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PARTICULARS

Name:

Class: XII A

Exam No:

Academic Year: 2017 – 2018

School: Sunrise English Private School

Name of Teacher: Mrs.Swapna

Signature:

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all I would like to express


my sense of gratitude to the school
Principal Dr.Thakur S.
Mulchandani and the Vice
Principal Mrs.Sheela John for
giving me an opportunity to attend
this project.

Then I would like to express my


earnest appreciation to the Physics
teacher Mrs.Swapna and the lab
assistant Mrs.Usha for their
proper guidance which lead to the
successful completion of this
project.

Last but not the least I would like to


thank my parents for providing me

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with the required sources for the
accomplishment of this project.

CONTENTS

1. Assembling an Electrical Circuit

2. Potential Gradient – Potentiometer

3. Glass Slab

4. Image Formation – Convex Lens and


Concave Mirror

5. Identification of Circuit Elements and


Measurement of Resistance from colour
coded Carbon Resistors

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ACTIVITY 1

ASSEMBLING AN ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT

AIM:

To assemble an electrical circuit to measure


the EMF and terminal voltage of a cell.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Voltmeter , battery , one way key , ammeter ,


resistance box ,connecting wires.

THEORY:

EMF –it is the potential difference when the


cell is not is not in use.

Terminal Voltage-The potential difference


between the terminals of the circuit when the
current is drawn is drawn from it.

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V = E – IR , where l – Current

R – internal resistance

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

E – Battery
A – Ammeter
R – Resistor
Rh – Rheostat
V – Voltmeter
K – Key

MODEL GRAPH:

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PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the components as given in


circuit diagram.

2. Measure emf of cell using voltmeter in


open circuit mode.

3. Introduce resistance of 2 in the


resistance box .Close the circuit and
measure the voltage across the cell.

4. Repeat the experiment with different


values of R as 5Ω , 10 Ω , 15 Ω , 100 Ω,
200 Ω , 500 Ω etc.…. and note the
corresponding terminal voltage.

5. Plot a graph between R and V as given


in the model graph.

OBSERVATION:
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Least Count of Voltmeter: 0.1 V

Range of Voltmeter : 0-3 V

S. EMF of External Terminal


No cell E, resistance Voltage
. (volt) (R)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.
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10.

GRAPH:

8
RESULT:

1. A circuit has been assembled using


given components.
2. As the external resistance is increased,
it is observed that emf of the cell
remains constant but terminal voltage of
cell increases.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. The EMF of battery may not be


constant.

2. The connecting wires may not have


negligible resistance.

PRECAUTIONS:

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1. Use voltmeter, Ammeter, and Rheostat
of suitable range.

2. All connections must be right.

ACTIVITY 2

POTENTIAL GRADIENT – POTENTIOMETER

AIM:

To find the variation in the potential drop with


length of potentiometer wire and to find
potential gradient.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Potentiometer, battery, key, rheostat,


voltmeter, jockey and connecting wires.

THEORY:
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When the two ends of the wire are kept at
different potentials, a current flows along the
wire. This current causes fall in potential along
the length of the wire. Potential Gradient (V/L)
is a constant for a wire of uniform area of
cross-section.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

MODEL GRAPH:

11
Sl
ope = Voltmeter Reading / Length

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the battery to the ends A and


B of the potentiometer wire through a
rheostat and one way key K. Take care
that the positive terminal of the battery
should be connected to terminal A.

2. Connect the voltmeter with its positive


terminal to A and connect a jockey J at
the negative terminal.

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3. Plug the key in Km touch the jockey J
near the end B and adjust the rheostat
Rh so that the voltmeter reads the
voltmeter value.

4. Divide the total length of the wire into


10 parts. Touch the jockey K at the first
part say 50 cm and record the voltmeter
reading in tabular column. Take care that
the current remains steady in the
ammeter A.

5. Repeat step (4) nine times, every time


by lifting jockey J and touching 100 cm
ahead, i.e., note the reading of potential
drop at 150 cm, 250 cm, 350 cm, 450 cm
and so on up to 950 cm length of mark of
the wire of the potentiometer.

