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2008 International Symposium on Computer Science and Computational Technology

Influence Law of Pedestrian WAD in Vehicle/Pedestrian Collisions

Yanhui Fan Yanhui Fan


Department of Transportation and Logistics Engineering School of Transportation
Shandong Jiao Tong University Jilin University
Jinan, China Changchun, China
fyh1989@163.com fyh1989@163.com

Hongguo Xu
School of Transportation
Jilin University
Changchun, China
xhg@email.jlu.edu.cn

Abstract—Based on the coupling of PC-Crash and embedded the pedestrian’s head contact location [4], as shown in Fig. 1.
MADYMO, influence laws of pedestrian’s head WAD involved Therefore, pedestrian’s head contact location on vehicle
in a vehicle/pedestrian collision are analyzed by modeling body surface may be described by the WAD.
vehicle/pedestrian multi-body system and selecting main
factors influencing on pedestrian’s head contact location on
vehicle body surface as independent variables for simulation
tests. Various influencing factors and laws of pedestrian WAD
as well as vehicle impact speed thresholds under different
collision circumstances are in depth researched. Furthermore,
mathematical relation curves and empirical formulae between
Figure 1. Pedestrian WAD
the pedestrian WAD and vehicle impact speed are derived
from regression analyses. The comparisons of simulation
An extensive review of various factors influencing on
results with staged and real world vehicle/pedestrian impacts
pedestrian’s head contact location on vehicle front was
have verified a good harmony and consistency between them;
moreover, these regression models may be used to assess
conducted in this paper. Influence laws of pedestrian WAD
vehicle/pedestrian impact speed. The results in this paper will under different vehicle/pedestrian collision circumstances are
be of practicality in technical appraisal of vehicle/pedestrian analyzed by modeling vehicle/pedestrian multi-body system
collisions. through the coupling of PC-Crash and embedded
MADYMO. Furthermore, applicable relationships
Keywords-vehicle/pedestrian collision; pedestrian WAD; comparing pedestrian WAD to vehicle impact speed are
influence law; vehicle impact speed; regression analyses; developed from regression analyses of the simulation data.
modeling
II. MODELING
I. INTRODUCTION
Collisions involving a pedestrian and a motor vehicle are
a common occurrence on road traffic in today’s society. An
important objective in the investigation of vehicle/pedestrian
collisions is the evaluation of the vehicle impact speed. Some
existing studies [1-3] reported an approach for evaluating the
vehicle impact speed from the post-impact information such
as vehicle damage, pedestrian injuries and pedestrian throw
distance. However, the post-impact vehicle damage and Figure 2. Pedestrian multi-body model
pedestrian injuries may be only used to estimate the
approximate vehicle impact speed. This paper presents a The pedestrian model is developed by using MADYMO;
practical analytical method for evaluating vehicle impact the vehicle model is given by applying PC-Crash [5].
speed from the post-impact pedestrian wrap around distance. Pedestrian model is a multi-body system consisting of 16
Pedestrian wrap around distance (WAD) stems from the rigid bodies interconnected by 15 joints (Fig. 2). The
case that a pedestrian hit by a vehicle is wrapped around the different ellipsoidal bodies respectively represent different
front of the vehicle; the WAD represents the length segments of human body, the joints for different links of
measured along the vehicle’s front profile from the ground to

