, it will not occur spontaneously. (b) the forward reaction has stopped.
(e) If a reaction is thermodynamically spontaneous, (c) both the forward and the reverse reactions have
it must have a low activation energy. stopped.
23. (d) the reverse reaction has stopped.
Which of the following statements are true? (e) neither the forward nor the reverse reaction has
(1) Reactions with more negative values of Go are stopped.
spontaneous and proceed at a higher rate than those 2.
with less negative values of Go. 2SO3(g) 2SO2(g) + O2(g)
(2) The activation energy, Ea, is usually about the The conventional equilibrium constant expression
same as E for a reaction. (Kc) for the system as described by the above
(3) The activation energy for a reaction does not equation is:
change significantly as temperature changes. (a) [SO2]2/[SO3]
(4) Reactions usually occur at faster rates at higher (b) [SO2]2[O2]/[SO3]2
temperatures. (c) [SO3]2/[SO3]2[O2]
(a) 1, 2, 4 (d) [SO2][O2]
(b) 3, 4 (e) none of these
(c) 1, 2, 3 3.
(d) 2, 3, 4 Consider the following reversible reaction. In a 3.00
(e) 1, 2, 3, 4 liter container, the following amounts are found in
24. equilibrium at 400 oC: 0.0420 mole N2,
When the concentration of reactant molecules is 0.516 mole H2 and 0.0357 mole NH3. Evaluate Kc.
increased, the rate of reaction increases. The best N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
explanation is: As the reactant concentration (a) 0.202
increases, (b) 1.99
(a) the average kinetic energy of molecules (c) 16.0
increases. (d) 4.94
(b) the frequency of molecular collisions increases. (e) 0.5034.
(c) the rate constant increases. If the equilibrium constant for the reaction
(d) the activation energy increases. (e) the order of A + 2B C + 5/2 D
reaction increases. has a value of 4.0, what is the value of the
25. equilibrium constant for the reaction
2C + 5D 2A + 4B
at the same temperature?
(a) 0.25 Consider the reaction:
(b) 0.063 N2(g) + O2(g) 2NO(g) Kc = 0.10 at 2000oC
(c) 2.0 Starting with initial concentrations of 0.040 mol/L
(d) 8.0 of N2 and 0.040 mol/L of O2, calculate the
(e) 16 equilibrium concentration of NO in mol/L
5. (a) 0.0055 mol/L
At 445oC, Kc for the following reaction is 0.020. (b) 0.0096 mol/L
2HI(g) H2(g) + I2(g) (c) 0.011 mol/L
A mixture of H2, I2, and HI in a vessel at 445oC has (d) 0.080 mol/L
the following concentrations: [HI] = 2.0 M, [H2] = (e) 0.10 mol/L
0.50 M and [I2] = 0.10 M. Which one 9.
of the following statements concerning the reaction Kc = 0.040 for the system below at 450oC. If a
quotient, Qc, is TRUE for the above system? reaction is initiated with 0.40 mole of Cl2 and 0.40
(a) Qc = Kc; the system is at equilibrium. mole of PCl3 in a 2.0 liter container, what is
(b) Qc is less than Kc; more H2 and I2 will be the equilibrium concentration of Cl2 in the same
produced. system?
(c) Qc is less than Kc; more HI will be produced. PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)
(d) Qc is greater than Kc; more H2 and I2 will be (a) 0.07 M
produced. (b) 0.16 M
(e) Qc is greater than Kc; more HI will be produced. (c) 0.11 M
6. (d) 0.04 M
Nitrosyl chloride, NOCl, dissociates on heating as (e) 0.26 M
shown below. When a 1.50 gram sample of pure 10.
NOCl is heated at 350oC in a volume of The reversible reaction:
1.00 liter, the percent dissociation is found to be 2SO2(g) + O2(g) 2SO3(g)
57.2%. Calculate Kc for the reaction as written. has come to equilibrium in a vessel of specific
NOCl(g) NO(g) + 1/2 Cl2(g) volume at a given temperature. Before the reaction
(a) 0.876 began, the concentrations of the reactants
(b) 9.26 were 0.060 mol/L of SO2 and 0.050 mol/L of O2.
(c) 0.107 After equilibrium is reached, the concentration of
(d) 1.75 x 104 SO3 is 0.040 mol/L. What is theequilibrium
(e) 0.0421 concentration of O2?
7. A quantity of HI was sealed in a tube, heated to (a) 0.010 M
425oC and held at this temperature until equilibrium (b) 0.020 M
was reached. The concentration of HI in (c) 0.030 M
the tube at equilibrium was found to be 0.0706 (d) 0.040 M
mol/L. Calculate the equilibirum concentration of (e) none of these
H2 (and I2). For the gasphase 11.
reaction, Consider the gasphase
H2 + I2 2HI Kc = 54.6 at 425oC equilibrium system represented by the equation:
(a) 9.55 x 103 2H2O(g) 2H2(g) + O2(g)
M Given that the forward reaction (the conversion of
(b) 1.17 x 103 "lefthand"
M species to "righthand"
(c) 1.85 x 104 species) is endothermic, which of the following
M changes
(d) 4.78 x 103 will decrease the equilibrium amount of H2O?
M (a) adding more oxygen
(e) 2.34 x 103 (b) adding a solid phase calalyst
M (c) decreasing the volume of the container (the total
8. pressure increases)
(d) increasing the temperature at constant pressure The partial pressures are found to be: A: 6.70 atm,
(e) adding He gas B: 10.1 atm, C: 3.60 atm. Evaluate Kp for this
12. reaction.
The conventional equilibrium constant expression (a) 7.94 x 103
(Kc) for the system below is: (b) 0.146
2ICl(s) I2(s) + Cl2(g) (c) 0.0532
(a) [I2][Cl2]/[ICl]2 (d) 54.5
(b) [I2][Cl2]/2[ICl] (e) 121
(c) [Cl2] 17.
(d) ([I2] + [Cl2])/2[ICl] Kc = 0.040 for the system below at 450oC:
(e) [Cl2]/[ICl]2 PCl5(g) PCl3(g) + Cl2(g) Evaluate Kp for the
13. reaction at 450oC.
Consider the equilibrium system: (a) 0.40
2ICl(s) I2(s) + Cl2(g) (b) 0.64
Which of the following changes will increase the (c) 2.4
total amount of of Cl2 that can be produced? (d) 0.052
(a) removing some of the I2(s) (e) 6.7 x 104
(b) adding more ICl(s) 18.
(c) removing the Cl2 as it is formed What is the equilibrium constant for a reaction that
(d) decreasing the volume of the container has a value of Go = 41.8
(e) all of the above14. kJ at 100oC?
At equilibrium, a 1.0 liter container was found to (a) 1.01
contain 0.20 moles of A, 0.20 moles of B, 0.40 (b) 7.1 x 105
moles of C and 0.40 mole of D. If 0.10 moles (c) 5.87
of A and 0.10 moles of B are added to this system, (d) 1.4 x 106
what will be the new equilibrium concentration of (e) 13.5
A? 19.
A(g) + B(g) C(g) + D(g) The equilibrium constant at 427oC for the reaction:
(a) 0.37 mol/L N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
(b) 0.47 mol/L is Kp = 9.4 x 105.
(c) 0.87 mol/L Calculate the value of Go for the reaction at 427o.
(d) 0.23 mol/L (a) 33
(e) 0.15 mol/L kJ
15. (b) 54
Consider the following system in a 1.00 L kJ
container: (c) 54 kJ
A(g) + B(g) 2C(g) (d) 33 kJ
The equilibrium concentrations at 200oC were (e) 1.3 J
determined to be: 20.
[A] = 0.200 M [B] = 3.00 M [C] = 0.500 M For a specific reaction, which of the following
How many moles of A must be added to increase statements can be made about K, the equilibrium
the concentration of C to 0.700 M at 200oC? constant?
