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BOUNDARY LAYER THEORY

HIGH RENOLDS NUMBER FLOW BOUNDARY LAYERS


(Re ∞)

BOUNDARY LAYER Thin region adjacent to surface of a body where viscous forces
dominate over inertia forces

⎛ inertia forces ⎞
Re = ⎜ ⎟ Re >> 1
⎝ viscous forces ⎠

Boundary
layer
separation
Wake:
viscous
effects not
Outer flow Flow field
important
Viscouseffect around vorticity
an not
s negligible Inner flow
arbitraryzero
Vorticity zero Strongshape
(Inviscid viscous
potential flow) effects
Steady ,incompressible 2-D flow with no body
dθ 1 dU τ ∂u n
+ (δ * + 2θ ) = 02 forces. Valid for laminar flow τ0 ∼ ( )
dx θ dx ρU dy

O.D.E for θ ( x )
To solve eq. we first ”assume” an approximate velocity profile inside the B.L
Relate the wall shear stress to the velocity field
Typically the velocity profile is taken to be a polynomial in y, and the degree of fluid
this polynominal determines the number of boundary conditions which may be
satisfied
u
EXAMPLE: = a + bη + cη 2 = f (η ) LAMINAR FLOW OVER A FLAT PLATE:
U

U∞

U≈
0,99U∞
• Laminar boundary layer predictable
• Turbulent boundary layer poor predictability

UL
• Controlling parameter Re =
ν

• To get two boundary layer flows identical match Re


(dynamic similarity)
• Although boundary layer’s and prediction are complicated,simplify the N-S
equations to make job easier

High Reynolds Number Flow

2-D , planar flow


u, v x, y
u* = v =
*
, x*, y*=
U∞ L

Dimensionless gov. eqs. ∇.V = 0

∂u* * ∂u
*
* ∂u
*
∂P* 1 ∂ 2u* ∂ 2u *
X; +u +ν =− + ( 2 + 2)
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x Re ∂x ∂y
viscous terms
P
P* =
∂ν ∂ν ∂ν ∂P 1 ∂ 2ν ∂ 2ν ρU ∞2
Y; +u +ν =− + ( + )
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂y Re ∂x 2 ∂y 2

“Naïve” way of solving problem for

1
Re → ∞ → 0
Re

If you drop the viscous term Euler’s eqs. (inviscid fluid)


• We can not satisfy all the boundary B.C.s because order of eqs. Reduces by 1

Inside B-L can not get rid of viscous terms

U∞
U∞

U (x,y)
y

δ
δ 1
δ* = 〈
L 100
L

Derivation of B-L eqs. From the N-S eqs

• Physically based argument :determine the order of terms in N-S


• Limiting procedure as Re ∞ eqs. and throw out small terms
Assumption 1

δ
δ* = 〈〈1
L
Term Order

(1)
∂u* =1
(1)
∂x*
δ*
∂ν *
=1
δ*
∂y*
v* δ*
∂ν * δ*
=δ*
∂x* 1

∂ 2u * 1
2

∂y*2 δ*

du * ∂u *
u*
=1
dt * ∂x*
∂u* * ∂u
*
* ∂u
*
∂P* 1 ∂ 2u* ∂ 2u*
+u +ν =− + ( 2 + 2)
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x Re ∂x ∂y

(1) (1) 1 (1) (1) (1)


δ* * =1 =1 δ *2
δ (1) (1) 2 (δ * ) 2
Neglect since of order
(1)
>>>1
Also for y –direction (δ * ) 2

∂ν * * ∂ν
*
* ∂ν
*
∂P* 1 ∂ 2ν * ∂ 2ν *
+u +ν =− * + ( 2 + *2 )
∂t * ∂x* ∂y * ∂y Re ∂x* ∂y

(δ * ) (δ * )
* (1) (δ ) *
*
2
(δ * ){
δ*
+
δ*
(1) (δ ) (1)2 (δ * ) 2
}
(δ * ) (δ * ) (δ * ) (δ * )
∂P* ∂P* (1)
(δ * ) small relative to
∂y* ∂x*

To good approximation P ≅ P( x) pressure at the edge of B-


L. is equal to pressure on boundary layer.

• Time – dependant P ≅ P ( x, t ) known from the other


flow

• Pressure at all points is the same

• Only need to consider x-direction B-L. eqs.


Prandtl (1904) Outer flow
(inviscid)

y
2-D planar x

Governing
∂u ∂v
1) + =0
∂x ∂y eqs.for B.L

B-L.eqs.
∂u ∂u ∂u 1 ∂P ∂ 2u
2) +u +v =− +ν 2 still non-linear
∂t ∂x ∂y ρ ∂x ∂y
but parabolic type

unknows u,v (x,y,t)

P ≅ P ( x, t ) known from the potential flow


Need B.C.s & I.C.(time dependant)

• 2-D, steady

BCs

• u=ν =0 at y=0

• u=u(y) at x=0

• u= U∞ (x) y ∞ (y δ ) marching condition

• B-L. eqs. can be solved exactly for several cases


• Can approximate solution for other cases
Limitation of B.L egs.: where they fail?
(1) Abrupt chances
(2) Eqs. are not applicable near the leading edge

L is small δ invalid
δ* = 〈〈1
L

(3) Where the flow separates not valid beyond the separation point

Separation point

Bernouilli eqs. ρ =constant

P V2 1 dP 1 dV
+ = constant + 2U =0
ρ 2 ρ dx 2 dx
Valid along the streamlines

1 dP dU
− =U substitute the B.L eqs u,v can be found
ρ dx dx

known

SIMILARITY SOLUTION TO B.L. EQS

Example 1
Flow over a semi-infinite flat plate
Zero pressure gradient dp p = constant
=0
dx

Steady ,laminar & U=constant ( dp = 0 )


dx
U
y

• Bernouilli eqs. outsideB.L 1


p + ρU 2 = cons.
dp 2
U=constant , =0
dx

Governing (B.L. eqs.) become

∂u ∂ν (1)
+ =0
∂x ∂y

∂u ∂u ∂ 2u (2)
u +v =ν 2
∂x ∂y ∂y
B.C.
• y=0 u= v =0 (no-slip) & y ∞ ,u U
• x=0 u=U

Blasuis(1908) :

1.Introduce the stream function ψ (x,y)

• Recall ; ∂ψ ∂ψ
u= ν =−
∂y ∂x
note that ψ satisfies cont. eqs. substitute intoB.L. mom. Eqs

∂ψ ∂ 2ψ ∂ψ ∂ 2ψ ∂ 3ψ (2’)
. − . =ν 3
∂y ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y 2 ∂y
• Now, assume that we have a similarity “stretching” variable, which has all velocity
profiles on plate scaling on
δ .
i.e
u y
= f( )
U∞ δ y

δ
x

δ = g (U ∞ , x,ν ) dimensional analysis

δ U∞ x 1
x
= g(
ν
) = g (Re)
Re
∼ (δ 2 ) δ∼ ν

νx
δ∼ m2 m δ 1
U∞ . .s = [ m ] ∼ both (δ )
s m x Re x

Viscous dif. Depth


U∞ x νx
Re = δ ≈5
ν U∞

y
Let η= [-] similarity variable
δ

u
U
η=y ∞ = f (η )
νx U

Use similarity profile assumption to turn


2 P.D.E 1 O.D.E

η
∂ψ y y
νx
u = ψ = ∫ udy = ∫ Uf (η )dy = ∫ Uf (η ) dη
∂y x = fix e d U
0 0 0
η
ψ = Uν x ∫ f (η )dη = Uν xF (η )
0
ψ = Uν xF (η )
F (η )

ψ = Uν xF (η ) η=y
U∞
νx

y
∂ψ ∂ψ
ψ − ψ 0 = ∫ udy dψ = dy + dx
0
∂y ∂x

•Now, substitute ψ into P.D.E for ψ (x,y) to get O.D.E for F(η )

∂ψ 1 U ∞ν ∂η dF
= F + U ∞ν xF ' F' = d 2F
∂x 2 x ∂x F =
''
dη dη 2
∂η 1 U∞ 1 1 ∂ψ 1 U ∞ν ∂ψ U∞
=− y =− η = ( F −η F ' ) = U ∞ν xF ' = U∞ F '
∂x 2 νx x 2x ∂x 2 x ∂y νx

∂ 2ψ U ∂ 2ψ U ∞ '' ∂ 3ψ U ∞2 '''
= − ∞ η F '' = U F = F
∂x∂y 2x ∂y 2

νx ∂y 3 ν x

Substituting into eq. (2’)

U∞ ⎡ 1 U ∞ν 12 ⎤⎡ U ∞ 12 ⎤ U ∞2
U ∞ F '(− η F ''') − ⎢ ( ) ( F − η F ') ⎥ ⎢U ∞ ( ) F ''⎥ = ν F '''
2x ⎣2 x ⎦⎣ νx ⎦ νx or

U ∞2 1 U ∞2 1 U ∞2 U ∞2
− η F '' F '− F '' F + η F '' F ' = F '''
2x 2 x 2 x x
1 blasius eq. 3rd order , non linear ODE
F '''+ FF '' = 0
2
U∞
Note: F '''+ FF '' = 0 for η=y BVP
2ν x

BC’s are

At y=0 u=v=0 η =0

BC 1) u y =0 =
∂ψ
=0 U ∞ F ' η =0 = 0 F’(0)=0
∂y y =0

1 U ∞ν F(0)=0
BC 2) ν y =0
=0 −
2 x
( F − η F ') = 0

BC 3) (x,y ∞) U∞

∂ψ 1
→ U∞ U ∞ F ' η →∞ = U ∞ F '(η → ∞ ) F '(∞) = 1
∂y y →∞
F( η) dimensionless function

Or At x=0 u = U∞ U ∞ F ' x =0 = U ∞
η →∞

F’( ∞ )=1 same with BC 3) Matching B.C

• Solution to blasius eg a)power series


b)runge-kutta

• results tabulated form for F,F’,F’’,etc

p.g 121
u
U
η=y ∞ F F'= F ''
νx U∞

0 0 0 0.33206

5.0 3.28329 0.99155 0.01591

F’’= 0.33206 From the solution


• Velocity profile

=y
U∞
γx η
5
5

F’= u U ν
∞ Re x
U∞
0.8

1 U ∞ν
∂ψ 1 U ∞ν η →∞ ν∞ = (5 x1 − 3.28)
ν =− = (η F '− F ) 2 x
∂x 2 x
ν∞ 1
ν 1 − 12 = 0.86
= Re x [η F '− F ] U∞ Re x
U∞ 2
Shear stress distribution along the flat plate

∂u ∂ν ν∞ 1
τ = µ( + ) τ ( x, y ) For Re x = 104 ⇒ = 0.00865 ≈
∂y ∂x U∞ 100
∂u*
∂ν *
∂u ν∞ 1
τ ≅µ For Re x = 106 ⇒ = 0.000865 ≈
∂y* ∂x* ∂y U∞ 1000

∂u
At the wall (y=0) τ 0 ( x) = µ
∂y y =0

τ w ( x)
∂ 2ψ U∞ U ∞3
τ 0 ( x) = µ 2 = µU ∞ F '' η =0 τ 0 ( x) = µ F ''(0)
∂y y =0
νx νx

Distribution along the wall 0.332


Non dimensionalize :

τ0 2 F ''(0) 0.664 U .x ν
Cf = = = Re x = C f = 0.664
1
ρU ∞2 Re x Re x ν Ux
2

Friction coef.