978-0-7695-3498-5/08 $25.00 © 2008 IEEE 70


DOI 10.1109/ISCSCT.2008.361
human body. For each body, the different properties such as Furthermore, the factor VV is selected as variable, the factors
geometry, mass, moments of inertia, stiffness coefficient, R, Z, S, and C are specified as constant.
hysteresis coefficient, friction coefficients etc., may be
specified independently; the characteristics of joint used to TABLE I. VALUES OF VARIOUS INFLUENCING FACTORS
connect two bodies, ellipsoid to ellipsoid contacts as well as
ellipsoid to vehicle contacts are defined. These data are all hv/hpa hv/hja
Geometry R
derived from real statistics of human body. The height, Passat/Pedestrian ≤1 >1
weight and speed of the whole pedestrian as well as the c
initial position and orientation of corresponding bodies are Location 1/2W , 1/6W , 5/6Wb
b b
Impact Configuration
specified, then pedestrian models under different initial C
Angle (˚) 0, 45, 90, ··· , (nd−1)45
motion states may be established (Fig. 3).
Braking Intensity Z 0, φe
Impact Speed VV
10, 20, ··· , 10mf
(km/h)
Standing Walking Jogging Running
Pedestrian Speed
S/VP (km/h) 0 5 13 20
Standing Walking Jogging Running
a. hv, hp, hj respectively represent heights of impact point, center of gravity (C.G.) and pedestrian’s
Figure 3. Initial motion states of pedestrian knees above ground.
b. 1/2W, 1/6W, 5/6W respectively represent the 1/2, 1/6, 5/6 of vehicle body width.
Vehicle model is also a multi-body system consisting of c. Contact location is measured according to right side of vehicle body.
8 rigid bodies (ellipsoids), as shown in Fig. 4. Four ellipsoids d. n represents positive integers, n ≤ 8.
respectively represent vehicle tires. Other four ellipsoids, e. φ represents the adhesion coefficient for vehicle tire/roadway from longitudinal slip.
two for the lower part and two for the upper part (the roof), f. m represents positive integers, 10m ≤ VVmax < 10(m+1), VVmax represents the maximum vehicle
represent vehicle body. Vehicle geometry, coefficients of design speed.
stiffness and friction for vehicle body are respectively
specified.
IV. TEST RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
Fig. 6, Fig. 7, Fig. 8, Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 illustrate various
laws of changes in pedestrian WAD under different collision
circumstances from the above five influencing factors. Table
2 summarizes the relation curves and equations between
Figure 4. Vehicle multi-body model pedestrian WAD and vehicle impact speed derived from
regression analyses of the simulation data.
The vehicle/pedestrian impact model is shown in Fig. 5.
For vehicle type, Passat is typically selected. A. Influence Laws of WAD
In order to technically analyze influence laws of the
WAD, the following precondition is presented. If assuming
that vehicle body width is infinite, then the case in which the
pedestrian’s head is not contacted with the vehicle body
surface for lower vehicle impact speed or higher pedestrian
speed may be considered virtual contact between them. The
following analyses are all based upon this precondition.
Figure 5. Vehicle/Pedestrian impact model

III. TEST SCHEME


Five main factors influencing on pedestrian WAD are
selected as independent variables for simulation tests from
several existing studies which discuss the findings of staged,
simulated and real world vehicle/pedestrian impacts [6-8].
These factors include geometry between vehicle front-end
and pedestrian body (R), vehicle impact speed (VV), vehicle
braking intensity (Z) in contacting phase, pedestrian’s initial
motion state/speed (S/VP), as well as vehicle/pedestrian
impact configuration (C). The values of various influencing
factors are listed in Table 1.
The simulation tests of single-factor are performed for
conveniently analyzing the influence law of each factor. Figure 6. Relationship between WAD and pedestrian stature

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1) Vehicle/Pedestrian geometry R: The simulation two cases are respectively involved in the influence of
results indicate that the effect of vehicle’s front profiles and vehicle impact speed on the WAD.
structure parameters, geometry between vehicle front-end When pedestrian’s initial speed is lower (such as 0,
and pedestrian on the WAD is significant (see Fig. 6). 5km/h), the WAD will become larger with the increase in VV.
Furthermore, under the same other conditions, if the lower Furthermore, there will be nearly the same threshold of VV
the front-end of vehicle, the higher the pedestrian stature, under different collision circumstances (approximately
i.e. the smaller the R, then the larger the WAD. 50km/h). When VV is below the threshold, the effect of VV on
the WAD is significant; furthermore, if the higher the VV,
then the larger the WAD. When VV is beyond the threshold,
its effect on the WAD is no significant.
When pedestrian speed is higher (such as 13, 20km/h),
the WAD will become smaller with the increase in VV. There
will be different thresholds of VV for various collision
circumstances, the thresholds of approximately 70km/h and
90km/h respectively correspond to collision circumstances of
pedestrian speed at 13km/h and 20km/h. When VV is below
the threshold, the effect of VV on the WAD is significant;
moreover, if the higher the VV, then the smaller the WAD.
When VV is beyond the threshold, its effect on the WAD is
no significant.
3) Vehicle braking intensity Z: The effect of Z on the
Figure 7. Relationship between WAD and influencing factors WAD is significant; furthermore, the threshold of VV is
found to be approximately 45km/h (see Fig. 10). When VV is
below the threshold, the WAD will become smaller with the
increase in Z. When VV is beyond the threshold, if the higher
the Z, then the larger the WAD.

