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Ch

hapter 1
Ma
achinin
ng of EM
MU Bog
gies
Sectioon 1 Esstablishme nt of Mach
hining Proccess Specifiication

I. Bassic Knowledgge
(I) Prooduction proccess
Production process referrs to the tran
nsformation oof raw materrial (semi-fin
nished producct) into finished product..
The producttion process of mechaniccal products uusually inclu
udes the folloowings:
1 Prooduction andd technical prreparation, ssuch as process design, design
d and mmanufacturin
ng of speciall
process equuipment, deveelopment of production pplan, and preeparation of production
p ddata.
2 Blaank manufactturing, such as casting, fo
forging and punching.
p
3 Parrt machining, such as cuttting, heat treeatment and surface
s treatm
ment.
4 Prodduct assemblly, such as general assem
mbly, compon
nent assemblly, commissiioning, test and
a painting..
5 Prooduction servvices, such ass the supply,, transportation and custo
ody of raw m
materials, purrchased partss
and tools.
Generally, tthe productioon process of mechanicaal products iss complex. Nowadays,
N m
many productts are jointlyy
manufactureed by multtiple specialized factoriees instead of o a single factory. Foor example, an aircraftt
manufacturiing plant neeeds products from many ny other factories (such as engine, eelectrical equ uipment andd
instrumentss) to manufaccture an airccraft throughh mutual colllaboration. Therefore,
T prroduction proocess meanss
either the m
manufacturingg process of the whole m machine or th
he manufactu uring processs of a certain
n componentt
or part.
(II) Proocess
Process reffers to the method
m and course to tuurn various raw materiaals and sem
mi-finished products intoo
finished prooducts.
Process tecchnology reffers to the teechnical opeerating experrience accum mulated graddually by hu
uman beingss
during workk, which is thhe sum of sciience, produuction practicce and labor skills.
s
Process mannagement is to, from the systematic ppoint of vieww, plan, organ
nize, coordinnate, control and monitorr
various process activitiees in producct manufactuuring, so as to
t achieve established obbjectives succh as safety,,
high qualityy, high yield and low con
nsumption.
Process is a basic factorr of the prim
mary productiive force con nstituted by science
s and ttechnology. Where theree
is productioon, there is prrocess. The reasons
r are aas follows:
1 Thee whole courrse of produ uction is subj bject to proceess requirem ments. Especiially in mod
dern massivee
industrial prroduction, thhe fundamenttal roles of pprocess are paarticularly im
mportant andd obvious.
2 Proocess is the basis for orrganizing annd command ding productiion. Based oon the fundamental andd
linking rolees of processs, production
n factors suchh as human beings, mach hines, materrials, method
ds, loops andd
measuremennt are combiined organicaally, so that pproduction activities can be performeed effectively
y.
3 Thee advancemeent of enterprrises' processses determinnes the moderrnization levvel of producction. Duringg
the evaluatiion of processs advancemeent, comprehhensive techn nical and eco
onomic evaluuations need d to be made,,
rather than solely conssidering the process advvancement, equipment
e automation ddegree, etc. The processs
advancemennt and appliicability reflect the optim mal configuuration and reasonable
r uutilization off enterprises''
technical reesources, whhere the evaaluation criteerion is wheether the advancement aand applicab bility fit thee
process cappability for the
t enterprises' productioon and deveelopment. Th herefore, proocess progresss is a basicc
element andd an importannt content off enterprises'' production modernization. It's hard to imagine ana enterprisee
adopting moodern managgement but sttill followingg backward process.
p

·1··
(III) Proocess course
Process couurse means thhe course in production tto change th
he shape, dimmension, relaative position
n, properties,,
etc. of a pproduction object,
o so ass to turn it into a finiished producct or semi-ffinished pro oduct. Blankk
manufacturiing, machiniing, heat treaatment and aassembly aree different kinds of proccess course. If
I the shape,,
are changed directly thrrough machiining to turn
dimension, surface quaality, etc. off a blank ar n it into ann
acceptable part, it is known
k as machining
m pro
rocess coursee. Similarly,, the processs course off assemblingg
machined pparts into a machine to t provide iit with requ uired assemmbly accuraccy and presset technicall
performance is known asa assembly process
p courrse.
(IV) Proocess equipm
ment
Various toools used in product maanufacturing,, such as cu utting tool, clamp, die, gauge, insp
pection tool,,
auxiliary toool, fitter's toool and station
n tool are knnown as process equipment.
(V) Proocess flow
The sequennce from blaank preparatiion to packiing and warehousing of finished prooducts, com mponents andd
parts after w ments of the enterprise or
work in diffeerent departm o different procedures iss known as process
p routee
or process fflow.
(VI) Proocess documeent
Various tecchnical docuuments for directing
d wo rkers' operattion and to be used in production and processs
managemennt are knownn as process documents.
d
(VII) Proocess design
The proceduure for preparing various process doocuments and
d designing process equiipment, etc. is known ass
process desiign.
(VIII) Proocess preparaation
It is necessaary to make the followin
ng preparatioons before pu utting a prodduct into prooduction: maaking review
w
and machinnability anallysis of prodduct drawinngs; proposin ng process schemes;
s preeparing variious processs
documents; designing, manufacturring and adj djusting the process equ uipment; annd designing g reasonablee
production oorganizationn form. Such work is colleectively refeerred to as process preparration.
(IX) Proocess parameter
ntrolled in thee process course to achieeve expectedd technical in
The quantitties to be selected or con ndicators aree
known as prrocess param meters.
(X) Dattum
Datums refefer to the poiint, line and area used too determine the geometric relationshhip among th
he geometricc
elements onn the producction object, which can bbe classified into design datum and process datu um based onn
functions.
Design datuum refers to the
t datum on
n the design ddrawing.
Process dattum refers too the datum used to dettermine the dimension, shape
s and pposition of th
he machinedd
surface in tthe machining process course. It ccan be classiified into prrocedure dattum, positioning datum,,
measuring ddatum and asssembly datuum based on purposes.
The datum used to deteermine the dimension,
d shhape and position of the machined ssurface on th
he proceduree
drawing is known as procedure dattum. In addiition, the dim
mension of the
t machineed surface marked
m out iss
known as prrocedure dim
mension.
Positioning datum refers to the datum
m for positiooning in macchining, whicch is used to obtain a cerrtain positionn
of the workp
kpiece dimensionally. Mo oreover, the ddatum in meaasurement is known as m measuring dattum.
The datum ffor determinning the relatiive position of a part or a componentt in the produuct in assemb
bly is knownn
as assemblyy datum.
(XI) Woorkpiece posiitioning

·2·
A process system consists of machine tool, clamp, cutting tool and workpiece. The relative position accuracy
of the machined surface of the workpiece is guaranteed by the correct position relationship in the process
system. Therefore, it is required to determine whether the workpiece is in the right position in the process
system, i.e., workpiece positioning. The essence of workpiece positioning is to make the workpiece occupy a
correct position in the process system. In other words, the workpiece can occupy the same position after
repeated placement in the clamp. The static error of the process system will lead to the change in the position
of the positioning datum of the machined surface of the workpiece and affect the relative position accuracy
between it and its design datum. However, as long as this variable is within the permissible error range, it
can be deemed that the workpiece has occupied a correct position in the process system, namely, the
workpiece has been positioned correctly.
(XII) Process specification
Contents of machining process course specified in tabular form to act as the technical guidance document for
production is known as machining process specification, which is called process specification for short.
Process specification is not only the basis for directing field production but also the main document for
organizing production and making technical preparations for production. As for a new factory, it is the basis
for proposing production area, plant layout, staffing and equipment procurement, etc. Being technically
advanced and economically reasonable is a prerequisite when the process specification is being prepared.
(XIII) Computer aided process planning (CAPP)
1 Concept
CAPP is a manufacturing method for assisting process personnel to design parts and turn them into finished
products from blanks, as well as a technology converting enterprises' product design data into product
manufacturing data based on computer technology. It refers to the process from inputting the original data,
machining conditions and machining requirements of the part to be machined to the computer, automatic
coding and programming by the computer, to outputting the optimized process specification card finally.
2 Purpose
CAPP is to establish the part machining process course by computer and machine the blank into the part
required by the engineering drawing. The application of CAPP will improve the quality of process
documents, shorten the production preparation cycle and provide a feasible route for releasing massive
process personnel from tedious and repetitive work.
3 Contents
CAPP system is mainly used to solve two problems, i.e., the determination of part process route and the
design of procedure. The contents mainly include:
(1) Process decision-making, also known as process route development, which includes determining the
machining method of each cutting surface of the part and identifying the reasonable machining sequence.
Meanwhile, it also needs to select the machine tool and relevant process equipment for each procedure, such
as clamp, cutting tool and gauge. In addition, it also includes determining the arrangement of clamping,
station and step of each procedure.
(2) Determination of process dimension, which includes selection of machining allowance, calculation
of procedure dimension and determination of tolerance.
(3) Process parameter decision-making. Process parameter is also known as cutting parameter or cutting
data, which refers to cutting speed (v), feed rate (f) and cutting depth (ap) in general. For most machine tools,
cutting speed also can be expressed in spindle speed.
(4) Calculation of working hour quota. Working hour (machining time) quota means the time specified
for manufacturing a product or completing a procedure under certain production conditions, which is the
important basis for measuring labor productivity and calculating machining cost (parts cost). Advanced and
reasonable working hour quota is significant for an enterprise to organize reasonable production, perform
economic accounting, follow the principle of distribution according to work and improve labor productivity
constantly. It is also one of the important elements of procedure design.

·3·
(5) Outtput of proceedure card. As
A the guidaance documeent for worksshop producttion, each faactory makess
uniform andd clear regullations on thee tabular form
rm of the carrd, which shaall come intoo effect afterr being filledd
out and connfirmed by prrocess personnnel and disttributed to workshops.
w
(XIV) Prooduction proggram
The quantity
ty of productts to be manuufactured andd the scheduule of producction in the pplanned perio
od constitutee
the producttion program
m. Its scale iss important tto the produ
uction organiization formm and the parrt machiningg
process, whhich determiines the speccialization aand automatiion degree ofo each proccedure requirred, and thee
process metthod and process equipmment for the appplication seelected.
(XV) Prooduction typee
The classifiication of thee production specializatioon degree off the enterprise (or worksshop, work section, workk
team and wworkplace) is known as production
p tyype, includin
ng single piece productioon, batch pro
oduction andd
mass producction in geneeral.
1 Single piece prooduction
Definition: producing prroducts of diifferent strucctures and dim
mensions ind
dividually.
Features: a great varieety of produucts, small ooutput of eaach product, and very llittle repetitiive work inn
production. For examplle, both the manufacturin
m ng of heavy mechanical products annd the trial production off
new produccts are single piece produ
uction.
2 Battch productioon
Definition: manufacturinng the same products in bbatches and stages within
n one year.
Features: m
manufacturingg the same products
p in bbatches with
h periodic rep petition in pproduction. For
F example,,
machine toool manufactuuring and mo otor manufaacturing are batch
b producction. Furtheermore, batch h productionn
also can bee classified into
i small batch
b producction, medium m batch pro oduction andd large batch h productionn
based on thee size of the batch. Amonng them, in tterms of the process charracteristics, ssmall batch production
p iss
similar to single piece production
p and
a large battch productio on is similarr to mass prooduction, wh hile mediumm
batch produuction falls between smalll batch produuction and laarge batch prroduction.
3 Mass productionn
Definition: manufacturinng the same products reppeatedly in th
he whole yeaar.
Features: laarge output, only
o a few varieties,
v andd long-term repetition
r of a certain proocedure of a certain part..
For examplee, the manuffacturing of automobiles,
a tractors and
d bearings is mass producction.
The classifiication of production typpes is not onnly related to
o production program butt also takes into accountt
the productt size and coomplexity, ass shown in T Table 1⁃1. See
S Table 1⁃2 for the maain characterristics of thee
process couurse of each production
p ty
ype.
Table 1⁃1 Specifiications of diifferent produ
uction types
Annual produ
uction program
m of parts (pieece/year)
Prooduction type
Heavy
H machinnery Medium
M mach
hinery Small macchinery
Single ppiece productiion <5 <20 <100
0
Small battch
5~100 20~200 100~2
200
productioon
Batch
Medium baatch
producti 100~300 200~500 500~50
000
productioon
on
Large battch
300~10000 500~5000
0 5000~50
0000
productioon
Masss production >1000 >5000 >5000
00

·4·
Table 1⁃2 Characteristics of process course of various production types
Characteristics of Process Course of Various Production Types
Characteristics of process Production type
course Single piece production Batch production Mass production
Generally, they are All have interchangeability.
manufactured in pairs, Most have interchangeability, Some fitting pieces with high
Interchangeability of
without interchangeability, and a few of them are fitted accuracy are assembled with
workpieces
and widely fitted and and assembled by fitters. group selective assembly
assembled by fitters. method.
Castings are widely molded
Castings are molded A part of castings are molded by metal mold machine.
manually with wooden by metal molds and a part of Die forging and other
Manufacturing method
molds, and forgings are forgings are subject to die efficient blank manufacturing
and machining allowance
forged freely. The blank forging. The blank has a methods are widely adopted
of blank
has a low accuracy and medium accuracy and medium for forgings. The blank has a
large machining allowance. machining allowance. high accuracy and little
machining allowance.
CNC machine tool machining
Universal machine tool, center or flexible Special production line,
CNC machine tool or manufacturing cell. In case of automatic production line,
Machine tool equipment machining insufficient equipment flexible manufacturing
conditions, universal machine production line or CNC
center tools and special machine tools machine tool
are used partially.
Standard accessories are
commonly used, and clamp Clamps or combined clamps Efficient clamps are widely
is rarely used; the accuracy are widely used, and some are used, and the accuracy
Clamp
requirement is reached installed at one time by the requirement is reached by
through marking out and machining center. clamps and adjustment.
trial cutting
Special cutting tool, special Efficient cutting tools and
General cutting tool and gauge or three-coordinate gauges are widely used, or
Cutting tool and gauge
universal gauge are used. measuring machine can be the quality is guaranteed by
used statistical analysis
There are low technical
Workers and programmers requirements for operators,
Skilled workers are
Requirements for workers with certain proficiency are but high quality requirements
required
required for production line
maintenance personnel.
There is process specification
There is simple process There is detailed process
Process specification and detailed process
route card specification
specification for key parts

II. Composition of Machining Process Course


As shown in Fig. 1⁃1, machining process course consists of one or several tactic procedures, which can be
divided into several installations, stations, steps and feeds. Blank is turned into finished product through
machining by such procedures successively.

·5·
Process course

Procedure Procedure Procedure


P

Installation Installation In
nstallation

Station Station Station

Step Step Step

Feed Feed Feed

Fig. 1⁃1 Compoosition of maachining process course


1 Proocedure
Procedure rrefers to the process
p courrse completeed by one wo orker or a grooup of workkers at one workplace
w forr
one or seveeral workpiecces simultan neously. The main basis for differenttiating the prrocedures is whether thee
workplace ((or equipmennt) is changed and whethher the processs content co ompleted is ccontinuous. For
F example,,
the part in F
Fig. 1⁃2 needs to be drilled and ream med. If work
kpieces in thee same batchh are, one by
y one, drilledd
and reamedd on the sam me machine tool,
t drillingg and reamin
ng constitute a proceduree. However, if the entiree
batch of woorkpieces are all drilled fiirst and then reamed, drillling and ream
ming are twoo separate prrocedures.
Procedure is not only thhe basic unit constitutingg a process co
ourse, but alsso the basis ffor determin
ning workingg
hour quota, staffing, woork arrangem
ment and quallity inspectioon.
2 Insttallation and station
Occupying a correct position
p (possitioning) onn the machinne tool or the clamp annd fixing tig ghtly beforee
workpiece m machining iss known as clamping.
c Thhe process co
ontent complleted for the workpiece (or ( assemblyy
unit) after oone time of clamping is known as innstallation. There
T can be one or sevveral installaations in onee
procedure. The clampinng times in workpiece m machining shhall be minim mized, sincee each time of clampingg
bears an errror and leadds to increasse of auxiliaary time. Th herefore, varrious rotatingg workbench hes, rotatingg
clamps or m movable clam mps are com mmonly usedd in productiion to send workpieces
w tto different positions
p forr
machining aafter only onne time of cllamping. To complete a certain proceedure, each pposition occu upied by thee
workpiece ((or assemblyy unit) and th he movable ppart of the cllamp or the equipment reelative to thee position off
t equipmeent after one time of clam
the fixed paart of the cuttting tool or the mping is know wn as a statiion. Fig. 1⁃33
shows the example off machining at four stattions for wo orkpiece asssembling & disassembliing, drilling,,
expanding aand reaming in sequence after one tim me of clamping by one rootating workbbench.

Expanding Reaming
Thhird step Counter
boring
Drilling
Drilling
Secondd step Assemblingg and
disassembbling

First step Workpiece

Clamp

·6·
Fig. 1⁃2 Parrt Fig. 1⁃3 Multi--station mach
hining

3 Stepp
The proceddure completted on the saame machinned surface, with the sam me cutting ttool, and at the constantt
cutting speeed and feed rate
r is known
n as a step. Itt is the basic unit constitu
uting a proceedure.
Several cuttting tools aree usually useed for machinning several surfaces sim
multaneously to improve productivity.
p .
Such a step is known as a compositee step as show wn in Fig. 1⁃4.

Workpiece

Fig. 1⁃4 posite step


Comp
4 Feeed
Feed (also kknown as woorking strokee) means thee work completed by the cutting tool relative to th he machinedd
me of cuttingg. Each step may includee one feed orr several feeeds. Fig. 1⁃5
surface of tthe workpiecce in one tim
shows the pprocedure of machining shaft ϕ85 intoo shaft ϕ65 to
t form the sttepped shaft through twoo feeds.
Fig. 1⁃6 shoows the exam
mples of the process couurses of two production types
t of the stepped shafft with semi--
enclosed keeyway. The relationship among proccedures, installations, staations, steps and feeds can
c be learntt
from the figgure.

First step att Ø85

First step at Ø65

Secondary fee
ed
Second step
Primary feed
d

Fig. 1⁃5 Prroducing step


pped shaft with
w bar

·7··
Installation

Installation
Procedure
Process of Singgle piece Production

Procedure
Process of Batch Prroduction

Station

Station
Feed

Feed
Step

Step
1 Assembling and
1 Milling end face and drilling center hole

disassembling
2 Milling end face
3 Drilling center hole
1 Lathing (forming of each part)

2 Lathing
3 Lathing
4 Milling groove
2 Milling groove

Fig. 1⁃6 Examples off process cou


urses
III. Purrpose and Priinciple of Esttablishing M
Machining Pro
ocess Specifi
fication
(I) Purrpose of machhining proceess specificattion
1 main technicaal document for guiding production but also thee
Proocess specificcation is nott only the m
basis for diirecting fieldd production. As for the factory of mass
m production, due to the rigorouss productionn
organizationn and detaileed labor division, the prrocess speciffication shalll be detailedd to facilitatee productionn
organizationn and comm manding. As for the factoory of singlee piece and small batch production, the processs
specificationn can be sim mple. Howev n is necessarry whatever the producttion scale is;;
ver, process specification
otherwise, production dispatching g, technical preparation ns, key tecchnical reseearches and d equipmentt
configuratioon, etc. cannnot be arrangged, and the production will fall intoo disorder. Inn the meantiime, processs
specificationn is also thee basis for handling
h prodduction probblems. For example,
e thee responsibiliities of eachh
production unit can be clarified as perp the proceess specificaation in case of any quallity problem.. Abiding byy
the process specificatioon is helpful for guarantteeing produ uct quality, obtaining
o higgh productio on efficiencyy
and ensurinng economic benefit.
2 Proocess specificcation is the fundamentall basis for prroduction organization aand managemment. Firstly,,
with the prrocess speciffication, releevant techni cal preparattions, such as a preparingg machine toool for partss
machining and designinng special to ools, clamps and gaugess, can be maade before thhe productio on is started..
Secondly, tthe design anda dispatchiing departm ments of the factory can arrange thee feed time and rate forr
various partts and adjustt the equipm ment load, annd production n can be perfformed at eaach workplacce as per thee
working houur quota rhyythmically, so o that variouus divisions, workshops, work sectionns and workp places of thee
entire enterpprise can coooperate closeely to compleete the produuction plan uniformly.
3 Proocess specifiication is thhe basic info formation for the new or modifiedd (expanded)) factory orr
workshop. W When establiishing a new w factory or w workshop or modifying (expanding)
( tthe factory or
o workshop,,
the categoriies, quantitiees and specifiications of thhe machine to
ools and otheer equipmentnt required foor productionn,
workshop aarea, work tyypes, technical grades annd quantity of production n workers as well as the arrangementt
of auxiliaryy departmentss can be deteermined onlyy based on th he process specification.

