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PROCEEDINGS, INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION


Thirty-Sixth Annual Convention & Exhibition, May 2012

EVIDENCE OF BACKSTEPPING CARBONATE PLATFORM DURING OLIGO-PLIOCENE IN


LANDAS AREA, EASTERN TIP MANGKALIHAT PENINSULA, EASTERN BORNEO,
INDONESIA

R. Hardika Cahya Nugraha*


Nurcahyo I. Basuki*

ABSTRACT Borneo nor was a shallowing upward sequence


found. Instead, a backstepping carbonate platform,
The aim of this study is to have a better or deepening up-section facies pattern was observed
understanding of the distribution and development in the Tertiary carbonate sequence suggesting that
of carbonate facies of the Oligo-Miocene relative sea level rise was the dominant depositional
Tendehantu and Tabalar (undivided) Formations condition rather than uplift on the carbonate
using field data, petrography, and fossil analysis. development in the eastern tip of the Mangkalihat
Both formations are well exposed in the Landas Peninsula.
Area along the eastern tip of the Mangkalihat
INTRODUCTION
Peninsula. Sedimentary structures found in the
outcrops include parallel-bedding, cross-bedding, The aim of this study is to have a better
and graded bedding. Calcrete and dense vegetation understanding of the distribution and development
covers some of the outcrops in the area. of carbonate facies of the Oligo-Miocene
Tendehantu and Tabalar (undivided) Formations
Based on field observations and petrography
using field data, petrography, and fossil analysis. A
analysis, four carbonate facies associations have
previous regional study has determined that the
been identified. The first facies association is the
Tertiary limestone units of the Mangkalihat
Restricted Circulation and Winnowed Edge
Peninsula were developed from the Eocene-
Platform facies, interpreted as a carbonate lagoonal
Pliocene (Djamal et al., 1995). The lower part of the
to bar depositional environment during early
carbonate series is interfingering with siliclastic
Oligocene. The lower part of this facies group
tidal deposit of the Kuaro Formation. High energy
interfingers with silicilastic tidal sediments of the
carbonate deposits were interpreted to have formed
Kuaro Formation. The second facies association is
during the late Eocene to Oligocene followed by a
the Open Circulation Shelf facies, interepreted as a
shallow water carbonate platform formed during the
carbonate shelf depositional environment with
Oligo-Miocene (Wilson and Evans, 2002).
favorable seawater circulation and local patch reef
development from Oligocene to early Miocene. A geological map of the research area was produced
During the early middle Miocene, the Foreslope- by Nugraha (2011) (Figure 2). The stratigraphy
Toe of Slope Facies Association was deposited. units was based on Camp et al (2009) and Djamal et
This facies association consists of turbiditic al (1995). Three formations are exposed in research
deposits. The last facies association is the Deeper area, the Kuaro Fm. (Eocene-Early Oligocene), the
Shelf facies, as indicated by biostratigraphic Taballar-Tendehantu (undivided) Fm. (Early
analysis and the presence of a thick marl deposit Oligocene-Late Oligocene), and the Golok Fm.
conformably overlying the turbidite facies. The two (Early Miocene-Pliocene). The Kuaro Fm., consists
last facies were formed in early Miocene-Pliocene. of tidal deposits. The Tabalar-Tendehantu Fm.
From facies 1 to facies 4 there is a change from a consists of coralline limestone and other shallow
shallow environment to a deeper environment water carbonate members. The Golok Fm. consists
suggesting a backstepping process on the carbonate of marl intercalated with clay and interbedded marl-
platform from early Oligocene to Pliocene in the limestone. The section of interest is offset by thrust
eastern tip of Mangkalihat. faults and folded along a NE-SW trend.
During the course of this study, there is no evidence METHODS
of a regional Mid Tertiary unconformity in East More than 170 siliclastic and carbonate outcrops
* Institute of Technology Bandung were observed in the 60.5 km2 research area. Unit
contacts, bed thicknesses, and all sedimentary a. Mollusk Floatstone
features were observed in both siliclastic and
carbonate rocks. The field work was done in This lithofacies is grey colored, containing
January 2011. abundant mollusk shells as the main composition.
with minorinterbeddedfiner grained Quartz
Twenty five (25) thin sections of representative Bioclastic Pack-Grainstone facies (Figure 5.a).
carbonate facies were analyzed. Petrography and Mainly gastropods and pelecypods were found.
micropaleontology analysis were performed to Conditions of preservation varied from well
support the sedimentology analysis and to provide preserved to fragmented. (Figure 5.b)
information about depositional time and
environment. Other biota that was identified from thin section
analysis include red algae, green algae, larger
The carbonate facies analysis nomenclature is based foraminifera, echinoid plates, and sponge spicules
on Wilson’s standard facies belt (Wilson, 1975; suggesting this facies was deposited in a backreef
Figure 4. Lithofacies determination was done by area. The fossils were covered by micrite likely
combining field and petrographic observation based caused by early diagenetic processes. Pellets were
on Dunham (1962) and Embry and Klovan (1971). found as rounded-subrounded non-skeletal
Facies associations were interpreted by combining fragments, 0.2-1 mm in diameter.. Angular
all observations including lithofacies analysis, the medium- to fine-grained quartz grains have, , have a
