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Albarna ms - Wikipedia, the fre encyclopedia. Page 1 ofS Alabama Claims rom Wikipedia the fee eneyopcin ‘The Alabama Claims were a seis of claims for damages bythe U.S. goverament against the _govemment of the United Kingom forthe assistance given tothe Confederate cause ding the American Civil War. After intemational arbitration endorsed the American position in 1872, Britain seitled the matter by paying the United States $15.5 million for damages done by several warships ‘ult in Britain and sold to the Confederacy, thus ending the dispute and ensuring fienly relations. Contents 1 The C88 Alabama || British poitial involvement | 8a theclains | 3.1 Payment 8 32 Trealy of Washington = 4 The ebunal S Legacy 1 6 See also 7 References 1 8 Bibliography 1» 9 Further reading © 10Extemal inks l The CSS Alabama Main article: CSS Alabama During the American Civil War several warships that became Confederate commerce sider (he most famous being the CSS Alabama) were built inthe United Kingdom and di significant damage to the American merchant matie, British political involvement ‘Main article: Britain and the American Chil War ‘The British Prime Minister Lore Palmerston and Foreign Secretary Lord John Russell had allowed Ae dabama wo puto sea from be shipyard of John Lalrd Sons ad Company in Birkenhead, despite the explicit objections ofthe American Legation in London and charges from the American “Minister to Britain Charles Fransis Adams that the ship was bound forthe Confederacy, Though both the Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary were thought to favor the Confederacy atthe time of Alabama's constuction, this position was aginst British public opinion and MPs such as Richard Cobden campaigned against it.The subsequent release ofthe Alabama proved to be publicly embarassing, and Palmerston and Russell were later forced to adit thatthe ship should not have ben allowed to depart, despite the opinion of the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales that hor release did not violate neutrality http:/ 5/27/2013 Alabame Claims - Wikipedia, te fice encyclopedia Page 2 0f5 ‘Even so, the next year to ionslad warships under construction in Birkenhead and destined forthe Confederacy were detained after their completion but before their launch. As a direct consequence of the tlap over te Alabama, rather than turn the ships aver to Monsieur Bravay of Paris wh hl ‘ordered thet construction as intermediary for Confedetate principals), Palmerston instructed the British Admiralty to tender an offer forthe purchase of the ships. The claims “The United States claimed dret and collateral damage against Britain, the so-aled Alabama Claims. In the particular case of the Alchana the United States claimed tat Britain had violated neutrality by allowing the Alabama tobe eostrcted, knowing that it would enter int service with the Confederacy. “There were other patiulars a wel In the summer of 1862, the Britsh-built warship Oreo, later renamed the CSS Florida, wasdolivered to Nassau in the Bahamas withthe intention ofits being transferred to the Confederate Navy. British Admiral George Willes Watson (1827-1897) aided the tuansfer, and Watson's actions wore considered by the tibunal!" Paymer ‘Senator Charles Sumner, the ehaman ofthe Senate Foreign Relations Commitee, orginally wanted to ask for $2 billion, or aiternively the ceding of Canad othe United States. When American Secretary of State William H, Seward negotiated the Alaska Purchase in 1867, he intended it as the first step ins compechensive plan o gin conto] ofthe entire northwest Pacific Coast. Seward was a firm believer in Manifest Destin, primarily for its commercial advantages tothe United States. Sess expected British Columbia to seek annexation othe United States and thought Britain might ‘secept tis in exchange for the Alabama claims. Soon ober elements endorsed annexation, theit goal ‘vas to annex British Columbig, Rd River Colony (Manitoba) and Nova Seota in exchange forthe ropping the damage claims. The dea reached a peak in the spring and summer of 1870, with ‘American expansionist, Canaan separatists, and British ant-imperilists seemingly combining forces. The plan was dropped or multiple reasons. London continued to stall, American commercial and financial groups pressed Washington fora quick settlement ofthe dispute on a cash basis, ‘rowing Canatian nationalist sentiment in British Columbia called for staying inside the British Empire, Congress este respi wth Reconnection, un most Americans showed itl interest in tersitoral expansion" ‘Treaty of Washington Further information: Treaty of Washington (1871), Hamilton Fish an Presidency of Ulysses S Grant {mn 1871, President Grant's sprointed Secretary’ of State Hamilton Fish, worked out an agreement ‘with British representative Sit John Rose in Washington to create a commission consisting of six ‘members from the British rite and six members from the United States to resolve the Alabama lim refinancing, and other international disputes between Canada and the United States by Weaty. "Qn March 8, 1871 the Treaty of Washington was signed atthe State Department and the US. Senate rated the treaty on May 24, 1871." According othe treaty, an international arbitration tribunal met in Geneva. The teaty included the settlement process for the Alabama Claims, settled ‘ttpsiten. wikdipedia.ocgwiki‘Alsbams, Claires s2712013, Alabama Claims ~ Wikipedia, the free eneyelopedia Page 3 of 5 lisputed Atlante fisheries and the San Juan Boundary (concerning the Oregon boundary tine), Britain and the United States became perpetual allies after the teaty, with Britain haying expressed regret over the Alabama damages." ‘The tribunal ‘The tribunal was composed of =presentatives: Britis Sir Alexander Cockburn 1 United States: Charles Francis Adams with William Maxwell Evarts serving as counsel" f Italy: Federico Sclopis Switzerland: fkob Stl 1 Brazil: Marcos AntOnio d AraGjo, 2nd Baron of Rajubs "Negotiations had taken place in Suitland, businessman Samuel Taylor Suit’ estate, and the ibunal ‘session took place ina reception room ofthe Town Hall in Geneva, This is now named sale de Valabae, “The fn aa of 15 00,000 formed part of the Treaty of Washinton and was pid out in 1872 Legacy ‘This established the principle ofintemational arbitration, an launched a movement to codify public international aw with hopes fox finding peaceful solutions international disputes. The arbitration ‘of the Alabama claims was thus precursor to the Hague Convention, the League of Nations, the ‘World Cour, and the United Nations!" See also 1 Prize (law) 1 Blockade runners ofthe American Civil War References 1, * Kenneth M. tartp, "This Small Act of Courtesy Admiral Sir George Wiles Watson, Trouble, Tia, and Tiel Baba Waters" Jounal othe Bahamas Historia! Solty, Os 2009, Val. 31, pps 2. "Doris W.Dashe, "The oy of n Ison: The Pan to Trale Alabama Clams for Canad,” Civil Wear History, Dee 1969, Vol IS Issue 4, 9p 332-348 4, *DavidF Shi, “Souard Atampt to Annex British Colunbi, 4." Sith Jean Edward (290. Grant. Rckefller Center New York, New Yark: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. ISBN 0-684.8827-5pp. S10, 11 S. ® Smith 2001), 12-514 6 Smith (2000), 812-518 7, Byars congressional biogaphy mentioning case (htp/biogude congress. gowserpsbodispay pI? index E0002), 8. * Cook (195) 865-186," Pac Historical Review httpv/ Claims: 5/27/2013