·8·
However, process specification is not fixed. It is the production workers and technicians' practice summary
in production process that can be modified according to the actual production situation and thus getting
improved and perfected constantly. But strict approval formalities need to go through.
(II) Establishment principle of machining process specification
The establishment of process specification should follow the principles of high quality, high yield and low
cost, i.e., striving for the best economic benefit on the premise of ensuring product quality. Attention shall be
paid to the followings when establishing process specification:
1 Technical advancement
It is required to learn the developmental level of the process technology at home and abroad and apply
advanced processes and process equipment actively through necessary process tests in the industry when
establishing process specification.
2 Economic rationality
Under certain production conditions, there might be several process schemes that meet the part technical
requirements. In this case, it is required to select the most reasonable scheme economically through
accounting or mutual comparison, so as to ensure the lowest energy and material consumption and the lowest
production cost.
3 Good working conditions
Good and safe working conditions for workers shall be guaranteed when establishing process specification.
Therefore, mechanization or automation measures shall be taken in the process scheme to reduce
complicated manual labor.
IV. Types of Machining Process Specifications
(I) Machining process course card
It is the process card describing the whole machining of a part with procedure as the unit. The contents of
such card include the name of each part procedure, procedure contents, workshops and work sections
involved, machine tools, cutting tools, clamps and gauges used, and working hour quota. It is mainly used in
single piece/small batch production and production management as shown in Table 1⁃3.
Table 1⁃3 Machining process course card
Product name and
Part name Drawing No. of part
model
Gross
Machining Name and Category & weight Page X
(Factory brand dimension & net of Y
process Blank Part mass (kg)
name) weight
course card Materia
l

Number per kinds of Number


Performance Number per set
material per batch

Machi Process equipment


Time quota (min)
Procedure ning Equipment name and name and number Technical
Procedure content
No. works number Cutting grade Single Preparati
hop Clamp Gauge
tool piece on - end

·9·
Contents
modified

Checked
Prepared by Transcribed by Reviewed by Approved by
by

(II) Machining process card


It is used to explain the part machining process course in details with the procedure as the unit, whose
contents fall between those of the process course card and the procedure card. It is the main process
document for directing workers to perform production and helping workshop cadres and technicians to get
hold of the whole part machining process, and it is widely used for important parts or procedures in batch
production and single piece/small batch production, as shown in Table 1⁃4.
Table 1⁃4 Machining process card
Product name and
Part name Drawing No. of part
model
Designatio Gross
Machining Category Page X of Y
n weight
(Factory name) process Blank Part mass (kg)
card Net
Material Brand Size
weight
Performan Number per kinds Number per
Number per set
ce of material batch
Cutting data Process equipment Time quota (min)
Number of parts being

Equipment name and


Procedure content

Technical grade
simultaneously

of the cutting edge

Feed rate (mm/r or


Back engagement

Preparation - end
Speed (r/min) or
Installation
Procedure

machined

Cutting speed
number (min)
double stroke

number

Single piece
Cutting tool
Step

mm/min)

(m/min)

Clamp

Gauge
(mm)

Prepared Transcribed
Contents modified Checked by Reviewed by Approved by
by by

(III) Machining procedure card


It is the most detailed process document used for directing workers' operations, the contents of which include
the procedure sketch, the machined surface of the procedure, the dimension accuracy and roughness required,
the installation mode of the workpiece, the cutting data and the tooling equipment, as shown in Table 1⁃5.
V. Establishment Basis and Steps of Machining Process Specification
(I) Establishment basis
It is necessary to depend on the original data below when establishing the process specification:
Table 1⁃5 Machining procedure card
Machining Product name and model Part name Drawing No. of part Procedure Name Procedure No. Page X of Y
(Factory
procedure
name)
card
Material Mechanical
Workshop Work section Material name
trademark property

(Where the procedure sketch is to be drawn)


Number of
workpieces being Number per kinds of Single piece Preparation - end
Technical grade
machined material time (min) time (min)
simultaneously

·10·
Equuipment
Equ
uipment number Clamp name Clamp number Working fluid
Desscription

Contents modified
Working hour C
Cutting tools, gaugges and auxiliary
Calculating datta (mm) Cuutting data
quota
q (min) toolls
Step number

Step content

Feed times

Speed (r/min) or
the cutting edge

Feed rate (mm/r

Service time of
engagement of

Auxiliary time
Cutting speed
number (min)
double stroke

Specification
Step

Designation
Diameter or

Feed length

or mm/min)

Basic time

workplace
allowance
Unilateral

(m/min)

p number
length

(mm)

Back

Qty.
SN
Transcribed
T
Prepared by by Checcked by Reviewed by Approved by
y

1 Prooduct drawinggs and technical conditioons, such as product


p assem
mbly drawinng and part drrawing.
2 Prooduct processs schemes, su
uch as produuct acceptance quality critteria and blannk informatiion.
3 Prooduct componnents and paarts process rroute table or
o workshop labor divisioon schedule for learningg
product andd enterprise management
m situation.
4 Prooduct producttion program
m (annual outtput) for deteermining production typee.
5 Thee enterprise'ss production n conditions.. In order to
o guarantee feasible proocess specifiication, it iss
necessary to learn and be familiar with the ennterprise's production co onditions, suuch as blank
k productionn
capacity, wworkers' technnical level, manufacturin
m ng capacity ofo special eq
quipment andd process equ uipment andd
the state of the enterprisse's current equipment.
6 Rellevant processs standards, such as variious process manuals and charts. Bessides, it is reequired to bee
familiar witth various ennterprise stan
ndards of the enterprise an
nd industrial standards.
7 Rellevant equipm
ment, processs equipmentt and inform mation. It is necessary
n to learn the equ
uipment andd
process equuipment usedd in the proccess specificaation in deptth, such as specification
s n, performancce, state andd
current accuuracy.
8 Rellevant processs data of sim
milar productts at home an
nd abroad.
It is often required to research rellevant proceess data at home
h and ab
broad, activeely introduce applicablee
advanced pprocess techhnologies an nd constantlyy improve process
p leveel in the esstablishmentt of processs
specificationn, so as to obbtain the max
ximum econ omic benefitt.
(II) Estaablishment steps
s
1 Callculate the paart production program annd determinee production type.

·11··
2 Analyze product assembly drawings and part drawings (mainly including the machinability,
assembly performance, main machined surfaces and technical requirements of the part) and learn the
function of the part in the product.
3 Determine the type, structure, shape and manufacturing method, etc. of the blank.
4 Propose process route, including selection of positioning datum, determination of machining
methods of various surfaces, division of machining stages, determination of degree of procedure
concentration and dispersion, and reasonable arrangement of machining sequence.
5 Determine the machining allowance or each procedure and figure out the procedure dimension and
tolerance.
6 Select equipment and process equipment.
7 Determine cutting data and figure out time quota.
8 Fill out process document.
When establishing process specification, it is often required to adjust the contents preliminarily determined
before to improve economic benefit. There might be unexpected situations when executing the process
specification, such as the change in production conditions, introduction of new technologies and processes as
well as the application of new materials and advanced equipment. In this case, it is required to revise and
perfect the process specification in time.
VI. The Main Problems Solved by Establishing Process Specification
The main problems solved by establishing process specification include process analysis of part drawing, as
well as selection of blank and station datum.
(I) Machinability analysis of part
1 When analyzing and researching the part drawing and assembly drawing of the product before
establishing part machining process specification, it is required to research the part working drawing and the
product assembly drawing, be familiar with product purpose, performance and working conditions, clarify
the position and function of the part in the product, learn and research the establishment basis of various
technical conditions and find out the main technical requirements and key technologies, so as to take proper
measures for guarantee when proposing the process specification.
The purposes of process analysis mainly include two aspects. The first is to review whether the structure,
shape, dimension accuracy, relative position accuracy, surface roughness, material, heat treatment and other
technical requirements of the part are reasonable and can facilitate machining and assembly. The second is to
further learn the process requirements of the part through process analysis, so as to prepare a reasonable
process specification.
As for the automobile steel sheet spring shackle in Fig. 1⁃7, since the steel sheet spring will not contact with
both sides of the shackle in service, it is suggested that the roughness on the inner side of the shackle be
changed to Ra 12.5μm from original Ra 32μm in the design. In this way, only rough milling rather than fine
milling is required, which reduces the milling time.
For another example, as for the square head pin in Fig. 1⁃8, whose head is required to have the quenching
hardness of 55~60HRC. The material selected is T8A, and there is one ϕ2H7 hole on the part required to be
fitted during assembly. Since the part length is only 15mm, and the square head length is only 4mm, if T8A
material is subject to local quenching, it will be hardened in the entire length inevitably, and ϕ2H7 hole
cannot be machined during fitting. However, if the material is changed to 20Cr for carburization, the
problem can be solved.

·12·
Leaf spring

Ø2H7 (accessory))

Fig. 1⁃7 Automobile steel sheeet spring shacckle Fig. 1⁃8 Squaare head pin

2 Reqquirements on
o part structu
ure from maachining
(1) Be convenient for
f clamping
The part sttructure shalll be convennient for thee positioning g and clampiing during m machining and
a reducingg
clamping tiimes. The paart in Fig. 1⁃9 (a) is prroposed to be b clamped by center annd heart carrrier, but thee
structure is inconveniennt for clampin
ng. If it is chhanged to thee structure in
n Fig. (b), the
he device can
n be clampedd
convenientlly.

(a) Before modification (b) After modification

Fig. 1⁃9 Example off a part structture convenient for clampping


(2) Be convenient for
f machining
Standard vaalues shall be selected fo
or the part sttructure so as
a to facilitate the applicaation of stan
ndard cuttingg
tools and gaauges. Meannwhile, attenttion shall be paid to retraacting and feeed to guaranntee machiniing accuracyy
and reduce machining area
a ficult-to-machhine surface. Table 1⁃6 shows the exxamples of part
and diffi p structuree
convenient for machininng.

·13··
Tablee 1⁃6 E
Examples of part machinaability
Structure A with
w poor Structure B with good
SN Descrription
machinabbility machinnability

Since structure B has the ssame keyway dimension


d
1 and orientatio
on, all keywayys can be macchined in one
time of clampping to improvve productivitty.

Cutting tool is
i hard to be inntroduced in machining
m of
2
structure A.

Structure B has
h a small botttom contact area,
a small
3
machining ammount and goood stability.

Structure B has
h tool withdrrawal groove,, which
4 ensures the machining
m posssibility and reeduces
cutting tool (grinding wheeel) abrasion.

The drill bit is


i easy to deviiate or be brok
ken when
5
machining th he hole on struucture A.

Deep-hole machining is avvoided and parrt material is


6 saved by stru
ucture B with sstable and reliiable
fastening con
nnection.

Structure B has
h the same ggroove dimenssion, which
7 helps minimizing cutting toool categoriess and tool
changing tim
me.

(3) Be convenient for


f CNC macchine tool maachining
The CNC machinabilitty problems of the parrt machined involves a wide rangee. The follo
owing is thee
machinabiliity analysis made
m based on
o the prograamming posssibility and convenience.
c
Whether it iis conveniennt for programmming is an indicator deetermining CNC machinaability in most cases. Forr
F 1⁃10 is subject to abstract dim
example, thhe part in Fig. mension marking methodd. If writing g the sourcee
program off the part with APT lan nguage, you will get intto trouble whenw describiing the partt shape withh
geometric ddefinition staatement sincee point B andd its straight line OB are hard to be deefined. We need
n to solvee
m by detour, namely, draaw a straightt line L3 out of point B parallel
this problem p to L11 and define it, and then,,
define straigght line AB to figure ou ut the point of intersectiion between L3 and AB,, afterwards,, define OB..
Otherwise, manual com mputation witthout the com mputer is neccessary, but iti shall be avvoided as farr as possible..

·14·
It can be leearnt from the
t fact thatt dimension marking meethod on thee part drawiing has greaat impact onn
machinabiliity. For this reason, diffeerent requireements shall be put forward for the ppart design drawing,
d andd
the dimensiion data on the drawin ng shall be cconvenient forf program mming for alll parts subject to CNC C
machining.

Uniform geeometric type or dimension shall preeferably be selected for part shape aand inner ch hamber. Thee
marked sam mple with pooor machinab bility in Figg. 1⁃10 can be solved by y reducing ttool changinng times andd
shortening pprogram lenggth with app plication conntrol program
m or special program.
p aking Fig. 1⁃11 (a) as ann
Tak
example, mmachinability quality can beb identifiedd easily sincee cutting tooll diameter is determined by fillet sizee.
Therefore, standardizedd design strructure and dimension shall be reecommendedd for some main CNC C
machined pparts. In addittion, Fig. 1⁃11 (b) indicaates that macchining by baall-end cutter
er shall be av
voided wheree
possible (RR=r), and d=2
d (R-r) iss assumed generally. Furthermore
F , some CN NC machine tools havee
symmetricaal machining function. Ass for some syymmetrical partsp wn in Fig. 1⁃ 12 in prograamming, it iss
as show
required to pprogram onlly one half, which
w can savve much proogramming time.

Fig. 1⁃11 Coomparison off CNC machiinability


(4) Be convenient for
f measurem
ment
Measuremeent possibilitty and conveenience shalll be taken into i accountt when desiggning part structure.
s Ass
shown in FFig. 1⁃13, it is required to t figure outt the parallelism between the hole ccenterline an nd the datum
m
plane A. Ass for the struccture in Fig. 1⁃13 (a), thhe parallelism
m is hard to be
b measured since the boottom boss iss
offset towarrds one sidee. However, one symmeetrical processs boss is ad entered in Fiig. 1⁃13 (b),,
dded and cen
which makees it much more
m convenieent for measuurement.

Fig. 1-12 L
Legends of symmetrical
s parts

·15··
3 Thee requiremennts on part machinability
m y from assem mbly and repaair are that thhe part structure shall bee
convenient for disassem mbly and asseembly duringg assembly and a repair, as a shown in FFig. 1⁃14. Among
A them,,
the left figuure structure in (a) has no
o air vent, thhe air in the pin hole is hard
h to be diischarged, thhus the pin iss
hard to be mmounted. Thee modified sttructure is shhown in the right
r picture of Fig. (a).

(a) Structu
ure before modificaation (b) Structure after modificationn

Fig. 1⁃13 Example


E of a part structurre convenien
nt for measurrement
In Fig. (b), grooviing at the sh haft shouldeer or chamfeering at the hole is allow wed to ensuure the closee
attachment between shaaft shoulder and support face. Fig. (cc) shows fittting of two pparts. Since there can bee
only one poositioning baase plane in one directioon, the left figure in Fig g. (c) is unre
reasonable, and
a the rightt
figure is reaasonable. In Fig. (d), screew in the lefft figure cann
not be inserteed since the screw assemmbly space iss
too small. TThe modifiedd structure is shown as thee right figuree in Fig. (d).

4 uniformly
u
disstributed
scrrew holes

Fig. 1⁃14 Exxample of a part


p structuree Fig. 1⁃15 Examplle of a part sttructure
conveniennt for assemb
bly convenient for ddisassembly

Fig. 1⁃15 iss the examplee of a part sttructure convvenient for diisassembly and
a assemblyy. In the left figure in Figg.
(a), the bearring inner rinng cannot bee disassembleed or assemb bled since th
he shaft shouulder exceedss the bearingg
inner ring. F
Fig. (b) showws the press--in bushing. If several screw holes arre left on thee end face off the shell byy
design as shhown in the right
r figure in
n Fig. (b), thhe bushing caan be pushedd out by the sscrew.
4 Main technical requirements
r s for part anaalysis include:
(1) Shaape accuracyy of the mach
hined surfacee (including shape
s dimenssion accuracy
cy and shape tolerance).
(2) Rellative positioon accuracy between
b maiin machined surfaces (inccluding distaance dimensiion accuracyy
and positionn tolerance).
(3) Rouughness of thhe machined surface and other surface quality req
quirements.
·16·
(4) Heat treatment and other requirements.
Primary surface and secondary surface can be differentiated through analysis of part technical requirements.
The surface with high requirements on the four aspects above is primary surface, which shall be guaranteed
with various process measures. A preliminary outline is formed for part machining process route and
machining method is formed after analysis of structural machinability and technical requirement of the part,
so as to prepare for establishing the process specification in the next step.
If poor structural machinability, unreasonable technical requirements or other problems are found out in
process analysis, modification opinions can be put forward for part design, and it can be modified by the
designer after being approved by the designer and after specified approval formalities have been gone
through.
(II) Blank selection
Selection of blank category not only affects the manufacturing process and cost of the blank but also is
closely related to the machining process and machining quality of the part. Therefore, it is required to
determine the blank category, structure and shape reasonably and draw out the blank drawing through close
cooperation between blank manufacturing and machining process personnel.
1 Common blank categories
Common blank categories include cast blank, forged blank, section, welded blank and other blanks.
(1) Cast blank
Generally, the blank of complex shape is manufactured with casting method. At present, most castings are
cast by sand mold. Besides, special casting can be applied to the small casting with high requirements on
dimension accuracy, such as permanent casting, precision casting, pressure casting, investment casting and
centrifugal casting.
(2) Forged blank
Since continuous and uniform metal fiber texture can be obtained after forging of the forged blank, the
forging has good mechanical properties and is commonly applied to the important steel part subject to
complex stresses. To be specific, the free forging has a low accuracy and low productivity and is mainly used
for small batch production and the manufacturing of large forging. The model forging has a high dimension
accuracy and high productivity and is mainly used for medium and small forgings with a high output.
(3) Section
Section mainly includes plate, bar and wire. Common section shapes include circle, square, hexagon and
special section shapes. It can be classified into hot rolling and cold drawing based on manufacturing methods.
Hot-rolled section has a large dimension and a low accuracy, which is applied to general mechanical parts.
Cold-drawn section has a high dimension and a high accuracy, which is mainly applied to the medium and
small parts with high requirements on blank accuracy.
(4) Weldment
Weldment is mainly used for single piece/small batch production and trial production of large parts and
prototypes. It has the advantages of easy manufacturing, short production cycle, saving in material and
weight reduction. However, it has poor vibration resistance and large deformation, and can only be used for
machining after aging treatment.
(5) Other blanks
Other blanks include punching part, powder metallurgy part, cold-extruded part and plastic pressed part.
2 Blank selection principle
The factors below shall be taken into account when selecting blanks:
(1) Part production program
The blank manufacturing method with a high accuracy and productivity shall be selected for the parts subject
to mass production, and the high cost for blank manufacturing can be compensated by the reduction of

·17·
materials consumption and machining fee, such as forming and casting the casting precisely with metal mold
machine, applying die forging and fine forging to the forging, and selecting cold-drawn and cold-rolled
section. The blank manufacturing method with a low accuracy and productivity shall be selected for single
piece and small batch production.
(2) Machinability of part material
Cast blank shall be selected for the part made of cast iron or bronze; section can be selected when the shape
of the steel part is uncomplicated and the requirements on mechanical properties are low; and forging blank
shall be selected for important steel parts to guarantee their mechanical properties.
(3) Structure, shape and dimension of part
The blank of complex shape is manufactured with casting method in general. Thin-wall parts should not be
cast by sand mold. As for general stepped shaft, round bar can be selected in case of little difference in the
diameters of various sections, and forged blank should be selected to reduce materials consumption and the
machining workload in case of large difference in the diameters of various sections. Furthermore, free
forging is applied to large parts and die forging can be selected for medium and all parts in general.
(4) Existing production conditions
When selecting blank, it is also necessary to take the blank manufacturing level, equipment conditions,
outsourcing possibility and economy, etc. of the factory into account.
(5) Application of new technologies
The application of new processes, new technologies and new materials on blank manufacturing develops fast
with the development of mechanical manufacturing technology. For example, the application of fine casting,
fine forging, cold extrusion, powder metallurgy and engineering plastics is increased day by day in
machinery. The adoption of such methods reduces the machining quantity greatly. Sometimes the machining
requirements can be met without machining, and significant economic benefit can be generated. Therefore,
comprehensive review shall be made when selecting blanks, and such methods shall be adopted as far as
possible if conditions permit.
3 Blank shape and dimension
Blank shape and dimension are mainly determined by the shape, structure, dimension and machining
allowance, etc. of the material surface, which shall be close to that of the part to reduce machining workload
and achieve less or no cutting. However, certain machining allowance still needs to be reserved on some
surfaces of the blank due to the restrictions of existing blank manufacturing technology and cost and the
increasingly higher machining accuracy and surface quality requirements of the product parts, so as to reach
the technical requirement of the part through machining.
The difference between blank dimension and the dimension on the part drawing is known as blank allowance.
The difference between the maximum dimension and the minimum dimension allowed by the casting
nominal dimension is known as the dimension tolerance of the casting. Blank allowance is related to blank
dimension, position and shape. For example, the machining allowance of the cast blank is determined by the
maximum dimension and nominal dimension (the maximum distance between two relative machined
surfaces or the distance from the datum plane to the machined surface) of the casting, blank casting position
(top surface, bottom surface and side surface) and cast hole dimension. As for single piece/small batch
production, the hole less than 30mm in diameter on the casting and the hole less than 60mm in diameter on
the steel casting may not be formed. As for the forging, if free forging is applied, the hole with the diameter
less than 30mm or the length-diameter ratio over 3 may not be formed. Moreover, fillet and draft angle shall
be considered for the forging. Through hole shall not be directly formed for the die forging with hole; instead,
punching recess shall be reserved.
As for the determination of blank shape and dimension, in addition to attaching the blank allowance to
corresponding machined surface of the part, the impact from process factors, such as blank manufacturing,
machining and heat treatment shall be taken into account sometimes. In this case, the blank shape may be
inconsistent with the workpiece shape. For example, in order to facilitate installation during machining,
necessary process boss shall be formed for some casting blanks, as shown in Fig. 1⁃16. And the process boss
shall be cut off after part machining in general. For another example, lathe split nut enclosure is a casting

·18·
combined bby two partss, which shaall not be cuut open untill machining to certain sstage so as to
t guaranteee
machining qquality and convenience,
c as shown inn Fig. 1⁃17.

Fig. 1⁃16 Processs boss Fig. 1⁃17


7 Schem matic diagraam of
lathe split nut enclosure

Sometimes,, it is acceptaable to integgrate some sm


mall parts in
nto a blank to
o improve prroductivity anda facilitatee
clamping inn machining. The feather key in Fig. 1 ⁃18 is a forrging, which can be cut innto individual parts afterr
integrating several partss into a blank
k and machinning both sid
de surfaces an F 1⁃19 is a
nd planes off the blank. Fig.
washer, whiich shall be integrated in nto a blank w
with several parts.
p The bllank shall bee taken from a long tube,,
whose innerr hole diameeter shall be less
l than thatt of the washher. During turning,
t clammp the outer circle of onee
end by chucck and place the other end against a ccenter, and, at
a this time, the outer circcle and the grroove can bee
turned. Andd then, clampp the longer part
p of the oouter circle by chuck and drill hole wwith a ϕ16mm m drill bit. Inn
veral washer parts.
this way, it can be separrated into sev

A
All

(a)
( Feather Key Paart (b) Blank

g. 1⁃18
Fig y part and blank
Feather key

(b) Outer ciircle turning and cllamping


metthods in grooving

(a) Washer

(c) Drilling inner hole

Fig. 1⁃19
9 Integrral blank and
d machining of washer
(III) Dattum and worrkpiece positiioning

·19··
When prepaaring machinning specification, whethher the selecttion of positioning datum
m is reasonab
ble has directt
influence onn the dimennsion accuraccy and relatiive position accuracy off the part maachined surfaace, and hass
significant iinfluence onn the arrangement of macchining sequuence. The process coursse changes depending onn
the positionning datum.
1 Dattum and its classification
c
Datum referrs to the poinnt, line and area
a used to determine th
he geometriccal relationshhip among th
he geometricc
elements onn the produuction object. It can be classified in
nto design datum
d and pprocess datu
um based onn
functions.
(1) Dessign datum
Design datuum means thee datum used F 1⁃20 (a)), axis O-O oof the drill bu
d in design ddrawings. In Fig. ushing is thee
design datuum of the surrfaces and in
nner holes off various outeer circles; en
nd face A is the design datum
d of endd
faces B andd C; and the shaft axis off the inner hhole surface D is the desiign datum off the radial runout
r of thee
surface of ϕ
ϕ40h6 outer circle and th he end face runout of en nd face B. Similarly, surrface F in Fiig. (b) is thee
design datuum of surfacees C and E, as well as thhe design dattum of the perpendicular
p rity of two holes
h and thee
parallelism of surface C;
C and surfaace A is the design datum of the disstance dimennsion and paarallelism off
surface B.
Sometimes,, the point, liine and area acting as thhe design dattum may nott exist speciffically on thee workpiece,,
such as thee geometric center, symm metric line aand symmettry plane of the surface.. Instead, they are oftenn
reflected byy some speciffic areas kno
own as base pplane.
(2) Proocess datum
Process dattum means the
t datum used
u to deteermine the dimension,
d shhape and poosition of th
he machinedd
surface in the proceduure in machining processs course, which
w can be
b classifiedd into procedure datum,,
positioning datum, meassuring datum
m and assembbly datum baased on purpo
oses.

g. 1⁃20
Fig Datum anaalysis examp
ples
① Possitioning datuum
The datum for positioniing in machiining is know wn as positioning datum
m. For exampple, when the mandrel iss
inserted intoo the inner hole
h p in Fig. 1 ⁃20 (a) for machining ϕ40
of the part ϕ h6 outerr circle, the centerline
c off
the inner hoole is the possitioning dattum. Usuallyy, several possitioning dattums need too be used sim
multaneouslyy
when machhining one suurface. As fo or the part iin Fig. 1⁃200 (b), surfacee F shall be used as thee positioningg
datum to gguarantee thee perpendicu ularity relatiive to surfacce F when machining tthe inner ho ole. Besides,,
surfaces D aand A shall be
b used as the positioningg datums to guarantee
g thee distance dim
mensions off l1 and l2.
Positioning datum is deetermined by the techniciian when preeparing proceess specificaation. The po
oint, line andd
area acting as the posittioning datum
m may not eexist on the workpiece; however, thhey shall be reflected byy
correspondiing actual surfaces. Such actual surfaaces are know
wn as the possitioning basee plane.