stratigraphic stacking pattern, and lateral 10-20% abundance in the samples within a lime
distribution of the facies. Therefore, the facies mud matrix. Sparry calcite cements are filling the
associations are more linked to general shells and intra-granular porosity. The samples of
environments of deposition. Larger foraminifera this facies are poor- to medium-sorted and exhibit
analysis was based on zonation from Adams moldic, vuggy and fracture porosity.
(Adams, 1984).
The dominant sedimentary structure for this facies
CARBONATE LITHOFACIES, FACIES is parallel bedding with a thickness around 20-50
ASSOCIATION, AND DISTRIBUTION IN cm (Figure 3). This facies is interfingering with
RESEARCH AREA quartz-arenites indicating high energy seawater
transport of detritus from the mainland to the
Based on field observations and petrographic thin location of the Mollusk Floatstone facies
section analysis , four facies associations were deposition. Based on the observations above, the
identified in the research area. A summary of depositional environment for this lithofacies is
distinctive features of each facies association are interpreted as a bar or winnowing zone, possibly a
discussed below and are shown in Table 1. The spit or tidal bar.
location of theresearch area is shown in Figure 3.
b. Quartz Bioclastic Pack-Grainstone
Restricted Circulation on Marine Platform
Facies Association This lithofacies displays a grey color and is
characterized by various biota content. Angular
This facies association was deposited in a shallow quartz grains, monocrystalline and polycrystalline
marine environment with mostly restricted or (10-20%) with a medium-coarse sized are observed
limited seawater circulation. This facies association in this lithofacies (Figure 5.c). Outcrop features
contains three lithofacies: 1) Mollusk Floatsone , 2) were very similar to the Mollusk Floatstone, but can
Quartz Bioclastic Pack-Grainstone, and 3) Quartz be distinguished by fewer mollusk shells and finer
Milliolid Packstone. The Mollusk Floatsone and grain size.
Quartz Bioclastic Pack-Grainstone lithofacies
interfinger with quartz-arenitic sandstones from the Larger foraminifera, mollusks (gastropods and
Kuaro Formation. Both lithofacies are interpreted bivalves), foraminifera (mostly benthic foram and
as deposited in agitated shallow water with milliolid), red algae, and green algae were found in
moderate seawater circulation. These facies the thin section of this lithofacies; they are either
formed a winnow or bar restricting deposition of the well preserved or fragmented. This facies is
third lithofacies, the Quartz Milliolid Packstone moderately sorted and secondary porosity from
which contain 15% milliolid foraminifera from 30% dissolution and fractures is well developed. Matrix
total skeletal fragments. consists of lime mud displaying some alteration to
microspar calcite. Blocky and sparry calcite is research area. Coralline Rudstone, Monomictic
present as cement between grains. Clast (Wackestone) Rudstone, and Polymict
Rudstone are part of Talus Facies in the ideal
The green algae dominantly are Halimeda sp., and deposition of a carbonate mound (Wilson, 1975).
dasycladacean which can live in variable salinities, Talus facies consists of reworked debris deposits
warm water, 3-5 m depth below water level from lithoclast or bioclast. Two other facies, the
(Grinsburg et al., 1957 in Wilson, 1975). Fossil Bioclastic Grainstone and the Planktonic
contents are similar with the previous facies. Well Foraminifera Marl 1, are equivalent to the Flanking
preserved foraminifera Nummulites sp and Bed sequence facies. Talus and Flanking Bed facies
Lepidocyclina sp. indicates this facies was have an interfingering relationships in the research
deposited in the early Oligocene. The interpreted area.
depositional environment is similar with the
previous facies, that is a spit or tidal bar. a. Coralline Rudstone
The Coralline Rudstone facies is distributed in the
c. Quartz Milliolid Packstone center of the research area, along the upper part of
an isolated hill along the road in an excavation pit
Skeletal fragments of this lithofacies consist of about km 6-8 Sandaran-Landas. Boulder to coarse-
foraminifera, green algae, and mollusk shells. cobble fragments (15-25 cm) derived from reef
Detrital grains consist of subangular, 0.1-0.2 mm area, are the significant constituents of this facies.
sized quartz and K-feldspar (total around 20%), Other fragments that are present include mudstone
with lime mud matrix and sparry calcite cement. and grainstone, 2-5 cm sized. All of these angular
Porosity consists of inter- and intra-particle (total fragments are strongly cemented by sparry calcite.
5%). Sorting is good, mudsupported, and open
packed (Figure 5.d). The Coralline Rudstone facies also has a chalky
texture, which can be caused by subaerial exposure.
Bioclast fragments (total 20%) consist of mollusk Outcrops of this facies are massive with no
shells, red algae,foraminifera with good condition significant bedding. Angular fragments with poor-
or fragmented cemented by sparry calcite. Opaque moderate sorting, and disoriented clasts characterize
minerals, quartz, and K-feldspar are the detrital the facies. The main source of this reworked deposit
grains.. This lithofacies is characterized by a is most likely from the center of a patch reef
dominance of milliolid (15%) that can be associated suitable for coral growth. Fragmented corals were
with the lagoonal or restricted area. transported and redeposited in the outer part of the
patch reef downslope, accumulating and forming
Open Marine Platform Facies Association the Coralline Rudstone facies.

