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NERVOUS SYSTEM

Anatomy
1. Central Nervous System
Function to integrate, process, and coordinate sensory data and motor command
 Brain
Differentiated as prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon based on
the embriological development.
 Prosencephalon consisted of diencephalon (thalamus-hipothalamus) and
telencephalon (cerebrum)
 Mesencephalon
 Rhombencephalon consisted of myelencephalon (medulla oblongata),
metencephalon (pons), cerebellum.
__: brainstem
Brain is protected by the cranial bones, meninges, and cerebrospinal fluid.
 Cranial Bones
 Meninges
 Cerebrospinal Fluid, produced by choroid plexus (cuboidal epithelial cells)
mainly in lateral ventricles; consist of two lateral ventricles, the midline 3rd and
4th ventricles connected by the cerebral aqueduct.
Volume: 130 dan 150 ml
Produksi: 400-500 ml per 24 jam
Tekanan: 70-120 mmH2O
a) Lateral ventricles, each ventricle open through an interventricular foramen
(monro) into 3rd ventricle.
b) 3rd ventricle, between the halves of diencephaon and continuous postero-
inferiorly with the cerebral aqueduct.
c) 4th ventricle, located in posterior part of the pons and medulla extends
inferoposteriorly. CSF drains into subarachnoid space from 4th ventricles
through median aperture (magendie) and paired lateral aperture (luschka).
Circulation: produced by choroid plexus  leaves lateral ventricle through
foramina of monro  3rd ventricle  sylvii aqueduct  4th ventricle  through
Luschka and Magendie aperture drained into Subarachnoid space; through
interpeduncular and quadrigeminal cisterns flow superiorly to cerebral

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hemispheres  absorbed through granulatio arachnoideae and cranial-spinal
perineural sheath through ependyme and leptomeninges capillary.
Penyempitan
a) Interventriculare foramen
b) 3rd ventricle
c) Cerebri aquaduct
d) Luschka and magendie apertures
e) Tentorial aperture
Arterial Blood Supply to Brain

 Internal Carotid Arteries


Arise from the common arteries, enter the cranial cavity through the carotid canal
in petrous part of the temporal bone. The terminal branches of the internal carotid
arteries are the anterior and middle cerebral arteries.
 Vertebral Arteries
The cervical parts ascend through the transverse foramina of the first six cervical
vertebrae and from the basilar artery at the caudal border of the pons, ends by
dividing into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
 Cerebral Arteries
a) Anterior cerebral artery, supply medial and superior surfaces of the brain and
the frontal pole
b) Middle cerebral artery, supply the lateral surface and the temporal pole
c) Posterior cerebral artery, supply the inferior surface and the occipital pole.
 Cerebral Arterial Circle (Circulus Willis), anatomosis between two vertebral and
two internal carotid arteries:
a) Anterior communicating artery
b) Anterior cerebral arteries

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c) Internal carotid arteries
d) Posterior communicating arteries
e) Posterior cerebral arteries
Venous Drainage of Brain, drain ultimately into the internal jugulare veins
 Superior cerebral veins (superolateral surface) drain into superior sagittal sinus
 Inferior and superficial middle cerebral veins (inferior; posteroinferior) drain into
straight, transverse, superior petrosal sinuses
 great cerebral vein (Galen) merging with the inferior sagittal sinus to form
straight sinus.
 Cerebellum is drained by superior and inferior cerebellar sinus, draining into the
transverse and sigmoid sinuses
 Spinal Cord
2. Peripheral Nervous System
Divided as afferent and efferent tracts:
 Afferent/sensory (posterior radix): came out from special, visceral, and somatic
sensory.
 Efferent/motor (anterior radix): came as somatic and autonomic nerves.
Autonomic branched as parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves.
Based on the anatomical, divided into:
 Cranial Nerves

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Physiology

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MENTAL HEALTH
1. Delirium
2. Intoksikasi akut zat psikoaktif
3. Adiksi/ketergantungan narkoba
4. Skizofrenia
5. Gangguan waham
6. Gangguan psikotik
7. Gangguan skizoafektif
8. Gangguan bipolar
9. Baby blues
10. Gangguan panik
11. Gangguan cemas menyeluruh
12. Gangguan campuran cemas depresi
13. Post traumatic stress disorder
14. Gangguan somatoform
15. Trikotilomania
16. Retardasi mental
17. Transient tics disorder
18. Gangguan keinginan dan gairah seksual
19. Ganggua orgasmus
20. Sexual pain disorder
21. Insomnia
22. Hiperinsomnia
23. Anoreksia nervosa
24. Bulimia
25. Gangguan obsesif-kompulsif
26. Gangguan disosiasi (konversi)
27. Gangguan kepribadian
28. Gangguan preferensi seksual dan identitas gender
29. ADHD dan Autisme
30. Multiple Personality Disorder

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SPECIAL SENSES

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