·20·
② Measurement datum
The datum used in meaasurement is known as m measurement datum. For example, inn Fig. 1⁃20 (a), ( the innerr
hole is threaaded on the mandrel to check
c the raddial runout of
o ϕ40 h6 ouuter circle annd the end faace runout off
end face B, and the centterline of thee inner hole aacts as the meeasurement datum.
d
③ Asssembly datum
m
The datum for determinning the relaative positionn of the part or the comp
ponent in thee product in assembly iss
known as aassembly dattum. As for the supportiing block in Fig. 1⁃20 (b),( the bottoom surface F acts as thee
assembly daatum.
④ Procedurre datum
The datum used to deteermine the dimension,
d shhape and position of the machined ssurface on th he proceduree
drawing is kknown as proocedure datuum. As show wn in Fig. 1⁃21 (a), A is the machineed surface; th he distance h
from the geeneratrix to surface
s A is the proceduure dimension n; and it is required
r to gguarantee thee parallelism
m
between surrface A and surface
s B. Thherefore, genneratrix B is the datum off the proceduure.

Fig. 1⁃21 Proceddure datum an


nd proceduree dimension
Sometimes,, several proccedure datumms are requirred for determ mining a surrface. As shoown in Fig. 1⁃21 (b), thee
inner hole is the machinned surface, and it is requuired that itss centerline should be perrpendicular to
t surface A,,
and distancee L1 and disttance L2 should be mainttained from surface B an nd surface C respectivelyy. Therefore,,
surfaces A, B and C are the procedure datums.
2 Woorkpiece posiitioning and requirements
r s
(1) Conncept of worrkpiece positiioning
A process ssystem is coomposed of machine toool, clamp, cu utting tool and workpiecce. The relattive positionn
accuracy off the workpieece machined d surface is gguaranteed by
y the correctt position relaationship am
mong processs
systems. Thherefore, it iss necessary to
t determinee the correct position of the
t workpiecce in the process system,,
i.e., workpieece positioniing, before machining.
m
However, thhe workpiecce is a comp plex space ggeometry com mposed of many
m pointss, lines and areas. If thee
workpiece iis assumed too occupy a correct
c positiion in the prrocess system
m, whether aall points, lin
nes and areass
on the workkpiece shall be included d in the scoppe of consid deration? Obviously, it iss unnecessarry. In actuall
machining, it is only neecessary to consider wheether the poin nt, line and area
a acting aas the design datum havee
occupied coorrect positioons in the process system
m. For this reeason, the esssence of woorkpiece posiitioning is too
make the deesign datum of the machiined surface occupy a corrrect position n in the proceess system.
The static eerror of the process systtem in workkpiece positio oning will leead to changge in the position of thee
design datum m of the worrkpiece machhined surfacee and affect relative
r posittion accuracyy between th
he workpiecee
machined ssurface and itsi design daatum. Howevver, as long g as this variiable is withhin the perm
missible errorr
range, it cann be deemed that the worrkpiece has ooccupied a coorrect positio
on in the proccess system,, namely, thee
workpiece hhas been positioned correectly.
(2) Reqquirements on
o workpiecee positioning
The purpose of workpieece positioniing is to guaarantee the position tolerance (such aas coaxiality, parallelism
m
and perpenddicularity) and
a distance dimension aaccuracy between the workpiece
w ma
machined surfface and thee
design datuum of the maachined surfaace. The desiign datum off the workpieece machinedd surface andd the correctt
·21··
position of the machinee tool are the guarantee for the posiition tolerancce between tthe workpiecce machinedd
surface andd the design datum of th he machinedd surface; an nd the design n datum of tthe workpiecce machinedd
surface andd the correct position off the cutting tool are thee guarantee forf the distanance dimensiion accuracyy
between thee workpiecee machined surface
s and the design datum
d of thee machined surface. Therefore, twoo
requirementts are propossed for work kpiece positiooning: The first
f is to keep a correct rrelative posittion betweenn
the design datum of thhe workpiecee machined surface and the machine tool, and the second is to keep a
correct relattive positionn between the design dattum of the workpiece
w maachined surfa
face and the cutting tool..
Explanationns will be maade in such twwo aspects bbelow:
① In oorder to guaarantee the position
p tolerrance (such as coaxiality, parallelism
m and perpeendicularity))
between thee machined surface and its design ddatum, the deesign datum of the workkpiece mach hined surfacee
shall occupyy a correct position relatiive to the maachine tool during workpiece positionning.
As for the ppart in Fig. 1⁃22 (a), in order
o to meeet the radial circular
c runo
out requireme
ment on the suurface of thee
outer circle ϕ40 h6, its design
d datum
m (axis O-O of the inner hole) shall beb coincided with the rotaation axis O--
O of the spiindle of the machine
m too f the part in Fig. 1⁃22 (b), in orderr
ol during worrkpiece posittioning. As for
to obtain accceptable parrallelism betw
ween the maachined surfaace B and its design datumm A, the design datum A
shall be paarallel to thee longitudinaal rectilinearr motion dirrection of thhe machine tool workbench duringg
workpiece ppositioning. In addition,, to ensure tthe perpendiicularity betw ween the hoole and its design datum m
(bottom surrface F) duriing hole macchining, the ddesign datum m surface F shall be perppendicular too the axis off
the spindle of the machiine tool durinng workpiecee positioningg, as shown in Fig. 1⁃22 (c).
② In oorder to guarrantee the diistance dimennsion accuraacy between the machineed surface an
nd its designn
datum, a coorrect relativve position sh hall be kept between thee design datu
um of the m
machined surface and thee
cutting tool during workkpiece positio oning.
Generally, there are tw
wo methods for obtaininng the distan
nce dimensio
on accuracyy between su
urfaces: triall
cutting methhod and adjuustment meth
hod.

Wo
orkbench

Fig. 1⁃22 Example of correct posittion of workp


piece positiooning
Trial cuttinng method iss to obtain the
t distance dimension accuracy thrrough the reepetitive process of triall
cutting - meeasurement ofo machining g dimension - adjustmentt of cutting toolt positionn - trial cuttin
ng. Since thee
distance dimmension accuuracy is obtaained throughh multiple triial cuttings during
d machiining in this method, it iss
unnecessaryy to determinne the relativ
ve position bbetween the workpiece
w nd the cuttingg tool beforee machining..
an
For examplee, in Fig. 1⁃232 (a), in ord
der to obtainn the dimensiion l, it is unnnecessary too strictly speccify the axiall
fixed positioon of the woorkpiece on th
he three-jaw
w self-centerin ng chuck. Trrial cutting m method is usu ually appliedd
to single pieece/small battch productio
on.

·22·
Fig. 1⁃23 Examp
ple of the meethod for obttaining distan
nce dimensioon accuracy
1 - Stop iron; 2, 3 and 4 - Poositioning eleements; 5 - Guiding
G elem
ment.
Adjustmentt method is a method adj djusting the rrelative posittion between n the cuttingg tool and th he workpiecee
and the feedd stroke as per the speciffied dimensioon before maachining to guarantee
g thaat the distancce dimensionn
accuracy caan be obtaineed automaticaally during m machining. Since
S trial cuttting is unneccessary in thhis method, a
high producctivity can bee obtained. Besides,
B its m
machining acccuracy depeends on the aaccuracy and d adjustmentt
error of the machine toool and the clamp. It is appplicable to mass
m producction. Fig. 1⁃ 23 shows tw wo exampless
obtaining thhe distance dimension
d acccuracy withh adjustmentt method. In n Fig. 1⁃23 ((b), the relattive positionn
between thee workpiece and the cuttiing tool is deetermined thrrough three jaws reverselly mounted and a stop ironn.
In Fig. 1⁃233 (c), the relative positio
on between thhe workpiecee and the cuttting tool is determined based b on thee
established positions of the positioniing element and the guid ding element in the clampp.
3 Theere are three workpiece positioning
p m
methods.
(1) Possitioning by direct
d alignm
ment
Positioning by direct aliignment is to o directly aliggn with the design
d datum
m of the workkpiece mach hined surfacee
with dial inndicator, scribber or visuall inspection tto obtain thee correct position on the machine too ol. As shownn
in Fig. 1⁃244, the inner hole
h of the part
p is grindeed on the griinding mach hine. If there is high requ
uirements onn
the coaxialiity between the
t outer ring g and the innner hole of thhe part, the workpiece
w caan be clampeed by a four--
jaw single-aadjustment chuck,
c and the
t radial ciircular runou ut of the ouuter circle caan be controolled by diall
indicator beefore machinning, so as to o meet the cooaxiality req quirements beetween the oouter circle and
a the innerr
hole of the ppart after maachining.
The positionning accuraccy and aligniing speed off this method
d depend on the
t level of tthe alignmen
nt worker. Inn
general, this method takkes much tim me and is u sually applieed to single piece/small batch produ
uction or thee
workpiece wwith extremeely high position accuracyy requiremen nt.
(2) Possitioning by drawing
d align
nment
Positioning by drawing alignment reefers to the ppositioning method
m obtaiining the corrrect position
n by aligningg
with the woorkpiece bassed on the prre-drawn linne segment on o the machiine tool withh scriber as perp blank orr
semi-finisheed product, as shown in i Fig. 1⁃255. Due to restriction
r byy drawing aaccuracy and alignmentt
accuracy, thhis method has a low positioning accuuracy. It is mainly
m applied to small baatch productiion with loww
blank accurracy as well as
a rough macchining inconnvenient for machining with
w clamp, ee.g., large paart.

Fig. 1⁃24 Example of direct alignment


a meethod Fig. 1⁃25 Example of drawing alignment
a
methood

·23··
(3) Possitioning withh clamp
Clamp posiitioning meaans the posittioning methhod obtaining g the correct position off the workpiiece directlyy
using the poositioning ellement on thhe clamp. Sinnce the relattive position between thee positioning g element off
the clamp aand the machhine tool/cuttting tool hass been adjussted in advan nce, it is unnnecessary to adjust them
m
one by one during workkpiece positiioning. This method is featured
f by rapid
r and relliable positio
oning with a
high positiooning accuraccy, which is widely appliied to batch production
p and mass prodduction.
Fig. 1⁃26 shhows the proocedure draw wing of sleevee drilling andd its drilling clamp. Duriing drilling, it
i is requiredd
to position tthe drill jig on
o the machiine tool by m means of the bottom surfaace A1 of claamp body 1 and a the innerr
hole A2 of ddrill bushingg 2, and clammp the drill jiig on the woorkbench of thet machine tool with co ommon boltss
of the machhine tool; andd then, place the workpieece on the su urfaces J1 and d J2 of manddrel 3 with hoole datum S1
and end facce S2 acting as the posittioning datum m, and clammp the workp piece with nnut 5 by quiick-changingg
washer 4; fiinally, insert the cutting tool
t in the guuide sleeve hole
h A2 of driill bushing 2 for drilling.
Direction C

Direction C

Fig. 1⁃266 Drill jig clamp


1 - Clamp body;
b 2 - Driill bushing; 3 - Mandrel; 4 - Quick-ch
hanging washher; 5 - Nut.
pieces in the same batch. Obviously, the distancee
In this way,, certain positions can bee obtained foor the workp
dimension L3±ΔL1 (unitt: mm) and position
p toleerance ϕZ (u
unit: mm) reqquired by thee procedure and directlyy
related to thhe datum are mainly guarranteed by thhe clamp.
Fig. 1⁃27 sshows sleevve groove milling
m and cclamp millin ng procedurees. Before mmilling, it is required too
position thee clamp and the machinee tool througgh engagement of the botttom surfacee A1 of the cllamp body 1
and the com mmon side surface
s A2 of
o two positiioning keys 2 with the milling
m machhine workbeench and thee
central T-shhaped groovve, and securre the clampp tightly on thet machine tool by T-bbolt; and theen, place thee
workpiece oon the V-shaaped block 3 and supporrt 4 for posittioning and clamping
c wiith outer circcle datum S1
and hole daatum S2 as thhe positioningg datum; finnally, milling
g can be perfo
formed after ttool setting by
b the feelerr
block 5 andd the feeler gaauge 6.

·24·
Fig. 1⁃27 Workinng principle of
o milling maachine clampp
1 - Clampp body; 2 - Positioning
P key;
k 3 - V-shaaped block; 4 - Support; 5 - Feeler bllock; 6 - Feeler gauge.
Similarly, ccertain positiions can be obtained foor the parts ofo the same batch in thee clamp. Ob
bviously, thee
distance dim
mension H reelative to thee datum in thhis proceduree is guaranteeed by the clam
mp.
According tto the analyssis above, co
orrect geomettrical relation
nships below
w among varrious links off the processs
system shalll be guarannteed to guaarantee the pposition accu uracy requirrements of th
the workpiecce machinedd
surface:
a Enssure a certainn relative possition betweeen the workp
piece and the clamp.
b Enssure a certainn relative possition betweeen the machine tool and the
t clamp.
c Enssure a certainn distance dim
mension linkk between thee cutting tool and the clam
amp.
Therefore, m machine toool clamp is a kind of proocess equipm ment that is able
a to clammp the workp pieces of thee
same batch quickly befoore machinin ng, ensure a ccertain posittion of the workpiece relaative to the machine
m tooll
and the cuttting tool, andd keep this po
osition relatiionship durin
ng the whole machining pprocess.
Section
S 2 Clamp Design
D Basis
I. Woorkpiece Posiitioning in Clamp
A correct ggeometric poosition relatio
on between the workpieece and the clampc is neccessary to bee guaranteedd
during workkpiece machhining, which h is known aas "positionin ng." The taskks of the possitioning meechanism aree
to determinne the correct position off the componnent to be asssembled and guarantee the machiniing accuracyy
(distance dimension acccuracy and po osition accurracy) requireements of thee procedure.
(I) Possitioning prinnciple
The essence of workpiiece position ning in the cclamp is to determine th he correct ggeometric po osition to bee
occupied byy the workpiece in the clamp. If the w workpiece iss an object off high stiffneess, it can bee regarded ass
a free rigid body with 6 independentt motion proobabilities in the space rectangular cooordinate system. Amongg
them, 3 are the possibilities to movee along the ccoordinate axxis direction, and the othher 3 are the possibilitiess
to rotate arround the cooordinate axis. The posssibility of suuch independ dent motionn is known as a degree off
freedom. Annd the numbber of the motion probabi lities is the number
n of deegrees of freeedom.

·25··
Represent tthe movemeent degrees of o freedom along x, y and z
coordinate axes with (or ) respecttively,
and represeent the rotatiion degrees of
o freedom aaround x, y and z
coordinate aaxes with or rrespectively. They
are 6 degreees of freedomm of the worrkpiece in thhe space, as shown
s
in Fig. 1⁃288.
If you wannt to make the t workpiecce have a ccertain positiion in
certain direcction, you haave to restricct the degree of freedom in
i this
direction. W When 6 deggrees of freeedom of thhe workpiecce are Fig. 1⁃28 Six degreess of freedom
restricted, thhe position of
o the workpiiece in the sppace is determmined of unposiitioned workkpiece
uniquely. MMoreover, each degree off freedom caan be restrictted by
correspondiing point suupport, and the spatiall position of o the
workpiece ccan be comppletely deterrmined with 6 point sup pports.
This is the ssix-point possitioning prinnciple of the workpiece.

The purposse of workppiece positioning in the clamp is to o guarantee the proceduure machinin ng accuracyy
requirementt of the worrkpiece. Theerefore, it iss necessary to restrict th
he degree oof freedom affecting
a thee
procedure m machining accuracy
a of the workpieece. Howeveer, some degrees of freeedom not affecting
a thee
procedure mmachining acccuracy also need to be rrestricted in clamp
c designn. In clamp ddesign, restriiction on thee
degree of frreedom of thee workpiece from points can be realizzed by point supports.
As for the wworkpiece in Fig. 1⁃29, plane
p dure dimensioon H0+δH. Th
A is miilled to guaraantee proced he degrees off
freedom afffecting the prrocedure dim mension on thhe main positioning surfface XOY aree Z, α and β,, which havee
to be restriccted. Meanw while, X and γ need to bee restricted to
o avoid movement and rootation of th
he workpiecee
due to clammping force. In addition, Y needs to bbe restricted d to prevent the workpiecce from mov ving along y
axis due to eeffect of the horizontal component off the milling force.
As for the ddegree of freeedom that afffects the proocedure mach hining accuraacy of the woorkpiece and d needs to bee
restricted, sseveral items may exist in the proccedure dimeension and positionp accuuracy of thee workpiece..
Therefore, iit is requiredd to analyze the degree oof freedom th hat needs to be restrictedd item by iteem based onn
the machiniing requirem ments, and syn nthesize to gget rid of the degree of frreedom restriicted repeateedly, so as too
determine tthe number of o the degreees of freedoom that musst be restricted. If the deegrees of freeedom to bee
restricted thhat have beeen analyzed reach 6, theere is no neeed to analyzze the restriictions on th he degree off
freedom not affecting thhe proceduree machining accuracy. However, if th he number off the degreess of freedom m
is less than 6, it is neceessary to anaalyze the deegree of freedom needs to t be restrictted accordin
ng to variouss
forces to bee applied on the workpieece in machinning and oth her requiremeents, and theen, determinee the sum off
the degrees of freedom need to be restricted
r in the workpieece procedure machiningg based on in ntegration off
two kinds oof degrees of o freedom. Of course, nnot all 6 deegrees of freeedom of thee workpiecee need to bee
restricted nnecessarily. The
T degree of freedom m having no impact on the machinning accuracy and otherr
requirementts of the worrkpiece may not be restriccted.
When analyyzing workppiece position ning, some ddegrees of freedom
fr havee to be restrricted, while others shalll
depend on the circumsstances. Therre are strict requiremen nts on accuraacy and hard rdness for th
he degree off
freedom thaat has to be restricted.
r Ho
owever, therre is no strictt accuracy reequirement foor the degreee of freedom
m
depending oon the circum
mstances.