OBSERVATIONS:

Least count of Voltmeter: 0.5 V

Range of Voltmeter: 0 – 3

S. Length Voltmeter K=V/I


No. (cm) Reading (V) (V/cm)
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1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.
GRAPH:

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RESULT:

1. The graph between potential drop and


length of potentiometer wire is a straight
line.
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2. The potential gradient by calculation:

3. From graph, it is observed that the


potential drop per cm of the
potentiometer wire is:

PRECAUTIONS:

1. The connection should be neat and


tight.

2. Voltmeter should be of proper range.

SOURCES OF ERROR:

1. Rheostat may have high resistance.

2. EMF of cell may not be constant.

ACTIVITY 3
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GLASS SLAB

AIM:

To observe refraction and lateral deviation of


a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass
slab.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

A rectangular glass slab, a sheet of white


paper, fixing pins, drawing pins, meter scale,
protractor and pencil.

THEORY:

When a ray of light incident obliquely on a


rectangular glass slab, it suffers refraction
through the glass medium and emerges from
the glass slab in the same direction of the
incident ray. It suffers lateral displacement
(d), proportional to thickness (t) of glass slab.

Displacement is given by : d = t sec or sin (i-r)


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DIAGRAM:

OBSERVATION:

S.N Thickne Later <i <r n=


o. ss of al <e Sin i /
slab Shift Sin r
(cm) (cm)
1.

2.

3.

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PROCEDURE:

1. Fix a sheet of white paper on the


drawing board with the help of fixing
pins.

2. Keep the glass slab at the central


position of the paper and mark its
boundary AB with a sharp pencil.

3. Remove the slab from the sheet and


draw a straight line PQ obliquely with the
help of a scale and keep the glass slab
on its drawn boundary.

4. Fix two drawing pins on the line PQ had


drawn obliquely at distances 6 cm
between themselves.

5. See the images of these pins through


the lower surface CD of the glass slab.

6. Fix two more drawing pins at distances


of 6 cm between them such that these
two pins cover the images of first two
pins at the upper surface of the glass
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slab. Take care that there should not be
any parallax between the object pins and
image pins, i.e., all four pins will appear
to lie along a straight line when seen
through the lower surface CD of the
glass slab.

7. Mark the position of the image pins by


using a pencil on the lower surface CD of
the glass slab.

8. Join the points Q and R.

9. Produce PQ forward to cut DC at T and


draw TU perpendicular to RS.

10. Measure the perpendicular distance TU


that will give the lateral displacement.

11. Repeat the experiment by placing the


slab of greater thickness. You will
observe that the lateral displacement
(t) is directly proportional to the
thickness (d) of the glass slab.

RESULT:

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1. The emergent ray is parallel to the
incident light and it is laterally
displaced.

2. The lateral displacement of the


emergent ray increases with the
increase in thickness of the glass slab.

3. The ratio sin i/sin r = constant. This


constant is called refractive index of
material of slab.
ACTIVITY 4

CONVEX LENS AND CONCAVE MIRROR –


IMAGE FORMATION

AIM:

 To study nature and size of image formed


by a convex lens on a screen using a
candle and screen for different distances
of candles from the lens.

 To study the size of image formed by a


concave mirror using candle and screen
for different distances of candle from the
mirror.

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APPARATUS REQUIRED:

 Convex lens, lens holder, candle, screen,


meter scale, etc…

 Concave mirror, mirror holder, screen,


candle, meter scale..

THEORY:

 According to the lens equation

1/f = 1/v – 1/u or f = (uv) / (u – v)

 According to mirror formula

1/f = 1/u + 1/v or f = (uv) / (u + v)

Where,

u – Object distance
v – Image distance
f – Focal length
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RAY DIAGRAMS: FOR CONVEX LENS

a) Object at Infinity

b) Object beyond 2F

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c) Object at 2F

d) Object between F and 2F

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e) Object at F

f) Object between F and O

RAY DIAGRAMS FOR CONCAVE MIRROR:

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a) Object at Infinity

b) Object beyond

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c) Object at C

d) Object between F and C

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e) Object at F

f) Object within F

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PROCEDURE FOR CONVEX LENS:

1. Find the approximate focal length of


the lens by obtaining a sharp and clear
image of the distant object on a white
paper.