Note : x→0 ⇒ τ0 → ∞
ν →∞
y

B.L eqs.are not valid near the leading edge x


x
Up to the point we are considering

Drag force acting on the flat plate


We have to integrate shear stress
x

FD = ∫ τ 0 (ζ )d ζ τ

0

per unit width

x
2 FD = 1.328(b) U µρ x 3
∞ x

dimensionless drag coef.( CD )

we have 2 wetted sides

2 FD
CD = A=2bx
1
ρU ∞2 A
2 Width normal to the blackboard

1.328
CD = valid for laminar flow i.e for Re x < 5.105 to 106
Rex
for Re x >106 → turbulent drag becomes considerably greater

Boundary Layer Thickness : δ

U∞ u
η=y at η = 5 ⇒ = 0.99 → y = δ (Table)
νx U
U∞ 5x U∞ x
5≅δ δ≅ Re x =
νx Re x ν

δ :defined as the distance from the wall for which u=0.99U ∞

Boundary Layer Parameter (thicknesses)

Most widely used is δ but is rather arbitrary y=δ when u=0.99 U ∞


hard to establish
more physical parameters are needed

Displacement thickness: δ
U∞ U∞

δ* δ
δ*
an imaginary displacement of fluid from the surface to account for “lost” mass flow in boundary
layer

. ∞ ∞ ∞ δ*
mtot = ∫ ρ udy = ∫ ρU ∞ dy = ∫ ρU ∞ dy − ∫ ρU ∞ dy or
0 y =δ * 0 0
− ρU ∞δ *
∞ ∞
u
ρU ∞δ = ∫ ( ρU ∞ − ρ u )dy
*
δ = ∫ (1 − )dy
*

0 0
U∞
if ρ = cons. δ > δ * always by definition

Momentum thickness: θ

U∞

an imaginary displacement of fluid of velocity U ∞ to account for “lost” momentum due


to the formation of a boundary layer velocity profile

∞ ∞
ρU ∞2θ = ∫ ( ρ udy )U ∞ − ∫ ( ρ udy ) u
0 0
Mass flow in B.L

Possible momentum actual momentum

"lost" momentum

u u
θ =∫ (1 − )dy will occur in B.L eqs.
0
U∞ U∞

notes(remaks)
∗ Various thinknesses defined above are,to some extend,an indication of the distance over which viscous effects extend.
∗ δ*,θ(x) only
∗ δ >δ* >θ (always)
∗ Definition is same for ZPG,APG,FPG,turbulance
5x δ
Fromflat plate analysis δ ≅ u
Rex and δ = ∫ (1 −
x
)dy
0
u∞
u∞ u∞
remember η=y ⇒ dη = d y
νx νx
η =5 η =5
u νx νx
δ* = ∫
0
(1 − )
u∞ u∞
dη =
u∞ ∫
0
(1 − F ' )dη

ν xx x 1.72 x
[η − F ]0 = [ ]
5
5 − 3.283 =
u∞ x Re x Re x
F (5) = 3.283
1.72 x
δ* =
Re x
δ
u u 0.664 x
Similarly, θ =∫ (1 − )d y =
u
0 ∞
u∞ Re x
δ
δ
δ*
δ *

θ
θ

FALKNER-SKAN SIMILARITY SOLUTIONS

Stagnation-point flow (Hiemenz flow)


Similarity methods
Flow over a flat plate (Blasius flow)
( x, y ) ⇒ η
Falkner & Skan (1931) Ægeneral similarity solution of the B-L eqs.
Family of similarity solutions to the 2-D,steady B-L egs.
Look for general similarity solutions of the form

u ( x, y ) = U ( x) f '(η )
where (1) y ζ ( x) - unspecified function of x which will be determined later
η=
ζ ( x)

∂ψ 1
(2) ψ ( x, y ) = U ( x)ζ ( x) f (η ) check : u= = U ( x) ζ ( x ) f '(η )
∂y ζ ( x)
∂u ∂u dU ∂ 2u
B.L eqs. u +v =U +ν 2 (3)
∂x ∂y dx ∂y
∂ψ ∂ 2ψ ∂ψ ∂ 2ψ dU ∂ 3ψ
or in terms of ψ ( x, y ) − =U +ν 3 (3')
∂y ∂x∂y ∂x ∂y 2 dx ∂y
B.C.s no-slip, smooth matching
Substitute eq .(2) into (3’) η= y
ζ ( x)
df d2 f
ψ = U ( x )ζ ( x ) f (η ) = ψ ( x , y ) f '= , f "=
dη dη 2
∂ψ
= Uf ' ( = u )
∂y
∂ψ dU dζ df dη
= ζ f +U f +Uζ
∂x dx dx dη dx
dη y dζ 1 dζ
=− 2 = −η
dx ζ dx ζ dx
∂ψ dU dζ dζ
= ζ f +U f −U ηf'
∂x dx dx dx
∂ 2ψ ∂ ⎛ ∂ψ ⎞ ∂ dU ∂f '
= ⎜ ⎟ = [Uf '] = f '+ U
∂x∂y ∂x ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ∂x dx ∂x
dU df ' ∂η dU ⎡ 1 dζ ⎤
= f '+ U = f '+ Uf " ⎢ −η ⎥
dx dη ∂x dx ⎣ ζ dx ⎦
∂ 2ψ dU U dζ
= f '− ηf"
∂x∂y dx ζ dx
∂ 2ψ ∂ ∂η U
= [Uf '] = Uf " = f"
∂y 2
∂y ∂y ζ
∂ 3ψ U
= 2 f "'
∂y 3
ζ
Substitute above results into (3')
⎡ dU U dζ ⎤ ⎡ dU dζ dζ ⎤U dU U
Uf ' ⎢ f '− η f "⎥ − ⎢ ζ f +U f −U η f '⎥ f " = U + ν 2 f "'
⎣ dx ζ dx ⎦ ⎣ dx dc dx ⎦ζ dx ζ
dU dU 1 dζ dU U
U ( f ') 2 − U ff " − U 2 ff " = U +ν 2 f "'
dx dx ζ dx dx ζ
dU U d dU U
u ( f ') 2 − (U ζ ) ff " = U +ν 2 f "'
dx ζ dx dx ζ
ζ2
To put the eq. into standard form, multiply by
νU
Transformed gov. Eq.
⎡ζ d ⎡ ζ dU ⎤ ⎡
2

(U ζ ) ⎥ ff "+ ⎢ ( ) ⎤=0
2
f "'+ ⎢ ⎥ 1 − f ' (4)
⎣ ν dx ⎦ ⎣ ν dx ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
α β
If a similarity solution exists, eq.(4) must be an ODE for the function f in terms of η.
So, coefficieuts α & β must be constant for a similarity solution

f "' α ff " β 1 ( f ') ⎤ = 0


⎡ 2
+ + − Falker-Skan eq. (5)
⎣ ⎦

B.C same as for flat plate f (0) = f '(0) = 0


f '(η → ∞) → 1
remark : BCs don't depend on α , β
Exact solutions to the B-L. Eqs. May be obtained by pursuing the following PROCEDURE
Step 1: Select α & β . (a particular flow configuration is considered
this will not be known a priori but will be exident when step 2 is completed).
Step 2: Determine U(x) , ζ (x)
ζ d ζ 2 dU
α= (U ζ ) , β = (6a-b)
ν dx ν dx
Step 3 : Determine the function f (η )which is the solution of the following problem
f '''+ α ff '' + β ⎡⎣1 − ( f ' ) 2 ⎤⎦ = 0
with BCs f (0) = f ' (0) = 0 , f ' (η ) → 1 as η → ∞
Step 4 : Calculate the stream functionin physical coord.
⎛ ⎞
⎜ y ⎟
ψ ( x , y ) = U ( x )ζ ( x ) f ⎜ ⎟
⎜⎜ ζ ( x ) ⎟⎟
⎝ η ⎠
Remark in step #2 , instead of working with eqs. 6 a-b)
ζ 2 dU d
ν dx
= β (6a)'
dx
( )
U ζ 2 = ν ( 2α − β ) (6b)'

Example #1 Flate P late (ZPG)


1
step #1 α= , β =0
2
d
step #2
dx
(
Uζ 2 =ν ) (6a)'

ζ dU
=0 (6b)'
ν dx
dU
ζ ( x ) ≠ 0 ⇒ (6b ) ' leads to =0⇒ U=const.
dx this means that flat plate at ZPG
dζ 2 ν νx
(6 a ) ' = →ζ 2 =
dx U U
νx
ζ ( x) =
U
1
Step #3 : f '''+ ff '' = 0 f (0) = f '(0) = 0
2
y
η= η → ∞; f ' → 1 compare with Blasius solution
νx
U
⎛ ⎞
⎛ y⎞ ν x ⎜⎜ y ⎟⎟
Step #4 ψ ( x, y ) = U ζ f ⎜ ⎟ = U f
⎝ζ ⎠ U ⎜ νx ⎟
⎜ ⎟
⎝ U ⎠
⎛ U ⎞
ψ ( x, y ) = Uν x f ⎜⎜ y ⎟⎟ ← same as Blasius solution
⎝ νx ⎠
Example #2 FLOW OVER WEDGE
Step #1 α = 1, β = arbitrary constant
d
(6a' )
dx
( )
Uζ 2 =ν ( 2 − β ) ⇒ Uζ 2 =ν ( 2 − β ) x (7)
dU
(6b ') ζ2 = νβ
dx
Divide eq. (6b') by (7)
1 dU β 1
=
U dx 2 − β x
β
β
ln U = ln x + ln c ⇒ U ( x) = cx 2− β outer flow is that over a wedge of angle πβ (Fig.)
2−β