·26·
Horizontal compo
onent of the millingg force
Machined
M surface A

Clamping force
e

Bottom
m surface B

Fig. 1⁃29 Reestrictions on


n degrees of freedom
f
There is cerrtain positionning accuraccy requiremeent for the degree of freeedom that haas to be restrricted. If thee
degree of ffreedom of the t workpiecce is restrictted in certain direction, it means a high degreee of positionn
accuracy caan be obtaineed by the wo n. However, it cannot bee achieved by
orkpiece in tthis direction b clamping,,
which indiccates that cllamping is notn equal to positioning. When anallyzing restriictions on th he degree off
freedom, it is required too clarify the establishmeent of the cooordinate systeem. But it is unacceptablle to take thee
origin of cooordinates and
a the coorrdinate axis on the macchined surfacce or the axxis for grantted. Instead,,
machining accuracy annd the situatiion of the aactual positio oning surface shall be taaken into acccount whenn
establishingg the coordinnate system.
Fig. 1⁃30 (aa) shows the positioning support of ddisc, and Fig.. 1⁃30 (b) shhows the posiitioning supp port of shaft..
It can be leaarnt that diffe
ferent workpiiece shapes aand positioniing datums leead to differeent distributiion modes off
positioning supporting points.
p Besid
des, the suppporting pointt has to be fiit closely witth the positiooning datumm
of the workkpiece withouut detaching g all the timee. Otherwise,, the degree of freedom of the workp piece cannott
be restrictedd. Furthermoore, the influuence from the force caan be ignoreed when connsidering thee positioningg
effect of thee positioningg supporting point.
p

(b) Positioning
g support of disc (b) Position
ning support of shaafts

Fig. 1⁃30
3 Pos itioning supp
ports of vario
ous parts
Six-point positioning prrinciple is th he basic prinnciple of wo orkpiece posiitioning. Thee positioning
g supportingg
points used in actual prooduction are geometries hhaving certaiin shape. Succh geometriees used for reestricting thee
degree of frreedom of thhe workpiecee are positionning elementts. They are not complettely obvious and specificc
points in forrm. Instead, it is required
d to judge hoow many deg grees of freedom can be restricted byy them basedd
on their praactical effectss. See Table 1⁃7 for the ddegrees of frreedom of the workpiece that can be restricted byy
common poositioning eleements.
Table 1⁃7 Degreees of freedom
m of the workkpiece that caan be restrictted by comm
mon positioniing elements

Positioning base planee Positioning Chaaracteristic off Degree of freedom


Poositioning skettch
of the w
workpiece elemen nt posittioning elemennt resstricted

·27··
Pllane
Supporting pin

Supporting
g plate

Rounnd hole Short pin


(Sh
hort mandrel)

Positionin
ng pin
(Mandrel) Long pin
(Lo
ong mandrel)

Rounnd hole

Taper pin
p

1 - Fixed pin
2 - Movable pin

·28·
Continuedd

Positioning base Degree


D of
Characteristicc of
plane of the Positioning element
e P
Positioning sk
ketch
po
ositioning elem
ment
freedom
workppiece restricted
r

Short sleeve
ve

Positioning sleeve

Long sleevee

Sho
ort semicircle sleeve

Semicircle sleeve
s
Lon
ng semicircle sleeve

Outer cyylindrical
surfface

Taper sleeve
1 - Fixed taperr pin
2 - Movable tapper pin

Shorrt supporting pplate or


Supporting plate
p or supporting ppin
supporting
g pin Long supporting pplate or
tw
wo supportingg pins

Narrrow V-shapedd block

V-shaped block
b

Wiide V-shaped block

(II) Possitioning moddes of workp


piece in clam
mp
Workpiece positioning in clamp caan be classi fied into thee modes bellow based oon the restricction on thee
workpiece ddegree of freedom by clamp positioniing element.
1 Com
mplete positiioning
Six degreess of freedom of the workp piece are resstricted by th
he clamp positioning elem
ment, thus th
he workpiecee
is at a comppletely speciffied position in the clampp.
2 Incoomplete posiitioning
The positiooning in whhich the deg
gree of freeddom unnecessary to be restricted bbased on thee workpiecee
machining accuracy requirement iss not restriccted or not completely restricted byy the clamp positioningg
element.
3 Undder-positioniing

·29··
The positionning in whicch the degreee of freedom necessary to o be restricted based on th
the workpiecce machiningg
accuracy reequirement is not complletely restriccted. Obviou usly, this possitioning is unable to gu uarantee thee
machining accuracy reequirement of the worrkpiece, whiich is absollutely not ppermitted in n workpiecee
machining. However, iff there is no positioning surface with h sufficient accuracy
a on the workpieece in clampp
design, the correct posittion of the workpiece in ccertain directtion cannot be
b guaranteedd through po ositioning byy
positioning element. Inn this case, the degree of freedom of the workpiece in suuch direction n cannot bee
restricted byy positioningg element. But
B it is accepptable to resstrict such deegrees of freeedom througgh alignmentt
by drawing line.
4 Oveer-positioninng
The positionning in whicch the same degree
d of freeedom of thee workpiece isi restricted bby one group
p of limitingg
surfaces of the positionning elementt is known aas over-posittioning. It may m cause poositioning intterference orr
failure of ffitting the workpiece
w on the positionning elemen nt, thus leadiing to deform
rmation of workpiece
w orr
positioning element andd increase in n positioningg error. Theerefore, it shall be avoidded as far ass possible inn
positioning design. How wever, it is able
a to imprrove the locaal stiffness of
o the workppiece and thee stability off
workpiece ppositioning. For this reaason, over-poositioning iss quite necesssary in casee of the worrkpiece withh
poor machinning stiffness. In additionn, it is also ap
applied to preecision machhining and asssembly.
(III) Possitioning erroor
The maxim mum variationn of the desiign datum off the same batch
b of workpieces in thhe machining dimensionn
direction caaused by possitioning is known
k as poositioning errror, which iss caused by ttwo reasons:: The first iss
misalignmeent of the possitioning dattum and the design datum m, which leaads to datum m misalignmeent error; thee
second is thhe displacement of the poositioning dattum due to manufacturin
m g error of thee positioning
g pair, whichh
leads to datuum displacem
ment error.
1 Dattum misalignnment error B

The maxim mum positionn variation of o the proceedure datum m possibly to o be


caused duee to misalignnment between the proocedure datu um and the tool
setting datuum when maachining onee batch of w workpieces by y the adjustm
ment
method is kknown as daatum misalig gnment errorr, which is expressed
e by
y the
symbol "ΔB B". As shoown in Fig. 1⁃31, the supporting surface off the
supporting pin 3, i.e., positioning datum surfaace E, is accting as the tool
setting datuum of the cuutting tool to adjust the ttool in place at one time and
ensure the ttool setting dimension T is unchangged. Howeveer, the procedure
datum of prrocedure dim mension A iss surface D. Obviously, procedure
p daatum
and tool ssetting datuum (position ning datum)) are misalligned, and the Fiig. 1⁃31 Datum
dimension between thhem is C±δ δC. Since ddimension C±δC C has been
b nt error
misalignmen
machined bbefore this procedure,
p th
he maximum m position vaariation betw ween
the proceduure datum D and the tooll setting datuum (position ning datum E)E of
the same baatch of workpkpieces is 2δCC in the proccedure positiioning. Sincee the
direction off the proceduure datum vaariation is thhe same as thhat of procedure
dimension A A, this position variatioon will lead to 2δC maachining erro or of
procedure ddimension A. A This mach hining error is the positiioning error dw′
due to datumm misalignm ment error B, i.e.:

dw 1⁃1)
w′= B=2δC (1
The magnituude of datum m misalignm
ment error is eequal to the accumulation
a n of the dimeension error between thee
procedure ddatum and the tool settting datum (positioning g datum) off the workppiece. Obvio ously, datum
m
misalignmeent error is caused
c by im
mproper selecction of proccedure datumm and can bee eliminated d by labelingg
different proocedure dimensions.
2 Dattum displacement error Y
When machhining one batch
b of worrkpieces withh adjustmen nt method, thhe maximum m displacemeent (positionn
movement bbetween worrkpiece datum m and its ideeal position) possibly to occur
o due too the manufaccturing errorr
of positioniing pair andd the fit cleaarance betweeen them is known as datum d displaacement erro
or, which iss

·30·
expressed bby the symbool "ΔY". Obv viously, diffe
ferent positio
oning modes and positionning pair stru
uctures havee
different caalculation methods for their
t positionning datum displacemen nt. The calcuulation meth hods for thee
datum displlacement erroor caused by
y several commmon positio oning modes are analyzedd below.
(1) Woorkpiece posiitioning by plane
When the pplane is takeen as the po ositioning daatum of the workpiece, there is no point for caalculating itss
positioning error if the plane is an uneven surfface; if the plane
p is a kn
nown machinned surface, it is well fitt
with the poositioning daatum plane with small error that can c be ignorred. Namelyy, in case of workpiecee
positioning by plane, Y==0.
(2) Thee workpiece is positioned d on the rounnd pin or thee cylindrical mandrel bassed on the ro ound hole, orr
positioned oon the roundd hole based d on the outter cylindricaal surface Iff the workpieece is positiioned on thee
round pin oor the cylindrrical mandreel based on tthe round ho ole, the positiioning datum
m is the centterline of thee
hole, and thhe positioninng base planee is the surfface of the in nner hole. As
A shown in FFig. 1⁃32, set the roundd
hole of the workpiece as ϕD0δD, an nd the shaft diameter off the positio oning piece aas ϕd0-δd. Th
he centerlinee
(positioningg datum) of the round hole
h on the workpiece will w have offfset due to the impact from the fitt
clearance oof the positiooning pair. When
W the hoole dimensio on reaches thhe maximum m and the shhaft diameterr
reaches the minimum, thhe possible central
c offsett, i.e., datum displacemen nt error Y reaaches the maaximum.
Y=ϕDmax--ϕdmin=ϕDminn+δD-ϕdmax+δd=δD+δd+
+ +Xmin (1⁃2)
Where, Xmiin - The minimum fit cleearance betw a the posititioning hole determined
ween the posiitioning pin and
in the desiggn (mm), whose calculatiion formula iis as follows:

(3) Thee workpiece is positioned


d on the V-shhaped block based
b on the outer cylinddrical surfacee

When the workpiece is i positioned d on the VV-shaped blo ock based on n the outer cylindrical surface, itss
positioning datum is thee axial lead of urface of the workpiece, and the posiitioning basee
o the outer ccylindrical su
plane is the outer cylinddrical surfacee.
If the manuufacturing errror of the V-shaped
V bloock is ignoreed, according to the cenntering featurre of the V--
shaped blocck, Y=0 (in thhe horizontall direction off the symmettry plane).
The positiooning datum of the worrkpiece will have offset on the sym mmetry plane
ne due to thee shape andd
dimension eerror of the workpiece datum
d plane . As shown in Fig. 1⁃333, when the procedure dimension
d iss
marked by H H1, its positiioning error can be figureed out with the
t equation below
b

Where, δd - Diameter toolerance of th


he positioninng base planee of the work
kpiece (mm);;
α - Inncluded anglee of the V-sh
haped block.
The eerror change direction of Y is on the ssymmetry plaane of the V--shaped blockk.
According tto the analyssis above: Daatum misaliggnment and datum
d displaacement are tthe causes off positioningg
error. How
wever, both datum misalignment annd datum diisplacement are to channge the possition of thee
procedure ddatum and caause machiniing error of tthe procedurre dimension n. Therefore, it can be co
oncluded thatt
the primaryy cause of poositioning errror is the poosition change of proceddure datum, i.e., position
ning error iss
caused by pposition channge of proced
dure datum.

·31··
Fig. 1⁃32 Positiooning of roun
nd hole on roound Fig. 1⁃33 Datum dispplacement of positioning
pin and cyllindrical manndrel on V-shapedd block

Datum dispplacement errror is caused


d by manufaacturing erro or of position
ning pair andd its fit clearance, whilee
datum misaalignment errror is caused
d by improp er selection of procedure datum. Suuch two errorrs may existt
simultaneouusly or only one may exiist in workpiiece positioning. In any case,
c positionning error is the result off
a common effect of suuch two erro ors. The po ssible maxim mum variation of the pprocedure dimension (orr
position accuracy) duee to datum misalignmen
m nt and datum m displacemment when m machining oneo batch off
workpieces with adjustm ment methodd is known aas positioninng error, whiich is expresssed by the symbol
s "dw",,
i.e.:
dw = Bcosα+Y
Ycosβ (1-4)
Where, α - The includded angle between the ddirection of datum
d misallignment errror B and th
he proceduree
dimension ddirection;
β - The inccluded angle between thee direction oof datum disp
placement errror Y and tthe procedurre dimensionn
direction.
Calculating positioning error with th he equation aabove is kno own as error combinationn method. If B and Y aree
caused by thhe same erroor factor, they
y are correlatted. In case they
t are corrrelated: if Bccosα and Yco
osβ are in thee
same directtion, "+" signn is taken in
n combinatioon; if Bcosα and Ycosβ are a in opposiite directionss, "-" sign iss
taken in com I case they are uncorrellated, positio
mbination. In oning error can
c be figureed out by superimposingg
them directlly.
(IV) Claamping of woorkpiece
1 Bassic requiremeents on clamping device
The purpose of workpieece clamping g is to preveent displacem
ment or vibraation of the w
workpiece under
u cuttingg
force, graviity and inertiia force, etc., so as to avvoid damage of workpiecce positioninng. Thereforee, a correctlyy
designed claamping mechhanism shalll meet the baasic requirem ments below:
(1) Thee clamping foorce shall no
ot damage coorrect workpiiece positioning.
(2) Thee clamping device
d shall have a suffiicient stroke to meet the requirement
nts on workpiece loadingg
and unloadiing space.
(3) Thee workpiece surface shalll not be dam
maged and the
t workpiecce deformatiion shall nott exceed thee
permissible range duringg clamping.
(4) Thee clamping effect shall bee able to be aachieved by a small clam
mping force.
(5) It shhall have good machinab
bility and sim
mple structurre on the preemise of guarranteeing pro
oductivity too
facilitate manufacturingg, repair and operation. BBesides, the manual clam mping devicee shall have self-lockingg
capability.
2 Dettermination of
o clamping force

·32·
Magnitude, direction and acting point are three elements of force. Therefore, the determination of the
magnitude, direction and acting point of clamping force is of great importance, which has direct impact on
various aspects of the operation of the clamping device. However, there are differences in clamping forces
based on purposes. When determining the clamping force, it is required to take the integral layout of the
clamp into account first, and then, it is necessary to consider different requirements on the clamping force
from machining method, machining accuracy, workpiece structure and cutting force, etc.
(1) Determination principle of clamping force direction
The acting direction of the clamping force mainly affects the positioning reliability, clamping deformation
and clamping force magnitude, etc. of the workpiece. The principles below shall be followed when selecting
the acting direction of the clamping force:
① In order to guarantee machining accuracy, the acting direction of the main clamping force shall be
perpendicular to the main positioning datum of the workpiece. Besides, other positioning surfaces of the
workpiece shall be positioned reliably in the meantime.
② The acting direction of the clamping force shall avoid the direction on the workpiece with weak
stiffness as far as possible to minimize the impact on the machining accuracy from the clamping deformation
of the workpiece.
③ The acting direction of the clamping force shall be beneficial to minimizing the clamping force
magnitude.
(2) Determination principle of clamping force acting points
Selection of clamping force acting points includes the position, quantity, layout and acting mode of the
acting points. Their impact on the workpiece is mainly reflected on positioning accuracy and reliability and
clamping deformation. In addition, the selection of acting points also affects the structural complexity and
work efficiency of the clamping device. The principles below shall be followed in detailed design:
① Clamping force acting points shall face the positioning surface of the positioning element or be
selected within the positioning domain composed of multiple positioning elements to prevent damage of
workpiece positioning.
② Clamping force acting points shall be set on the part of the workpiece with good stiffness to
minimize clamping deformation of the workpiece.
③ Clamping force acting points shall be as close to the machined surface of the workpiece as possible
to offset the cutting force, improve the stiffness of the workpiece machining part and reduce the machining
vibration due to cutting force to the maximum extent.
④ Selection of proper acting mode of clamping force acting points is able to effectively reduce
clamping deformation of the workpiece, improve contact reliability and friction coefficient, increase contact
area and prevent workpiece positioning and workpiece surface from being damaged by the clamping element,
etc.
⑤ The quantity and layout of clamping force acting points shall meet the requirement that the
workpiece has to be positioned reliably.
⑥ The quantity and layout of clamping force acting points shall meet the stiffness requirement from
workpiece machining to reduce deformation by force and machining vibration of the workpiece.
(3) Determination principle of clamping force magnitude
The workpiece is subject to cutting force, centrifugal force, inertia force and gravity, etc. during machining.
Theoretically, the effect of the clamping force shall be in balance with the effect of the forces (moments)
above. However, the magnitude and direction of the cutting force are changing in machining, thus the
magnitude of the clamping force only can be estimated roughly as per the method below:
① Find out the most unfavorable instantaneous state for clamping and estimate the clamping force
needed under this state.

·33·
② For the sake of simplicity, only the influence from main factors in the force system is taken into
account, and that from secondary factors in the force system is ignored.
③ Write the force (moment) balance equation based on the workpiece state to figure out the clamping
force magnitude with due regard to safety factors.
The magnitude of clamping force mainly affects workpiece positioning reliability, workpiece clamping
deformation as well as structure dimension and complexity of the clamping device. Therefore, the magnitude
of clamping force shall be moderate. The magnitude of auxiliary (positioning) clamping force shall be able to
guarantee reliable workpiece positioning in general. Additional clamping force shall be able to guarantee
local stiffness of the workpiece and avoid clamping deformation. There are two methods for determining the
magnitude of the basic clamping force in actual design: empirical analogy method and analytical calculation
method.
The essence of calculating clamping force with analytical calculation method is to solve the static
equilibrium problem: Firstly, perform force analysis with the workpiece acting as the force body. In this
process, only cutting force and workpiece gravity are considered in general. And then, establish the equation
of static equilibrium to figure out the theoretical clamping force FL. Finally, it is required to take the
dynamic instability in actual machining into account. Therefore, the actual clamping force Fj needed in
workpiece machining can be obtained by multiplying the theoretical clamping force by a safety factor, i.e.:
Fj=KFL (1⁃5)
Where, K - safety factor, which is taken as K=1 5~3 in general. The smaller value is for fine machining, and
the larger value is for rough machining.
II. Machine Tool Clamp
Machine tool clamp is an important component of machining process system. In order to guarantee the
machining requirements of the workpiece in certain procedure, the workpiece has to be in a correct position
on the machine tool relative to cutting or shaping motion of the cutting tool. When a batch of workpieces are
clamped and machined, this requirement is met with the help of the clamp. However, three conditions have
to be satisfied to meet this requirement: The first is that the batch of workpieces have to occupy correct
machining positions in the clamp. The second is that the clamp has to be placed in the correct position on the
machine tool. The third is that the correct relative position between the cutting tool and the clamp has to be
guaranteed. Three relationships are involved in this case: part relative to clamp, clamp relative to machine
tool and part relative to machine tool. Since the final accuracy of the workpiece is obtained through the
relationship between part and machine tool, "positioning" also involves three relationships: positioning of
workpiece on clamp, positioning of clamp relative to machine tool, and positioning of workpiece relative to
machine tool, while the last one is guaranteed indirectly through clamp. The workpiece has to be fixed by the
clamping force from a certain device to maintain it at the correct position after workpiece positioning.
Otherwise, the machining requirements cannot be guaranteed as the original correct positioning may be
damaged by position change or vibration due to the effect of cutting force and inertia force, etc. during
machining.
(I) Concept of machine tool clamp
The process equipment used to guarantee machining accuracy and fix the workpiece to make it occupy a
certain position for accepting machining or testing in machining is collectively known as machine tool clamp
and called as clamp for short.
The workpiece has to be secured firmly by clamp when it is being machined on the machine tool. Installing
the workpiece is to determine the correct position of the workpiece relative to the cutting tool on the machine
tool, which is known as positioning. Clamping the workpiece firmly is to exert force on the workpiece, so as
to clamp it reliably at the determined position, which is known as clamping. The purpose of machine tool
clamp is to position the workpiece, so as to achieve a correct position of the workpiece relative to the
machine tool and the cutting tool, and clamp the workpiece firmly and reliably.
(II) Classification of machine tool clamp
There are many kinds of machine tool clamps with diverse shapes. For the convenience of design,
manufacturing and management, they are often classified according to certain property.
·34·
Machine toool clamps can c be classsified into uuniversal clamp, special clamp, com mbined clam mp, universall
adjustable cclamp, groupp clamps and following cllamp, etc. baased on the range of appllication. Univ versal clampp
has certain universalityy and can bee used to claamp differen nt workpiecees without addjustment orr with slightt
adjustment within certtain range. Special
S clam
mp is speciaally designeed for certaiin proceduree of certainn
workpiece, which has poorp universality and is the main ob bject of clam
mp design andnd research. Generally,
G itt
can be desiggned with coompact struccture featurinng convenien nt and rapid operation.
o C ombined claamp refers too
the clamp aassembled byy a set of co ompletely staandard comp ponents as per
p the part m machining reequirements..
The charactteristics of unniversal adju
ustable clampp and group clamps are thatt partial ccomponents of o the clampp
can be replaaced and parrtial devices can be adjuusted to adap pt to the macchining of diifferent partss. Followingg
clamp is one kind of claamp used in automation
a liine or flexible manufactuuring systemm.
Machine toool clamps alsoa can be classified
c baased on the machine
m tool used and tthe power soource of thee
clamping foorce, etc. Cllamps can be classified into lathe clamp,
c millin
ng machine clamp, drilliing machinee
clamp (drilll jig), boringg machine clamp (boringg jig), grindin
ng machine clamp
c and ggear machinee tool clamp,,
etc. based oon the machhine tool useed. In additioon, clamps can
c be classified into m
manual clampp, pneumaticc
clamp, hydrraulic clampp, electric claamp, electrommagnetic claamp and vacu
uum clamp, etc. based on
o the powerr
source of thhe clamping force.
f
(III) Com
mposition off machine too
ol clamp
Despite therre are variouus categoriess and structur
ures of machiine tool clam
mps, all of thhem are comp
posed of thee
four parts below:
1. Possitioning devvice
The purposse of positionning device is to make the workpieece occupy a correct possition in thee clamp. Forr
example, iteem 1 in Fig. 1⁃34.
1mm base ruler

1mm
m base ruler

g. 1⁃34
Fig Sleeve groove milling claamp
ng element; 3 - Screw; 4 - Positioning
1 - Positiioning elemennt; 2 - Clampin P keey; 5 - Clamp body; 6 - Feeeler block.
2. Claamping devicce
The purposee of clampinng device is to
o clamp the w workpiece fiirmly and maake sure the w
workpiece will
w not leavee
the correct pposition occuupied when it is subject to external force
f during machining. FFor examplee, item 2 andd
item 3 in Fiig. 1⁃34.
3. Claamp body
All componnents on the clamp have to be conneccted into an integral who
ole by a basiic piece know
wn as clampp
m 5 in Fig. 1⁃34.
body. For exxample, item
4. Othher devices or
o elements
Adjustmentt method is used
u for macchining in geeneral when installing thee workpiece by clamp. For F example,,
an element for determinning the tool (e.g., millinng cutter) po osition or gu
uiding the cuutting tool (ttool for holee
machining) direction is set up on thee clamp to addjust the cuttting tool possition. Furtheermore, some clamps aree