The Open Marine Platform Facies Association b. Monomictic Clast (Wackestone) Rudstone
consists of lithofacies which are interpreted to be
deposited in a shelf platform complex with a well The main constituents of this facies are clasts of
developed local patch reef.. Lithofacies that are wackestone, around 1-10 cm (Figure 7.a). This
identified consist of Coralline Rudstone, facies is distributed in the outer part of an isolated
Monomictic Clast (Wackestone) Rudstone, hill in the research area. Outcrops of this facies are
Polymictic Rudstone, Bioclastic Grainstone, and usually white, bright-colored and contain skeletal
Planktonic Foraminifera Marl 1 Facies. The fragments from larger foraminifera and red algae.
distribution of Coralline Rudstone Facies and The unit is clast supported (closed-packed), with
Monomictic Clast (Wackestone) Rudstone are sutured grain contact and interstitial lime mud
respectively correlated with a shallow shelf reef and matrix. Some outcrops show bedding with 50-70 cm
fragmental fore-reef deposits.. In the north of the thickness, while other outcrops are massive.
research area, Wilson and Evans (2002) observed
age-equivalent local patch reef development in the The primary fragments in this rudstone
Batu Lobang area, which could be the main source (wackestone) were initially formed in lower energy
of Coralline Rudstone Facies and Monomictic Clast environments that could be indicating regions
(Wackestone) Rudstone Facies in the research area. between growth corals on the upper part of a patch
reef. Gravity mass flow transported the wackestone
Wilson (1975) identified seven facies of a fragments to deeper environment, accumulating and
carbonate mound depositional sequence (Figure 6). forming Monomictic Clast (Wackestone) Rudstone
Two of the seven facies were exposed in the facies.
c. Polymictic Lithoclast Rudstone Bedding Lithoclast Rudstone, Interbedded Marl-
Grainstone, and Micro Breccias Coated Bioclastic
This facies association is denoted by a white color Grainstone-Rudstone. Common sedimentary
in outcrop, usually bedded, with various sizes of structures are graded bedding and flysch bedding.
grains and fragments. The main constituents of this This facies association is interpreted as representing
facies are subrounded clasts of mudstone and a foreslope to toe-of-slope depositional environment
claystone, 2-5 cm in diameter (Figure 7.b). associated with carbonate platform.
Allochems are well sorted, closely packed (clast
supported texture) and consist of larger foraminifera a. Gradded Bedding Lithoclast Rudstone
surrounded by lime mud. Other terrigenous grains
consist of angular medium- to coarse-grained, Outrops of this facies are located in Air Terjun km
quartz. 6, this facies was also found interbedded with
Interbedded Marl-Grainstone facies , in sharp
This facies was also found interbedded with the erosion contact. Fragments mainly consist of
Bioclastic Grainstone facies and the Planktonic grainstone, rudstone, packstone, and wackestone.
Foraminifera Marl. The thickness of this facies is They are angular, course cobble to boulder sized (5-
around 50-75 cm whereas the other facies are 30 cm) grains, clast supported with poor porosity.
around 10-40 cm. The depositional environment for The observed sedimentary structures were gradded
this facies is interpreted to be deep shelf, with no bedding and parallel lamination, suggesting gravity
coral fragment supply from patch reef area. flow deposits.
b. Interbedded Marl-Grainstone
d. Bioclastic Grainstone
This facies is characterized by rhytmically bedded
This facies was usually found bedded or massive grainstone-marl (Figure 7.c). Rhythmic
with bed thickness between 10-15 cm and sharp interbedding also called flysch bedding, is a
contacts. Bioclasts are variable, consisting of common sedimentary architecture developed in
foraminifera and red algae covered by thin micrite slope environments (Wilson, 1975). Displaying a
layer. Larger foraminifera show parallel grain fining upward sequence, marl becomes more
orientation,in good condition, indicating in situ dominant in the upper part of this facies and forms
deposition. Sedimentary textures of this facies are the next facies associasion, the Deeper Shelf. The
clastic, grain supported, with moderate sorting, grainstone contains various biotas such as larger
floating contacts, concave-convex, and point-long foraminifera and more red algae.. Porosity is around
contacts. Secondary porosity in this facies was not 6%, consisting of intergranular and intragranular
well developed. porosity.
Deposition environment of this facies is interpreted Foraminifera analysis shows this facies was
between 20-150 m below sea level. Fosil analysis deposited in early Miocene, as evident by the
suggests the age of this facies is early-late presence of Spiroclypeus spp. Lepidocylina
Oligocene (Td-Te4). spp.,Spiroclypeus and Cylcocypeus, which is
e. Planktonic Foraminifera Marl 1 characteristic of forereef environment. Foraminifera
analysis in the marl lithology, mainly the upper part
This facies association is greenish grey colored, of this section, indicates early-middle Miocene
massive or interbedded with two previous facies deposition in the middle to outer shelf.
with bed thickness around 40-60 cm, and sharp c. Micro Breccias Coated Bioclastic
contacts. Deposition mechanism of this facies was Grainstone-Rudstone.
suspension settling allowing clay-silt grain size to
accumulate. This facies consists of grainstone-rudstone that
contains fragmented fossils and detritus. Most of the
Based on benthic and planktonic foraminifera
skeletal and non-skeletal grains are fragmented,
analysis this facies was deposited in transitional to
poorly sorted, coated with micrite or cement.
inner shelf zones in late Oligocene (N1-N3).
Geopetal fabric of micrite that filled bioclast shows
Foreslope-Toe of Slope Facies Association disoriented pattern (Figure 7.d). Larger foraminifera
consisting of Lepidocylcina spp., Miogypsina sp.,
The third facies association is the ForeslopeToe of and Miogypsinoides sp., indicate this facies was
Slope and consists of three lithofacies, Gradded deposited in the early Miocene (Te5).
facies associations which reflecting different
Fossil analysis was carefully done because deposition environment .These facies associations
reworked fragments might have come from the include: Restricted Circulation on Marine Platform
shallower shelf. This facies together with two (Early Oligocene), Open Marine Platform (Early-
previous facies were deposited in a slope Late Oligocene), Foreslope-Toe of Slope (Early-
environment by gravity flow processes. The outcrop Middle Miocene), and Deeper Shelf (Middle
appeareance shows brownish white color with Miocene-Pliocene). Based on lithostratigraphy
random grain orientation and poor sorting. characteristics, these 4 facies associations can be
grouped into (1) Oligo-Miocene Tendehantu and