−2(1− β )
dU β
ζ2 = νβ ζ 2c x 2− β
= νβ
dx 2−β
1− β
ν (2 − β )
ζ ( x) = x 2− β
(9)
c
Step #3 Solve the BVP

f '''+ ff ''+ β ⎡⎣1 − ( f ') 2 ⎤⎦ = 0


f (0) = f '(0) = 0
as η → ∞ f ' → 1 Solve numerically to get f (η ), f '(η ), f ''(η )
Step 4: Go back to the physical coordinate

⎛ y ⎞ 1 ⎛ y ⎞
⎟ = c ( 2 − β )ν x
( 2− β ) ⎜ −(1− β )( 2 − β )

ψ ( x, y ) = U ( x)ζ ( x) f ⎜ f x
⎝ ζ ( x) ⎠ ⎜
⎝ ( 2 − β )ν / c ⎟

STAGNATION-POINT FLOW; β = 1 α =1

Flow over a wedge → Let β = 1

Eq. (8) gives,


U ( x) = cx
ν
(9) → ζ ( x) = f "'+ ff "+ 1 − ( f ')2 = 0
c
f (0) = f '(0) = 0 as η → ∞ f '(η ) → 1
⎛ y ⎞
ψ ( x, y ) = cν x f ⎜ ⎟
⎝ ν /c ⎠
Note: See Hiemenz flow
Exact solution to the full Navier-Stokes equations obtained by Hiemenz for a stagnation point.
FLOW IN A CONVERGENT CHANNEL α = 0 , β =1

Boundary layer flow on the wall of a


convergent channel.
Exercise: pg. 132.
Solve the BVP (F-S. eq.)

More on similarity solutions to the B.L.


Evans (1968) “Laminar Boundary Layers”
Numerical Solutions
Finite differences
H.B. Keller (1978)
Ann. Rev. of Fluid Mech. Vol.10.pp. 417-433
Finite Element Methods, Finite Volume Methods
Spectral (Element) Methods

APPROXIMATE SOLUTIONS:
Solve exact eq. approximately
Von Karman Momentum Integral Eqn
(General Momentum Integral Equation for Boundary Layer)
Idea: Develop an eqn. which can accept "approximate" vel. profiles as input & yield accurate
(close, but approximate) shear stress δ , δ * ,θ as output.

Approach: Integrate the differential B-L. eqs. across the B-L. 0 ≤ y ≤ δ

Start with B-L. eqs.


∂u ∂u dU ∂ 2u
u +v =U +ν 2
∂x ∂y dx ∂y
∂u ∂v
+ =0
∂x ∂y
B.C y = 0 u, v = 0
y =δ u =U
∂u ∂ (uv) ∂v ∂ ∂u ∂v ∂u
First note v = − u = ( uv ) + u = − (continuity )
∂y ∂y ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂x
Substitute into B.L eq. & integrate from y=0 to y= δ .
δ
∂u ∂ ( uv )
δ
dU
δ
∂ 2u
δ

∫0 2u ∂x dy + ∫0 ∂y dy = ∫0 U dx dy +ν ∫0 ∂y 2 dy
(1) (2) (3) (4)
δ
∂ ( uv ) δ
Consider term (2) ∫0 ∂y dy = uv 0
= U v ( x, δ ) − 0
?
δ
Integrate cont. eq. ∫
0
dy

δ δ δ δ
∂u ∂v ∂u ∂u
∫0 ∂x ∫0 ∂y dy = 0 ⇒
dy + ∫0 ∂x dy + v( x, δ ) − 0 = 0 Uv( x, δ ) = −U ∫
0
∂x
dy

δ δ δ
∂ 2u ∂ ⎛ ∂u ⎞ ∂u ∂u ∂u
Integrate term (4) ∫0 ∂y 2 dy = ∫0 ∂y ⎜⎝ ∂y ⎟⎠ ∂y ∂y
dy = = −
∂y
0 y =δ y =0

=0
δ δ
du τ τ ∂u ∂ (u 2 )
τ0 = µ ⇒ (4) ⇒ − 0ν = − 0 Term(1) ⇒ ∫ 2u dy = ∫ dy
dy y =0
µ ρ 0
∂x 0
∂x

δ δ δ
∂ (u 2 ) ∂u dU τ0
B-L. eq. becomes ∫0 ∂x dy − U ∫0 ∂x ∫0 dx
dy = U dy −
ρ

δ
∂u
δ
∂u
δ
⎛ ∂ ( uU ) dU ⎞
U ∫ dy = ∫ U dy = ∫ ⎜ −u ⎟ dy
0
∂x 0
∂x 0⎝
∂x dx ⎠
δ
∂ (u 2 )
δ
∂ ( uU ) δ
dU
δ
dU τ0
Thus, get ∫0 ∂x dy − ∫0 ∂x dy + ∫0 dx ∫0 dx
u dy − U dy = −
ρ

δ δ
∂ 2 dU τ0
∫0 ∂x u (
− uU dy +)∫0 ( u − U )
dx
dy = −
ρ
δ


∂x 0
u (
2
− uU dy)
Using Leibnitz’s rule permits the order of integ. & dif. to be interchanged

δ δ
∂ ⎛ u 2
u ⎞ ⎛u ⎞ dU τ0
∂x ∫0 ⎝ U 2 U ⎠ ∫0 ⎜⎝ U ⎟⎠ dx
U 2
⎜ − ⎟ dy + − 1 U dy = −
ρ

Multiply by -1 & factor U terms out of integrals,


⎡ ⎤
∂ ⎢ 2 u u⎞ ⎥
δ δ
⎛ dU ⎛ u⎞ τ0
⎢U ∫
dx ∫0 ⎝ U ⎠
⎜ 1 − ⎟ ⎥
dy + U ⎜ 1 − ⎟ dy =
∂x ⎢ 0 U ⎝ U⎠ ⎥ ρ
⎣⎢ θ ( x) ⎦⎥ δ *( x )
∂ dU τ 0
(U 2θ ) + δ *U =
∂x dx ρ

∂θ dU ∂θ dθ
U2 + θ 2U , → θ ( x) only
∂x dx ∂x dx
dθ 1 dU τ
Divide eq. by U 2 & get + (δ * + 2θ ) = 02
dx U dx ρU
dθ θ dU C f δ* τ0
or + ( H + 2) = H= Cf = H= shape factor
dx U dx 2 θ 1
ρU 2
2
Ordinary Differential eq. for θ(x) & is called von Karman Momentum Integral eqn. or
Generalized momentum integral equation
To solve the integral eq. we first “assume” an approximate velocity profile, i.e. one that “fits” &
has proper “shape” and satisfies the proper B.C we do thin by using similarity concept again
y
& writing potential similarity velocity profiles in terms of the variable , η = & apply
δ ( x)
B.C & get particular form.

*
evaluate θ(x), δ (x) and τ0 from their definitions.

integral equation can be solved for the B.L. thickness, δ(x)


An approximate velocity profile, for example
η
U ∂u n
u y =δ τ0 ∼ ( )
= a + bη + cη 2 dy
U

dθ 1 dU τ0
+ (δ + 2θ )
*
= Steady ,incompressible 2-D flow with no body
dx θ dx ρU 2
forces. Valid for laminar and turbulent flow
O.D.E for θ ( x)
To solve eq. we first ”assume” an approximate velocity profile inside the B.L
Relate the wall shear stress to the velocity field
Typically the velocity profile is taken to be a polynomial in y, and the degree of this polynomial
determines the number of boundary conditions which may be satisfied

u
EXAMPLE: = a + bη + cη 2 = f (η ) LAMINAR FLOW OVER A FLAT PLATE:
U
laminar profile later as an example
or u = a + by + cy 2
B.C 1-)u=0 at y=0 ( η =0) a=0 b=2

2-)u=U at y= δ ( η =1) 1=b+c c=-1


∂u
3-) =0 at y= δ ( η =1) 0=b+2c
∂y

u y y
= 2η − η 2 = 2( ) − ( ) 2
U δ δ

Now use the approximate velocity profile to obtain terms in the momentum integral eq.
NOTE: Using the approximate velocity profile across the B.L will reduce the momentum
integral to an O.D.E for the B.L thickness, δ (x).
δ
u y
δ = ∫ (1 −
*
)dy η= dη =
dy
0
U δ ( x) δ

η =1 1 1
u 1 δ
δ = ∫ (1 − )δ dη = δ ∫ (1 − 2η + η 2 )dη
*
δ * = δ (η − η 2 + η 3 ) =
0
U 0 3 0 3
δ η =1
u u u u
θ = ∫ (1 − )dy = δ ∫ (1 − )dη
0
U U 0
U U
1
θ = δ ∫ (2η − η 2 )(1 − 2η + η 2 )dη 2
θ= δ
0 15

du du dη 1 du U
τ0 = µ =µ =µ = 2µ
dy y =0
dη dy η =0 δ dη η =0 δ
or
U (2 − 2η )
η =0

∂ ⎡ y y 2⎤ U
τ 0 = 2ηU 2( ) − ( ) = 2 µ
∂y ⎢⎣ δ δ ⎥⎦ y =0 δ

Momentum Integral eq. becomes

dθ 1 dU τ0
+ (δ + 2θ )
*
=
dx U dx ρU 2
d 2δ δ 4δ 1 dU 2µU 2ν
( )+( + ) = =
dx 15 3 15 U dx δρU 2 δ U

dU
For a flow over a flat plate U=const. =0
dx

2 dδ 2ν ODE for δ (x).solve δ (x)first then δ * , θ ,τ 0


=
15 dx δ U

δ
15ν δ 2 15ν x
x
Solving for δ, ∫0 δ dδ = U ∫0 dx ⇒ 2 = U
δ νx
δ = 30
νx νx
5.477 x , Ux , δ =
*
= 1.826
= 5.477 = Re x = 3 U
U U Re x ν