·35··
equipped with other devices, such as dividing device and connecting element. For example, item 4 in Fig.
1⁃34 is the element used to guarantee correct positions of the machine tool and the clamp.
(IV) Design of machine tool clamp
1 Basic requirements on machine tool clamp Basic requirements on machine tool clamp can be
summarized into four aspects below:
(1) Guarantee workpiece machining accuracy stably. The primary task of machine tool clamp is to
guarantee machining accuracy, especially to guarantee the position accuracy between the machined surface
and positioning surface of the workpiece to be machined and between machined surfaces.
(2) Improve the labor productivity of machining. Auxiliary time such as marking out and alignment can
be reduced, and multi-piece and multi-station machining can be realized easily with clamp.
(3) It shall have a simple structure with good structural machinability and working condition.
(4) The workpiece manufacturing cost shall be able to be reduced.
Of course, conflict may occur among the requirements in some cases. It is necessary to focus on the process
requirements of the machined part to achieve the best effect. For example, drill jig design often focuses on
productivity, while design of boring jig clamp, etc. focuses on machining accuracy.
2 Steps and methods for designing machine tool clamps
(1) Basic requirements on the design of special clamps
Guarantee the machining accuracy of the workpiece: Select appropriate positioning scheme, clamping
scheme and cutting tool guiding mode and perform error analysis.
Improve productivity and reduce cost: It is required to select various quick and efficient structures as far as
possible, such as multi-piece clamping and linkage clamping structures, and apply simple clamp structure
that is easy to manufacture to reduce clamp manufacturing cost.
It shall be easy to operate and safe to work and be able to reduce workers' work intensity: Apply pneumatic
and hydraulic clamping devices, etc.; the clamp operating position shall conform to workers' habit, and
safety protection device shall be provided if necessary.
It shall be convenient for chip removal: Accumulation of chips in the clamp will affect correct positioning.
The mass heat brought by the chips will lead to thermal deformation of the clamp and the workpiece, thus
affecting the machining quality. In addition, cleaning of chips will increase the auxiliary time and reduce the
work efficiency. Moreover, serious chip accumulation will cause cutting tool damage or industrial accidents.
It shall have good structural machinability: It shall be convenient for manufacturing, testing, assembly,
adjustment and repair, etc.
(2) General steps
Step 1: Study the original data and make clear the design requirements.
Be familiar with part drawing and assembly drawing as well as part process specification, fully understand
the machining contents and technical requirements, etc. of the procedure, and collect information on the
machine tool, cutting tool and clamp, etc.
Step 2: Determine the clamp scheme and draw the sketch of clamp structure.
Firstly, determine the workpiece positioning method and select corresponding positioning elements based on
the positioning datum and six-point positioning principle. Secondly, determine the guiding device or the tool
setting device. Thirdly, determine the workpiece clamping method and design the clamping mechanism.
Fourthly, determine the structural styles of other elements or devices. Fifthly, determine the structural style
of the clamp body. Sixthly, determine the overall outline of the clamp.
Step 3: Develop the general clamp drawing and mark out related dimensions and technical requirements.
Firstly, determine the view relationships, which shall be minimized. The main view shall be taken from the
operator's actual working position. Secondly, the ratio shall be taken as 1∶1 as far as possible to facilitate
drawing review. Thirdly, draw the procedure drawing with double point drawing method. Fourthly, draw
·36·
positioning element, toool setting eleement, clammping elemennt, other elem
ments and cllamp body successively.
s .
Fifthly, marrk out dimennsions and tecchnical requiirements.
Step 4: Devvelop the partt drawing.
Part drawinng shall be drawn
d for th
he non-standdard parts in
n the generall clamp drawwing. Besidees, the vieww
selection off part drawinng shall be co
onsistent witth the workin
ng position of
o the part onn the generaal drawing ass
far as possibble.
(3) Sevveral importaant issues
① Ecoonomic analyysis of clamp
p design
In additionn to ensure machining quality, ecoonomic analysis shall be
b made to ensure the economicall
rationality oof the clamp designed.
② Adooption of grooup design id
dea
③ Marrking of dimmensions and technical requirementts on the geeneral clampp drawing. The
T contentss
below shall be marked on
o the generaal clamp draw
wing:
a Oveerall dimensiion of the claamp.
b Thee fit dimensiions, positio
on dimensionns and toleraances related
d to the clam
mp positioniing element,,
guiding elem
ment and claamp installingg datum planne.
c Thee fit dimensioon between the
t clamp poositioning eleement and the workpiece..
d Thee fit dimensioon between the
t clamp guuiding elemen
nt and the cu
utting tool.
e Thee connection dimension and
a fitting beetween the cllamp and thee machine toool.
f Othher importantt dimensionss.
④ Machinability analysis
a of cllamp structuure. Special attention
a shaall be paid too the issues below
b in thee
machinabiliity analysis of
o clamp:
a Struuctural machhinability of clamp
c part.
b Metthod for guarranteeing thee final clampp accuracy.
c Measurement annd test of claamp.
⑤ Acccuracy analyysis of clamp
There are tthree main error
e componnents affectiing the posittion accuracy
y of the parrt machined: positioningg
error, clampp manufacturring and clam
mping error aand machininng process errror.
3 Varrious machinne tool clamp
ps
(1) Drilling machinne clamp (driill jig)
① Typpes of drill jigs
Drill jigs caan be classifiied into fixed d drill jigs, rrotating drill jigs, turnoveer drill jigs, cover plate drill
d jigs andd
strut drill jiggs. Fixed driill jig is the one
o whose pposition is un nchanged relative to the w workpiece inn machining..
Rotating drrill jig is eqquipped with h dividing ddevice. Turnover drill jig can be ovverturned an nd drilled inn
multiple dirrections, whiich is applicaable to light,, medium an nd small partts. Cover plaate drill jig has
h no clampp
body, whicch is of sim mple structurre and com mmonly used d for machin ning the sm mall holes on
o the largee
workpieces.. Strut drill jig is an un niversal adjusstable drill jigj with lifting plate, whhich is appliicable to thee
medium annd small worrkpieces with low requiirements on hole perpen ndicularity annd hole center distance..
Manual struut drill jig is composed of o drill jig pllate, strut, cllamp body an nd driving aand locking mechanisms,
m ,
which have been standaardized and fo ormed in serries.
② Keyy points of drrill jig design
n
Drill bushinng is the elem
ment used to
o guide the ccutting tool, so as to guarantee the m
machining po osition of thee
hole and prrevent cuttinng tool deflecction during machining. Drill bushin ngs can be cclassified intto fixed drilll

·37··
bushing (direct press-in with a high position accuracy), replaceable drill bushing, quick-changing drill
bushing and special drill bushing (bevel). The basic dimension of the drill bushing hole is equal to the
maximum extreme dimension of the cutting tool. In addition, basic shaft system is applied to the fitting
between the drill bushing hole and the cutting tool.
Large drill bushing height is able to achieve great guiding performance but with large friction. However,
excessive small drill bushing height will lead to poor guiding performance. Generally, H= (1~2.5) d is taken,
where, d is the hole diameter.
As for the distance between the drill bushing and the workpiece, if the workpiece is made of cast iron, h=
(0.5~0.7) d is taken; if the workpiece is made of steel, h= (0.7~1.5) d; if hole is drilled on the oblique plane
of the workpiece, h= (0~0.2) d; if there is high requirement on the position accuracy of the workpiece, h=0 is
taken (in case of high requirement on position accuracy).
③ Drill jig plate (for installing drill bushing)
Connection types between drill jig plate and clamp body: fixed type, hinged type, separated type and
suspended type. Fixed drill jig plate is fixed on the clamp body directly with simple structure and high
accuracy. Hinged drill jig plate is connected with the clamp body through hinge. Since there is a gap at the
hinge, the accuracy is low; however, it is convenient for assembly and disassembly of workpiece. Separated
drill jig plate can be disassembled, which is convenient for assembly and disassembly of workpiece.
Suspended drill jig plate is suspended on the spindle and approaches or leaves the workpiece together with
the spindle, and its relative position to the clamp body is guaranteed by the strut. It is commonly used
together with the multi-spindle head of the combined machine tool.
④ Clamp body
Usually, no positioning or guiding device is provided. It can be aligned by drill bushing or compressed
tightly by pressing plate directly (or setting up lug on the clamp body and compressing tightly by bolts).
(2) Boring machine clamp (similar to drilling machine clamp)
① Boring jig layout form
Boring jig layout forms can be classified into single-face front guide, single-face rear guide and double-face
front and rear guide. In single-face front guide, boring bar is connected with the spindle rigidly. In case of
single-face rear guide through hole (<60mm) or blind hole, boring bar is connected with the spindle rigidly.
In double-face front and rear guide, floating connection is formed between boring bar and the spindle, and
boring accuracy is guaranteed by clamp (boring jig) and not affected by machine tool accuracy, which is
convenient for assembly and disassembly. Double-face front and rear guide can be applied to mass
production.
② Types of boring bushings
Boring bushing is used for guiding the boring bar. Boring bushings can be classified into fixed boring
bushing and rotating boring bushing based on the fact whether it can move during machining.
③ Boring jig support and clamp body
Boring jig support shall neither be installed with clamping mechanism nor be subject to clamping force.
(3) Milling machine clamp
Milling machine clamp is mainly used for machining the plane, keyway, notch and formed surface, etc. on
the machined part. Milling machine clamps can be classified into straight feed type, circular feed type and
tracing feed type based on feed types. The key points of milling machine design mainly include:
① Overall structure of clamp
a There is a large cutting force in milling, the cutting is intermittent, and vibration is easy to occur
during machining; thus the stress elements of the clamp shall have sufficient strength and stiffness.
b The clamping force shall be large enough.
c It shall have good self-locking capability.

·38·
d Muulti-piece macchining and linkage
l clam
mping.
② Toool setting devvice
It is mainly composed of o feeler blocck and feelerr gauge and is
i used to dettermine the rrelative posittion betweenn
the clamp annd the cuttinng tool. Comm mon feeler bblocks includ
de:
a Heiight feeler bllock: For tool setting in pplane machin
ning.
b Recctangular feeeler block: Fo
or tool settingg in keyway or stepped surface
s machhining.
c Forrming feeler block:
b For to
ool setting inn formed surfface machiniing.
Feeler gaugge is to checkk the gap beetween the cuutting tool an
nd the feelerr block, so aas to avoid direct
d contactt
between thee cutting tooll and the feeller block.
③ Claamp body
Since the cclamp body of the milling machinee clamp neeeds to bear a large cuttting force, it shall havee
sufficient sttrength, stifffness and staability. As ffor milling machine
m clam
mp, positioniing of the clamp on thee
machine toool is realized through th he fitting beetween the positioning
p k and the T-shaped grroove of thee
key
milling macchine workbeench in general.
(4) Lathhe clamp
Lathe is maainly used for
f machinin ng the inner and outer cylindrical
c su
urfaces, coniical surface, rotationallyy
formed surfface, thread and transverrse plane, etcc. of the macchined part. The surfacees are formed d around thee
rotation axis of the machine tool spiindle, and latthe clamps are
a classified into two bassic types below based onn
this machinning characterristic and thee position off the clamp on
n the machin
ne tool:
① Thee clamp mouunted on the lathe
l spindlee
In addition to various universal cllamps, such as chucks and centers or other m machine tool accessories,,
various manndrels or othher special cllamps designned according to machiniing demand are in this caategory. Thee
clamp will rotate alongg with the machine
m tooll spindle and
d the cutting
g tool will hhave feed mootion duringg
machining.
② Thee clamp mouunted on the sliding
s plate or the lathe body
As for somee workpiecess of irregularr shapes and large sizes, the
t clamp is usually mouunted on the lathe slidingg
plate for feeed motion, while the cutting
c tool is mounted on the lath he spindle fo
for rotation motion.
m Thee
explorator ffor machining the rotation
nally formedd surface is in
n this category.
The design features of laathe clamp in
nclude the foollowing fou
ur aspects:
a Since the wholle lathe clam mp rotates aalong with th he machine tool spindlee, it shall haave compactt
mall overall dimension
structure, sm d an
nd weight ass far as possib
ble, and the center of graavity shall bee close to thee
rotation axis as far as poossible to red
duce the inerttia force and
d the rotation moment.
b Measures for elliminating th he imbalancee in rotation shall be takeen to reducee the adversee effect from
m
vibration, ettc. Usually, configuration
c n block or ligghtening hole shall be provided for elliminating im
mbalance.
c Thee part conneecting with thet spindle iis the positiioning datum m of the clam
amp, which shall
s have a
correct cylindrical hole (or taper hoole). Furtherm
more, its strructural stylee and dimenssion shall bee determinedd
according too the machinne tool used.
d In oorder to ensuure safe operaation of the cclamp, sharp
p corner or prrojection shaall be avoided
d as much ass
possible. A shield can be b provided outside of tthe rotating part if necesssary. Moreoover, the claamping forcee
shall be largge enough, annd the self-lo
ocking shall be reliable.
III. Asssembly Weldding Clamp
Assembly w welding clam mp is also known
k as weelding clampp, which is one kind off process eq quipment forr
correct possitioning andd reliable cllamping of the weldmeent to faciliitate assembbly and wellding of thee
weldment, and guaranteee the accurracy requirem ment on thee weldment structure.
s Inn welding, little workingg
hour is requuired for purre welding, and most tim
me is for maaterial preparration, assemmbly and othher auxiliaryy

·39··
work. Therefore, clamps suitable for product structures are actively promoted and used in modern welding to
improve product quality, reduce workers' work intensity and accelerate the mechanization and automation
process of welding.
(I) Functions of assembly welding clamp
1 It is able to realize correct and reliable positioning and clamping, alleviate and even cancel the line
drawing work in blanking and assembly. Besides, the accuracy and interchangeability of the part can be
improved by reducing the dimension deviation of the product.
2 It is able to prevent and reduce welding deformation effectively, so as to alleviate the post-welding
correction workload and achieve the objectives of reducing working hour consumption and improving labor
productivity.
3 It is able to guarantee the best welding position with excellent weld forming property, obvious
decrease of process defects and improvement in welding speed. Besides, acceptable welded joint can be
obtained.
4 Heavy work, such as the positioning and clamping of the components and parts assembled as well as
overturning of the workpiece is replaced by mechanical devices, and workers' working conditions are
improved through the application of process equipment.
5 It is able to expand the range of application of the advanced processes, methods and equipment and
promote the comprehensive development of the mechanization and automation of welded structure
production.
(II) Basic requirements on the design of assembly welding clamp
1 The clamp shall have sufficient strength and stiffness. Since the clamp needs to bear various forces
in production, it shall have sufficient strength and stiffness.
2 Clamping reliability. The position of the workpiece shall not be changed during clamping, and the
product shape and dimension shall comply with the requirements of the drawing. In addition, neither
looseness, slip of the workpiece nor large restraint stress due to excessive restraint intensity of the workpiece
is allowed.
3 Flexibility of welding operation. Sufficient assembling and welding space shall be guaranteed in the
production with clamp, so as to provide a good view and operating environment for the operators and
guarantee a stable working state in the whole welding process.
4 It shall be convenient for the assembly and disassembly of the weldment. The product shall be able
to be taken out from the clamp smoothly after assembly positioned welding or welding, and it shall not be
damaged in the process of rolling-over or lifting.
5 Good machinability. The clamp designed shall be easy to manufacture, install and operate. Besides,
it shall facilitate the inspection, repair and replacement of the vulnerable parts. Furthermore, factors such as
existing clamping power source, lifting capacity and installation site of the workshop shall be taken into
account in design to lower the clamp manufacturing cost.
(III) Composition of assembly welding clamp
Generally, a complete assembly welding clamp consists of positioner, clamping mechanism and clamp body.
1 Positioning and positioner of part
(1) Positioning of part
In order to adjust and control the inevitable welding stress and deformation in welding, some degrees of
freedom are unnecessary to be restricted, thus incomplete positioning method is an option. Under-positioning
due to the existence of the degree of freedom that needs to be restricted as per the machining requirement but
not restricted in the design of welding clamp is not allowed. The degree of freedom restricting method by
two or more supporting points is known as over-positioning, which is easy to cause position change and
deformation of workpiece or positioning element when clamping, thus affecting the positioning accuracy of
the workpiece. Therefore, over-positioning is also an unreasonable design.

·40·
Main positioning datum
m: It has 3 su ng 3 degrees of freedom of the part. Usually, thee
upporting poiints restrictin
maximum ssurface on the part is selected as the m
main position ning datum.
Guiding positioning dattum: It has 2 supporting points restriicting 2 degrrees of freeddom of the part. Usually,,
the longest surface on thhe part is seleected as the gguiding posiitioning datum
m.
Thrust posittioning datumm: It has 1 supporting
s ppoint restrictiing 1 degree of freedom of the part. Usually, thee
narrowest suurface on thee part is seleccted as the thhrust positionning datum.
(2) Seleection of possitioning datu
um
k issue in positioner deesign. Attenttion shall be paid to the points
Selection off positioningg datum is a key p below
w
when selectting the posittioner:
① Thee positioningg datum shaall align witth the startiing datum of
o the weldm
ment where possible too
eliminate thhe error due to
t misalignm
ment of datum
ms.
② Thee flat and sm
mooth surface on the part sshall be seleccted as the positioning daatum.
③ Thee acting poinnt of the po
ositioning daatum clamping force shall be as cloose to the weld
w area ass
possible.
④ It can be considdered according to comprrehensive factors, such as
a the layout of the weldiing structuree
and assembly sequence..
⑤ Thee positioningg datums of clamps
c shall bbe as uniform
m as possiblee.
(3) Possitioner and its
i applications
Proper positioners cann be selected d based on the structu
ural style an
nd positioninng requirem
ments of thee
workpiece. The rough classificationss are as folloows:
① Possitioner stop iron for pllane positionning is a widely
w applieed positioninng element with simplee
structure. Inn addition too plane posittioning, it iss also used for
f edge positioning of tthe end of plate weldingg
structure orr section steeel structure. Specific
S formms include: fixed
f stop iro
on, detachabble stop iron,, permanent--
magnet stopp iron and exxtractable sto op iron.
Supporting pin and suppporting platee are mainlyy applied to plane positiooning. Fixedd supporting pins can bee
classified innto flat headd supporting pin, ball heead supportin
ng pin and patterned
p suppporting pin
n. Adjustablee
supporting pin is appliccable to the case where the part surfface is not machined
m or with great difference
d inn
surface accuuracy, but thhe plane neeeds to act aas the positiooning datum. Positioningg by supporrting plate iss
applicable tto the positiooning on the side
s and top surfaces of the
t part.
② Possitioner for roound hole po
ositioning
Positioning pins are offten used forr positioningg when the assembly hole, screw oor bolt hole and speciall
positioning hole, etc. onn the part is used as the ppositioning datum.
d Usuaally, the posiitioning pin is
i pressed inn
the clamp bbody as per trransition fit or
o interferencce fit, which shall be man
nufactured bbased on the part
p aperturee
and the gapp. Specific forms
f includde fixed possitioning pinns, interchan
ngeable posittioning pins, detachablee
positioning pins and exttractable positioning pinss.
③ Possitioner for ouuter circle su
urface positiooning
V-shaped bblocks are coommonly ap pplied to thee positioning
g on the cyllindrical surf
rface in prod
duction. Thee
included anngle α betweeen two inclin
ned planes onn the V-shapped block is 60°,
6 90° or 1120°. The inccluded anglee
between twwo inclined planes
p on thhe V-shaped block in th he welding clamp
c is 90°° in general. The formss
include fixeed V-shaped blocks, adju a movable V-shaped bllocks.
ustable V-shaaped blocks and
2 Claamping mechhanism of parrts
Clamping m mechanism iss to keep thee part at the correct position and prevent displaccement of thee part due too
stress and roolling-over inn assembly and
a welding..
(1) Chaaracteristics of
o clamping mechanism

·41··
The core issue in the selection of clamping mechanism is how to apply clamping force correctly, i.e.,
determining the magnitude, direction and acting point of the clamping force.
Determination of clamping force direction: Generally, the clamping force direction is perpendicular to the
main positioning datum, so as to achieve the maximum contact area between this surface and the clamp
positioning element. The clamping force direction shall be the same with the direction of the gravity and
external force of the part as far as possible to minimize the clamping force needed. Therefore, the position of
the main positioning datum had better be level.
Determination of clamping force acting point: The acting point shall be on the positioning support or the
positioning plane which consists of several supports to prevent part displacement and deflection due to the
couple formed by support reaction and clamping force/gravity. In addition, the acting point shall be set on
the position of the part having the largest stiffness, and single-point clamping can be changed to double-point
clamping or the clamping contact area can be increased properly if necessary.
Determination of clamping force magnitude: If the weldment is subject to rolling-over or rotation on the
clamp, the clamping force needs to overcome the effect of gravity and inertia force and ensure the weldment
is firmly clamped. If elastic deformation is required on the clamp, the clamping device shall provide the
clamping force enabling the part to obtain the preset reverse deformation. In addition, the clamping force
shall be able to bear the restraint stress due to the thermal stress in welding. Furthermore, the clamping force
shall overcome the local deformation due to preparation and transportation, etc. of the parts, so as to
facilitate assembly.
(2) Basic requirements on clamping mechanism
① The clamping force shall be applied correctly, and self-locking shall be maintained under clamping
state to ensure safe and reliable clamping positioning.
② The clamping action shall be quick, the operation shall be convenient and effort-saving, and the
surface quality of the part shall not be damaged by clamping.
③ The clamping piece shall have certain stiffness and strength, and the clamping force shall be
adjustable.
④ The structure shall be as simple as possible to facilitate manufacturing and repair.
(3) Common clamping mechanisms
① Wedge clamp
A wedge clamp is the most basic and simple clamping mechanism. Workpieces are mainly clamped by the
pressure generated through movement of the inclined plane in operation.
Self-locking condition: The ascent angle α of the tapered wedge shall be less than the sum of the friction
angle ψ1 between the tapered wedge and the workpiece and the friction angle ψ2 between the tapered wedge
and the clamp, namely:
α<ψ1+ψ2 (1⁃6)
In case of manual clamping in the design: α=6°~8°.
If the power source of the tapered wedge is provided pneumatically or hydraulically, the ascent angle α of
the tapered wedge can be expanded. When it is within 15°~30°, it is non-self-locking type. The clamping
stroke of the tapered wedge can be determined as per the equation below:
h=s tanα (1⁃7)
Where, s represents the tapered wedge with inclined plane. The wedge stroke during clamping can be
reduced and the production efficiency can be improved by increasing the ascent angle of the tapered wedge
and making it into a double-inclined plane tapered wedge.
② Screw clamp
Generally, a screw clamp is composed of screws, nuts and a main body, which is provided with accessories
such as pressing blocks and handles. The workpiece is clamped through the relative rotation between the

·42·
screw and tthe nut in opperation. In order
o to prevvent bruise and
a displacem
ment on the part surface, a swingingg
pressing bloock can be prrovided on th
he end of thee screw.
Rotation scrrew clamps, hinge clampps, quick-retrreating clamp
ps and other quick clampping structurral styles cann
be used to oovercome thee disadvantages of the sccrew clamp, such as slow
w action, longg auxiliary time and low w
work efficieency.
③ Ecccentric roller clamp
An eccentriic roller refeers to the paart rotating aaround a rotaation center having certaain offset relative to thee
geometric ccenter. An ecccentric roller clamp is the clamping device reaalizing clampping effect based b on thee
self-lockingg capability of
o the eccenttric roller or the roller. Itt features quiick clampingg action and is especiallyy
suitable for the mass prooduction with h small dimeension deviattion and clam mping force aand little vib
bration.
Self-lockinng condition of
o the round eccentric rolller at any po
ositions is as follows:
2ее/D≤f (1⁃8)
Where e - Circle eccentricity;
e
D - Diametter of the rou
und eccentricc roller (D=2
2R);
f - Frictionn coefficient between thhe round ecccentric rolleer and the ppart, which is taken as
0.1~0.15 inn general.
In production, f=0.15 iss commonly adopted. In tthis case, thee eccentricity
y shall be е<00.075D.
④ Levver clamp
It is a clam
mping mechaanism converrting the oriiginal force into clampin ng force witth lever prinnciple. Leverr
clamps featture quick claamping actioon and poor self-locking capacity, which is able to increase the
t force butt
easy to loosse under vibbration. Thereefore, pneum
matic or hydrraulic clamp
ping power ssource is seleected or it iss
used to consstitute the coombined clam
mping mechaanism with other
o clampin
ng elements iin general.
(4) Pneeumatic and hydraulic
h claamps
Pneumatic cclamp: It feaatures quick clamping acction, stable and adjustab ble clampingg force, simp
ple structure,,
easy operatiion, environm
mental pollution free andd it is conven
nient for realiizing program
mmed contro
ol operation.
Hydraulic cclamp: It woorks steadily with a greatt clamping force
f and good overload capacity. However, onee
set of special hydraulic power unitss is required.. Besides, it proposes hig
gh requiremeents on systeem seal withh
high manufafacturing costt.
(5) Magnetic clampp
It is the devvice achievinng clamping by
b attractingg the part mad
de of ferrom
magnetic mateerial with maagnetic forcee.
Magnetic cclamps can be b classified
d into permaanent-magnett clamps and electromag agnetic clamp ps based onn
magnetic soource and fixxed clamps an nd movable cclamps based d on work naature.
(6) Speecial clamp
It refers to the weldingg clamp with
h specializedd purpose, which
w is speccially manufa
factured acco
ording to thee
assembly aand welding requirements of certainn product. A special cllamp basicallly consists of differentt
positioners and clampinng mechanism ms installedd on the clam mp as per thee shape and geometric dimension
d off
the part asseembled and welded
w as weell as the possitioning and
d clamping reequirements..
(7) Com
mbined clam
mp
It means thee detachable clamp assem mbled by som me normalizzed clamp eleements as peer the producct machiningg
requirementts. It is of grreat benefit to select the rreusable com
mbined clamp featuring fflexible assem mbly for thee
production situation featuring multip ple varieties,, rapid chang
ge, less batch
hes and shortt production cycle.
Combined cclamps can be
b classified into
i two systtems based on
o the connecction modes of basic elem
ments:
① Grooove system:: The elemen
nts in the com
mbined clam
mp are mainly
y positioned aand fastened
d through thee
groove.