Deeper Shelf Facies Association Tabalar (undivided) Formations, and (2) Miocene
Golok Formation. The Tendehantu and Tabalar
This facies is characterized by a large number of (undivided) Formations consist of Restricted
planktonic foraminifa as the main constituent. The Circulation on Marine Platform and Open Marine
grain size is also finer than the other facies Platform Facies Associations. The Golok Formation
associations. The Deeper Shelf Facies Association consists of the Foreslope to Toe-of-Slope and the
consists of two lithofacies, Planktonic Foraminifera Deeper Shelf Facies Associations.
Grainstone and Planktonic Foraminifera Marl 2.
Basin opening in the Eastern Borneo during Eocene
a. Planktonic Foraminifera Grainstone was influenced by rifting of the Makassar Straits
(Nur’aini et al., 2005). Siliclastic tidal-influenced
The outcrop appearance is bedded with repetitive 10 deposit of the Kuaro Formation was deposited in
cm thicknesses. Planktonic foraminifera are the Eocene (Djamal et al., 1995) filling the basin after
main constituent in this facies (Figure 7.e), with the rifting and became the oldest deposit found in
lime mud matrix. Skeletal fragments and planktonic research area. The observed change from tidal-
foraminifera are in good condition and cemented by influenced conglomerates, shales, and sandstones
blocky and microspar calcite. Intraparticle and into the Restricted Circulation Facies Association
interparticle porosity is observed in the samples. indicates a transgression event (Figure 8).. Based on
the assemblage of larger foraminifera that were
b. Planktonic Foraminifera Marl 2 found such as Operculina spp., Lepidocyclina spp.,
Nummulites spp., Cyclocypeus spp., Borelis spp.,
Planktonic Foraminifera Marl 2 facies in outcrop Heterostegina spp., and Amphistegina spp from
was found both massive and interbedded with the interbedded limestone-siliclastic deposits the time
Planktonic Foraminifera Grainstone facies. of facies change was probably in early Oligocene
Distribution of this facies is in the middle and south (Td).. Large amounts of anhedral quartz grains
of research area, separated by a thrust fault and fold. suggest this facies was linked to a main land and
There are several differences between Planktonic mixed with terrestrial fragments. Later, this facies
Foraminifera Marl 1 and 2. First, the Planktonic association was overlain by the Open Platform
Foraminifera Marl 2 facies was dominated by Deposit Facies Association.
planktonic foraminifera and bethonic foraminifera Distributed in the central part of the research area,
was absent, whereas in Planktonic Foraminifera the Open Platform Deposit Facies Association was
Marl 1 Facies, benthonic foraminifera are common.. deposited in early-late Oligocene (Td-Te4) in a
The Planktonic Foraminifera Marl 2 contains sand pacth reef associated shallow marine platform.
sized grain, whereas Planktonic Foraminifera Marl Debris from lithoclasts and bioclasts, forming Talus
1 lacks sand grain. Sequence Facies, are represented by the Coralline
Rudstone, Monomictic (Wackestone clast)
Plantonic foraminifera analysis indicates this facies Rudstone, and Polymictic Rudstone. The Flanking
was deposited in the middle Miocene-Pliocene. Bed Sequence Facies is represented by the
Benthonic foraminifera analysis shows this facies Planktonic Foraminifera Marl 1 and the Bioclastic
was deposited in a middle to outer neritic Grainstone Facies. The change from a mixed
environment. terrestrial-lagoonal carbonate facies to open
platform facies with well-developed patch reef
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
(mound), indicates the transgression event
Based on field observations and integrated continued through late Oligocene (Figure 9).
petrographic and fossil analysis, the Oligo-Miocene
carbonates of the Tendehantu and Tabalar In the early Miocene, changes of depositional
(undivided) Formations can be divided into four environment occurred as evident by the deposition
of Foreslope to Toe-of-Slope Facies Association. Camp, W. K., Guritno, E. E., Drajat, D., & Wilson,
Gravity flow deposits derived from limestones in M. E. (2009). Middle-Lower Eocene Turbidites: A
the shallower shelf dominate the lower part of this New Deepwater Play Concept, Kutei Basin, East
facies (Figure 10), which commonly show flysch Kalimantan, Indonesia. Indonesian Petroleum
bedding and graded bedding overlain by parallel Association, Thirty-Third Annual Convention &
lamination. This Facies Association consists of Exhibition, May 2009. p. 2-6.
Gradded Bedding Lithoclast Rudstone, Interbedded
Marl-Grainstone, and Micro Breccias Coated Djamal, B., Sudana, D., Sutrisno, Baharuddin, &
Bioclastic Grainstone-Rudstone. Slope carbonate Hasan, K. (1995). Peta Geologi Lembar Tanjung
deposition was developed in early Miocene (Te5) in Mangkalihat, Kalimantan (Skala 1:250.000). Pusat
research area, whereas the shallower shelf for Penelitian dan Pengembangan Geologi.
carbonate platform was likely located in the Teluk
Sumbang, Gunung Antu, and Batuputih areas, Embry, AF, and Klovan, JE, 1971, A Late
approximately 8-12 km westward of the study area, Devonian reef tract on Northeastern Banks Island,
where patch reef carbonate complex outcrops were NWT: Canadian Petroleum Geology Bulletin, v. 19,
found (Wilson and Evans, 2002). The distribution p. 730-781.
of each lithofacies was controlled by the paleoslope
that is still reflected by the recent slope. Hall, R., Cloke, I. R., Nur’aini, S., Puspita, D.,
Calvert, S. J., & Elders, C. F. (2009). The North
The evidence shows that in the research area the Makassar Straits: what lies beneath? Petroleun
Oligo-Miocene carbonate deposit still displays a Geoscience , 15, 147-158.
deepening upward sequence. The unconformity
occurring in Eastern Borneo in the late Oligocene is
interpreted to cause uplift in central Borneo around Nugraha, R. H. C. (2011). Geologi dan Distribusi
25 Ma (Moss & Chambers, 1999, in Hall et al., Fasies Batugamping Daerah Landas dan Sekitarnya,
2009). However, during the course of this study, no Kecamatan Sandaran, Kabupaten Kutai Timur,
evidence of a regional mid-Tertiary (late Oligocene) Provinsi Kalimantan Timur (Geology and
unconformity in East Borneo nor a shallowing Carbonate Facies Distribution in Landas Area,
upward sequence during this time span was found. Sandaran, East Kutai, East Borneo). Undergraduate
Instead, a deepening upward pattern, or thesis. Study Program of Geological Engineering.
backstepping carbonate platform, was observed in Bandung Institute of Technology.
the Tertiary carbonate sequence. This observation
suggests that an increase in relative sea level was Nur’aini, S., Hall, R., & Elders, C. F. (2005).
impacting carbonate development in the eastern tip Basement Architecture And Sedimentary Fill Of
of the Mangkalihat Peninsula. The North Makassar Straits Basin. Proceedings,