2δ νx , τ0 0.73 U
Cf = =
θ= = 0.73 1
ρU 2 Re x τ 0 = 2µ
15 U
2 ν
Comparing to (exact) blasius solution

δ 5, 477 note:2nd order profile ∂ 2u 2U


= = 1.095 ( x , 0) = − ≠0
δ blasius 5 but it should be zero ∂y 2 δ2

δ* 1,826
= = 1.061 ∼ 10%
δ *
blasius 1, 72

θ 0.73
= = 1.099
θ B 0.664

u
= A + Bη + Cη 2 + Dη 3 + Eη 4
U

Additional BCs need to be imposed


∂ 2u 1 ∂P dU (=0 for flat plate)
ν 2 = = −U
∂y ρ ∂x dx
∂u ∂u 1 ∂P ∂ 2u y =0
u +ν =− +ν 2
∂x y =0 ∂y y =0
ρ ∂x ∂y y =0
BC#5 at y= δ ∂ 2u
=0
all higher derivates should also be zero at y= δ
∂y 2 for a smooth transition from the B-L. to the outer flow

Note: u y y 2nd order profile


= 2( ) − ( ) 2
U δ δ

BC#4 ∂ 2u 2U
( x , 0) = − ≠0
∂y 2 δ2

u
by employing 3rd order profile , i.e = a + bη + cη 2 + dη 3 the above condt. may be imposed
U
More accurate results are obtained

Flat Plate at zero incidence

Vel. Dist.
u y
= f ( ) = f (η )
U δ

f (η ) = η
f (η ) = 2η − η 2
,

4.64 0.647 x
3 1 δ= Cf =
f (η ) = η − η 3 Re x Re x
2 2

5.84 0.685 x
f (η ) = 2η − 2η 3 + η 4 δ= Cf =
Re x Re x

π
f (η ) = sin( η ) δ = 4.80 C f = 0.65
2
Note 1: Once the variation of τ0 is known, viscous drag on the surface can be evaluated
by integration over the area of the flat plate.

Note 2: B-L thickness at transition Re x = 5.105

U = 30 m
s x = 0.24m air ( ν ) δ
=
5.48
= 0.00775
x Re x

δ = 0.00775 x = 1.86mm ← less than 1% of development length,x.

viscous effects are confined to a very thin layer near surface of body
Boundary layer seperation
Separation wake formation
increase in drag
Wake total force exerted on body in direction of
fluid motion

Boundary layers have a tendency to separate and form wake


Wake leads to large streamwise pressure differentials across the body

results in substantial pressure drag (form drag)

For large Re ( 104 or higher) bluff bodies (e.g circular cylinder) pressure drag constitutes
almost all the total drag

Total drag = pressure drag + viscous drag

due to shear stress along the surface

due to pressure differences caused by separation of flow


2) AIRFOILS-LIFT drops sharply “STALL” due to separation

force normal to flow direction


Shape of streamlines near point of separation

3) FLAT PLATE
S ~ No separation
No separation
t

chord

REMARK: After separation point ,external (decelerating) stream ceases to flow


nearly parallel to the boundary surface
Condition for separation
dP
Pressure gradient ,
dx

dP
>0 adverse pressure gradient (decelerating external stream) increasing
dx pressure in the flow direction
dP dP
<0 favourable P.G and =0 (zero pressure gradient)
dx dx
NOTE: pressure gradient along a B.L is determined by the outer flow
dU 1 dP (Bern. Eq.)
U =−
dx ρ dx

Separation occurs only for APG condition

o Momentum contained in the fluid layers adjacent to surface will be insufficient


to overcome the force exerted by the pressure gradient , so that a region of
reverse flow occurs.
i.e at some point downstream, the APG will cause the fluid layers adjacent to the surface to
flow in a direction opposite to that of the outer flow B.L separation

velocity profiles in a

B.L near separation

∂u ∂u ∂u
>0 sep. point =0 <0
∂y 0
Note :shear stress changes∂its
y 0 sign after ∂y 0
separation

Definition of separation point = point at which the shear (or velocity gradient)
vanishes

∂u
( x, 0) = 0, for separation
∂y
• Question show that separation can occur only in region of adverse pressure gradient !
Steady state B.L eqs.

∂u ∂u 1 ∂P ∂ 2u ∂ 2u dP ∂ 3u
u +v =− +ν 2 µ 2 = =0
∂x y =0 ∂y y =0
ρ ∂x ∂y y =0 ∂y dx ∂y 3
y =0 y =0

If dP <0
dx
y U

?
∂u
∂u 2
∂y u
∂y 2
∂ 2u ∂P ∂u u=0
y=0 = >0
∂y 2 ∂x ∂y
∂ 2u ∂u the same
y =δ =0 =0 u =U
∂y 2 ∂y
∂P
case =0
∂x

y y y
constant
slope

∂ 2u ∂u u
=0
∂y 2 ∂y

Case ∂P APG
>0
∂x
y y
y U
PI
PI

∂u u
∂u
2
=0
∂y 2 ∂y
∂ 2u ∂ 2u dP
PI= point of inflection where =0 µ 2 = >0
∂y 2 ∂y wall
dx
Control of separation by suction

Control of separation by variable geometry and by blowing

How to calculate the separation point ?

Goldstein

Stewartson

The Karman – Pohlhausen Approximate Method

Fourth order polynomial for u (y). Pohlhausen (1921)

Step #1 :coefs. a,b,c,d,e, in general, will be functions

of x, so that solutions which are not similar


may be obtained.
u
= a + bη + cη 2 + dη 3 + eη 4
U
y
η=
δ
y=0 y= δ
∂ 2u ∂ ∂u 1 ∂ 1 ∂u
u=0 u=U = ( )= ( )
∂y 2 y =0
∂y ∂y δ ∂η δ ∂η
∂ 2u U ( x) dU ∂u
= − =0 1 ∂ 2u U dU
∂y 2 ν dx ∂y y =δ = 2 =−
δ ∂η 2 η =0
ν dx
1 dp ∂ 2u
= =0
µ dx ∂y 2 y =δ

impose B.C.s
η =0 0=a Λ:dimensionless variable; a measure of
pressure gradient in outer flow
∂ 2 (u ) δ 2 dU
η =0 U = −Λ = − = 2c
∂η 2
ν dx
η = 1 1=a+b+c+d+e
η =1 0=b+2c+3d+4e
η =1 0=2c+6d+12e
Λ Λ Λ Λ
solution → a=0 b=2+ c=- d=-2+ e=1-
6 2 2 6
u δ 2 dU
= F (η ) + ΛG (η ) (1) Λ (x)= -12 ≤ Λ ≤ 12
U ν dx
where F(η )=1-(1+η )(1-η )3 Pohlhausen parameter
G(η )=η (1-η 3 ) 6

Note : for Λ = 0 velocity profile corresponds to a flat plate


Plot function F( η ) & G( η ) u
G( η ) F( η ) U Λ > 12

1 1 Λ>0
0.016
Λ=0

Λ<0
Λ < −12

η η
0.25 1
1
u
Λ = 0: = F (η ) Flat surface in which the represantation is a 4 th order polynominal
U
u
Λ >12 >1 vel. in B.L. is not expected to exceed that of the outer flow locally.
U
So Λ must be less than 12
Λ <-12 ⇒ negative velocity ∴ reverse flow.B.L. theory is not applicable after separation

Step#2 Displacement thickness δ*


δ 1
u u
δ ( x ) = ∫ (1 − )dy = δ ∫ (1 − )dη
*

0
U 0
U
1
⎡ Λ ⎤ 3 Λ
=δ ∫ ⎢ (1+η )(1-η )3 − η (1 − η )3 ⎥dη = δ ( − ) (2)
0 ⎣
6 ⎦ 10 120
momentum thickness
1
u u 37 Λ Λ2
θ (x)=δ ∫ (1 − )dη = δ ( − − ) (3)
0
U U 315 945 9072
wall shear stress : τ 0

U ∂ (u U ) U Λ
τ0 = µ τ0 = µ (2 + )
δ ∂η η = 0 δ 6
b

Step #3 Plug into the general momentum eq. Multiply the mom. Eq. by
ν

Uθ dθ θ dU τ 0θ
+ (2θ + δ * ) = or
ν dx ν dx µU
1 d θ2 δ * θ 2 dU τ 0θ
U ( ) + (2 + ) = (5)
2 dx ν θ ν dx µU
δ 2 dU
Λ (x)= evaluate each term in terms of Λ (x)
ν dx
θ 2 dU θ 2 37 Λ Λ2 2 θ 2 dU
= 2 Λ=( − − ) Λ = K ( x) = K ( x)
ν dx δ 315 945 9072 ν dx
3 Λ
( − )
δ*
10 120
= = f (K ) (6)
θ 37 Λ Λ 2
( − − )
315 945 9072
f(Λ ) → f(x) but K=K(x) ⇒ f(K)
τ 0θ Λ 37 Λ Λ2
= g ( K ) , g(K)=(2+ )( − − )
µU 6 315 945 9072
U Λ
τ0 = µ (2 + )
δ 6
1 d θ2
U ( ) + [ 2 + f ( K )] K = g ( K ) (7)
2 dx ν
θ 2 dU
where K= = K ( x)
ν dx
θ2 dU
Now , let us take Z= as the new dependent variable so that K=Z and the mom,int. becomes
ν dx
dZ dZ
U = 2 { g ( K ) − [ 2 + f ( K ) ] K } = H ( K ) or U = H ( K ) (8)
dx dx

H(K) is known (1st order nonlinear , ODE for Z , solve numericallay , start x=0 → stop Λ =-12
[separation ] )
but complex H(Λ )
ODE for Z(x) - mom. int. reduces to above form IVP for ODE
for any Λ (x) → K & H(K) may be evaluated H(K)

H(K)=0.47-6K (9)
approximation
0.47
Linear in K over the range of interest K
0.0783
Mom. Int. eq. becomes
dZ dU
U = 0.47 − 6 K = H ( K ) = 0.47 − 6 Z or
dx dx
1 d
5
( ZU 6
) = 0.47
U dx

x
0.47
Z ( x) = 6 ∫ (ς )dς
5
U Mom. int. may be expressed interms of this quadrature
U ( x) 0