(a) 0.225 mol (a) It always remains the same at different reaction
(b) 0.305 mol conditions.
(c) 0.417 mol (b) It increases if the concentration of one of the
(d) 0.610 mol products is increased.
(e) 0.700 mol (c) It changes with changes in the temperature.
16. (d) It increases if the concentration of one of the
Consider the reversible reaction at equilibrium at reactants is increased.
392oC: (e) It may be changed by the addition of a catalyst.
2A(g) + B(g) C(g) Answers:
1. (e) 2. (b) 3. (b) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (c) 7. (a) 8. (c) 9. 6.
(a) 10. (c) 11. (d) 12. (c) 13. (c) 14. (d) 15. (b) 16. The pOH of a solution of NaOH is 11.30. What is
(a) 17. (c) 18. (b) 19. (c) 20. (c) the [H+] for this solution?
(a) 2.0 x 103
Aqueous Equilibrium (b) 2.5 x 103
(c) 5.0 x 1012
Acids/ (d) 4.0 x 1012
(e) 6.2 x 108
Bases/Salts 7.
1. The [H3O+] in a 0.050 M solution of Ba(OH)2 is:
Which one of the following is a weak acid? (a) 1.0 x 105
(a) HNO3 M
(b) HI (b) 5.0 x 102
(c) HBr M
(d) HF (c) 1.0 x 1013
(e) HClO3 M
2. (d) 5.0 x 1010
Which salt is not derived from a strong acid and a M
strong soluble base? (e) 2.0 x 105
(a) MgCl2 M
(b) Ba(NO3)2 8.
(c) LiClO4 What is the approximate pH of a solution labeled 6
(d) CsBr x 105
(e) NaI M HBr?
3. (a) 4.2
Which one of the following is a strong electrolyte? (b) 4.5(c) 5.8
(a) H2O (d) 9.8
(b) KF (e) 8.2
(c) HF 9.
(d) HNO2 What is the pH of 500 mL of solution containing
(e) (CH3)3N 0.0124 grams of Ca(OH)2?
4. In a sample of pure water, only one of the (a) 11.04
following statements is always true at all conditions (b) 9.68
of temperature and pressure. Which one is (c) 2.96
always true? (d) 3.17
(a) [H3O+] = 1.0 x 107 (e) 10.83
M 10.
(b) [OH] The pH of a solution is 4.80. What is the
= 1.0 x 107 concentration of hydroxide ions in this solution?
M (a) 4.2 x 109
(c) pH = 7.0 M
(d) pOH = 7.0 (b) 1.6 x 105
(e) [H3O+] = [OH] M
5. (c) 3.6 x 1012
If Kw is 2.9 x 1015 M
at 10oC, what is the pH of pure water at 10oC? (d) 6.3 x 1010
(a) 6.72 M
(b) 7.00 (e) 2.0 x 108
(c) 7.27 M
(d) 7.53 11.
(e) none of these A solution in which [H+] = 108
M has a pH of ___ and is ___. (b) 4.2 %
(a) 8, acidic (c) 0.84 %
(b) 6, basic (d) 0.082 %
(c) 6, (e) 0.22 %
basic 18.
(d) 8, Which of the following weak acids ionizes to give
neutral the strongest conjugate base? (a) HClO
(e) 8, basic (b) CH3COOH
12. (c) HF
The pH of a 0.02 M solution of an unknown weak (d) HNO2
acid is 3.7. what is the pKa of this acid? (e) HCN
(a) 5.7 19.
(b) 4.9 Which of the following is true about a 0.10 M
(c) 3.2 solution of a weak acid, HX?
(d) 2.8 (a) [X]
(e) 3.7 = 0.10 M
13. (b) pH = 1
What is the approximate pH of a solution labeled (c) [HX] > [H+]
0.050 M HClO? (d) [H+] = 0.10 M
(a) 5.1(b) 3.9 (e) both b and d
(c) 4.4 20.
(d) 2.1 Calculate the hydrolysis constant for the cyanide
(e) 7.6 ion, CN.
14. (a) 2.5 x 105
What is the pH of a solution labeled 0.30 M (b) 1.0 x 107
(CH3)3N? (c) 4.0 x 1010
(a) 9.5 (d) 5.6 x 1010
(b) 10.8 (e) none of these
(c) 9.2 21.
(d) 11.7 Calculate the pH of a 0.50 M solution of NaNO2.
(e) 12.2 (a) 12.18
15. (b) 5.48
Which of the following solutions has the lowest pH (c) 1.82
at 25oC? (No calculations required.) (d) 8.52
(a) 0.2 M sodium hydroxide (e) 7.00
(b) 0.2 M hypochlorous acid 22.
(c) 0.2 M ammonia What is the concentration of a sodium acetate
(d) 0.2 M benzoic acid solution if the pH of the solution is 9.19?
(e) pure water (a) 0.30 M
16. (b) 0.43 M
A 0.10 M solution of a weak acid, HX, is 0.059% (c) 2.1 M
ionized. Evaluate Ka for the acid. (d) 0.068 M
(a) 3.8 x 109 (e) 0.59 M23.
(b) 6.5 x 107 What is the pH of 0.060 M NH4Cl?
(c) 7.0 x 106 (a) 5.06
(d) 4.2 x 106 (b) 5.12
(e) 3.5 x 108 (c) 5.18
17. (d) 5.24
What is the percent ionization of an 1.2 M HF (e) 5.35
solution? 24.
(a) 2.4 %
What is the concentration of ammonium chloride in (c) If a small amount of HCl is added, the pH
a solution if its pH is 4.80? decreases very slightly.
(a) 0.25 M (d) If HCl is added, the H+ ions react with
(b) 0.30 M CH3COOH ions.
(c) 0.45 M (e) If more CH3COOH is added, the pH increases.
(d) 0.60 M 5.
(e) 0.15 M A buffer was prepared by mixing 1.00 mole of
25. ammonia and 1.00 mole of ammonium chloride to
The pH of 0.15 M trimethylammonium chloride, form an aqueous solution with a total volume
(CH3)3NHCl, a salt, is 5.34. What is the percent of 1.00 liter. To 500 mL of this solution was added
hydrolysis? 30.0 mL of 1.00 M NaOH. What is the pH of this
(a) 0.0031 % solution?
(b) 0.0068 % (a) 8.96
(c) 0.0094 % (b) 9.83
(d) 0.011 % (c) 9.31
(e) 0.022 % (d) 9.11
Answers: (e) 9.57
1. (d) 2. (a) 3. (b) 4. (e) 5. (c) 6. (a) 7. (c) 8. (a) 9. 6.
(e) 10. (d) 11. (e) 12. (a) 13. (c) 14. (d) 15. (d) 16. How many grams of NaF would have to be added to
(e) 17. (a) 18. (e) 19. (c) 20. (a) 21. (d) 22. (b) 23. 2.00 L of 0.100 M HF to yield a solution with a pH
(d) 24. (c) 25. (a) 1. = 4.00?
Which of the following combinations cannot (a) 300 g
produce a buffer solution? (b) 36 g
(a) HNO2 and NaNO2 (c) 0.84 g
(b) HCN and NaCN (d) 6.9 g
(c) HClO4 and NaClO4 (e) 60. g
(d) NH3 and (NH4)2SO4 7.
(e) NH3 and NH4Br Calculate the pH that results when the following
2. solutions are mixed.
What is the pH of a solution composed of 0.20 M (1) 35 mL of 0.20 M formic acid
NH3 and 0.15 M NH4Cl? (2) 55 mL of 0.10 M sodium formate
(a) 2.15 (3) 110 mL of water
(b) 4.62 (a) 3.64
(c) 8.26 (b) 3.11
(d) 9.38 (c) 4.58
(e) 8.89 (d) 3.39
3. (e) 4.20
Calculate the ratio [CH3COOH]/[NaCH3COO] that 8.
gives a solution with pH = 5.00? Consider an indicator that ionized as shown below
(a) 0.28 for which its Ka = 1.0 x 104
(b) 0.36 HIn + H2O H3O+ + Inyellow red
(c) 0.44 Which of the responses contains all the true
(d) 0.56 statements and no others?