WORK CITED
Satyana, A.H., Nugroho, D., dan Surontoko, I.
Adams, C.G. (1984). Neogene larger foraminifera, (2009). Tectonic Controls on The Hydrocarbon
evolutionary and geological events in the context of Habitats of The Barito, Kutai and Tarakan basin,
datum planes. In: Ikebe, N. and Tsuchi, R. (eds.), East Kalimantan, Indonesia, Journal of Asian Earth
Pacific Neogene Datum Planes, Contribution to Sciences Special Issue Vol.17, No.1-2, Elsevier
Biostratigraphy and Chronology. Univ. of Tokyo Science, Oxford 99-120
Press. Hal. 47-67.
Tipsword. (1966). Foraminifera.
Baillie, P., Darman, H., & Fraser, T. H. (2004).
Deformation of Cenozoic Basins of Borneo and Wilson, J. L, 1975, Carbonate Facies In Geologic
West Sulawesi. Indonesian Petroleum Assosiation. History, Springer-Verlag, New York.
Proceedings, Deepwater And Frontier Exploration
In Asia & Australasia Symposium, December 2004.
p. 2-9. Wilson, M. F., & Evans, M. J. (2002).
Sedimentology and diagenesis of Tertiary
Dunham, R. J. (1962). Classification of Carbonate carbonates on the Mangkalihat Peninsula, Borneo:
Rocks According to Depositional Texture. AAPG, implications for subsurface reservoir quality.
Memoir 1. hal 108-121. Marine Petroleum Geology 19. Hal 873-900.
TABLE 1 - SUMMARY OF CHARACTERISTIC OF EACH FACIES ASSOCIATION