θ 2
then , since Z=
ν , the value of θ will be
0.47ν
x
θ ( x) = 6 ∫ U 5 (ς )dς
2
(10)
U ( x) 0

Procedure: Potential flow problem should be solved to yield the outer


velocity U(x) (for a given boundary shape)
Use eq. (10) to evaluate the momentum thickness θ ( x)
Pr essure parameter Λ (x) may be evaluated from the relation

θ 2 dU 37 Λ Λ2 2
= K ( x) = ( − − ) (11) difficult to find Λ (x)
ν dx 315 945 9072

having found Λ (x), δ (x) is evaluated from eq. (3)

37 Λ Λ2
θ (x)=δ ( − − ) and δ * eq. (2)
315 945 9072
3 Λ
δ* =δ( − )
10 120

u
= F (η ) + ΛG (η ) ← vel. distribution eq (1)
U

shear stress at the surface is given by eq. (4)

U Λ
τ0 = µ (2 + )
u 6
In practice it is difficult to evaluate the quality Λ ( x) from eq (11) unless
Λ is a constant

Instead : choose specific functions Λ ( x) and use foregoing eqs. to


determine the outer-flow vel. & hence the nature of the boundary shape

EXAMPLE Karman-Pohlhausen approx. applied to the case of flow over


a flat plate

νx νx x
U = cons tan t eq. (10) → θ 2 = 0.47 → θ =0.686 θ =0.686
U U Re x
dU
= 0 ⇒ eq. (11)
dx

δ 2 dU
Λ=0 ( )
ν dx
37 νx 5.84 x
From eq. (3) θ (x)= δ → δ =5.84 =
315 U Re x

3 1.75 x
eq.(2) ⇒ δ* =δ → δ* =
10 Re x
3.5% error

U τ0 0.686
eq.(4) ⇒ τ0 = µ 2 ⇒ = Θ
δ 1
ρU 2 Re x Exact 0.664
2
4th order vel. pr 0.686
2nd order vel. pr 0.73

STABILITY OF STEADY FLOWS

Boundary – Layers
Instabilities
Usually laminar flow becomes turbulent flow
EXAMPLE: Flow over a circular cylinder
CD
~ 82
~ 108

Re
Laminar B.L Turbulent B.L

• Significant drop in the drag coefficent C D

• Due to vel. profile difference between lam. & turb. flow


y
parallel flow
V(y) is known ⎫
⎬ undisturbed flow "base flow"
v=0 ⎭

x
Linear Stability Analysis: The Method of Small Perturbations
Introduce arbitrary small (infinitesimal) disturbance into the flow eqs. & determine whether
this disturbance grows or decays with time
if the disturbance grows with time, the flow (the B.L) will be classified as unstable
if the disturbance decays with time, the flow (the B.L) will be classified as stable
marginal stability (neutral): the disturbance neither grows nor decays
Non linear stability analysis: no restriction on disturbance size

A1 Introduce small disturbance to the velocity profile

u(x,y,t) = V(y) + u’(x,y,t)

u (x, y, t ) = V (y ) + u '( x, y, t )
v( x, y, t ) = 0 + v '( x, y, t )
p( x, y, t ) = p0 ( x) + p '( x, y, t )
u' v' p'
where << 1 ; << 1 ; << 1
V V p0
A2 Substitute A1 into the N-S eqs. & continuity

∂u ' ∂v '
+ =0
∂x ∂y
∂u ' ∂u ' dV ∂u ' 1 dp0 dp ' ∂ 2u ' ∂ 2V ∂ 2u '
x ; + (V + u ') + v '( + )=− ( + ) +ν ( 2 + 2 + 2 )
∂t ∂x dy ∂y ρ dx dx ∂x ∂y ∂y
∂v ' ∂v ' ∂v ' 1 dp ' ∂ 2v ' ∂ 2v '
y ; + (V + u ') +v' =− +ν ( 2 + 2 )
∂t ∂x ∂x ρ dy ∂x ∂y

A3 When the perturbation is zero, the above eqs. reduce to

1 dp0 d 2V Undisturbed flow


0=− +ν
ρ dx dy 2 (parallel)

A4 Drop term A3 in x-mom. Eq.

Since the perturbation is assumed to be small, products of all primed quantities may be

neglected as being small


Thus , Linearized eqs. governing the motion of the disturbances are

∂u ' ∂v '
+ =0
∂x ∂y
∂u ' ∂u ' dV 1 dp ' ∂ 2u ' ∂ 2u '
X ; +V +v' =− +ν ( 2 + 2 )
∂t ∂x dy ρ dx ∂x ∂y
∂v ' ∂v ' 1 dp ' ∂ 2v ' ∂ 2v '
Y ; +V =− +ν ( 2 + 2 )
∂t ∂x ρ dy ∂x ∂y

A5 Introduce a perturbation stream - function ψ (to reduce number or eqs. by one)


∂ψ ∂ψ
u'= , v'= −
∂y ∂x

In terms of this stream function the governing eqs. become

∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ ∂ψ dV 1 dp ' ∂ 3ψ ∂ 3ψ
+V − =− +ν ( 2 + 3 )
∂y∂t ∂x∂y ∂x dy ρ dx ∂x ∂y ∂y
∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ 1 dp ' ∂ 3ψ ∂ 3ψ
− −V 2 = − −ν ( 3 + )
∂x∂t ∂x ρ dy ∂x ∂x∂y 2
∂2 p '
A6 Eliminate the pressure term by forming ∂x∂y mixed derivative, above two eqs.
above two eqs. may be reduced to one ,

∂ ∂ ∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ d 2V ∂ψ ∂ 4ψ ∂ 4ψ ∂ 4ψ
( + V )( 2 + 2 ) − 2 =ν ( 4 + 2 2 2 + 4 )
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂x dy ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂ x
Stream function for the disturbance must satisfy this linear , 4th order , PDE

A7 Since the disturbance under consideration is arbitrary in form, Perturbation

stream function may be represented by the following Fourier – lntegral:


ψ ( x, y, t ) = ∫ φ ( y )eiα ( x −ct ) dα c:time coefficient
0

α : real & positive (inverse wavelength)



λ= [m]
α
wave length of the disturbances
note : time variation e-iα ct
c = cr + ci i → if ci > 0 → e-iα ct → ∞ as t → ∞
disturbance will grow → unstable
in general complex number: if ci < 0 → e-iα ct → 0 as t → ∞
disturbance will decay → stable
ci = 0 → neutrally stable
(c=0)
Plug in A6 yields the integro – differential equation:

∫⎣
⎡ ( − iα c + iα V ) (φ "− α 2
φ ) − iαφV "⎤
⎦ e iα (x-ct)

0

= ∫ν ⎡⎣(φ '''− 2α 2φ "+ α 4φ ) ⎤⎦ eiα (x-ct) dα , i 2 = −1 i4 = 1
0

d 2φ d 4φ
φ " = 2 , φ""= 4 ,...
dy dy
Above equation should be valid for arbitrary α . Thus, the integrand should vanish (because eq.
should be valid for arbitrary disturbance)

ν
(V-c)(φ"-α 2φ )-Vφ = (φ ''''− 2α 2φ "+ α 4φ ) (A)

Orr-Sommerfield equation

B.C disturbance should vanish at the surface y=0 and at the edge of the Boundary Layer

u ' ( x, y = 0, t ) = 0 , v '( x, y = 0, t ) = 0
u ' ( x, y, t ) = v '( x, y, t ) = 0 as y→ ∞

in terms of the stream function ψ (y)


∂ψ
u' = =0 → φ '(0) = 0
∂y y =0

∂ψ (B)
v' = − =0 → φ (0) = 0
∂x y =0
φ '( y ) = φ ( y ) → 0 as y → ∞
Solution of the Orr – Sommerfeld Equation
Undisturbed vel. profile V(y) and disturbance wavelength α is specified
V ( y ) & α known
Eq. (A) with BC.(B)represent an eigenvalue problem for the time coefficient , c
c = cr + i ci , ci < 0 ⇒ flow stable
ψ = φ (y) eiα (x-ct)
ci > 0 ⇒ flow unstable
iα ( x − ct ) , ci = 0 ⇒ neutral stablity

stable , ci < 0 Ra = Gr . Pr
α δ*
TL
unstable TH

Steady laminar flow


stable Uα *
can become another
Re = steady lam. flow
ν
Recritical

Stability Diagram:
Orszag (1971):

α
ci < 0
ci > 0
ci < 0
V

typical stability – calculation result for fixed V , α is varied. Then, by considering all
possible values of the undisturbed B.L vel. (which less than the outer –flow vel.) a stability
diagram is constructed

All possible values of V ( y ) in the range


0 ≤ V ( y ) ≤ U ( x)

Flow over a flat surface

U α cr*
Recr = = 420
ν
stability boundary
α δ *
Schlichting 575 = Recr
0.34
unstable

Uα *
Re =
ν
420

Re >420 arbitrary disturbance will be unstable.


manifest themselves in the form of turbulence
FREE – SHEAR FLOWS (LAYERS)
Unaffected by walls
Develop and spread in an open ambient fluid
Possess vel. gradient created upstream mechanism

viscous diffusion ⇔ convective deceleration


EXAMPLE: 1) The free-shear layer between parallel moving streams:

U1
ρ1
U1 u
y µ1
S - shaped free-shear layer
u0 is due to viscous diffusion
U2 ρ2 U2
interface
µ2

At x=0 , upper free stream U1 ⎫


lower free stream U 2 ⎬⎭
meets as x=0 U1 & U 2 uniform
For each stream , can define a Blasius – type similarity variable
Lock(1951) – two different fluids with physical parameters

( ρ1 , µ1 ) & (ρ 2 , µ2 )

U1 uj
ηj = y , f j′ = , j=1,2
2 xν j U1
ψ j = 2ν jU1 x f j (η j )