·43··
② Hole system: The elements in the combined clamp are mainly positioned and fastened through the
hole.
The elements of combined clamp consist of 8 categories based on their functions, i.e., basic pieces,
supporting pieces, positioning pieces, guiding pieces, clamping pieces, fasteners, combine pieces and
auxiliary pieces.
3 Clamp body
Clamp body is a basic piece of the clamp, which not only needs to connect various elements, mechanisms
and devices into an integral whole but also shall facilitate assembly and disassembly of the workpiece.
Therefore, the shape and dimension of the clamp body mainly depend on the distribution locations of various
components of the clamp, the overall dimension of the workpiece and the machining conditions. The basic
requirements below shall be met when designing the clamp body:
(1) It shall have sufficient strength and stiffness.
(2) Simple and light structure. The structure shall be as simple and compact as possible with small
volume and mass to facilitate assembly and disassembly of the workpiece on the premise of guaranteeing
strength and stiffness.
(3) It shall be installed stably and reliably.
(4) The structure shall have good machinability to facilitate manufacturing, assembly and inspection.
(5) The dimension shall be stable and have certain accuracy.
(6) It shall be convenient for cleaning.
(IV) Methods to design assembly welding clamps
Assembly welding clamps can be classified into four categories based on the functions and assembly
requirements of clamp elements: The first category contacts with the workpiece directly and strictly
determines the position and shape of the workpiece, and mainly includes joint positioning pieces, V-shaped
blocks, positioning pins and other positioning elements. The second category includes various guiding pieces.
Although this category does not contact with the positioning workpiece directly, it determines the position of
the element in the first category. The third category is the clamp element whose internal structural parts are
coordinating with one another, e.g., the fit dimension tolerance among various parts in the clamping device.
The fourth category neither affects the workpiece position nor coordinates with other elements, e.g., the main
frame of the clamp. The design method of various assembly welding clamps is the same. The details are as
follows:
1 Preparations before design
The original data of clamp design includes clamp design task orders, drawings, technical conditions and
assembly process specification of the workpiece, technical conditions of clamp design as well as
standardized and normalized data of the clamp, including national standards, factory standards and
normalized structural atlas.
2 Design steps
Step 1: Determine the clamp structure scheme.
Step 2: Develop the general clamp work drawing.
Step 3: Develop the part drawing of assembly welding clamp.
Step 4: Prepare design instruction of assembly welding clamp.
Step 5: Operation instructions of assembly welding clamp, including equipment performance and precautions
for use, shall be prepared if necessary.
3 Machinability of clamp structure
(1) Basic requirements on good machinability of clamps. Various standard parts and universal parts
shall be selected for the overall clamp structure as much as possible, and the proportion of special parts shall
be minimized to reduce manufacturing workload and cost. In addition, the structural shapes of various
·44·
special partts and compponents shalll be easy too manufactu
ure and measure, and coonvenient fo
or assembly,,
commissionning, maintennance and reppair of the cllamp.
(2) Reaasonable asseembly datum m shall be seelected. The assembly
a datum shall bee one indepen ndent datum m
surface or liine on the claamp, and thee positions off other elemeents shall be adjusted or fit only acco
ording to thiss
surface. Mooreover, the position an nd dimensionn of the asssembly datu um shall nott be changed once it iss
machined. F For this reasoon, the surfaace or the linne whose possition and dimmension neeed to be adju usted or fit inn
assembly shhall not be ussed as the asssembly datum m.
(3) Struuctural adjusstability. Usu
ually, it is fasstened by bo
olts and posittioned by pinns. And the dimension
d off
certain elem
ment can be grinded con nveniently w when adjustin ng and assem mbling the cclamp. Furthhermore, thee
assembly ddimension caan be contro olled, the errrors of otherr elements can
c be comppensated, and the clampp
accuracy caan be improvved by setting g adjusting w washer, adjusting gasket or adjustingg sleeve, etc. between thee
element andd the componnent.
(4) Maintainability. The clamp shall be desiigned in such
h a way that repair is easyy.
(5) Matterials of claamps.
Section 3 Macchining of Typical
T Bog
gie Parts
CRH series are used forr EMU bogiees in China, w
which are classified into power bogiees and non-p
power bogiess.
High-speed EMU power bogies generally comprrise the following main parts.
p
Frame - thee frameworkk of a bogiee and the caarrier for insstallation of componentss and parts, bearing andd
transferringg vertical andd horizontal forces.
f
Wheelset - directly trannsferring the train weighht and action n force to rails. The operration of traiin on rails iss
realized by the rotation of wheelsetss; power wheeelset generaates tractive force
f by adheesion betweeen wheel andd
rail; and thee braking forrce is also reaalized by whheelsets.
Axle box aand positioninng device - the movablee "joint" con nnecting frammes and wheeelsets, guarranteeing thee
free rotationn of wheelseets, and addittionally enabbling wheelsets to adapt to the track conditions and
a move alll
around relattive to the fraames throughh positioningg devices.
Spring susppension - useed for guaran nteeing certaiin axle load distribution and mitigatin
ing the wheeel-rail impactt
effect. It is an importaant device fo or guaranteeiing the dynaamics perforrmances, inccluding the train/vehiclee
operating sttability, and typically
t com
mprises sprinng, damper and
a connectin ng componennts.
Traction eqquipment - thhe connecting device bettween car boody and bogie, used for transferring vertical andd
horizontal fforces betweeen car body and
a bogie, annd guaranteeeing the rotarry motion bet
etween them.
Fundamentaal braking deevice - the force
f from thhe brake cyliinder is transsferred to bra
rake shoe or brake liningg
after severaal times of inncrease by th
he lever systeem, and then
n imposes braaking on traiin through th
he brake discc
or wheel treead.
Driving meechanism - with
w respect to power boogie, transferrring the power of tractition motors to t wheelsetss
through thee gear reduceers. The folllowing is thee description
n of machiniing processees of axles, wheels,
w axlee
boxes and fr
frames only.
The compriising structuure of non-p power bogie is basically
y similar to that of pow
wer bogie, ex
xcept for noo
traction mottor and driviing device.
I. Axlle Machiningg Process
(I) Chaaracteristics and
a technicaal requiremennts of axle machining
m pro
ocess
Axle, as onne of the typpical parts off a machine,, is mainly used
u for supp
porting drivee components and parts,,
transferringg torque andd bearing loaad. Shafts arre rotating parts
p he length greeater than th
with th he diameter,,
typically coomprising thhe concentrric outer cyylindrical surrface, conical surface, inner hole, thread andd
w shafts and
correspondiing end face.. They are cllassified intoo smooth shaafts, stepped shafts, hollow d crankshaftss
depending oon the structuural shape.
A shaft is ccalled short shaft
s when itts length-diaameter ratio is
i less than 5 and slendeer shaft when
n the ratio iss
more than 220, and most shafts have a length-diam meter ratio between
b 5 and 20.

·45··
A shaft is supported by bearing and the shaft segment fitted with bearing is called journal, which is the
datum for assembly of the shaft. The requirements for the accuracy and surface quality of journal are
generally strict, and the technical requirements of journal are normally determined by the main function and
working conditions of the shaft, usually including the following:
1 Dimension accuracy
To locate the shaft, the requirement for the dimension accuracy of the journal which plays the supporting
function is usually high (IT5~IT7), while that of the journal for assembly of driving parts is generally low
(IT6~IT9).
2 Accuracy of geometric shape
The accuracy of geometric shape of shafts mainly means the roundness and cylindricity of the journal, outer
conical surface and Morse tapered hole, whose tolerance is generally limited within the dimensional
tolerance range. The allowable deviation of the inner and outer circle surfaces with high requirement for the
accuracy shall be indicated on drawings.
3 Relative position accuracy
The requirements for the position accuracy of shafts are determined mainly by the position and function of
the shaft in the machinery. Generally, the requirement for the coaxiality of the journal for assembly of
driving parts with the supporting journal shall be met; otherwise, the driving accuracy of driving parts (such
as gear) will be affected and noise will be caused. The radial runout of the fitted segment to the supporting
journal of the shaft with general accuracy is generally 0.01~0.03mm, and that of the shaft with high accuracy
(such as spindle) is usually 0.001~0.005mm.
4 Surface roughness
I The surface roughness Ra of the journal fitted with driving parts is generally 2.5~0.63μm, and the
surface roughness Ra of the supporting journal fitted with bearing is 0.63~0.16μm.
(II) Axle blank and material
1 Axle blank
Blank forms including bars and forgings can be selected for axle according to the operating requirements,
manufacturing type, equipment conditions and structure. For the axle with a small difference in the outer
circle diameter, bar is usually used. For stepped shaft or major shaft with a large difference in the outer circle
diameter, forging is usually selected, which can save materials, reduce the workload of machining and
improve the mechanical property.
The forging methods of blank are classified into free forging and die forging depending on the production
scale, where free forging is mainly used for small or medium batch production and die forging is used for
mass production.
2 Axle material
Different materials shall be selected and different heat treatment specifications (including hardening and
tempering, normalizing and quenching) shall be applied for axle according to various operating conditions
and requirements so as to obtain particular strength, toughness and wear resistance.
45 steel is commonly used for shafts as it is cheap; good cutting properties and general mechanical properties,
including strength and toughness, can be obtained after hardening and tempering (or normalizing), and the
surface hardness can be up to 45~52HRC after quenching.
Alloy constructional steel, such as 40Cr, is suitable for the shafts with medium accuracy and high speed as it
has good general mechanical properties after hardening, tempering, and normalizing.
Bearing steel GCr15 and spring steel 65Mn have a surface hardness up to 50~58HRC and have good fatigue
performance and wear resistance after hardening and tempering and high-frequency surface normalizing so
that they can be used for manufacturing shafts with high accuracy.
(III) Analysis of axle machining process

·46·
Center holee is generallly used as the positionning datum to achieve datum conssistency. Cen nter drillingg
procedure iis usually coonducted on center lathe for single piece/small
p batch
b producction and on
n special endd
face millingg and centerinng machine tool
t for masss production.
Center holee is the positiioning datum
m used in the whole machhining processs of shafts aand its quality
y has a greatt
influence onn the machinning accuraccy. Thereforre, the procedure of centter hole poliishing shall be b arranged,,
which is gennerally condducted on lath
he with diammond or hard alloy center..
For hollow axle, the tapper sleeve mandrel
m or tappered plug with
w center hole
h is generaally used in order to usee
the center hhole for posittioning. If th
he outer circlle and taper hole require repeated maachining witth each otherr
as the datumm, alignmentt must be do one or the cennter hole muust be re-poliished based on the outerr circle whenn
the tapered plug or mandrel is re-insstalled.
The machinning of seconndary surfacees, such as sppline and keeyway, on thee shaft is usuually conduccted after thee
finish turninng and beforre grinding ofo outer circlee as the vibrration easily caused by innterrupted cuutting duringg
finish turninng will affecct the machin ning quality,, damage thee cutting tool and make iit difficult too control thee
dimension oof the keyw way if the keeyway is millled before finishf turnin
ng, and the mmachining accuracy
a andd
surface quaality of the outer
o circle surface may bbe destroyed d if it is conducted afterr finish grind
ding of outerr
circle.
Necessary hheat treatmennt procedure shall be arraanged during
g machining to
t guarantee the mechaniical propertyy
and machinning accuracyy, and impro ove the machhinability of workpieces. Normalizinng procedure is generallyy
arranged affter blank forging, with hardening annd temperin ng after roug
gh machiningg, so as to eliminate
e thee
stress geneerated after rough mach hining and obtain good d combined mechanicall properties. Quenchingg
procedure iss arranged beefore grindin
ng.
For general drive shaft with the acccuracy of graade 7 and thee surface rou
ughness Ra oof 0.8~0.4μm m, the typicall
process rouute is as folloows: normaliizing - end fface turning and center drilling
d - rouugh turning of
o surfaces -
finish turninng of surfacces - milling of spline annd keyway - heat treatmment - centerr hole polish hing - roughh
grinding of outer circle - finish grind
ding of outerr circle - insp
pection.
1 mposition off CRH2 axle
Com
CRH2 bogiie axle is deesigned in accordance
a with Railwayy Car ⁃ Axlle Strength D
w Design (JIS
SE4501) andd
manufactureed in accorddance with the t standardd JISE4502. High-frequency quenchhing heat treeatment andd
rolling proccess is used too improve th
he fatigue saffety of axle.
To guaranteee the strength and reducce the mass, tthe wheelsett axle is hollow axle, witth the boring
g diameter off
ϕ60mm, maaterial of S338C and jou urnal diametter of ϕ130m mm, and passsing ultrasoonic flaw deetection. Thee
hollow axlee allows the ultrasonic
u prrobe to crosss the through
h hole directly to make fflaw detectioon easy, withh
the power aaxle and non-power axle shown in Fiig. 1⁃35 and Fig. 1⁃36. The T dimensioons of parts of these twoo
types of axlle are shown in Table 1⁃8.
8

Taable 1⁃8 Dimension


n of CRH2 ax
xle
Unit: mm
Consecutivee
number Designation
n Poweer wheel N
Non-power wh
heel
1 Tootal length of axle
a 2298
2 2382
2 Diiameter of jou
urnal ϕ130
3 Center-to-center distancce of journal 2000
4 Diam
meter of axle body ϕ182
ϕ ϕ192

·47··
Ø20
01 press-in

About
307.4

(a) Com
mposition off power axle
1 - axle; 2 - whheel; 3 - brak
ke disc with w
wheel disc; 4 - bearing asssembly; 5 - driving deviice.
press in
Ø196

press in
Ø196

(b
b) Compposition of non-power
n ax
xle
1 - brakee disc with wheel
w disc; 2 - brake disc with axle dissc; 3 - brake disc seat.
Fig. 1⁃355 Compositio
on of axle
Both axles of the traileer bogie are non-power aaxles, on wh hich the brakke disc with axle disc made
m of two--
segment forrged steel wiith the outer diameter of ϕ670mm an nd thickness of 97mm is iinstalled. Thhe brake discc
comprises bbrake disc rinng and hub, and is conneected with th he disc hub by bolts, blocck and elasticc sleeve, andd
interferencee fit is applied between brrake disc hubb and axle.
·48·
During macchining of axxle, the speciified requiremments for tollerance and surface
s qualiity must be met,
m with thee
tolerance off axle wheel seat and braake disc seat respectively as 0.24~0.265mm and 00.254~0.285m mm. No tooll
mark is alloowed on thee machined surface,
s espeecially at thee joint. No residual
r stresss that will form
f fatiguee
crack or defformation duuring normal service shalll be caused during
d machiining.
The maximuum residual stress measu ured on the aaxle surface shall be no more
m than 1000MPa at strretching, andd
the residuall stress on thee axle surfacce shall be m
measured in accordance with
w the standdard EN1326 61. The mainn
process couurse of axle blank
b machinning is shownn as follows:
(1) Connduct positiooning of the blank
b with thhe outer circlle to roughly
y mill both ennd faces on double-sided
d d
milling macchine.
(2) Connduct positiooning with th
he inner holee to roughly and finely bore two plugg holes on th
he horizontall
boring machhine, and scrrape two end
d faces.
(3) Press in the speccial plugs for both ends oon the press.
(4) Connduct positiooning with th he center hooles on two plugs
p to perrform semi-ffinish turning
g of journal,,
dustproof seeat, wheel seeat, brake dissc seat and axxle body on the
t axle copyying lathe.
(5) Connduct positiooning with the
t wheel seeat surface to perform fiinish turningg of both en
nd faces andd
guarantee thhe length dim
mension of ax
xle.
(6) Connduct positiooning with thhe wheel seatt surface to perform
p mach hining end faace holes on the modularr
machine toool, which aree respectively
y through driilling, chamb
bering and taapping.
(7) Polish the centter hole and conduct poositioning wiith the centeer hole to peerform finish
h turning off
journal, dusstproof seat, wheel
w seat, brake
b disc annd shaft shou
ulder arc anglle.
(8) Grinnd the wheell seat and braake disc seatt.
(9) Rolll the wheel seat,
s brake disc seat, axlee body and trransition arc.
(10) Finish grind thee dustproof seeat and journnal.
(11) Hannd over for examination.
e
2 CRH
H5 axle
CRH5 axle is classified into power axle
a and nonn-power axlee. The axle iss hollow withh the hollow w diameter off
ϕ65mm andd material off 30NiCrMo oV12 steel, aand is machin ned and man nufactured ac
according to the standardd
UNI6787— —71 (UNI67887—71 is the standard uused for the hardened
h andd tempered sspecial alloy steel forgedd
axle of railw
way wheelseet with high fatigue streength and tou ughness). Thhe design staandards for axle includee
EN13103 R Railway Applications - Wheelsets
W Annd Bogies - Non-powered
N d Axles - Deesign Method, EN131044
Railway Appplications - Wheelsets And Bogies - Powered Axles - Design Methodd, and UIC8 811—1 UIC C
Standard - TTechnical Sppecification for
f the Supplyly of Axles fo
or Rolling Sto
ock.
The power bogie of CR RH5 EMU is two-axle boggie, includin ng one powerr axle and onne non-poweer axle. Bothh
axles on noon-power boogie are non--power axless. On the po ower bogie, the non-pow wer and powwer axles aree
respectivelyy installed att outer and in
nner ends off the bogie, which
w receive the power from the mo otor hangingg
on the car bbody via the cardan
c shaft..
Power axle comprises thhe axle box bearing
b seat,, wheel seat, two brake disc
d seats, geear bearing seeat, and axlee
body, with the total lenngth of 2,180 0mm, as show wn in Fig. 1⁃36(a). Non n-power axlee comprises the
t axle boxx
bearing seatt, wheel seatt, three brakee disc seats aand axle boddy, with the total length oof 2,180mm, as shown inn
Fig. 1⁃36(b)
b). The diameeter and tolerrance of mouunting seats of o new axles and repairedd wheels andd brake discss
are shown inn Table 1⁃9 and Table 1⁃10.

·49··
(a) Power axle

(b) Non-power ax
xle

Fig. 1⁃36 Ax
F xle
In case anyy damage iss caused during dismanntling of whheel or brakee disc, the diameter dim
mensions off
mounting seeats may be reduced
r he minimum allowable values provided in Table 1 ⁃10.
to th
Table 1⁃9 Diiameter dimeension and itss tolerance of
o wheel seat and brake ddisc seat of neew axle
Tolerancee (mm)
Instaallation methood Diameter (m
mm)
Minimu
um Maxim
mum
W
Wheel seat ϕ192 +0.24
40 +0.2
265
Side brake disc seat ϕ194 +0.25
54 +0.2
285
Centraal brake disc seat
s ϕ196 +0.25
54 +0.2
285

Table 1⁃10 Diam


meter dimension and its ttolerance of repaired wheeel and brakee disc mountting seats
Tolerancee (mm)
Instaallation methood Diameter (m
mm)
Minimu
um Maxim
mum
W
Wheel seat ϕ189 +0.24
40 +0.2
265
Side brake disc seat ϕ191 +0.25
54 +0.2
285
Centraal brake disc seat
s ϕ193 +0.25
54 +0.2
285

During macchining of axle,a the speecified requiirements for tolerance and surface qquality mustt be met, inn
addition, noo tool mark is allowed on n the machinned surface, especially
e at the joint. Noo residual strress that willl
form fatigue crack or deformation
d during
d norm
mal service shhall be causeed during maachining. Th he maximum m
residual streess measuredd on the axle surface shhall be no mo ore than 1000MPa at streetching, and the residuall
stress on thee axle surfacce shall be measured in acccordance with the Europ pean railwayy standard EN N13261.
II. Whheel machininng process
(I) Bassic requiremeents for wheeel machiningg
The wheel bblank used forf manufacturing EMU is semi-finisshed and req quires wheel hub bore an nd inside endd
face machinning so as to be assem mbled with axle into wheelset.
w As shown in FFig. 1⁃37, the t diameterr
dimension d of wheel hubh bore is selectively asssembled witth axle wheeel seat to guaarantee the magnitude
m off
interferencee of 0.1~0.255mm and meet the techniical requirem
ments for wheeelset press ffitting.

Fig. 1 ⁃37 Wheel section


s
Light wheell machining of high-speeed train is striict, which must
m meet the following reequirements::
(1) Conntour machinning is requiired for treadd and radial, and the arc angle is cheecked with sample plate,,
with the loccal clearance <0.5mm.