Facies Association Facies (Lithofacies) Characteristic Interpretation of Deposition


Environment
1. Restricted Circulation on Mollusk Floatstone  Contain mollusk 20-30%, quartz 15% Tidal flat-barrier bar
Marine Platform  Interfingering with sandstone and
claystone
Quartz Bioclastic Packstone-  Bioclast is consist of Halimeda sp., benthic Tidal flat-barrier bar
Grainstone foraminifera, and red algae (15-65%)
 Quartz 15-20%
 Interfingering with sandstone and
claystone
Milliolid Foraminifera  Contain milliolid foram up to 30% Restricted circulation shelf
Packstone
2. Open Marine Platform Coralline Rudstone  Coral fragment up to 50-90% Open circulation shelf (Talus
 chalky sequence facies (Wilson, 1975))
Monomic Clast (Wackestone)  Mudstone and wackestone fragment (30- Open circulation shelf (Talus
Rudstone. 70%) sequence facies (Wilson, 1975))
Polymic Rudstone  Lithoclast from fragmented claystone and Open circulation shelf (Talus
limestone sequence facies (Wilson, 1975))
Bioclastic Grainstone  Bioclast in a good shape and condition, Open circulation shelf (Flankbed
showing orientation sequence facies (Wilson, 1975))
Planktonic Foraminifera Marl 1  Finer grain, benthic foraminifera, and Open circulation shelf (Flankbed
micaseous sequence facies (Wilson, 1975))
3. Foreslope-Toe of Slope Gradded Bedding Lithoclast  Consist of fragmented limestone with a Toe of slope
Rudstone boulder sized.
 Thickness up to >20 m
Interbedded Marl-Grainstone  Flysch bedding Foreslope-toe of slope
Micro 7reccias Coated  Fragmented skeletal grain with poor Foreslope-toe of slope
Bioclastic Grainstone-Rudstone sorting
 Random orientation of geopetal
4. Deeper Shelf Planktonic Foramnifera  Consisted of 80% planktonic foraminifera Deeper shelf
Grainstone
Planktonic Foraminifera Marl 1  Muddy in some outcrop Middle-outer neritic
 Less number or not found of benthic foram
Figure 1 - Google Maps Terrain mode showing research area bounded by red polygon.
 