(e) 0.63 (1) The predominant color in its acid range is
4. yellow.
Consider a solution which is 0.10 M in CH3COOH (2) In the middle of the pH range of its color change
and 0.20 M in NaCH3COO. Which of the following a solution containing the indicator will probably be
statements is true? (a) If a small amount of NaOH is orange.
added, the pH decreases very slightly. (3) At pH = 7.00, a solution containing this
(b) If NaOH is added, the OHions indicator (and no other colored species) will be red.
react with the CH3COOions. (Hint: Write the equilibrium constant
expression for the indicator.) (b) 5.2
(4) At pH = 7.00, most of the indicator is in the (c) 7.0
unionized (d) 5.5
form. (e) 4.9
(5) The pH at which the indicator changes color is 13.
pH = 4. Calculate the pH of a solution prepared by mixing
(a) 1, 3, 5 300 mL of 0.10 M HF and 200 mL of 0.10 M KOH.
(b) 2, 4 (a) 2.82
(c) 3, 4, 5 (b) 2.96
(d) 1, 2, 3, 5 (c) 3.32
(e) another combination (d) 3.44
9. (e) 3.53
Calculate the pH of the solution resulting from the 14.
addition of 20.0 mL of 0.100 M NaOH to 30.0 mL What is the approximate pH of a solution prepared
of 0.100 M HNO3. by mixing equal volumes of 0.05 M methylamine
(a) 1.35 and 0.20 M hydrochloric acid?
(b) 1.70 (a) 2.57
(c) 1.95 (b) 1.12
(d) 2.52 (c) 1.63
(e) 2.80 (d) 10.5
10. (e) 9.8
Which indicator (identified by a letter) could be 15.
used to titrate aqueous NH3 with HCl solution? Which of the following salts give acidic aqueous
Indicator Acid Range Color ColorChange solutions?
pH Basic Range Color (1) KNO3 (2) KCH3COO (3) NH4NO3 (4) RbI
(a) pink 1.2 2.8 (5) (NH4)2SO4 (6) BaCl2 (7) NaCN (8) KNO2
yellow (a) 2, 7, 8
(b) blue 3.4 4.6 (b) 3, 5
yellow (c) 2, 4, 6
(c) yellow 6.5 7.8 (d) 1, 4, 7, 8
purple (e) 1, 4, 616.
(d) colorless 8.3 9.9 The following titration curve is the kind of curve
red expected for the titration of a ____ acid with a ____
(e) none of these base.
11. (a) strong, strong
Consider the titrations of the pairs of aqueous acids (b) weak, strong
and bases listed on the left. For which pair is the pH (c) strong, weak
at the equivalence point stated (d) weak, weak
incorrectly? (e) none of these
AcidBase 17.
Pair pH at Equivalence Point Consider the titration of 30.0 mL of 0.20 M nitrous
(a) HCl + NH3 less than 7(b) HNO3 + Ca(OH)2 acid by adding 0.0500 M aqueous ammonia to it.
equal to 7 The pH at the equivalence point is _____.
(c) HClO4 + NaOH equal to 7 (Note: This is the titration of a weak acid with a
(d) HClO + NaOH less than 7 weak base.)
(e) CH3COOH + KOH greater than 7 (a) greater than 7
12. (b) equal to 7
What is the pH at the equivalence point in the (c) less than 7
titration of 100.0 mL of 0.20 M ammonia with 0.10 (d) cannot be determined without more data (not
M hydrochloric acid? including Ka and Kb)
(a) 4.6 (e) is impossible to predict
Answers: (d) 4.1 x 105
1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (c) 6. (e) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9. (e) 3.6 x 104
(b) 10. (b) 11. (d) 12. (b) 13. (d) 14. (b) 15. (b) 16. 6.
(a) 17. (c) 1. What is the molar solubility, s, of Ba3(PO4)2 in
The solubility product expression for tin(II) terms of Ksp?
hydroxide, Sn(OH)2, is (a) s = Ksp
(a) [Sn2+][OH] 1/2
(b) [Sn2+]2[OH] (b) s = Ksp
(c) [Sn2+][OH]
2 (c) s = [Ksp/27]1/5
(d) [Sn2+]3[OH] (d) s = [Ksp/108]1/5
(e) [Sn2+][OH] (e) s = [Ksp/4]5
3 7.
2. For Cu(OH)2, Ksp = 1.6 x 1019.
The solubility product expression for silver(I) What is the molar solubility of Cu(OH)2? (a) 3.4 x
sulfide, using x to represent the molar concentration 107
of silver(I) and y to represent the molar M
concentration of sulfide, is formulated as: (b) 6.4 x 107
(a) xy M
(b) x2y (c) 2.7 x 1011
(c) xy2 M
(d) x2y2 (d) 5.1 x 1010
(e) xy3 M
3. (e) 1.7 x 1010
Consider the following solubility data for various M
chromates at 25oC. 8.
Ksp Many lead salts are often used as pigments. If
Ag2CrO4 9.0 x 1012 PbSO4 were used in an unglazed ceramic bowl, how
BaCrO4 2.0 x 1010 many milligrams of lead(II) could dissolve
PbCrO4 1.8 x 1014The chromate that is the most per liter of water?
soluble in water at 25oC on a molar basis is: (a) 43
(a) Ag2CrO4 (b) 35
(b) BaCrO4 (c) 11
(c) PbCrO4 (d) 28
(d) impossible to determine (e) 53
(e) none of these 9.
4. Ag3PO4 would be least soluble at 25oC in
The molar solubility of PbBr2 is 2.17 x 103 (a) 0.1 M AgNO3
M at a certain temperature. Calculate Ksp for PbBr2. (b) 0.1 M HNO3
(a) 6.2 x 106 (c) pure water
(b) 6.4 x 107 (d) 0.1 M Na3PO4
(c) 4.1 x 108 (e) solubility in (a), (b), (c), or (d) is not different
(d) 3.4 x 106 10.
(e) 1.4 x 105 The molar solubility of PbCl2 in 0.20 M Pb(NO3)2
5. solution is:
The solubility of silver sulfate in water at 100oC is (a) 1.7 x 104
approximately 1.4 g per 100 mL. What is the M
solubility product of this salt at 100oC? (b) 9.2 x 103
(a) 5.7 x 108 M
(b) 3.5 x 107 (c) 1.7 x 105
(c) 8.3 x 106 M
(d) 4.6 x 103 M Ca2+ + 2 x 103
(e) 8.5 x 105 e) 2 x 104
M M Pb2+ + 2 x 105
11. M SO4
When we mix together, from separate sources, the 215.
ions of a slightly soluble ionic salt, the salt will At what pH will Cu(OH)2 start to precipitate from a
precipitate if Qsp _____ Ksp, and will solution with [Cu2+] = 0.0015 M?
continue to precipitate until Qsp _____ Ksp. (a) 9.0
(a) is greater than; equals (b) 8.0
(b) is less than; is greater than(c) is less than; equals (c) 6.0
(d) equals; is less than (d) 9.4(e) 4.6
(e) equals; is greater than 16.
12. What is the pH of a saturated solution of Mg(OH)2?
Which of the following pairs of compounds gives a (a) 3.5
precipitate when aqueous solutions of them are (b) 10.1
mixed? Assume that the concentrations of (c) 10.9
all compounds are 1.0 M immediately after mixing. (d) 10.5
(a) CuBr2 and K2CO3 (e) 9.2
(b) HNO3 and NH4I 17.