·50·
(2) After wheel maachining, staatic balance ttest shall be performed, with the alllowable statiic imbalancee
≤50g·m.
(3) Thee surface rooughness off wheel hubb bore Ra<3 3.2μm, cylinndricity ≤ 00.02mm, and d roundnesss
≤0.025mm, and the cone direction sh
hall be favorrable to the fit
f of press fittting with coonnecting streength.
(II) Machining methhod of wheell hub bore
The machinning method of wheel hub
b bore variess depending on
o the equipm
ment, specifi
fically as folllows:
The machinning method of wheel hu ub bore variies dependinng on the reqquired equipmment. If genneral verticall
lathe is useed for machhining, bore dial indicattor is requirred for meaasuring the bbore diameter, with thee
machining aaccuracy as IT7~IT8,
I rou
ughness Ra aas 5~6.3μm, and typical tolerance
t zonne about 0.1m
mm.
If special internal grindding head iss used for ffinish machiining of wheeel hub boree, the toleraance zone iss
controlled at about 0.002mm to reealize interchhange of wheel
w and ax
xle assemblyly. The internal surfacee
roughness Ra may reachh 3.2μm stead dily.
If CNC maachine tool iss used for machining,
m thhe work shalll be done acccording to tthe program
m prepared inn
advance. Thhe relative position
p betw
ween workpieece and cuttiing tool and the feeding speed are sp pecified, andd
the data feeedback valuee is compared with the innstruction vaalue. When the t differencce between them is zero,,
the actual vvalue is equall to the speciified value. TThe hardnesss change of workpiece
w mmaterial, cuttin
ng tool wearr
and heatingg, as well as the actual displacement value obtain ned on workkpiece, are noot taken intoo account, ass
shown in Fiig. 1⁃38(a).
Fig. 1⁃38(bb) is the schhematic macchining diagrram of adap ptive control CNC machhine tool inttroducing ann
additional ffeedback looop in CNC system, whhich providess testing infformation onn other rand dom processs
variables, ssuch as nonnuniformity of blank alllowance, ch hange in workpiece annd cutting to ool materiall
properties, cchange in geeometric paraameters caussed by cuttin
ng tool wear, change in cu
cutting depth, and cuttingg
tool deform
mation, and such
s informaation can be available by y various sensors. The oobtained data of processs
variables is converted tot feedback data
d after prrocessing by the adaptivee control devvice, and inttegrated intoo
the output oof the machhine tool conntrol device tto realize ad
djustment acccording to tthe changes of objectivee
conditions.

Possition and speed feeedback

Innput order Position and speed data


Machine
M tool CNCC Meetal cutting processs
co
ontrol position machine tool

Position and sppeed feedback

Input order Machine tool Position annd speed data CNC Metal cutting pprocess
control position machine
m tool

Correction
C Adaptive Process variable
v
ccontrol device

Fig. 1⁃38 B
Block diagram of CNC sy
ystem
III. Axlle Box Machhining Processs

·51··
Box parts arre basic partts of a machiine and its coomponents, which
w assem
mble the axless, bearings, covers,
c gearss
and other paarts in a macchine and its componentss into a whole according to certain rellative positioonal relation,,
and coordinnate its moveement accord ding to the prredetermined
d drive relation. Thereforre, the machiining qualityy
of the box affects not only
o its asseembly accuraacy and kineematic accurracy, but alsoo the workin ng accuracy,,
operational performancee and servicee life of a maachine.
The axle boox of EMU is the movab ble joint connnecting wheeelset and frrame, which transfers the forces andd
vibration inn each direction, and guaarantees that the wheelseet is capable to adapt to the track conditions andd
move verticcally or laterrally relative to the framee. The follow
wing is the description
d bby taking thee axle box off
CRH2 EMU U as an exammple.
Axle box iss the importaant part connecting wheellset and fram
me. CRH2 EM
MU applies tthe axle box and rotatingg
arm integraated structurre so as to simplify
s the structure, reduce
r the deadweight
d aand make asssembly andd
maintenance easy.
(I) Com
mposition off axle box
1 Struuctural compposition
The axle boox of CRH2 EMU
E includ
des the follow wing main co omponents: axle box boddy, axle box gland, frontt
cover and reear cover of axle box, beearing unit, rrubber elasticc positioning
g joint, axle ttemperature detector andd
rubber coveer. The axle box
b is shown n in Fig. 1⁃399.

Fiig. 1⁃39 Compositiion of axle box


b
1 - axle bbox body; 2 - bearing; 3 - front coverr; 4 - rear cover; 5 - supp
port rubber jooint; 6 - rubb
ber cover.
(1) Axlle box body
ure made of cast steel SC
The axle boox body is off steel structu C450 (JISG5 5101 Carbonn Steel Castin ng). Bearingg
is installed in the box, whose
w top is used for insstalling the axle
a box spriing, and the other end off the rotatingg
arm is connnected with the rubber elastic posiitioning join nt via gland to form thhe positionin ng device off
wheelset. The outer ringg of bearing in the axle bbox is positiooned by the front
f and reaar covers of the
t axle box..
The front coover of the axle
a box is made
m of alum
minum alloy casting AC4 4CH⁃T6 (JISSH5202 Alum minum Alloyy
Casting). Thhe rear coverr of the axle box is madee of aluminum m alloy sheeets A5083P⁃O (JISH400 00Aluminium m
and Aluminnium Alloy Sheets, Strrips and Pllates) or alluminum alloy forgingg material A5083FD A ⁃O
(JISH4051)), with the hoorizontally spplit structuree connected and
a assembleed by bolts.
The supporrt rubber preessing plate of
o the axle bbox is madee of cast steeel SC450 (JI
JISG5101) orr steel S45C C
(JISG4051)) or steel plaates SS400 (J
JISG3101) aand is providded with inteegrated machhining with the axle boxx
body. Thesee two compoonents are maanaged by mmarking for in
ntegrated usee.

·52·
The front oopening of thhe front coveer is installeed with rubb
ber cover to prevent
p intruusion of watter and dust,,
which is sett for flaw dettection of axle.
The wheelsset axle box is bridged with
w the posiitioning rotaating arm, wh hich is connnected with the
t gland byy
four (4) M220 bolts and falls into thee groove outsside the axle box. If it is required to rreplace the wheelset,
w it iss
only necesssary to looseen the four (4)
( M20 boltts and the grrounding wirre to separatte the wheelset axle boxx
from the boogie.
(2) Froont cover of axle
a box
To reduce tthe weight unnder the boggie spring, thhe front coveer is made off high purityy aluminum alloy
a castingg
material. It is necessaryy to provide special coatting on the jointing face in order to prevent elecctrochemicall
corrosion caaused by the contact surfface of alumiinum materiaal with steel parts.
p
There is one hole at thee bottom of the
t front covver, which is used for disscharging thee lubricatingg oil used forr
ultrasonic fl
flaw detectionn of axle. Th
he hole of thee front coverr is normally
y blocked by bolt to prevent dust intoo
the tachomeeter and grouunding device during opeeration.
(3) Reaar cover of axxle box
The rear coover of the axle a box is of horizontaally split strructure madee of forged steel, wheree a completee
retainer ringg is first forrmed verticallly and then it is conneccted with thee axle box bby bolts. Theere is doublee
labyrinth sloot of dustprooof structure on the rear ccover of the axle
a box.
(4) Rubbber elastic positioning
p jo
oints
The end whhere the axlle box is con nnected withh the frame is the rubber elastic poositioning jo oint used forr
transferringg the tractioon and brak
king force bbetween wheeelset and frame, f whichh, as one of o the mainn
componentss of the primmary suspensiion, will be ddescribed in detail
d in the primary
p susppension sectiion.
(5) Beaaring pack
CRH2 bogiee uses double-row tapereed roller bearring pack lub bricated by grease
g and off light contacct double-lipp
self-sealing structure. The
T bearing pack comprrises the outeer ring, doub ble-row tapeered roller, holder,
h innerr
ring, wear pprevention partition,
p oil seal, oil seaal ring and rear cover, an
nd is a full ssealed unit bearing
b withh
lubricating ggrease addedd.
wn in Tablee 1⁃11. The bearing usess resin holdeer and has been
The specificcation of bearing is show b injectedd
with NERIT TA2858 speccial lubricatin
ng grease forr high-speed
d train bearing before deliivery.
Table 1⁃11 CR
CRH2 bearing
g specification table
Bearingg type Seealed double-rrow tapered rooller bearing
Designaation 2E⁃CRI⁃2677T2
2LLXCS770P
PX1/L552S17
130×
×230×150/1600
Main dimenssion (mm) ( Inneer diameter × outer diameteer × inner ring
g )
frame × outer ring fraame
Ratted basic dynaamic load (N) 920 000
R
Rated basic staatic load (N) 1670000
Oil seeal Ligh
ht contact seall
Retainner Resin
R holder
Lubricatingg grease NE
ERITA2858

The servicee life of bearring is calcullated accordiing to the sttandard JIS B 1518, andd shall reach 5×106km att
the maximuum axle load of 14t.
(6) Beaaring temperaature detecto
or
Bearing tem
mperature detector for monitoring thee axle bearin ng state is prrovided on thhe side of eaach axle boxx
body. Whenn the bearingg temperaturee reaches cerrtain value, the
t thermal fusef will be molten and give bearingg
temperaturee anomaly nootice. The specification oof the device is as followss:

·53··
Operating teemperature: 165℃~155℃; setting teemperature off built-in thermal fuse: 1444℃.
2 Axlle box positiooning devicee
The axle box positioniing device iss also know wn as the sp pring suspenssion of the axle box which appliess
rotating armm positioningg. The roundd spring of thhe primary suspension
s iss placed on tthe mounting g seat of thee
rotating armm, which is installed
i on the side fram me via the rubber
r joint. The positiooning rotating arm is thee
framework of the device and the tiee between whheelset axle box and fram me. It shall bbe as long as possible inn
order to redduce the additional effect of the positiioning joint stiffness
s on the primary vvertical stiffn
ness.
The axle bbox positioniing device is i used, whoose characteeristics include: conveniient for selection of thee
support rigiidity of the axle
a box (ind
dependent seelection in veertical, frontt and back, le
left and rightt directions),,
and capablee of realizinng stability in
n high-speedd operation, riding comfort and currve passing performance
p e
simultaneouusly; light weight;
w smalll quantity off componentts; convenien nt for disasssembly and assembly off
axle box suppport device; no slipper and
a maintenaance free.
(1) Seleection of possitioning datu
um
The selectioon of the boxx positioning
g datum is diirectly relateed to whetherr the requireements for th
he dimensionn
accuracy annd position acccuracy betwween planes, between holles and planees, and betweeen holes on n the box cann
be met. Forr selection of datum, thee principles oof "datum allignment" an nd "datum coonsistency" shall
s be firstt
followed, annd the scalee of the prodduction batchh, the producction equipmment, and esppecially the selection off
clamps, shaall be taken innto account.
① Seleection of rouugh datum
The rough ddatum is maainly used fo or determininng the positio
onal relation
n between noon-machined
d surface andd
machining fface, and guaaranteeing th
he uniform alllowance of the
t machinin ng face.
As there is generally onne (or severaal) primary laarge hole(s) on box partss, the rough ddatum shall be the blankk
hole (such aas the spindlle hole on the main axle box) in ordeer to guarantee the uniforrm machinin ng allowancee
of holes. Thhe non-machined surface of box partss is mainly th he cavity surfface, and theere is certain requirementt
for the distaance dimensiion between the non-macchined surfaace and mach hining face aas there is geear and otherr
driving partts installed inn the box wh
hich has a smmall clearancce with the non-machinin
n ng inner wall. Therefore,,
it is possible to make thhe gear collid
de with the innner wall of the box during gear instaallation if theere is a largee
distance dimmension gap between thee machined bbearing hole end face and d the inner w wall of the bo ox. Based onn
such requireement, the innner wall shaall be selecteed as the rou
ugh datum, buut this will mmake the clam mp structuree
very complicated, even cause failurre of the claamp structuree. Considerin ng the innerr wall and mainm hole aree
cast by thee same clay core during casting, thee hole is usually taken as the mainn rough datu um in actuall
production to limit 4 deegrees of freeedom, and tthe cavity orr any other blank
b hole iss taken as th
he secondaryy
datum planee to achieve complete positioning.
② Seleection of preecision datum
m
There are generally twoo options for selecting thee precision datum
d of box
xes. One is too take the asssembly facee
as the preciision datum, whose advaantage is thatt for the requ uirements regarding the distance and d parallelism
m
between hoole and bottoom surface, the datum is aligned with hout misalignment error,, and the box x opening iss
upward to ffacilitate observation, meeasurement aand tool settin ng. Howeverr, the disadvaantage is thaat hanger hass
to be used ffor boring thhe holes on thhe middle waall as it is im
mpossible to install the m
middle guide support, andd
such hangerr is with poor rigidity, inconvenient
i t operation, large installaation error aand difficult automation..
pplicable to simple boxes without miiddle wall hoole or the pro
Therefore, tthis option iss generally ap oduction in a
small batch only.
For the probblem of usinng hanger-typ pe middle guuide supportt as mentioned above, thhe other optio on is to takee
the top surfa
face of the boox and the tw
wo process hooles on the to
op surface ass the precisioon datum by applying thee
installation method wheere the box opening
o facees downward d. During borring, the clam mp stiffness is improvedd
as the midddle guide suppport is directly fixed on the clamp, which
w is favoorable to guaaranteeing th
he dimensionn
and positionn accuracy of o support holes. In addiition, the wo orkpiece cann be dismanttled convenieently, whichh
reduces thee auxiliary time
t and immproves the productivity y. However, this way of positioning also hass
disadvantagges, namely, the machiniing status off holes on thee middle waall cannot bee observed an nd measuredd
due to the bbox opening facing down nward; the mmachining requirements for f the top suurface and holes
h need too

·54·
n as the positioning datum
be stricter aas the top surrface and two process hooles are taken um; the calcu
ulation of thee
dimension chain is reqquired due to o misalignmment of mach hining datumm with the assembly daatum, or thee
method of rrepairing annd scraping the t tailstock bottom platte has to be used for asssembly to guarantee thee
assembly acccuracy.
(2) Axlle box positiooning devicee
① Chaaracteristics of
o axle box positioning
p ddevice
The axle boox positioninng device of EMU appliees rotating arrm positioning. The rounnd spring off the primaryy
suspension is placed onn the mounting seat of thhe rotating arm, a which is installed oon the side frrame via thee
rubber jointt, as shown ini Fig. 1⁃40, where (a) iss picture of the t real prod duct and (b) iis the structu
ural drawing..
The positionning rotatingg arm is the framework
f oof the device and the tie between
b wheeelset axle bo ox and framee.
It shall be aas long as possible, with h the actual length selectted as 500m mm, in order to reduce th he additionall
effect of thee positioningg joint stiffneess on the priimary verticaal stiffness.
The axle boox positioning mode has the
t followingg characterisstics:
a. Connvenient for selection off the supportt stiffness off the axle boox (independdent selectionn in vertical,,
front and back, left andd right directtions), and ccapable of reealizing stab
bility in highh-speed operration, ridingg
comfort andd curve passiing performaance simultanneously.
b. Connducive to reealizing lightt weight and adaptive to high-speed
h operation.
o
c. Small quantity of
o componen
nts and parts,, and simpliffied structuree to improve the reliabilitty.
d. Connvenient for disassembly
y and assembbly of axle bo
ox support deevice.
e. No slipper and maintenance
m e free.
Main compponents of thhe axle box positioning device incllude axle bo ox support ru
rubber, axle spring, axlee
spring seat, vibration ruubber, adjustiing plate, lift
fting apparatu
us, insulating
g cover and bbaffle, dust cover,
c snow--
resistant covver and axle damper.
② Com
mposition off axle box positioning devvice
a. Elastic rubber of
o axle box
The rubber elastic positiioning joint of CRH2 boggie is a metaal-rubber vulcanized elasttic component, as shownn
in Fig. 1⁃411. Its mandreel is fixed onn the frame'ss positioningg seat. The jaacket and thee mandrel arre connectedd
with the rottating arm off the axle box
x to provide tthe longitudiinal (x) and horizontal
h (y)
y) positioning
g stiffness off
the wheelseet axle box. The horizon ntal and longgitudinal relaative displaceements betw ween wheelseet and framee
are realizedd through thhe deformatio on of the jooint rubber sleeve,
s which is the moost importantt suspensionn
component that directlyy affects thee operationall stability an nd the curve passing perrformance of the rollingg
stock.
The positioning parameeters of the positioning
p rrubber sleeve in each dirrection are ddecisive to th
he operatingg
performance of the bogie. Its elasticc parameter iis determined by dynamiics computattion and optiimization byy
taking the ooperating statte of installin
ng into the ruubber sleeve seat of rotatiing arm as thhe measuring
g datum.
The dimenssion greater than
t that useed in Japanesse Shinkanseen currently is used for tthe support rubber
r of thee
axle box of CRH2 bogiee consideringg the increasee of load cap
pacity.
b. Rouund spring
The round sspring is insttalled at uppeer part of thee axle box bo
ody and is a type of doubble spring coonstituted byy
outer springg and inner spring. All models
m of car use the sam
me type of sprring. The maaterial of the outer springg
is SUP9A oor SUP11A, and that off the inner sspring is SUP UP9 or SUP9 9A (both connforming to JISG4801)..
When the m maximum loaad acts on th he spring (eqquivalent to 13 times of the full carri
riage load), the
t correctedd
stress of thee spring shalll be designed
d to be beloww 686MPa (7 70kgf/mm2).

·55··
Frame of
o axle box spring (and
Wheelseet lifting Rubbeer pad sno
ow-resistant cover))

Adjustmentt pad

Axle box coover

Vertical damperr Temperaturee Axle box Rubber


R cover Ax
xle box positioningg joint
of axle box sensor body

Fig. 1⁃40 Compoosition of axle box positio


oning devicee
1 - axle boxx body; 2 - ruubber positio
oning joint off axle box; 3 - round spriing; 4 - roundd spring seatt (upper); 5 -
round sppring seat (lower); 6 - vibbration rubbeer; 7 - hydrau
ulic damper; 8 - adjustingg plate; 9 - su
uspension
1 - insulatinng cover; 11 - baffle; 12 - dust cover.
apparatus; 10
The round sspring set traansfers verticcal force andd is adjusted by
b the adjustting gasket too realize uniform load off
each wheel..
The spring rigging of axle
a box inclludes one roound spring set (comprissing inner annd outer spriings), springg
seats (upperr and lower),, rubber seat and insulatin
ing seat. The direction off turning of innner and outter springs iss
opposite. Thhe structure of
o the spring n in Fig. 1⁃42
g set of axle bbox is shown 2.

·56·
Fig. 1⁃42 Axle bbox spring set
Fig. 1⁃41 Rubbeer elastic posittioning joints 1 - outeer spring; 2 - in
nner spring; 3 - snow-resisttant cover.

The axle boox spring is double-ring


d steel
s spiral sppring, whosee material con
nforms to SU
UP9A or SUP
UP11A springg
steel providded by the staandard JISG
G4801.
In order to deal with thhe operating environmentt of EMU in n rainy and snowy
s weathher, snow-ressistant coverr
made of pyrrocondensatiion material is designed ooutside the axle
a box sprin ng, which caan obviously improve thee
operating coonditions of the axle box spring and m
mitigate the corrosive
c efffect of weathher factors on
n spring.
c. Sprring clampingg plate
Upper and llower springg clamping plates are set for assembly y of the bogiie so as to m
make the roun
nd spring sett
maintain at the specified pre-comprression heighht and guaran ntee the alig
gnment betweeen the bogiie frame andd
axle box. Thhreads are seet on the lowwer spring claamping platee for easy assembly, disaassembly andd adjustmentt
of the springg set and boggie. The clam
mping plates are made off steel S45C (JISG4051).
( .
d. Antti-vibration rubber
r pad
It is inserteed between round
r spring
g seat (lowerr) and axle box
b body, an nd the rubbeer pad is of upper-lowerr
vulcanized stick steel pllate structuree used for abssorbing high
h-frequency vibration.
v
e. Insuulating coverr and gasket
To realize eelectrical inssulation betw
ween bogie fframe and wheelset,
w the insulating ccover is set between thee
round springg and round spring seat (upper)
( to preevent leakag
ge current passsing throughh the axle bo
ox bearing too
cause electrrocorrosion of
o bearing.
To avoid anny breakage caused
c by diirect contact of insulating
g cover with round springg, a stainlesss steel gaskett
is inserted bbetween rounnd spring and
d insulating ccover.
f. Verrtical hydrauulic damper of
o axle box
Axle damper is installeed between the spring bbar of bogiee frame and the axle boox body to reduce
r high--
subwave vibbration in veertical directiion.
The damperr is of type OD42090—1
O 1, with the sppecific structu n Fig. 1⁃43.
ure shown in