Following the same procedure as in derivation of Blasius equation, one can


obtain Blasius-type eq. for each layer

f j '''+ f j f j '' = 0 j=1,2


B.C.s 1) f 1 '(+∞) = 1 asymptotic approach to the two stream velocities

U2
y → (-∞) → η → −∞ ⇒ u2 → U 2 → f 2 ' =
U1
u1 → U1 as η → +∞

B.C.s 2) Kinematics equality , u1 = u2 and v1 = v2 at the interface

ηj = 0 → f1 '(0) = f 2 '(0) ≠ 0 = u0 u1 = u 2
∂ψ 1 ∂ψ 2
f1 (0) = f 2 (0) = 0 v1 = v2 ⇒ =
∂x ∂x

B.C.s 3) Equality of shear stress at the interface


∂u1 ∂u2 y U1
µ1 (0) = µ 2 (0) or ηj =
∂y ∂y 2 xν i
∂u1 ∂f1 ' ∂η1 U1
µ1 = µ1U1 = µ1U1 f1 '' (1)
∂y y =0
∂η1 0 ∂y 2 xν 1
∂u U1
µ2 2 = µ2U1 f 2 '' (2)
∂y y =0 2 xν 2
1 1 ρ 2 µ2
(1)=(2) ⇒ f1 ''(0) µ1 = f 2 ''(0) µ2 → f1 ''(0) = f 2 ''(0)
ν1 ν2 ρ1µ1

ρ 2 µ2
f1 ''(0) = k f 2 ''(0) k=
ρ1µ1
Most practical cases

Case 1 : k=1 (identical fluids) ρ1 = ρ 2 ; µ1 = µ2


Case 2 : a gas flowing over a liquid k>>1
ex. air-water interface k ≈ 60000 ⇒ k ≈ 245
TURBULENCE
INTRODUCTION
LAMINAR FLOW : Smooth , orderly flow limited to finite values of critical
parameters: Re, Gr, Ta, Ri

Beyond the critical parameter, Laminar flow is unstable a new flow regime turbulent
flow

Turbulent
Transition

Laminar

x
Characteristics

1) Disorder : not merely white noise but has spatial structure (Random variations)

2) Eddies : (or fluid packets of many sizes) Large & small varies continuously from shear –
δ ν 3δ 1
layer thickness down to the Kolmogorov length scale , L=( 3
) 4
U
3) Enhanced mixing in laminar flow molecular action

mixing in turbulent flow turbulent eddies actively about in 3-D and


cause rapid diffusion of mass, momentum & energy

Heat transfer & friction are greatly enhanced compared to Lam. Flow

4) Fluctuations : (in pressure, vel. & temp. )


Velocity fluctuates in all three directions

5) Self-sustaining motion: Once trigged turbulent flow can maintain. Itself by


producing new eddies to replace those lost by viscous dissipation
Experimental measurement :
Hot-wire anemometer
measure fluctuations in velocity via heat transfer
Examine change in resistance assoc. with temp. (use wire ~ 0.0001” dia.)

u
Laminar B.L

t
u

Shedding cylinder

t
Turbulent B.L u

t
Mathematical Description

N-S eqs. do apply to turbulent flow


Direct Numerical Simulation :Solve the N-S eqs. directly using computers

Problem: wide range of flow scales involved solutions requires supercomputers and
even then are limited to very low Reynolds numbers

Mesh points : beyond the capacity of present computers (trillions)


Eq. Turbulent flow in a pipe

At Red = 107 → requires 1022 numerical operatious ⇒ computation would


take thousand years to complete (for the fine details of the turbulent flow)
Direct numerical simulation DNS
Because of complexity of the fluctuations, a purely numerical computation of turbulent flow has
only been possible in a few special cases.

Therefore, consider time average of turbulent motion

Difficulties in setting up eqs. of motion for mean motion

Turbulent fluctuations coupled with mean motion


Time averaging N-S additional terms (determined by turbulent fluctuations)

Additional unknowns in computation of mean motion


We have more unknowns than eqs.

To close system of eqs. of motion ⇒ need additional eqs


These eqs. can no longer be set up purely from the balances of mass momentum & energy

But, they are model eqs. which model relation between the fluctuations & mean motion

called turbulence modelling central problem in computing the mean motion of turbulent
flows
Mean Motion & Fluctuations

u' u , time average value

Decompose the motion into a mean motion & a fluctuating motion

u = u+u'
v = v +v' In compressible turbulent flows
w = w + w' ρ = ρ + ρ ' ; T = T +T '
p = p + p'

Average is formed as the time average at a fixed point in space

t0 + T
1
u=
T ∫
t0
u dt ← integral is to be taken over a sufficently large time interval T so that u ≠ f (t )
Characterization of fluctuation ⇒ RMS
1
⎧⎪ 1 ⎪⎫
2 2
T u ' = g (t )
u = ⎨ ∫ (u − u ) d t ⎬ u = u + u ' = f (t )
T
⎩⎪ 0 ⎪⎭

By definition time average of fluctuating quautities are zero i.e.


u ' = 0 , v ' = 0 , w' = 0 , p ' = 0
First assume that mean motion indep. of time ⇒ steady turbulent flow

steady unsteady
u u steady unsteady

Turb. flow
Lam . flow
u
t
t
Fluctuations u ' , v ' , w ' influence the progrees of mean motion u , v , w , so that mean motion
exhibit an apparent increase in resistance aganist deformation.Increased apparent viscosity is
cenral of all theoretical considerations on turbulent flow

Rules of computation

u =u , u + v = u +v , u .v = u . v
∂u ∂u
=
∂x ∂x
, ∫ udx = ∫ udx ; uv = u v + u ' v ' ; u 'v = 0

∂u
τ xy = τ xy lam + τ xy tur = µ − ρu 'v '
∂y
Additional shear stress
(Reynolds stress)

x
Ex : uv = (u + u ') ( v + v ')=uv + uv '+ vu '+ u ' v '
u v

uv = uv + u ' v ' u 'v ' ≠ 0

Physical Interpretation of ρ u ' v ' as a stress


a)Consider fluid particle moving up from 1 to 2
u' v ' > 0 u ' < 0 (since particle has velocity deficit i.e u1 < u2 )
2 u ' v ' < 0 ⇒ τ turb > 0 ⇒ decel. of flow at 2
v'
1 b)if particle moves down from 2 to 1
v ' < 0 u ' > 0 (particle has excess vel.)
∴ u ' v ' < 0 ⇒ τ turb > 0 ⇒ accel. of flow at 1

2
Momentum Turbulent shear stress is higher
exchange 1
Basic Eqs. for Mean Motion of Turbulent Flows
Consider flows with constant properties

Continuity equation

∂u ∂v ∂w
(1) + + u = u+u'
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂u ∂u ∂u '
Time − averaging of (1) = +
∂x ∂x ∂x
∂u ∂ v ∂ w
(2) + + =0
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂u ' ∂v ' ∂w '
(3) Also , using (1) + + =0
∂x ∂y ∂z
Both time average values &fluctuations satisfy laminar flow continuity eq

Momentum Eqs.(Reynolds eqs.)


∂V
Incomp. N-S eqs. ρ( + (V .∇)V ) = -∇p + µ∇ 2 V (4)
∂t
1) Substitute u = u +u' v = v + v' w = w + w' p = p + p ' into N-S egs
2) Time average the equations
3) Drop-out terms which `average` to zero . Use “Rules of Computation”

∂u ' ∂ 2u '
=0 = 0 ← terms which are linear in fluctuating quantities ⇒ 0
∂t ∂x 2

u '2 ≠ 0 u 'v ' ≠ 0 ← terms which are quadratic in fluctuating quantities ⇒ 0

Resultant eqs. (called Reynolds eqs.)


∂u ∂u ∂u ∂p ∂u '2 ∂u ' v ' ∂u ' w '
ρ (u + v + w ) = − + µ∇ u − ρ (
2
+ + )
∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z
∂v ∂v ∂v ∂p ∂ u ' v ' ∂ v ' 2
∂v ' w '
ρ (u + v + w ) = − + µ∇ 2 v − ρ ( + + )
∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z
∂w ∂w ∂w ∂p ∂u ' w ' ∂ v ' w ' ∂ w '2
ρ (u +v +w )=− + µ∇ w − ρ (
2
+ + )
∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z

∴ treat unsteady "fluctuations" additional terms due to turbulent


as added stresses ⇒ called fluctuating motion ⇒ momentum
Reynolds stresses(turbulent stresses) exchange due to fluctuations ⇒ "stresses"

Complete stresses consist of


∂u
σ xx = − p + 2 µ − ρ u '2 → fluctuatios
∂x
∂u ∂ v
τ xy = µ ( + ) − ρ u ' v ' ,.......
∂ y ∂x Re ynolds stress
apparent turbulent
viscous stresses laminar stresses

In general , Reynolds stresses dominate over viscous stresses, except for regions
directly at the wall
Closure problem
too few eqs : 4
too many unknowns : 10
Figure some way to approximate Reynolds stresses

Objective : Establish relationship between Reynolds stresses & mean motions, i.e u,v,w

⇒ model eqs. must be developed


∴ turbulence models or turbulence modeling.
model equations contain empirical elements
A. Eddy vis cos ity
− Attempt to approximate a "turbulent" viscosity
∂u ∂u
idea : Since τ lam = µ = ρν
∂y ∂y
∂u
Let τ turb = ρ ∈ = −ρ u ' v '
∂y
Eddy viscosity ⇒ ∈>> ν
Problem : how to model ∈ ?
For some situations ⇒ ∈ ≈ const.
∂u
In general ∈≠ const. ⇒ ∈ = f (u , y, , etc.)
∂y
In general, many wild guesses are made, not many work

Energy Equation
Consider the energy equation for incompressible flow with constant properties

DT
ρcp = k ∇ 2T + Φ
Dt
Taking the time-average of the energy eq. , we obtain following eq. for the average temp.
field T = ( x, y, z )
∂T ∂T ∂T ⎫
ρ c p (u +v + w ) ⎬ convection
∂x ∂y ∂z ⎭
∂2T ∂2T ∂2T ⎫
=k( 2 + 2 + 2 ) ⎬ molecular heat transport
∂x ∂y ∂z ⎭
∂u ' T ' ∂ v ' T ' ∂ w ' T ' ⎫
-ρ cp ( + + ) ⎬ turbulent heat transport("apparent" heat conduction)
∂x ∂y ∂z ⎭
⎡ ∂u 2 ∂v 2 ∂w 2 ∂u ∂ v 2 ∂u ∂ w 2 ∂ v ∂ w 2 ⎤ ⎪⎫
+ µ ⎢ 2( ) + 2( ) + 2( ) +( + ) +( + ) +( + ) ⎥ ⎬ direct dissipation
⎣ ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂z ∂ x ∂ z ∂ y ⎦ ⎭⎪

The same eq.holds for the average temp. fields as for laminar temp. fields, apart from
two additional terms

"apparent" heat conduction ⇒ div(V 'T ')


"turbulent" dissipation , ρ ∈

⎡ ∂u 2 ∂v 2 ∂w 2 ∂u ∂ v 2 ∂u ∂ w 2 ∂ v ∂ w 2 ⎤ ⎫⎪
ρ∈ = µ ⎢ 2( ) + 2( ) + 2( ) +( + ) +( + ) +( + ) ⎥⎬
⎣⎢ ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂z ∂ x ∂ z ∂ y ⎦⎥ ⎪⎭
In turbulent flows mechanical energy is transformed into internal energy in two different ways:

a) Direct dissipation : transfer is due to the viscosity (as in laminar flow)

b) Turbulent dissipation : transfer is due to the turbulent fluctuations

The Turbulence Kinetic Energy Equation (K-equation)

Many attemps have been made to add “turbulence conservation” relations


to the time-averaged continuity, momentum and energy equations derived.
A relation for the turbulence kinetic energy K of fluctuations.