(c) BaCl2 and KClO4 Which solid will precipitate first if an aqueous
(d) Na2CO3 and H2SO4 solution of Na2CrO4 at 25oC is slowly added to an
(e) KCl and KNO3 aqueous solution containing 0.001 M
13. Pb(NO3)2 and 0.100 M Ba(NO3)2 at 25oC?
A swimming pool was sufficiently alkaline so that (a) BaCrO4(s)
CO2 absorbed from the air produced in the pool a (b) NaNO3(s)
solution which was 2 x 104 (c) PbCrO4(s)
M in CO3 (d) Pb(NO3)2(s)
2M. (e) none of these
If the pool water was originally 4 x 103 18.
M in Mg2+, 6 x 104 A solution is 0.0010 M in both Ag+ and Au+. Some
M in Ca2+ and 8 x 107 solid NaCl is added slowly until the solid AgCl just
M in Fe2+, then a precipitate should form of: begins to precipitate. What is the
(a) only MgCO3 concentration of Au+ ions at this point? Ksp for
(b) only CaCO3 AgCl = 1.8 x 1010
(c) only FeCO3 and for AuCl = 2.0 x 1013.
(d) only CaCO3 and FeCO3 (a) 2.0 x 1010
(e) MgCO3, CaCO3 and FeCO3 M
14. (b) 4.5 x 107
When equal volumes of the solutions indicated are M
mixed, precipitation should occur only for: (c) 1.8 x 107
(a) 2 x 103 M
M Mg2+ + 2 x 103 (d) 3.0 x 104
b) 2 x 101 (e) 1.1 x 106
M Ba2+ + 2 x 103 M
M F( Answers:
c) 2 x 103 1. (c) 2. (b) 3. (a) 4. (c) 5. (e) 6. (d) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9.
M Ca2+ + 2 x 102 (a) 10. (d) 11. (a) 12. (a) 13. (d) 14. (a) 15. (c) 16.
M OH( (d) 17. (c) 18. (e) 1.
d) 2 x 103
In an electrolytic cell the electrode at which the 7) electrons flow from the electrode to the
electrons enter the solution is called the ______ ; external circuit
the chemical change that occurs at this (8) electrons flow into the electrode from the
electrode is called _______. external circuit
(a) anode, oxidation (9) oxidation (10) reduction
(b) anode, reduction (a) 2, 6, 8, 9
(c) cathode, oxidation (b) 1, 5, 7, 9
(d) cathode, reduction (c) 2, 5, 7, 9
(e) cannot tell unless we know the species being (d) 1, 6, 8, 10
oxidized and reduced. (e) 2, 6, 8, 10
2. 5.
Which of the following statements is FALSE? What mass (in grams) of nickel could be
(a) Oxidation and reduction halfreactions electroplated from a solution of nickel(II) chloride
occur at electrodes in electrochemical cells. by a current of 0.25 amperes flowing for 10 hours?
(b) All electrochemical reactions involve the (a) 12 g
transfer of electrons. (b) 5.5 g
(c) Reduction occurs at the cathode. (c) 0.046 g
(d) Oxidation occurs at the anode. (d) 2.7 g
(e) All voltaic (galvanic) cells involve the use of (e) 6.0 g
electricity to initiate nonspontaneous chemical 6.
reactions. Molten AlCl3 is electrolyzed for 5.0 hours with a
3. current of 0.40 amperes. Metallic aluminum is
The halfreaction produced at one electrode and chlorine gas,
that occurs at the anode during the electrolysis of Cl2, is produced at the other. How many liters of
molten sodium bromide is: Cl2 measured at STP are produced when the
(a) 2 BrBr2 electrode efficiency is only 65%?
+ 2 e( (a) 0.55 L
b) Br2 + 2 e2 (b) 0.63 L
Br( (c) 0.84 L
c) Na+ + eNa (d) 0.98 L
(d) Na Na+ + e( (e) 1.02 L
e) 2 H2O + 2 e2 7.
OH+ How long (in hours) must a current of 5.0 amperes
H2 be maintained to electroplate 60 g of calcium from
4. molten CaCl2?
During the electrolysis of aqueous KCl solution (a) 27 hours
using inert electrodes, gaseous hydrogen is evolved (b) 8.3 hours
at one electrode and gaseous chlorine at the (c) 11 hours
other electrode. The solution around the electrode at (d) 16 hours
which hydrogen gas is evolved becomes basic as the (e) 5.9 hours8.
electrolysis proceeds. Which of thefollowing How long, in hours, would be required for the
responses describe or are applicable to the cathode electroplating of 78 g of platinum from a solution of
and the reaction that occurs at the cathode? [PtCl6]2,
(1) the positive electrode (2) the negative electrode using an average current of 10
(3) 2 ClCl2 amperes at an 80% electrode efficiency?
+ 2 e( (a) 8.4
4) Cl2 + 2 e2 (b) 5.4
Cl( (c) 16.8
5) 2 H2O O2 + 4 H+ + 4 e( (d) 11.2
6) 2 H2O + 2 eH2 (e) 12.4
+ 2 OH( 9.
How many faradays are required to reduce 1.00 g of (e) Fe, 1.94 V
aluminum(III) to the aluminum metal? 14.
(a) 1.00 What is the reduction potential for the halfreaction
(b) 1.50 at 25o C:
(c) 3.00 Al3+ + 3eAl,
(d) 0.111 if [Al3+] = 0.10 M and Eo = 1.66
(e) 0.250 V?
10. (a) 1.84
Which of the following is the strongest oxidizing V
agent? (b) 1.60
(a) Pb2+ V
(b) I2 (c) 1.68
(c) Ag+ V
(d) Pb (d) 1.66
(e) Cu2+ V
11. (e) 1.72
As the cell given below operates, the strip of silver V
gains mass (only silver) and the concentration of 15.
silver ions in the solution around the silver What is the value of E for the halfcell:
strip decreases, while the strip of lead loses mass MnO4
and the concentration of lead increases in the (
solution around the lead strip. Which of the 0.010 M) + 8H+ (0.20 M) + 5eMn2+
following represents the reaction that occurs at the (0.020 M) + 4H2O ?
negative electrode in the above cell? (a) 1.50 V
Pb / Pb(NO3)2 (1.0 M) || AgNO3 (1.0 M) / Ag (b) 1.86 V
(a) Pb2+ + 2 ePb (c) 1.44 V
(b) Pb Pb2+ + 2 e( (d) 1.58 V
c) Ag+ + eAg (e) 1.52 V
(d) Ag Ag+ + e( 16.
e) none of the above Calculate the potential (in volts) for the voltaic (or
12. For a voltaic (or galvanic) cell using Ag,Ag+ galvanic) cell indicated at 25oC.
(1.0 M) and Zn,Zn2+ (1.0 M) halfcells, Ga / Ga3+ (106
which of the following statements is incorrect? M) || Ag+ (104
(a) The zinc electrode is the anode. M) / Ag
(b) Electrons will flow through the external circuit (a) 1.29 V
from the zinc electrode to the silver electrode. (b) 0.97 V(c) 1.45 V
(c) Reduction occurs at the zinc electrode as the cell (d) 1.21 V
operates. (e) 1.37 V
(d) The mass of the zinc electrode will decrease as 17.
the cell operates. A concentration cell is constructed by placing
(e) The concentration of Ag+ will decrease as the identical Cu electrodes in two Cu2+ solutions. If the
cell operates. concentrations of the two Cu2+ solutions are
13. 1.0 M and 0.0020 M, calculate the potential of the
Consider the standard voltaic (or galvanic) cell: cell.
Fe,Fe2+ versus Au,Au3+. Which answer identifies (a) 0.020 V
the cathode and gives the Eo for the cell? (b) 1.2 V
(a) Fe, 0.44 (c) 0.030 V
V (d) 1.0 V
(b) Au, 1.94 V (e) 0.080 V
(c) Fe, 1.06 V 18.
(d) Au, 1.06 V
What is Go per mole of dichromate ions for the (c) a wire (metal) connection
reduction of dichromate ions, Cr2O7 (d) a salt bridge
2, (e) a standard hydrogen electrode
to Cr3+ by bromide ions, Br, Answers:
in acidic solution? 1. (d) 2. (e) 3. (a) 4. (e) 5. (d) 6. (a) 7. (d) 8. (b) 9.