2. Level the optical bench by using a


spirit level.

3. Mount the convex lens in its holder and


keep it on the central upright of the optical
bench.

4. Mount the screen on the screen on the


right hand side upright and the burning
candle on another upright on the left of
the lens.

5. Keep the candle upright at F on the


optical bench. Try to locate the real
inverted image on the screen by moving
gradually away from the lens.

6. Now shift the candle position between


F and 2F on the optical bench. Move the
screen to the position beyond 2F.
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7. Now shift the candle to the position at
2F. Obtain the sharpest image by moving
farthest from the lens.

8. Shift the candle towards beyond 2F


and locate the sharpest image.

9. Move the candle beyond 2F and obtain


a sharp image.

PROCEDURE FOR CONCAVE MIRROR:

1. Find the approximate focal length of


the given concave mirror by obtaining a
sharp and clear image of a distant object
on a white paper.

2. Lift the optical bench. Keep the mirror


on the clamp on one of the three uprights
on the bench and keep one near one end
of the optical bench.

3. Look into the mirror keeping your eye


at the height of the pole or vertex of
mirror.

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4. Mount the lighted candle and the
screen on the other two uprights and
adjust their heights in such a manner that
the top of the candle flame, the centre of
the white screen, i.e., the upper edge AB
of the slot in the screen and the pole of
the mirror lay at the same height.

5. Now adjust the upright carrying the


candle literally perpendicular to the scale
such that the line joining the pole of the
mirror and tip of the candle flame is
parallel to the length of the bench.

6. Find out the approximate position of


the centre of curvature using the relation
R = 2F

7. The approximate value of the focal


length has already been determined.

8. The centre of curvature c lies at a


distance R from the pole of the mirror.

9. Displace the candle upright towards the


pole of the mirror so that it lies between
the focus f and centre of curvature c of the
mirror.
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10. Locate the position of the image of the
candle flame on the principal axis of the
mirror. Adjust the position of the screen by
shifting it along the bench such that the
sharper image of the candle flame is
obtained on it. Since, the candle lies
between c and f, you see a real inverted
and magnified image beyond c.

OBSERVATIONS FOR CONVEX LENS:


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S.N Positio Positio Nature Size of
o. n of n of of the
Object Image Image Image
Forme Forme
d d
1. At At F Real Point
Infinity and sized or
Inverte Highly
d Diminish
ed
2. Beyond Betwee Real Smaller
2F n F and and than
2F Inverte object
d
3. At 2F At 2F Real Same
and size as
Inverte the
d object
4. Betwee Beyond Real Larger
n F and 2F and than
2F Inverte object
d
5. At F At Real Infinitely
Infinity and large
Inverte
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d
6. Between f On the Virtual Larger
and same side
and than
of the
lens as erect object
the object

OBSERVATIONS FOR CONCAVE MIRROR:

Position Of Position of
S.N Image (cm) Magnif
o. ed Or
Real Erect diminish
Objec Image or or ed
t Virtu Invert
al ed
1. At At F Real Inverte Point
Infinity d Image or
diminishe
d
2. Beyon Betwe Real Inverte Diminish
dC en F d ed
and C
3. At C At C Real Inverte Same
d size
4. Betwe Beyon Real Inverte Magnifie
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en F dC d d
and C
5. At F At Real Inverte Highly
Infinity d Magnifie
d
6. Within Behind Virtu Erect Magnifie
F the al d
mirror
RESULT

CONVEX LENS:

1. As the object is moved from infinity to


optic centre of convex lens, size of image
gradually increases.

2. When the object is beyond 2F, the


image is smaller in size than the object.

3. When the object is at 2F, the image is


smaller in size than the object.

4. When the object is moved to a position


between F and 2F, the size of the image
becomes larger than the size of the object.

CONCAVE MIRROR:

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1. The size of the image gradually
increases as the object is moved towards
the concave mirror.

2. When the object is beyond c the image


is
smaller in size. And formed in between f
and c.

3. When the object is at c the image is


also formed at c and the image size
becomes equal to the object.
4. When the object is moved to position c
and f the size of the image becomes larger
and forward beyond c.