1
2
( 1
K ≡ u ′u ′ + v′v′ + w′w′ = ui′ui′
2
)
Einstein summation notation,
ui = (u1 , u2 , u3 ) = (u , v, w)
A conservation relation for K can be derived by forming the mechanical
energy equation i.e., dot product of ui ve ith momentum equation subtract
instantaneous mechanical energy equation from its time averaged value.
Result: Turbulence kinetic energy relation for an incompressible fluid.
DK ∂ ⎡ ′ ⎛ 1 ′ ′ p′ ⎞ ⎤ ∂u j′
=− ⎢ui ⎜ u j u j + ⎟ ⎥ − ui′u j′ +
Dt ∂xi ⎢⎣ ⎝ 2 ρ ⎠ ⎥⎦ ∂xi
I
III
II

⎡ ⎛ ′ ′ ⎞ ⎤ ′ ⎛ ∂u ′ ∂u j′ ⎞
∂ ⎢ ′ ∂ui ∂u ∂u
νuj ⎜ +
j
⎟ ⎥ −ν j
⎜ i + ⎟
∂xi ⎢ ⎜ ∂x j′ ∂xi′ ⎟ ⎥ ∂ x ′ ⎜ ∂x j′ ∂xi′ ⎟
⎢⎣ ⎝ ⎠ ⎥⎦ i ⎝ ⎠
IV V
I. Rate of change of turbulent (kinetic) energy
II. Convective diffusion of turbulence energy
III. Production of turbulent energy
IV. Viscous diffusion (work done by turbulence viscous stresses)
V. Turbulent viscous dissipation
Reynolds stress equation: conservation equations for Reynolds stresses
see F. White pg. 406
2-D Turbulent Boundary Layer Equations

Just as laminar flows, turbulent flows at high Re also have boundary layer
character, i.e. large lateral changes and small longitudinal changes in flow
properties.

Ex.: Pipe flow, channel flow, wakes and jets.

δ(x)<<x
x

Same approximations as in laminar boundary layer analysis,


∂ ∂ Assume that mean flow structure is 2D
v << u <<
∂x ∂y
∂ ′ 2
w=0 =0 but w ≠ 0
∂z
Basic turbulent equations (Reynolds equations) reduce to

∂u ∂ v
Continuity: + =0 (1)
∂x ∂y
∂u ∂u dU e 1 ∂τ
x-momentum: u +v ≈ Ue + (2)
∂x ∂y dx ρ ∂y
U e : free stream velocity
⎛ ∂T ∂T ⎞ ∂q ∂u
Thermal energy: ρ c p ⎜ u +v ⎟ ≈ + τ (3)
⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ∂y ∂y
∂u
where τ = µ − ρ u ′v′
∂y
∂T
q= k − ρ c p v′T ′ (4)
∂y
turbulent flux
molecular flux
Above equations closely resemble the laminar flow equations except that τ
and q contain turbulent shear stress and turbulent heat flux (Reynolds
Stress) must be modelled.
y-momentum equation reduces to

∂p ∂ v′ 2
≈ −ρ (5)
∂y ∂y
Integrating over the boundary layer yields:

p ≈ pe ( x) − ρ v ′ 2

Unlike laminar flow, p varies slightly across the boundary layer due to
velocity fluctuations normal to the the wall

p + ρ v′2 ≈ const.

Note: p : wall pressure


w

no-slip ⇒ v′ ≡ 0 ⇒ p w = pe ( x)

Bernoulli equation in the (inviscid) free stream dpe ≈ − ρU e dU e


Boundary Conditions:
Free stream conditions Ue(x) and Te(x) are known.
No-slip, no jump: u ( x, 0) = v( x, 0) = 0 , T ( x, 0) = Tw ( x)
Free stream matching: u ( x, δ ) = U e , T ( x, δ T ) = Te ( x)
The velocity and thermal boundary layer thicknesses (δ, δT) are not necessarily equal

but depend upon the Pr, as in laminar flow. Eqs. 1 and 2 can be solved for
u v if a suitable correlation for total shear τ is known.

Turbulent Boundary Layer Integral Relations:


The integral momentum equation has the identical form as laminar flow
dθ θ dU e τw cf
+ (2 + H ) = =
dx U e dx ρU e2
2
u ⎛ u ⎞

δ*
θ = ∫ ⎜1 − ⎟ dy , H= (momentum shape factor)
0
Ue ⎝ Ue ⎠ θ
⎛ Turbulent velocity profile is more complicated in shape
u ⎞
δ * = ⎜1 − ⎟ dy and many different correlations have been proposed.
⎝ Ue ⎠
Example: Turbulent pipe flow
Often used correlation is the empirical power-law velocity profile
r
x R 1/ n
u ⎛ r⎞
= ⎜1 − ⎟
Vc ⎝ R ⎠

n=f(Re)
for many practical flows n = 7
n=10
n 1.0
n=8
8 r/R n=6
7 laminar Turbulent
6 profile
5 0
104 105 106 Re=ρVD/µ 0 u 1.0
Vc
‰ Turbulent profiles are much “flatter” than laminar profile
‰ Flatness increases with Reynolds number (i.e., with n)

Turbulent velocity profile(s): The inner, outer, and overlap layers.


Key profile shape consist of 3 layers
Inner layer: very narrow region near the wall (viscous sublayer)
viscous (molecular) shear dominates
laminar shear stress is dominant, random eddying nature of flow is absent
Outer layer: turbulent (eddy) shear (stress) dominates
Overlap layer: both types of shear important; profile smoothly connects
inner and outer regions.

Example: Structure of turbulent flow in a pipe


R Viscous
pipe wall R
sublayer
τlam overlap layer
τtur
r r
τ
outer layer
0 0
τ(r) τw Vc
Shear Average velocity
stress
Inner law:
u = f (τ w , ρ , µ , y ) (1)
Velocity profile would not depend on free stream parameters.
Outer law:
dpe
U e − u = g (τ w , ρ , y, δ ,
) (2)
dx
Wall acts as a source of retardation, independent of µ.

Overlap law:

u inner = u outer (3)


We specify inner and outer functions merge together smoothly.
Dimensionless Profiles:
The functional forms in Eqs.(1)-(3) are determined from experiment after use
of dimensional analysis.
Primary Dimensions: (mass, length, time) : 3
Eq.(1) : 5 variables
Π groups : 5-3 = 2 (dimensionless parameters)
Proper dimensionless inner law:
1/2
u ⎛ yv* ⎞ ⎛τ ⎞
= f⎜ ⎟ ; v* = ⎜ w ⎟
⎝ ν ⎠ ⎝ ρ ⎠
*
v

Variable v* [m/s] called wall friction velocity.


v* is used a lot in turbulent flow analyses.
Outer law using Π - theorem:
Ue − u ⎛y ⎞ δ dpe
= g ⎜ ,ξ ⎟ ; ξ=
⎝δ ⎠ τ w dx
*
v
Often called velocity defect law, with Ue − u
being “defect” or retardation of flow due to wall effects. At any given position x, defect
g(y/δ) will depend on local pressure gradient ξ.
Let ξ have some particular value. Then overlap function requires

Overlap law:
u ⎛ δ v* y ⎞ U e ⎛ y⎞
= f ⎜ ⎟ = - g ⎜ ⎟
v* ⎝ ν δ ⎠ v *
⎝δ ⎠
From functional analysis: both f and g must be logarithmic functions.
Thus, in overlap layer:
u 1 yv*
Inner variables: * = ln +B
v k ν
Ue − u 1 y
Outer variables: = − ln + A
v *
k δ
Where K and B are near-universal constants for turbulent flow past smooth,
impermeable walls.
K≈0.41 , B≈5.0 pipe flow measurements, data correlations
A varies with pressure gradient ξ (perhaps with other parameters also).

u yv*
Let u + = * , and y+ =
v ν
Inner layer details, Law of the wall.
At very small y, velocity profile is linear.
u
y+ ≤ 5 : τ w = µ or u+ = y+
y
Example: Thickness of viscous sublayer
5ν ν
δ sub = : viscous length scale of a turbulent boundary layer
v* v *

Flat plate airfoil data: v*=1.24 m/s , νair≈1.51x10-5 m2/s


Between 5 ≤y+≤30 buffer layer.
Velocity profile is neither linear nor logarithmic but is a smooth merge
between two.
Spalding (1961) single composite formula.