(Hint: Use the standard cell potential.) (d) 10. (c) 11. (b) 12. (c) 13. (b) 14. (c) 15. (c) 16.
(a) +26.3 kJ (d) 17. (e) 18. (b) 19. (e) 20. (c) 21. (c) 22. (d) 1.
(b) 145 Some metals are found in the uncombined free state
kJ while other metals are found in the combined state.
(c) +145 kJ What is a deciding factor?
(d) 26.3 (a) Metals with negative reduction potentials can
kJ occur in the free state while metals with positive
(e) 53.6 reduction potentials occur in the combined
kJ state.
19. (b) The active metals can occur in the free state
Estimate the equilibrium constant for the system while the less active metals occur in the combined
indicated at 25oC. state.
3 Mg2+ + 2Al 3Mg + 2Al3+ (c) Metals with positive reduction potentials can
(a) ~1069 occur in the free state while metals with negative
(b) ~1023 reduction potentials can occur in the
(c) ~1024 combined state.
(d) ~1036 (d) There is no way we can predict which metals
(e) ~1072 will be free or combined.
20. (e) none of the above
In voltaic cells, such as those diagrammed in your 2.
text, the salt bridge _______ . Soluble metal compounds tend to be found in the
(a) is not necessary in order for the cell to work _____, whereas insoluble metal compounds tend to
(b) acts as a mechanism to allow mechanical mixing be found in the _____ .
of the solutions (a) oceans; earth's crust
(c) allows charge balance to be maintained in the (b) earth's crust; oceans
cell (c) salt beds; oceans
(d) is tightly plugged with firm agar gel through (d) oceans; salt beds
which ions cannot pass (e) rivers; oceans
(e) drives free electrons from one halfcell 3.
to the other21. In the process known as 'roasting,' a(n) _____ is
Which of the following statements is(are) true for chemically converted to a(n) _____.
all voltaic (or galvanic) cells? (a) sulfide; oxide
(I) Reduction occurs at the cathode. (b) carbonate; oxide
(II) The anode gains mass during discharge (note: (c) hydroxide; oxide
this means operation of the cell.) (d) oxide; sulfate
(III) The voltage is less than or equal to zero. (e) phosphate; phosphide4.
(a) only III Which metal can be found as the free element?
(b) only II (a) Na
(c) only I (b) Mn
(d) II and III (c) Fe
(e) I, II, and III (d) Cr
22. (e) Pt
In the standard notation for a voltaic cell, the double 5.
vertical line "||" represents: The HallHeroult
(a) a phase boundary process is used in the production of:
(b) gas electrode (a) Mg
(b) Fe Answers:
(c) Al 1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (a) 4. (e) 5. (c) 6. (d) 7. (b) 8. (c) 9.
(d) Au (a) 10. (c) 1.
(e) Cu Which of the following is NOT true for the Group
6. 1A elements?
How much magnesium can be obtained from one (a) Most of them are soft, silvery corrosive metals.
pound of seawater if the concentration (b) Their atomic radii increases with increasing
of Mg2+ is 0.13 weight percent? Assume 100% molecular weight.
recovery. (c) They are named the alkaline earth metals.
(a) 1.7 grams (d) They are excellent conductors of heat and
(b) 1.3 grams electricity.
(c) 0.35 grams (e) They exhibit a +1 oxidation state in compounds.
(d) 0.59 grams 2.
(e) 2.5 grams Which element group is the most reactive of all the
7. metallic elements?
For every 100 pounds of iron ore there are 27.8 (a) alkali metals
pounds of magnetite, Fe3O4. What is the weight (b) alkaline earth metals
percent iron in this ore? (c) coinage metals
(a) 72.3% (d) transition metals
(b) 20.1% (e) Group 2B metals
(c) 27.8% 3.
(d) 16.7% In a surprisingly large number of their properties
(e) 23.1% beryllium resembles aluminum, and boron
8. resembles silicon. Such a relationship is called:
A reaction sequence for the reduction of one of the (a) amphoterism
iron ores is as follows: (b) an allotropic relationship
2 C(coke) + O2 2 CO (c) a diagonal relationship
Fe2O3 + 3 CO 2 Fe + 3 CO2Calculate the amount of (d) the periodic law
coke necessary to produce 800 g of Fe. (e) an isoelectronic series
(a) 114 g 4.
(b) 1030 g Which of the following properties of the alkaline
(c) 258 g earth metals decreases with increasing atomic
(d) 172 g weight?
(e) 544 g (a) ionic radii
9. (b) ionization energy
What is the charge on the copper ion in the mineral (c) atomic radii(d) activity
azurite, Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2? (e) atomic number
(a) 2+ 5.
(b) 1+ Of the following oxides, the most basic is:
(c) 0 (a) MgO.
(d) 1( (b) Na2O.
e) 210. (c) P2O3.
How many coulombs of electricity are required to (d) BeO.
produce one metric ton (1000 kg) of magnesium? (e) SO2.
There are 96,500 coulombs in one faraday. 6.
MgCl2 Mg(l) + Cl2 A 300 g sample of CaCO3 was heated until 10.0 L
(a) 4.0 x 109 coulombs of CO2 was collected at 50.0oC and 742 torr. What
(b) 2.0 x 109 coulombs percentage of the CaCO3 had
(c) 7.9 x 109 coulombs decomposed?
(d) 1.2 x 1012 coulombs (a) 6.84%
(e) 5.3 x 108 coulombs (b) 9.10%
(c) 12.3% (e) VIII (or 0)
(d) 15.8% 2.
(e) 20.6% Which of the following is NOT true for the
7. halogens?
What mass of lithium nitride could be formed from (a) They are nonmetals.
104 g of lithium and excess nitrogen gas? (b) They show the 1
(a) 35 g oxidation number in most of their compounds.
(b) 60 g (c) The electronic configuration of their outermost
(c) 105 g electrons is ns2 np6.
(d) 140 g (d) Their compounds with metals are generally
(e) 174 g ionic in nature.
8. (e) Elemental halogens exist as diatomic molecules.
The most abundant metal in the earth's crust is: 3.
(a) Cu Which of the following substances is the strongest
(b) Fe reducing agent?
(c) Na (a) Cl2
(d) Al (b) Cl(
(e) Ca c) Br2
9. (d) Br(
Which element has the electron configuration [Ar] e) I2
3d7 4s2? 4.
(a) Fe(b) Co Chlorine gas is prepared commercially by:
(c) Cr (a) electrolysis of carbon tetrachloride. (b) oxidation
(d) Ti of chloride ion with F2(g).
(e) Zn (c) electrolysis of NaCl(aq).
10. (d) oxidation of chloride ion with Br2(aq).
What is the electron configuration of Mn3+ ion? (e) electrolysis of AlCl3(aq).
(a) [Ar] 4s2 3d10 5.
(b) [Ar] 4s2 3d2 Which one of the following does not correctly
(c) [Ar] 3d5 describe one or all of the hydrogen halides, HX?
(d) [Ar] 3d4 (a) Their aqueous solutions are acidic.
(e) [Ar] 4d1 3d3 (b) HF has the lowest of the HX
11. bond energies.
The nitrate of which of the following cations would (c) HI is the largest.
exhibit paramagnetism to the GREATEST extent? (d) HCl has the lowest boiling point.
(a) Co3+ (e) HF exhibits hydrogen bonding.
(b) Cr3+ 6.
(c) Fe3+ Of the oxyacids listed below, which one possesses
(d) Mn3+ the greatest acid strength in water?