5. When the object is moved to position


within f the size of the image is highly
magnified and formed behind the mirror.

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ACTIVITY 5

IDENTIFICATION OF CIRCUIT ELEMENTS


AND
MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE

AIM:

To identify circuit elements such as diode,


LED, transistor, capacitor and IC from a mixed
collection of such items and measurement of
resistance.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

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Battery eliminator, reversing key and mixed
collection of circuit elements.

THEORY:

For identification, appearance and working of


each item has to be considered.

 Diode: A diode is a two terminal device. It


conducts when forward biased. It does not
emit light while conducting.

 Light emitting diode (LED): An LED is also


a two terminal device. It conducts when
forward biased and does not conduct
when reverse biased. It emits light while
conducting.

 Transistor: A transistor is a three terminal


device. These terminals represent emitter
(E), base (B) and collector (C).

 Integrated Circuit (IC): An IC is a multi –


terminal device in the form of a chip.

 Resistor: A resistor is a two terminal


device. It conducts when operated with AC
as well as DC voltages.
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 Capacitor: A capacitor is a two terminal
device. It does not conduct with DC
voltage.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

E – Battery
Rh – Rheostat
Ma – Multiammeter, K – Reversing Key
PROCEDURE:

1. Check the physical appearance of the


component.

2. If it has four or more terminals and has


the appearance of a chip, i.e., black
rectangular block then it is an AC.

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3. If it has three terminals; the
component in all probability is a transistor.
To confirm, set up the multimeter in
resistance mode.

4. Connect the black terminal or


common terminal of the multimeter to one
of the extreme legs of the component and
the second red terminal or positive
terminal of the multimeter to the central
leg of the component. Check the
multimeter deflection. f the deflection is
observed, interchange the multimeter
terminals. If no deflection is observed, the
component is a transistor. Repeat this test
by connecting the multimeter terminals to
the central leg of the transistor; if similar
behavior is observed, the component is a
transistor.

5. If the component has two terminals, it


could be a resistor, a capacitor, a diode or
LED.

6. Look for colour bands, if it has a typical


set of three colour bands followed by a
silver or gold band, the component is a
resistor.
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7. Connect the multimeter terminals to the
component terminals and watch for
multimeter deflection keeping the
multimeter knob in resistance mode.

8. If the multimeter shows a deflection,


the component could be a resistor, a diode
or LED.

9. If the deflection is accompanied with


an emission of light, the component is a
LED.

10. If no light is emitted then interchange


the multimeter terminals connected to
the component.

11. If the component still gives deflection


in a multimeter, then the component is a
resistor.

12. If the pointer of the multimeter show


deflection when its terminals are
connected across the component in one
direction and does not show deflection
when the terminal, of the multimeter in
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opposite direction and also there is no
emission of light, then the component is a
diode.

13. If the multimeter does not show any


deflection on connecting its terminals
either way to component, then it is a
capacitor.

OBSERVATION:

S.N Device No. Direction of Symbol


o. of current
leg
s

1. Resistor 2 The conduction


in both the
sides i.e.,
Bi - Directional
2. pn 2 Unidirectional
junction current without
diode emission of
light
3. LED 2 Unidirectional
conduction
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with emission
of light
4. Capacito 2 Momentarily
r deflection
5. Transisto 3 It consists of three
terminals known
r
as base, emitter
and collector
6. Integrat Mult Consisting of
ed i passive
Circuit legs elements like
(IC) resistors and
active
elements like
diodes and
transistors.

S. Colour Code Resis Multi Differe


N tance mete nce
o. r
Readi
ng
1.

2.

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3.

4.

5.

RESULT:

 A diode, an LED, a transistor, an IC, a


resistor, and a capacitor are identified
from a mixed collection.
 Resistance of carbon resistor were noted
with a multimeter and compared with the
calculated value.

PRECAUTIONS:

1. High voltage should not be applied as


it may damage circuit elements.
2. Current in circuit should be constant.

SOURCES OF ERROR:
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1. Current in circuit may not be constant.
2. Circuit elements may be damaged due
to supply of high voltage.

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