+ +
y =u +e
⎡ +
− KB ⎢ Ku +
e − 1 − Ku −
( Ku ) ( Ku )
+ 2


+ 3⎤

⎢ 2 6 ⎥
⎣ ⎦
Notes:
1
u ⎛ r⎞ n
= ⎜1 − ⎟
Vc ⎝ R ⎠
Power law profile cannot be valid near the wall.
1
−1
du Vc ⎛ r⎞ ⎛ 1⎞
= ⎜1 − ⎟ ⎜ − ⎟ Power law profile cannot be precisely valid
n

dr n ⎝ R ⎠ ⎝ R ⎠ near the centreline.

r=R
du
=∞ However, it does provide a reasonable
dr approximation to measured velocity profiles
r=0
du
≠0 across most of the pipe.
dr
Example:
Water at 20 °C (ρ=998 kg/m3), ν=1.004x10-6 m2/s

Q=0.04 m3/s
D=0.1m

dp
= 2.59kPa / m
dx

δs = ? thickness of viscous sublayer?


centreline velocity, Vc = ?
ratio of turbulent to laminar shear stress, τturb/τlam = ? at a point midway
between the centreline and pipe wall i.e., at r = 0.025 m.
Law of the wall valid y ± ≤ 5 viscous sublayer
± yv*
y = ≤5
ν
δ s v* 5ν
y = δs y = 5 ⇒
±
= 5 δs = *
ν v
τ
v* = w
ρ
Pressure drop and wall shear stres in a fully developed pipe flow is related by

4lτ w
∆p = (Valid for both laminar & turbulent flow)
D
(Exercise: Obtain the above equation considering the force balance of a
fluid element)

D∆p (0,1)(2,59.103 )
τw = = Pa = 64,8 N / m 2
4l 4(1m)
64,8 N / m 2
So, v =
*
= 0, 255m / s
998kg / m3
5.1, 004.10−6
δs = = 1,97.10−5 m ≅ 0, 02mm
0, 255

Imperfections on pipe wall will protrude into this sublayer and affect some of
the characteristics of flow(i.e.,wall shear stres & pressure drop)
Q 0, 04m3 / s
V= = = 5, 09m / s
A π (0,1) / 4m
2 2

VD 5, 09.(0,1)
Re = = = 5, 07.10 5

ν 1, 004.10−6
Re = 5, 07.105 ⇒ n = 8, 4

Power-law profile

u r
≅ (1 − )1/ 8,4
Vc R
R
r 1/ n
. = ∫ udA = Vc ∫ (1 −
Q = AV ) (2π r )dr
0
R
n2
Q = 2π R Vc 2

(n + 1)(2n + 1) Recall that Vc=2V for laminar pipe flow:


V 2n 2
Q =πR V ∴2
=
Vc (n + 1)(2n + 1)
n = 8, 4 : Vc = 1,186V = 1,186(5, 09) = 6, 04m / s
τ turb
=? Shear stres distribution throughout the pipe
τ lam r = 0,025 m

2τ w r
τ= (Valid for laminar or turbulent flow)
D
R=D/2 2(64,8).0, 025
τ (r = 0, 025) = = 32, 4 N / m 2
r 0,1
τ = τ lam + τ turb = 32, 4
du r du V r
τ lam = − µ ; u = Vc (1 − )1/ n ⇒ = − c (1 − )(1− n ) / n
dr R dr nR R
du 6, 04 0, 025 (1−8,4) / 8,4
=− (1 − ) = −26,5
dr r = 0,025
8, 4(0, 05) 0, 05

du du
τ lam = − µ = −(νρ ) As expected
dr dr
Thus = −(1, 004.10−6 ).(998).(−26,5) = 0, 0266 N / m 2
τ turb 32, 4 − 0, 0266
τ turb >> τ lam
= = 1220
τ lam 0, 0266
Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Flat Plate
Problem of flow past a sharp flat plate at high Re has been studied extensively,
numerous formulas have been proposed for friction factor.
-curve fits of data
-use of Momentum Integral Equation and/or law of the wall
-numerical computation using models of turbulent shear
Momentum Integral Analysis
dp dθ C f τ
= 0 (U = const.) = = w2
dx dx 2 ρU
Momentum Interal Equation valid for either laminar or turbulent flow.
For turbulent flow u
a reasonable approximation to the velocity profile = f (y /δ )
U
Functional relationship describing the wall shear stress
Need to use some empirical relationship
∂u
For laminar flow τ w = µ
∂y y =0
Example: Turbulent flow of an incompressible fluid past a flat plate
Boundary layer velocity profile is assumed to be

u y
= ( )1/ 7 ← power law profile suggested by Prandtl
U δ (taken From pipe data!)
Reasonable approximation of experimentally observed profiles,
except very near the plate,
∂u
= ∞!
∂y y =0
u y
1 = ( )1/ 7
U δ
y Laminar Turbulent

η=
δ Assume shear stress aggrees with experimentally
determined formula
⎧ ν 1/ 4 ⎫
0 C f = 0, 045 Reδ−1/ 4 ⎨or τ w = 0, 0225 ρU 2 ( ) ⎬
0 1 ⎩ Uδ ⎭
Determine; δ , δ * , θ and τ as a function of x. Uδ
w Re =
ν
What is the friction drag coefficient C =?
D,f
Momentum Integral Equation (with U=constant)
dθ C f τ y u y
= = w2 η = ; = ( )1/ 7 = η 1/ 7
dx 2 ρU δ U δ


1 1
u u u u
θ = ∫ (1 − )dy = δ ∫ (1 − )dη = δ ∫ η 1/ 7 (1 − η 1/ 7 )dη =
0
U U o
U U 0
72
7 dδ ν 1/ 4
= 0, 0225 Reδ−1/ 4 = 0, 0225( )
72 dx Uδ
δ
ν x

∫δ d δ = 0, 231( ) ∫ dx
1/ 4 1/ 4

0
U 0

ν δ 0,370
δ = 0,370( ) x 1/ 5 4/5
or in dimensionless form =
U x Re1/x 5
Boundary layer at leading edge of plate is laminar but in practice,laminar boundary layer
often exists over a relatively short portion of plate.
∴ error associated with starting turbulent boundary layer with δ =0 at x=0 can be negligible.

u u
1
δ 1
δ = ∫ (1 − )dy = δ ∫ (1 − )dη = δ ∫ (1 − η 1/ 7 )dη =
*

0
U 0
U 0
8
δ* 0, 0463
=
x Re1/x 5
7 ν
θ= δ = 0, 0360( )1/ 5 x 4 / 5
72 U
θ 0, 036
= 1/ 5
θ < δ *

x Re x
1/ 4
⎡ ν ⎤ 0, 0288 ρU 2
τ w = 0, 0225 ρU 2 ⎢ 1/ 5 4 / 5 ⎥
=
⎣ U (0,37)(ν / U ) x ⎦ Re1/x 5
0, 058
Cf =
Re1/x 5
Friction drag on one side of plate,Df
l l
ν
D f = ∫ bτ w dx = b(0, 0288 ρU ) ∫ ( )1/ 5 dx
2

o 0
Ux
A
D f = 0, 0360 ρU 2 where A=b.l area of plate
Re1/l 5
Df 0, 0720 Note:Results presented in this example are
CDf = =
1 Re1/l 5 valid only in the range of validity of original
ρU 2 A data, assumed velocity profile & shear stres.
2
The range covers smooth flat plates
Turbulent flow:δ ( x ) ~ x 4 / 5 ;τ w ( x) ~ x −1/ 5 with 5x105<Rel<107
Laminar flow:δ ( x) ~ x1/ 2 ;τ w ( x) ~ x −1/ 2 See Fig 6-20 (White, page 432)
Example 1 : Momentum Integral Equation-Approximate vel. profile
dθ τ
= w2 dU
dx ρU U = const. ⇒( = 0)
u y dx
= f (η ) η=
δ
δ
U
For 0 ≤ η ≤ 1/ 2 f = a1 + b1η
2 1
f = at η = & f = 0 at η = 0
3 2
∴ a1 = 0, b1 = 4 / 3
u 4 δ /2
= η : 0 ≤ η ≤ 1/ 2
U 3
u 1 2 1
Similarly, = + η for ≤η <1 u
U 3 3 2 2U/3 U
1 1/ 2 1
u u 4 4 1 2 1 2
θ = ∫ (1 − )δ dη = δ ∫ η (1 − η )dη + δ ∫ ( + η )(1 − − )dη
0
U U 0
3 3 1/ 2
3 3 3 3
= 0,1574δ
∂u ∂u 4 U
τw= µ =µ = µ
∂y y =0
∂η η =0 3 δ
dδ 4 ν
0,1574 =
dx 3 δ U
δ
4ν νx
0,1574 ∫ δ d δ = dx ⇒ δ ( x) = 4,12
0
3U U
τw 0, 648
Cf = =
1 Re x
ρU 2
2
Example 2 : Viscous drag in thin plate
1
a) FD ,a = ρU 2 ACD ,a
2
l 1,328 1,328
CD ,a = = & A = 4l 2
Rel Ul
ν
4l
U
4l
U ρ ,U , A is the same
l
1,328 1,328
CD,b = =
Re 4l U 4l
ν
a) b) FD ,a CD ,a
= =2
FD ,b C D ,b
The shear stres decreases with distance from the leading edge of the plate.
Thus, even though the plate area is the same for case (a) or (b), the average
shear stress (and the drag) is greater for case (a).
Example 3: Thin flat plate in water tunnel

Parabolic velocity profile:


u y y
= 2( ) − ( ) 2 = 2η − η 2
U δ δ
δ(x) Ul 1, 6.(0,3)
Rel = = = 4,8.105 < 5.105
ν 10 −6

∴ Flow is laminar
L
U
b=1 Viscos drag = FD = 2 ∫ τ wbdx (2 sides of plate)
0
m
∂u ∂u ∂η µ
τw = µ =µ . = U (2 − 2η ) η =0
x ∂y y =0
∂η ∂y η =0 δ
L=0,
2 µU
3m =
δ
5, 48 x
δ=
Re x
2 µU dx 8bµU
L L
4 U UL
FD = 2∫ bdx = bµU ∫ =
0
δ 5, 48 ν 0 x 5, 48 ν
FD = 1, 62 N
Continuity eq. for incompressible flow,
Qinlet = d 0 2U = (0.3*0.3) *0.7 = 0.063 m3 / s
Qinlet = Q( x) = UA = U (d − 2δ * ) 2
A : effective area of the duct (allowing for the decreased flowrate in the b.l.)
Thus,
d 0 2 = (d − 2δ * ) 2 = 0.09 ⇒ d = d 0 + 2δ * = 0.3 + 2δ * [ m ]

νx 1.5*10−5 x
δ = 1.72
*
= 1.72 = 0.00796 x [ m ]
U 0.7
d = 0.3 + 0.0159 x [ m]
d ( x = 3m) ≅ 0.328 [ m ]