(e) V3+ (a) HClO4
Answers to Chapter 23 (b) H2CO3
1. (c) 2. (a) 3. (c) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (c) 7. (e) 8. (d) 9. (c) H3BO3
(b) 10. (d) 11. (c) 1. (d) HClO
Some element groups of the periodic table are more (e) HBrO
likely to contain elements that are gases than other 7.
groups. Which of the following groups Draw the correct Lewis formula for chlorous acid.
contains the greatest number of gaseous elements? The structure contains ___ single bonds, ___ double
(a) IA bonds and ___ lone pairs of electrons.
(b) IIA (a) 2, 1, 5
(c) IVA (b) 3, 0, 7
(d) VIA (c) 1, 2, 4
(d) 2, 1, 5 (e) During the dilution of sulfuric acid, the correct
(e) none of these method is to add sulfuric acid to water.
8. 13.
Which of the following has a pyramidal structure What maximum mass of sulfuric acid can be
(molecular geometry)? produced from the sulfur contained in 100
(a) CBr4 kilograms of iron pyrite that is 75.0% FeS2?
(b) PF3 (a) 84.4 kg
(c) BF3 (b) 123 kg
(d) OF2 (c) 136 kg
(e) BrCl (d) 144 kg
9. Which statement about the Group VIA elements (e) 168 kg14.
is false? In which one of the following is the oxidation state
(a) All have an outer electronic configuration of ns2 of nitrogen given incorrectly?
np4. (a) N2O3, +3
(b) The electronegativity of Group VIA elements (b) N2H4, +2
decreases as one goes down the group. (c) HNO3, +5
(c) Most are found in sulfide deposits. (d) NaNO2, +3
(d) Oxygen has the highest boiling point and (e) H2N2O2, +1
melting point. 15.
(e) Polonium has the smallest first ionization Which of the following does not correctly describe
energy. ammonia?
10. (a) pyramidal molecule
Which statement about the Group VIA hydrides is (b) polar molecule
false? (c) extremely soluble in water
(a) H2S, H2Se and H2Te are all gases at room (d) forms basic aqueous solutions
temperature and atmospheric pressure. (e) none of these
(b) All are colorless. 16.
(c) All except H2O are toxic. Which compound gives photochemical smog a
(d) H2Po has the lowest boiling point. brownish color?
(e) All are covalent compounds. (a) NO
11. (b) HNO2
Which acid listed on the right cannot be obtained by (c) NO2
adding water to the substance on the left? (d) N2O4
(a) H2S2O7 sulfuric (e) N2O3
acid 17.
(b) SeO2 selenous What is the major mineral present in phosphate
acid rock?
(c) SO3 sulfuric (a) Ca3(PO4)2
acid (b) Na2HPO4
(d) SO2 sulfurous (c) Ca10(PO4)6F2
acid (d) NaH2PO4
(e) TeO2 tellurous (e) Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2
acid Answers:
12. 1. (e) 2. (c) 3. (d) 4. (c) 5. (b) 6. (a) 7. (b) 8. (b) 9.
Which of the following statements about sulfuric (d) 10. (d) 11. (e) 12. (c) 13. (b) 14. (b) 15. (e) 16.
acid is false? (c) 17. (a) 1.
(a) It is a strong acid. The ______ sphere is enclosed in brackets in
(b) One mole of sulfuric acid reacts completely with formulas for complex species, and it includes the
two moles of potassium hydroxide. central metal ion plus the coordinated groups.
(c) The sulfur atom is sp2 hybridized. (a) ligand
(d) It is often present in acid rain. (b) donor
(c) oxidation 8.
(d) coordination Which nameformula
(e) chelating combination is NOT correct?
In coordination chemistry, the donor atom of a (a) [Co(NH3)4(OH2)I]SO4
ligand is tetraammineaquaiodocobalt(III) sulfate
(a) a Lewis acid. (b) K[Cr(NH3)2Cl4] potassium
(b) the counter ion diamminetetrachlorochromate(III) (c)
(c) the central metal atom. [Mn(CN)5]2pentacyanomanganate(
(d) the atom in the ligand that shares an electron II) ion
pair with the metal. (d) [Ni(CO)4] tetracarbonylnickel(0)
(e) the atom in the ligand that accepts a share in an (e) Ca[PtCl4] calcium tetrachloroplatinate(II)
electron pair from the metal. 9.
3. What is the oxidation number of the central metal
Consider the coordination compound, atom in the coordination compound
Na2[Pt(CN)4]. The Lewis acid is [Pt(NH3)3Cl]Cl?
(a) [Pt(CN)4]2( (a) 1
b) Na+ (b) 0
(c) Pt (c) +1
(d) Pt2+ (d) +2
(e) CN4. (e) +3
Consider the coordination compound, 10.
K2[Cu(CN)4]. A coordinate covalent bond exists (Valance Bond Theory) Magnetic measurements
between indicate that [Co(OH2)6]2+ has 3 unpaired electrons.
(a) K+ and CN(b) Cu2+ and CN( Therefore, the hybridization of the
c) K+ and [Cu(CN)4]2( metal's orbitals in [Co(OH2)6]2+ is:
d) C and N in CN( (a) sp3
e) K+ and Cu2+ (b) sp2d
5. (c) dsp2
Given the list of ligands and their corresponding (d) sp3d2
names, choose the pair that disagree. (e) d2sp3
(a) OHhydroxo Which one of the following complexes can exhibit
(b) CNcyanide geometrical isomerism?
(c) Clchloro (a) [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] (square planar)
(d) H2O aqua (b) [Zn(NH3)2Cl2] (tetrahedral)
(e) NH3 ammine (c) [Cu(NH3)4]2+ (square planar)
6. (d) [Co(NH3)5Cl]2+ (octahedral)
Select the correct IUPAC name for: [FeF4(OH2)2]( (e) [Cu(CN)2](
a) diaquatetrafluoroiron(III) ion linear)
(b) diaquatetrafluoroferrate(III) ion 12.
(c) diaquatetrafluoroiron(I) ion A molecule that cannot be superimposed on its
(d) diaquatetrafluoroferrate(I) ion mirror image is said to exhibit which of the
(e) none of these following?
7. (a) geometrical isomerism
Select the correct IUPAC name for: [Co(NH3)6]2+ (b) optical isomerism(c) linkage isomerism
(a) hexammoniacobaltate(II) ion (d) reactive isomerism
(b) hexaamminecobaltate(II) ion (e) coordination isomerism
(c) hexammoniacobalt(II) ion 13.
(d) hexaamminecobalt(II) ion
(e) hexammoniacobalt ion
In which one of the following species does the (b) 1
transition metal ion have d3 electronic (c) 2
configuration? (d) 4
(a) [Cr(NH3)6]3+ (e) 6
(b) [Co(OH2)6]2+ 18.
(c) [CoF6]3( (Crystal Field Theory) Consider the complex ion
d) [Fe(CN)6]3( [Mn(OH2)6]2+ with 5 unpaired electrons. Which
e) [Ni(OH2)6]2+ response includes all the following
14. statements that are true, and no false statements?
(Valence Bond Theory) The coordination complex, I. It is diamagnetic.
[Cu(OH2)6]2+ has one unpaired electron. Which of II. It is a low spin complex.
the following statements are true? III. The metal ion is a d5 ion.
(1) The complex is octahedral. IV. The ligands are weak field ligands.
(2) The complex is an outer orbital complex. V. It is octahedral.
(3) The complex is d2sp3 hybridized. (a) I, II
(4) The complex is diamagnetic. (b) III, IV, V
(5) The coordination number is 6. (c) I, IV
(a) 1, 4 (d) II, V
(b) 1, 2, 5 (e) III, IV
(c) 2, 3, 5 19.
(d) 2, 3 (Crystal Field Theory) Consider the violetcolored
(e) 4, 5 compound, [Cr(OH2)6]Cl3 and the yellow
15. compound, [Cr(NH3)6]Cl3. Which of the
(Crystal Field Theory) Which one of the following following statements is false? (a) Both chromium
statements is FALSE? metal ions are paramagnetic with 3 unpaired
(a) In an octahedral crystal field, the d electrons on electrons.
a metal ion occupy the eg set of orbitals before they (b) oct for [Cr(NH3)6]3+ is calculated directly from
occupy the t2g set of orbitals. the energy of yellow light.