 
Figure 2 - Cross section and Geological Map of research area (cont.) (Nugraha, 2011)
Figure 3 - Distribution of all carbonate facies in research area (Nugraha, 2011)
Figure 4 - Ideal Carbonate Platform (Wilson, 1975)
(a) (b)

(c) (d)

Figure 5 - (a) Observation post AR-D-25. Outcrop of Interbedded Mollusk Floatstone-Quatz


Bioclastic Grainstone. (b) Mollusk Shell in thin section surrounded by lime mud.
Angular quartz grains also appear in this thin section. (c) Green algae and quartz
grains are shown in thin section of Quartz Bioclastic Quartz (d) Milliolid foram and
quartz grain between lime mud (dark brown) in Milliolid Foraminifera Packstone
(AR-P-145).

Figure 6 - Ideal carbonate mound deposition contain 7 sequence facies (Wilson, 1975).
(a) (b)

(c)

(d) (e)

Figure 7 - (a) Outrop of Monomic Clast (Wackestone) Rudstone (b) Outrop of Polymic
Rudstone (c) Flysch bedding of interbedded Interbedding Grainstone-Marl Facies
(d) Fragmented skeletal grains in thin section of Micro reccias Coated Bioclastic
Grainstone-Rudstone (e) Thin section of Planktonic Foraminifera Grainstone Facies
 

Figure 8 - Sketch of research area, showing situation in Early Oligocene. Grey colour is Restricted
Circulation on Marine Platform Facies Association. Its lower part are interfingering with
siliclastic of tidal deposit Kuaro Fm.
 

Figure 9 - Continuing transgression, in Late Oligocene developed Open Marine Platform Facies Association
(blue). Local patch reef growth since the environment was supported. Reworked from top part of
patch reef are surrounding the patch reef. Patch reef in north (U), in Batulobang area, are drawn
based on Wilson & Evans (2002).
 
 

Figure 10 - In the Early Miocene, Foreslope-Toe of Slope facies (light blue) Association was developed,
overlain older deposits. Later he Deeper Shelf Facies Association (light green) would overlie all
older deposits until Pliocene.
 

Figure 11 - Recent geological condition in research area, after cutted by thrust-fault and folded and
weathering process that shape the morphology in research area. The grey color of Restricted
Circulation on Marine Platform Facies Association in Figure 8 and blue colour of Open
Marine Platform Facies Association are jointed into blue color (Tabalar-Tendehantu Fm).
Light ble color of Foreslope-Toe of Slope facies in Figure 10 and light green of Deeper Shelf
Facies Association in Figure 10 are jointed into light blue color (Golok Fm).