Figure 8. Relationship between WAD and influencing factors with VP = 0,


5km/h
Figure 10. Relationship between WAD and braking intensity

4) Pedestrian motion state/speed S/VP: There will be


nearly the same threshold of VV for different collision
circumstances (approximately 70km/h). When VV is below
the threshold, the effect of VP on the WAD is significant;
furthermore, if the higher the VP, then the larger the WAD.
When VV is beyond the threshold, the effect of VP on the
WAD is no significant.
5) Vehicle/pedestrian impact configuration C: The two
cases involving impact location and impact angle are
respectively analyzed in the influence of vehicle/pedestrian
impact configuration on the WAD.
Figure 9. Relationship between WAD and influencing factors with VP = Based on the precondition of pedestrian’s head virtual
13, 20km/h
contacting with vehicle surface, it may be determined that
2) Vehicle impact speed VV: The influence of vehicle the effect of impact location on the WAD is no significant.
impact speed on the WAD is found to be significant from On the other hand, the effect of impact angle on the WAD is
the available data (Fig. 7, Fig. 8 and Fig. 9). Considering significant; furthermore, under the same other conditions, the
interaction and intercoupling between pedestrian’s initial minimum value of the WAD will likely occur at the impact
motion state/speed and vehicle impact speed, the different angle of 90˚.

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B. Regression Analyses of WAD versus Impact Speed assess lower limit of vehicle impact speed from the post-
The mathematical relation curves and equations between impact pedestrian WAD.
the WAD and vehicle impact speed may be obtained from V. CONCLUSIONS
regression analyses of the available simulation data. These
derived mathematical relationships are listed in Table 2. The modeling vehicle/pedestrian multi-body system is
conducted by using PC-Crash/MADYMO, influence laws of
TABLE II. REGRESSION ANALYSES OF WAD VS. IMPACT SPEED pedestrian WAD under different collision circumstances are
in depth analyzed from the available simulation data. The
results of these studies indicate that the influence laws and
Collision their effect of various factors such as vehicle’s front profiles
Regression Curve Regression Equationa
Circumstances
and structure parameters, geometry between vehicle front-
end and pedestrian body, vehicle impact speed and braking
intensity, pedestrian’s initial motion state/speed, as well as
(1/2W, 90˚)
z=φ dw = 2.0301−9.3486/VV
vehicle/pedestrian impact configuration on pedestrian WAD
VP = 0km/h under different vehicle/pedestrian collision circumstances are
respectively different. The simulation results are found to be
consistent and harmonious with staged and real world
vehicle/pedestrian impacts. Furthermore, the relation curves
and empirical formulae between the pedestrian WAD and
(1/2W, 90˚) vehicle impact speed are developed from regression analyses
z=φ dw = 1.9947−6.1107/VV of the available simulation data, these regression models can
VP = 5km/h be used to assess vehicle impact speed from the post-impact
pedestrian WAD. The analytical method documented in this
paper will be of certain practicality in technical appraisal of
vehicle/pedestrian collisions.
(1/2W, 90˚)
z=φ dw = 2.5699VV−0.0629 ACKNOWLEDGMENT
VP = 13km/h
This project would not have been possibly accomplished
without the computer software provided by School of
Transportation, Jilin University.

(1/2W, 90˚)
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