(b) Diamagnetic metal ions cannot have an odd (c) oct for [Cr(OH2)6]3+ is less than oct for
number of electrons. [Cr(NH3)6]3+.
(c) Low spin complexes can be paramagnetic. (d) A solution of [Cr(OH2)6]Cl3 transmits light with
(d) In high spin octahedral complexes, oct is less an approximate wavelength range of 4000 4200
than the electron pairing energy, and is relatively angstroms.
very small. (e) The two complexes absorb their complementary
(e) Low spin complexes contain strong field colors.
ligands. 20.
16. (Crystal Field Theory) When the valence d (Crystal Field Theory) Strong field ligands such as
orbitals of the central metal ion are split in energy in CN:
an octahedral ligand field, which orbitals are (a) usually produce high spin complexes and small
raised least in energy? crystal field splittings.
(a) dxy and dx2y2 (b) usually produce low spin complexes and small
(b) dxy, dxz and dyz crystal field splittings.
(c) dxz and dyz (c) usually produce low spin complexes and high
(d) dxz, dyz and dz2 crystal field splittings.
(e) dx2y2 (d) usually produce high spin complexes and high
and dz2 crystal field splittings.
17. (e) cannot form low spin complexes.
(Crystal Field Theory) How many unpaired Answers:
electrons are there in a strong field iron(II) 1. (d) 2. (d) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (b) 6. (b) 7. (d) 8. (c) 9.
octahedral complex? (d) 10. (d) 11. (a) 12. (b) 13. (a) 14. (b) 15. (a) 16.
(a) 0 (b) 17. (a) 18. (b) 19. (b) 20. (c) 1.
The "magic numbers" for atoms are (b) Nuclear binding energy is the energy released in
(a) numbers of electrons that confer atomic stability. the formation of an atom from subatomic particles.
(b) numbers of protons and/or neutrons that confer (c) Nuclei with highest binding energies are the
nuclear stability. most stable nuclei.
(c) n/p ratios that confer nuclear stability. (d) Einstein postulated the Theory of Relativity in
(d) atomic masses that confer nuclear stability. which he stated that matter and energy are
(e) atomic masses that indicate fissile isotopes. equivalent.
2. (e) Mass number is the sum of all protons and
The actual mass of a 37Cl atom is 36.966 amu. electrons in an atom.
Calculate the mass defect (amu/atom) for a 37Cl 7.
atom. A positron has a mass number of _____, a charge of
(a) 0.623 amu _____, and a mass equal to that of a(an) _____.
(b) 0.388 amu (a) 0, 1+, proton
(c) 0.263 amu (b) 1, 2+, proton
(d) 0.341 amu (c) 0, 1+, electron
(e) none of these (d) 1, 2+, electron
3. (e) 0, 0, proton
The mass defect for an isotope was found to be 8.
0.410 amu/atom. Calculate the binding energy in Emission of which one of the following leaves both
kJ/mol of atoms. (1 J = 1 kg m2/s2) atomic number and mass number unchanged?
(a) 3.69 x 1010 kJ/mol (a) positron
(b) 1.23 x 1020 kJ/mol (b) neutron
(c) 3.69 x 1013 kJ/mol (c) alpha particle
(d) 1.23 x 103 kJ/mol (d) gamma radiation
(e) 1.23 x 1023 kJ/mol (e) beta particle9.
4. Which type of radiation is the least penetrating?
Calculate the binding energy per nucleon (in units (a) alpha
of MeV) for 9Be, for which the atomic mass is (b) beta
9.01219 amu. Particle masses in amu are: (c) gamma
proton = 1.007277; neutron = 1.008665; electron = (d) xray
0.0005486. Conversion factor for E = mc2 is 931 (e) neutron
MeV/amu. (a) 6.46 MeV 10.
(b) 6.33 MeV A radioisotope of argon, 35Ar, lies below the "band
(c) 6.23 MeV of stability: (n/p ratio too low). One would predict
(d) 11.39 MeV that it decays via _____.
(e) 56.93 MeV (a) neutron emission
5. (b) beta emission
Which isotope below has the highest nuclear (c) positron emission
binding energy per gram? No calculation is (d) alpha emission
necessary. (e) fission
(a) 4He 11.
(b) 16O A GeigerMuller
(c) 32S tube is a _____ .
(d) 55Mn (a) gas ionization detector
(e) 238U (b) cloud chamber
6. (c) fluorescence detector
Which of the following statements is incorrect? (d) spectrophotometer
(a) Mass defect is the amount of matter that would (e) photographic detector
be converted into energy if a nucleus were formed 12.
from initially separated protons and
The half life of 231Pa is 3.25 x 104 years. How of this isotope in seconds?
much of an initial 10.40 microgram sample remains (a) 87
after 3.25 x 105 years? (b) 110
(a) 0.0102 micrograms (c) 164
(b) 0.240 micrograms (d) 264
(c) 2.18 micrograms (e) 2.18
(d) 0.0240 micrograms 17.
(e) 1.04 micrograms The 14C activity of some ancient Peruvian corn was
13. found to be 10 disintegrations per minute per gram
Consider the case of a radioactive element X which of C. If presentday
decays by electron (beta) emission with a halflife plant life shows 15
of 4 days to a stable nuclide of element dpm/g, how old is the Peruvian corn? The halflife
Z. Which of the following statements is of 14C is 5730 years.
CORRECT? (a) 1455 years
(a) After 8 days the sample will consist of onefourth (b) 1910 years
element Z and threefourths (c) 3350 years
element X. (d) 3820 years
(b) Element Z will weigh exactly the same as (e) 9080 years
element X when decay is complete (weighed to an 18.
infinite number of significant figures). Which of the following describes what occurs in the
(c) 2.0 g of element X is required to produce 1.5 g fission process?
of element Z after 8 days (to 2 significant figures). (a) A heavy nucleus is fragmented into lighter ones.
(d) If element X as an atomic number equal to n, (b) A neutron is split into a neutron and proton.
then element X has an atomic number equal to n1. (c) Two light nuclei are combined into a heavier
(e) None of the above. 14. one. (d) A proton is split into three quarks.
Carbon11 (e) A particle and antiparticle
is a radioactive isotope of carbon. Its halflife appear in an area of high energy density.
is 20 minutes. What fraction of the initial number of 19.
C11 Which of the following statements about nuclear
atoms in a sample will have fission is always correct?
decayed away after 80 minutes? (a) Very little energy is released in fission
(a) 1/16 processes.
(b) 1/8 (b) Nuclear fission is an energetically favorable
(c) 1/4 process for heavy atoms.
(d) 7/8 (c) Due to its instability, 56Fe readily undergoes
(e) 15/16 fission.
15. (d) In fission reactions, a neutron is split into a
How old is a bottle of wine if the tritium (3H) proton and an electron.
content (called activity) is 25% that of a new wine? (e) All nuclear fission reactions are spontaneous.
The halflife 20.
of tritium is 12.5 years. Which one of the following would be most likely to
(a) 1/4 yr undergo thermonuclear fusion?
(b) 3.1 yr (a) 2H
(c) 25 yr (b) 4He
(d) 37.5 yr (c) 56Fe
(e) 50 yr (d) 141Ba
16. (e) 235U
A Geiger counter registered 1000 counts/second 21.
from a sample that contained a radioactive isotope Which one of the following statements about
of polonium. After 5.0 minutes, the counter nuclear reactions is false?
registered 281 counts/second. What is the halflife (a) Particles within the nucleus are involved.