Fig. 1⁃43 Vertical dam


mper of axle box
The dampeer is made of o the metal material coomplying with Japanese Industrial SStandards (J JIS). Sealingg
gasket is mmade of advvanced synth hetic rubber, and high-q quality minerral oil is ussed as the operating
o oill
(damper oill), thus the functional
f ch
haracteristic ssuitable for oil damper is
i guaranteedd. In additionn, the pistonn
rod is platedd with hard chromium
c allloy after surfface grinding
g.
All parts exxposed outsidde of the axlee damper aree subject to an
nticorrosive treatment annd applied with paint.
·57··
g. Adjusting plate
The adjusting plate is inserted between axle box body and anti-vibration rubber to adjust the weight
difference between cars and the imbalance of round spring load in the bogie. The height is adjusted by
pulling out and inserting the adjusting plate to make the height of round springs at 4 locations of 1 bogie
meet the specified dimension.
Main points for adjustment of the adjusting plate (liner):
In the case of an unloaded car, an adjusting plate is inserted between the axle box body and the anti-vibration
rubber to make sure the interval between the axle box body and the datum plane of the bogie frame meets
specified requirements. Considering the axle spring is above the axle box body, adjusting plate is inserted by
pulling the axle spring upward from the top of the bogie frame. Remove the dust cap on the top of the spring
cap of the bogie frame, insert the spring control bolt from the top and tighten it into the turnbuckle cut on the
axle spring seat (lower), so as to facilitate lifting of the axle spring seat (lower), generate a gap between axle
box bodies and insert the adjusting plate. In addition, lift the axle spring seat (lower) by hydraulic tools to
improve operability.
h. Lifting apparatus
Lifting apparatus whose structure is the projection of the rear cover hung on the axle box assembly is
installed to guarantee integrated lifting of wheelset and bogie frame during the lifting of the bogie. In
addition, it is used to prevent any damage to the vertical damper due to the axle box spring elongation during
disassembly of the bogie.
i. Dust cover
A dust cover is installed at the opening of the round spring seat (upper) to prevent intrusion of water and dust.
The opening is designed to insert bolts for depression of round spring.
j. Snow-resistant cover
A snow-resistant cover is installed outside the round spring to prevent ice and snow from entering the round
spring to affect the vibration performance. The round spring is covered by a thermal shrinkage rubber cap. In
addition, it is required to set the structural seat installing synchronous generator and velocity sensor for the
axle box at designated location.
(II) Analysis of axle box body machining process
1 Arrangement of process route
Many axle box surfaces require machining, where the machining accuracy of planes is easier to be
guaranteed than that of holes, and the machining accuracy of spindle hole (main hole) and hole series in the
box becomes the key problem of the process. Therefore, attention shall be paid to the following three aspects
in arrangement of the process route:
(1) The aging treatment of workpiece
The box structure is complicated, the wall thickness is nonuniform, and the internal stress of casting which
will cause deformation is large. Therefore, manual aging treatment shall be arranged after casting to relieve
the internal stress and reduce deformation. For boxes with low requirement for accuracy, the natural parking
and transportation time between rough and finish machining procedures can be utilized to achieve natural
aging effect. However, natural aging requires a long time, otherwise the stability of box accuracy will be
affected. For especially precision boxes, manual aging shall be additionally arranged for once between rough
and finish machining procedures to relieve the internal stress rapidly and adequately and improve the
stability of accuracy.
(2) In arrangement of the sequence of machining procedures, faces shall go first and then holes, which is
favorable to simplifying the clamp structure and reducing installing deformation as planes have a large area
and stable and reliable positioning. From the perspective of machining difficulty, the machining of planes is
easier than that of holes. In addition, it will be favorable to machining of holes and guaranteeing the
machining accuracy of holes to machine planes first to cut off irregularities, sand inclusion and other defects
on casting surface, and then machine the holes distributed on planes. Therefore, plane machining is generally
conducted first.
·58·
(3) Separation of rough and finish machining stages
As the box is casting with large machining allowance and many metals are cut off during rough machining,
the clamping and cutting forces are large and much cutting heat is generated. After rough machining, the
internal stress of the workpiece is redistributed to cause deformation of the workpiece, which has a great
impact on the machining accuracy. Therefore, separation of rough and finish machining is favorable to full
exposure of the workpiece deformation caused by kinds of reasons after machining and to its elimination
during finish machining.
2 Machining of major surfaces
(1) Box plane machining
Planing and milling are normally selected for rough machining and semi-finish machining of box planes.
Main characteristics of planing of box planes: cutting tool structure is simple; machine tool is easy to adjust;
several tool rests can be used on double housing planer; several planes can be machined together on
workpieces installed at one time; and the position accuracy of these surfaces are guaranteed in an economic
way.
The productivity of milling of box planes is higher than that of planing. Milling is commonly used for
machining in batch production. For large batch, several milling cutters are used on multi-spindle plano
milling machine for machining of several planes simultaneously, which guarantees the position accuracy
among planes and improves the productivity.
(2) Machining of spindle hole
As the spindle hole has a higher accuracy and a smaller surface roughness value than other axle holes, the
finish machining (or finishing cut) of the spindle hole shall be done separately after machining of other axle
holes.
(3) Machining of hole series
The hole series of the box is the sum of bearing holes with requirement for position accuracy, including
parallel and coaxial hole series. The main technical requirement of parallel hole series lies in the dimension
accuracy and parallel accuracy between the centerlines of parallel holes, and between the hole centerline and
the datum plane. Parallel series can be machined on general or special boring machine depending on the type
of production.
Marking method is mainly used for single piece/small batch production of boxes in order to guarantee the
pitch accuracy. To improve the accuracy of marking and alignment, trial cutting method may be used.
Though this way can improve the accuracy, marking, test cutting and measurement take much time so that
the productivity is still low.
Coordinate method for machining of hole series is also widely applied by many factories in single
piece/small batch production and can greatly improve its coordinate displacement accuracy.
It must be pointed out that the selection of original holes and machining sequence is very important to apply
coordinate method for machining of hole series since the pitch of row holes is guaranteed by the coordinate
dimension. The accumulative error of coordinate dimension will affect the pitch accuracy. If the original
holes and the assumed sequence of holes are selected in a reasonable way, the accumulative error can be
reduced.
For batch or mass production of boxes, boring jig is used for machining of hole series. The pitch accuracy
mainly depends on the accuracy and installation quality of the boring jig. Though boring jig has a
complicated manufacturing process and high fabrication cost, the machine tool with low accuracy can be
utilized to machine workpieces with high accuracy. Therefore, for small batch production, boring jig may be
used for machining of parallel hole series under certain circumstances.
The main technical requirement of coaxial hole series is the coaxial accuracy of holes. For batch production,
the coaxiality of axial hole series of boxes is mostly guaranteed by boring jig. For single piece/small batch
production, the following two methods are used for machining on general boring machine:

·59·
① Main causes for coaxiality error occurring in machining of coaxial hole series from one end of a box
are as follows:
a During spindle feeding, deflection of the spindle is generated under the gravity action of the boring
bar to cause coaxiality error of holes;
b During workbench feeding, the straightness error of the guide rail will affect the coaxiality accuracy
of holes.
Guide sleeve may be used for the machining of coaxial holes with box walls close. For large boxes, the
column guide sleeve behind the boring machine may be used for supporting the boring bar.
② Boring from both ends of box
"Reverse boring" is generally used to first bore the hole at one end of workpiece under one-time installation
and then turn the boring machine workbench by 180° for boring of hole at the other end. The specific method
is described as follows: after machining of hole at one end, make the workpiece exit from the spindle, turn
the workbench by 180°, and use dial indicator for alignment of the machined hole wall and the spindle for
machining of hole at the other end.
"Reverse boring" requires no clamp nor long toolbar, and the boring bar has a short overhanging length and
good rigidity, but it is difficult and time-consuming to make adjustment. Therefore, it is suitable for coaxial
holes with a long distance between box walls.
IV. Frame Machining Process
EMU frame is generally of welding structure, and both power bogie and non-power bogie are of traditional
H-shaped frame assembled by castings and steel plates.
The bogie frame is mainly comprised of side beam, cross beam, longitudinal auxiliary beam, air spring
support beam, positioning arm and gear assembly seat, with the middle of side beam as concave. Power and
non-power bogie frames can realize interchange by installing a bracket.
After welding assembly, the bogie frame is subject to annealing treatment. Power and non-power bogie
frames are respectively shown in Fig. 1⁃44 and Fig. 1⁃45.

·60·
Machined buffering end beam
m

Mootor and gearbox su


upport

Rotating arm suppoort (casting)

An
nti-hunting damperr support (casting))

Spriing and primary da


amper support (cassting)
(a) Front
Primary hanger (machined part)
Draw bar sup
pport (machined paart)

Lateral daamper support Anti-rolling torsioon bar and hanger (casting)


(machhined part)

Vertical damper suppport (casting)

Hanger
H plate (machhined part)

Track protectio
on supporting platee (machined part)
(b) Back

Fig. 1⁃44 Three-dimensionaal diagram off composition


n of power bbogie frame
Power bogie is of framee structure with end beam
ms at both en power bogie is of H-shap
nds and non-p ped structuree,
both of which are made of steel platees (EN100255) and castin
ngs (ISO37555).
(I) me composittion
Fram
The frame m
mainly compprises the folllowing compponents:
1 Two side beam m structures, providing thhe support off air spring, connecting the anti-hun
nting damperr
with the lateeral damper, and assembling the prim
mary rotating
g arm brackett.

·61··
Braking suppport (machined parrt)

Rotating arm sup


upport (casting)

Anti-hunting damper suppoort (casting)

Prim
mary spring and da
amper support (cas
asting)

(a) Front

Primary lifting socket supp


port

Draw bar support

Lateeral damper supporrt


Anti-rolling torssion bar and lifting
g socket support

Vertical
V damper suupport

Lifting
L socket suppport
Track protec
ction support

(b) Back

Fig. 1⁃45
F Three-diimensional ddiagram of co
omposition of
o non-powerr bogie frame
2 Two cross beam m structuress. The cross beam of po i the suppoort for installing tractionn
ower bogie is
motor and ffor the gearbbox reaction n rod. The crross beam off trailer bogiie is the suppport for insttalling brakee
head lifting socket. The cross beam of both typees of bogies is i the draw bar, the unwhheeling pointt and supportt
for installinng vertical daamper and annti-rolling torrsion bar.
3 Two longitudinal auxiliary beams
b conneecting cross beams,
b for in
nstalling the llateral damp
per.
4 Fouur ends of thee frame (use casting if poossible), for installing
i primary spring and damperr.
5 Two buffering end beams (only
( for poower bogie), for installing unit brakee and pilot (pilot is onlyy
used on the bogie at A end
e of Mc car).
6 Othhers (use casstings if posssible). Therre is also primary damper support, primary casing support,,
motor and ggearbox (onlyy for power bogie),
b anti-hhunting dam
mper and ARB
B support onn the bogie frrame.
(II) Anaalysis of fram
me machining process
1 Machining by high-speed
h pllano milling machine
High-speed plano millinng machine plusp necessarry process eq quipment can
n be used forr machining of all planess
and cylindriical holes off horizontal damper,
d withh the high-sp
peed plano milling
m machhine for fram
me machiningg
shown in Fiig. 1⁃46.

·62·
Fig. 1⁃46 Higgh-speed plaano milling machine
m
2 Typpical frame machining
m
The machinning process course is as follows:
(1) Marrking.
(2) Millling of sprinng guide pillaar support.
(3) Marrking.
(4) Millling of brakee head lifting
g socket of ccross beams, brake lifting
g socket of crross beams, brake liftingg
socket of ennd beams, brake head lifting socket of end beam ms, surfaces of outer layyer of suspen nder bracket,,
and air sprinng seat hole.
(5) Millling of suspeender brackeet, and planess of suspendeer bracket off motor.
(6) Marrking.
(7) Electrowelding of seats, drillling and finaal inspection
n.
Initial parts of CRH3 EMMU are man nufactured byy full machin ning of thick
k steel plates and workpieeces shall bee
subject to 100% continuous ultrassonic flaw ddetection beefore machin ning of thicck steel plattes with thee
thickness m more than 300mm. After workpiece
w m
machining, th he surface shhall be cleann and free off greasy dirtt
affecting wwelding. All workpieces of CRH3 E EMU are maachined by dry d cutting w without coollant, and airr
cooling is uused during machining.
m 100%
1 testingg is required for key commponents andd parts, incluuding frame,,
after machinning. The specific metho
ods for framee machining ofo motor car and trailer aare described
d as follows:
(1) Claamping beforre frame macchining
The frames of motor caar and trailer are completted on the sp pecial frame clamping annd measuring g equipment,,
which is cappable of sim
mulating the frame
f and itss machining clamp thereeon to ensuree that the staatus of framee
clamping peerformed outtside and on the equipmeent is the sam me. The equipment is proovided with the functionn
of measurinng alignmennt after instaallation of fframe and clamp.
c Multtiple magnettic meters area used forr
alignment, w which guaranntees zero deeformation inn frame clam
mping and thee required fraame machiniing accuracyy,
with the claamping showwn in Fig. 1⁃47.
4
(2) Fram
me machininng
Frame machhining is com mpleted on CNC
C floor tyype boring machine
m with
h one-time cclamping andd dry cuttingg
method, forr which the drill
d bit and boring tool are inner-cooling tools anda during w which air coo
oling is usedd
for cutting ttools. Machining clamp and
a bending plate facadee are hydraullically clampped by quick positioning,,
and probe iss used for deetermining th
he zero of m
machining pro ocedure, with
h the frame m
machining shhown in Fig..
1⁃48.
Extrusion fo
forming tapping process is used for tthreaded holes at the possitioning seaat of the fram
me axle box..
Special lubrricating greaase is applied into the boottom hole with
w the diam
meter of 18..8mm beforee tapping, ass
shown in Fiig. 1⁃49.

·63··
( Preparation beffore clamping
(a) (b
b) In clamping

Fig. 1⁃47 Claamping befo


ore frame machining

(a) Completion of fraame clamping (b) Fra


ame machining

Fig. 1⁃48 Framee machining

The turningg of frame and its macchining clam mp is


completed bby double hoook crown bllock, as show
wn in
Fig. 1⁃50.
(3) 3D detection off workpiece
After framee machining of motor caar and trailerr, the
dimension accuracy is checked by y twin-cantiilever
3D measuuring machiine, which is capablee of
simultaneouus detectioon of workpieces
w with
asynchronouus operationn of the two
o cantileverss and
completing all dimensioon measurem
ments of 6 facces of g. 1⁃49
Fig Tapping
workpieces at one time, with a hiigh measureement
F 1⁃51.
efficiency, aas shown in Fig.

Fig. 1⁃500 Turniing Fig. 1⁃51 3D deteection of worrkpiece

Secttion 4 Machiningg Equipmen


nt for Typical Bogie P
Parts
·64·
I. Speecial Wheel Machining
M Equipment
E
Nonuniform m wheel masss, eccentric wheel and aspheric rollling circle will w cause ggreat addition nal dynamicc
force under high-speed operation co ondition, whiich has adverrse effects on
n the operatinng safety and
d stability off
rolling stockk and the whheel and raill wear. Thereefore, higherr requiremen
nts for the ma
manufacturingg quality andd
machining aaccuracy of high-speed
h wheels
w have bbeen raised.
Fig. 1⁃52 shhows the firsst CNC non--pulling wheeel lathe in China,
C which,, with the moodel as UGL L⁃15CNC, iss
jointly deveeloped and produced
p by Wuhan Heaavy Duty Machine
M Tooll Group Corp rporation andd SAFOP inn
Italy and is the first tracck wheel macchining equip
ipment up to internationaal leading levvel in China. The lathe iss
able to com
mplete repair of car wheellsets withoutt disassembliing any car component.
c E
Equipped wiith advancedd
CNC technnology, the lathe l is capaable of com
mpleting meaasurement off wheelset trread diameteer and wearr
profiles autoomatically, determining
d the optimumm cutting outtput, and inpuutting all datta during maachining intoo
the central ccomputer, whhich greatly improve the repair efficiency of wheelsets.

Fig. 1⁃52 ulling wheel lathe


CNC non-pu
Deep hole rolling elem ment machin ning equipmeent is shown n in Fig. 1⁃53, whose working priinciple is ass
follows: thee workpiece is placed on n the positiooning block,, self-centeriing is done bby V-shaped d iron 1, thee
positioning in axial direection is don ne by the stoop iron on V-shaped
V ironn, air cylindeer 2 is clampped to movee
downward aand clamp thhe workpiecee; machiningg power head d 3 is driven byb air cylindder 4 for feedd movement,,
and machinning tool 5 makes
m rotatio
onal machiniing driven by motor 6. Both B ends off the rolling element aree
machined siimultaneouslly to improv ve the workinng efficiencyy. During maachining, the coaxiality error of holess
at both endds has little effect
e on thee distributionn of workingg stress of the rolling ellement so th hat it can bee
ignored. Thhe pressure in clamp and d in clampinng air cylindeer is related to the clampmping force ofo workpiecee
positioning and can be calculated. After
A machinning, limit sw
witch 7 contrrols the convversion of th he pneumaticc
valve, air ccylinder 4 reetreats, the cutting
c tool exits, and clamping
c air cylinder 2 moves back k to take thee
workpiece oout. The abovve procedurees are repeateed, and clam mping air cyliinder 2 and fe feeding air cyylinder 4 cann
be jointly coontrolled by the pneumattic valve.
Maachining power head
d3

Clam
mping air cylinder 2 Clampiing
force P

Motor 66
Rolller Mach
hining
too
ol 5
V-shaped iron 1 Limit switch 7

Air cylinder 4

Outlet Inlet (controlled by


y reversing valve)

Fig. 1⁃53 Schematic


S diiagram of deeep hole machining equippment
II. NC
C Transformaation of Wheeel Machiningg Lathe
·65··
As general w
wheel lathe applies
a temp
plate electric contact proffiling, with a low machini
ning efficienccy and singlee
wheel type, it is not eassy to modify and increasee new wheell types. The wheels machhined by thiss method aree
of low accuuracy, and thhe electric contact profilling equipmeent breaks down
d frequenntly with loww reliability..
The button contact consstituted by microswitch
m hhas poor sen
nsitivity and requires freqquent mainteenance. Withh
operation off high-speedd EMU, moree requiremennts have been n raised for wheel type aand accuracy y. Therefore,,
the requirem
ment of high--speed EMU U wheel machhining can bee met only by y NC transfoormation.
The followiing descriptioon is provideed by taking NC transform
mation of geeneral wheel lathe as an example.
e
(I) Lathhe transform
mation schem
me
NC transformation of wheel lathe is mainly tto change the electric contract c proofiling modee of originall
machine toool rest to NCC mode and redesign
r the electromech hanical configuration of tthe machine tool feedingg
system. Thee machine toool is of doub ble tool rest sstructure, wiith left and riight rests resspectively machining leftt
and right whheels, simulttaneously or separately. T Thus, each toool rest is proovided with a set of NC system,
s withh
each set conntrolling axees x and z, an
nd the two seets linking to ogether for interpolationn. Vertical an nd horizontall
feed movem ment is driveen by AC seervo motor aand transmittted by ball screw. s The sservo motor is equippedd
with a builtt-in coder, annd together with
w NC sysstem, forms the t semi-closed loop conntrol of position. Axes x
and z are reespectively provided
p with hard limiit and refereence point, as a well as em mergency stoop and limitt
combinationn switch.
For machinning of parts by CNC maachine tool, tthe machine tool coordin nate system m must be first determined,,
where x-cooordinate rem mains unchanged, namelyy the positivee direction off x axis is thee direction of o the cuttingg
tool leavingg the workpieece horizontaally, while thhe situation is i different for
f z-coordinnate. As the machine
m tooll
has left andd right tool reests, the posiitive directioon of z axis is
i the direction where lefft and right tool
t rests aree
opposite to each other, namely left tool rest is iin the directiion from cuttting tool to hheadstock an nd right tooll
rest is in thee direction from
fr cutting tool to tailsto
tock. In this way,
w left and d right tool rrests on the machine
m tooll
can use thee same progrram format to t complete machining of o the wheel flange and tread profilee of left andd
right wheelss. The settingg of the mach hine tool cooordinate systtem is shown n in Fig. 1⁃544.

Topp View of Machinee Tool

Leeft Riight
tooll rest tool rest

Fig. 1-54 Settingg of machinee tool coordin


nate system
(II) Whheel machininng operation process
The machinne tool uses twot machinee clamping toools, where the t auxiliary tool is for m machining meedial surfacee
and the maiin tool is forr machining wheel flangee tread. Both h left and rig
ght tool restss must be firrst set beforee
machining sso as to determine the staarting point oof wheelset machining. The T method of manual to ool setting iss
used for thee machine toool, which iss specificallyy to drive thee tool rest to
o the medial surface of the wheelset,,
approach ppoint A of thhe medial surface
s with the auxiliaary tool, witth exact scraaping of iro on scraps ass
appropriate,, and at this time, operaate the selectted program under autom matic mode. As calculateed, the toolss
rests will auutomaticallyy operate to the
t starting ppoint Q of wheel
w type machining
m acccording to the
t program,,
and at this time, the main
m tool starrts tread macchining accoording to thee program ddeveloped by y wheel typee
coordinates. When the mainm tool reaaches the whheel flange peak
p C, quickk tool changging is requirred to let thee
auxiliary toool proceed with
w machiniing of the whheel flange and a medial surface.
s The following description
d iss
provided byy taking rightt tool rest as an example,, as shown inn Fig. 1⁃55.

·66·
To
ool screw

Main Auxiliaryy tool


tool

Fig. 1⁃55
5 Schem
matic diagram of wheel machining
m
The width oof wheel flannge treads of o the same sspecification varies with a random toolerance valu ue K, whosee
setting mustt be based onn different wheel
w flange sspecification
ns. For examp ple, the variaation range of
o K value off
type LM iss 0~7, and K=0 K when the wheel w width is 135; K=7 when the wheel w width is 1422. Thus, thee
difference in width variiation of diffferent wheelssets is counteed into 1∶8 straight secction of the trread contourr
during autoomatic machhining. The coordinate
c vvalue of poinnt Q in Z direction
d hass been calculated by thee
program according to thhe tool settin ng point, whhile the coorrdinate valuee of point Q in x directio on is closelyy
related to thhe value of its
i reference point R3. Inn other word ds, the accuraacy of diameeter value affter wheelsett
machining ddepends on the t adjustment and determ mination of R3 value. Th
he program oof left and rig ght tool restss
is common,, but R3 value is usually different
d andd requires sepparate adjusttment as the positions off limit switchh
at the refereence point caannot be commpletely connsistent. R3 value
v should remain unchhanged afterr adjustment..
Before opeeration, operrators are required to fiirst measure the wheel diameter annd width, deetermine thee
machining times accordding to the cutting
c depthh of the maachine tool and
a the surfaace roughnesss, input thee
required diaameter valuee after wheell machining to parameterr R1 and the wheel widthh value to parameter R2,
and then preess the start button
b after selecting
s thee program and setting the tool.
Review Qu
uestions
1. Explaain the proceess course, prrocess speciffication, proccedure, statio
on, step and ffeed of mach
hining.
2. Descrribe the desiggn essentialss of machine tool clamp.
3. Descrribe the basicc requiremen
nts for the deesign of assem
mbly weldin
ng clamp.
4. Whatt is the six-pooint positioning principlee? What is workpiece
w possitioning?
5. Descrribe the requuirements forr workpiece ppositioning and
a explain with
w an exam
mple.
6. Whatt are positionning modes of
o workpiecee in clamp? What
W is the meaning
m of eaach positioniing mode?
7. ning is indicaated by H2 and H3, andd
Referr to Fig. 1⁃333, what are the positionning errors iff the position
whichh indication is reasonablee?
8. Whatt problem shhould be takeen into accouunt for the machining
m pro
ocess of the aaxle box bod
dy when it iss
of hoorizontally spplit type?
9. Descrribe the machining proceess course off non-power hollow
h axle.
10. Referr to Fig. 1⁃37, and descriibe the whee l machining process courrse.
11. Descrribe the fram
me machining
g process couurse.

·67··