(b) No new elements can be produced. (c) Carbon forms covalent bonds rather than ionic
(c) Rate of reaction is independent of the presence bonds.
of a catalyst. (d) To a greater extent than any other element,
(d) Rate of reaction is independent of temperature. carbon can bond to itself to form straight chains,
(e) They are often accompanied by the release of branched chains and rings.
enormous amounts of energy. (e) Carbon has two stable isotopes, carbon12
22. and carbon13.
Complete and balance the following equation. The 2.
missing term is _____ . The hybridization of carbon atoms in alkanes is
239Pu + alpha particle _____ + neutron (a) sp
(a) 2 115Ag (b) sp2
(b) 2 106Rh (c) sp3
(c) 235U (d) sp3d
(d) 233Pa (e) sp3d2
(e) 242Cm 3.
23. When 59Cu undergoes positron emission, what A molecule with the formula C3H8 is a(n):
is the immediate nuclear product? (a) hexane
(a) 59Ni (b) propane
(b) 58Ni (c) decane
(c) 58Cu (d) butane
(d) 59Zn (e) ethane
(e) 58Zn 1. (d) 2. (c) 3. (b) 1.
24. Two isomeric forms of a saturated hydrocarbon
As a result of the process of electron capture (a) have the same structure.
("Kcapture") (b) have different compositions of elements.
by 211At, the new isotope formed is: (c) have the same molecular formula.
(a) 210At (d) have a different content of the isotopes of
(b) 212At hydrogen.
(c) 211Po (e) react vigorously with one another.
(d) 211Rn 2.
(e) 207Bi Which of the following hydrocarbons does not have
25. isomers?
When 235U is bombarded with one neutron, fission (a) C7H16
occurs and the products are three neutrons, 94Kr, (b) C6H14
and _____ . (c) C5H10
(a) 139Ba (d) C4H8
(b) 141Ba (e) C3H8
(c) 139Ce 3.
(d) 139Xe The name of the alkane isomer of cis3hexene
(e) 142I is:
Answers: (a) 2methylpentane
1. (b) 2. (d) 3. (a) 4. (a) 5. (d) 6. (e) 7. (c) 8. (d) 9. (b) 3methylpentane
(a) 10. (c) 11. (a) 12. (a) 13. (c) 14. (e) 15. (c) 16. (c) nhexane
(c) 17. (c) 18. (a) 19. (b) 20. (a) 21. (b) 22. (e) 23. (d) 2,3dimethylbutane(e) cyclohexane
(a) 24. (c) 25. (a) 1. 4.
What makes carbon such a unique element? How many aromatic isomers of dibromobenzene
(a) Elemental carbon comes in two forms, diamond exist?
and graphite. (a) 2
(b) Carbon forms four bonds, although the ground (b) 3
state configuration would predict the formation of (c) 4
fewer bonds. (d) 6
(e) 8 (d) 4
5. (e) 5
Which one of the following compounds is an isomer 11.
of CH3CH2CH2CH2OH? How many alcohols are structural isomers with the
(a) CH3CH2CH2OH formula: C5H11OH?
(b) CH3CH(OH)CH3 (a) 5
(c) CH3CH2CH2CHO (Note: This is one way to (b) 6
write an aldehyde.) (c) 7
(d) CH3CH2CH2CH3 (d) 8
(e) none of the above (e) 9
6. 12.
Which of the following compounds is a functional What is the relationship between the structures
group isomer of C2H5OH, ethanol (ethyl alcohol)? shown? (a) structural isomers
(a) ethanal, CH3CHO (b) geometric isomers
(b) acetic acid, CH3COOH (c) conformational structures
(c) diethyl ether, (C2H5)2O (d) identical structures
(d) dimethyl ether, (CH3)2O (e) optical isomers
(e) propanol, C3H7OH 13.
7. Which of the following statements concerning
For which of the compounds below are cistrans conformations is (are) TRUE?
isomers possible? (1) Ethane has an infinite number of conformations.
CH3CH=CH2 CH3CH=CHCH2CH3 (2) The eclipsed conformation of a molecule is
CH3CH=CHCH3 slightly more stable and energetically favored than
(1) (2) (3) the staggered conformation.
(a) only 2 (3) A conformation is one specific geometry of a
(b) both 1 and 2 molecule.
(c) both 2 and 3 (a) 1 only
(d) all three (b) 2 only
(e) only 3 (c) 1 and 2
8. Which of the following does NOT exhibit (d) 2 and 3
geometric isomerism? (Hint: draw them!) (e) 1 and 3
(a) 4octene 14.
(b) 2pentene Which of the following statements is FALSE
(c) 3hexene regarding the reaction between Cl2 and C2H6?
(d) 2hexene (a) It is a substitution reaction.
(e) 1hexene (b) The reaction will give a single product of
9. C2H5Cl.
Which of the following compounds displays optical (c) The reaction mechanism involves free radicals.
isomerism? (d) The reaction can be initiated with either sunlight
(a) CH2(OH)CH2( or heat.
OH) (e) The first step in the mechanism is the cleavage
(b) CH3CHClCOOH of the ClCl
(c) CH2=CHCl bond to give chlorine atoms.
(d) CHCl=CHCl 15.
(e) CH3OC2H5 Which of the following will undergo an addition
10. reaction with chlorine?
How many isomeric alkanes of the molecular (a) CH3CH2CH2CH3
formula C5H12 are there? (b) CH3CH2CH=CHCH3
(a) 1 (c) C6H6
(b) 2 (d) CH3CH2COOH
(c) 3 (e) CH3CH2OH
16. (a) 1propanol
What is the expected product formed from the (b) methanol
reaction between 2butene (c) 2methyl2propanol
and Cl2? (d) 2propanol
(a) 1chlorobutane (e) all of the above
(b) 2chlorobutane(c) 2,3dichlorobutane 23.
(d) 2,2dichlorobutane What is the sum of the coefficients in the balanced
(e) 3,3dichlorobutane equation for the complete combustion of
17. 2methylbutane?
The reaction of ethyne with which of the following Use smallest whole number
gives CH2BrCHBrCl? coefficients. Do not forget coefficients of 1.
(a) HCl, then HBr (a) 10
(b) HCl, then Br2 (b) 13
(c) Cl2, then HBr (c) 17
(d) Cl2, then Br2 (d) 20
(e) H2, then Br2 (e) 23
18. 24.
Dehydration of an alcohol leads to the formation of The organic starting materials for the preparation of
an _____ . an ester could be _______ .
(a) alkene (a) an acid and an alcohol
(b) alkane (b) a ketone and an alcohol
(c) alkyne (c) an alkane and a ketone
(d) alkyl halide (d) only an acid
(e) aldehyde (e) an amine and an acid
19. 25. Hydrolysis (saponification) of a fat would yield
A reaction in which a carboxylic acid reacts with a ______ .
base to form a salt and water is called _____ . (a) water and an alkene
(a) ionization (b) ethanol and propanoic acid
(b) esterification (c) glycerol and soap
(c) hydrolysis (d) ethanol and a soap
(d) saponification (e) a triester of glycerol with fatty acids
(e) neutralization 26.
20. The segment CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2represents
How many moles of sodium hydroxide will react the polymer named _______ .
with one mole of: (a) polybutylene
(a) 5(b) 4 (b) polyhexene
(c) 3 (c) polypropylene
(d) 2 (d) polystyrene
(e) 1 (e) polyethylene
21. Answers:
Ethanol can be oxidized stepwise. What is the first 1. (c) 2. (e) 3. (e) 4. (b) 5. (e) 6. (d) 7. (c) 8. (e) 9.
stable intermediate product when ethanol is (b) 10. (c) 11. (d) 12. (c) 13. (e) 14. (b) 15. (b) 16.
oxidized with a mild oxidation agent? (c) 17. (b) 18. (a) 19. (e) 20. (e) 21. (c) 22. (d) 23.
(a) CH3COOH (d) 24. (a) 25. (c) 26. (e)
(b) CO2
(c) CH3CHO
(d) CH3CH2OH
(e) CH3OCH3
Which of the following alcohols forms a ketone
when oxidized?