Anda di halaman 1dari 8

ESSENCE - International Journal for Environmental Rehabilitation and Conservation

Singh et al./VIII: Special Edition: 2: 2017/54 – 61

Volume VIII: Special Edition: 2: 2017 [54 - 61] [ISSN 0975 - 6272]

Evaluation of Anti Stress Effects of Nardostachys Jatamansi Dc Root Extract

On Clinical Patients: A Psycological Estimation

Singh, Mamta1; Saxena, Garima2 and Arya, Shveta1

Received: August 14, 2017  Accepted: October 25, 2017  Online: December 31, 2017

Nardostachys Jatamansi DC is a reputed This study was conducted to understand the
ayurvedic herb and has been used in various mechanism of Nardostachys jatamansi DC in
formulations. It is an effective drug and used protection on loss of memory and cognition
in the treatment of many diseases. The anti- deficit.
stress properties of Nardostachys jatamansi
Keywords: Nardostachys jatamansi | Nervine
extract were studied on male and female
tonic | clinical study | brain monoamines
registered patients of approximately similar
age groups, for cognitive disorders at local Introduction
ayurvedic hospital. Volunteers were grouped Human body and its psychological personality
according to their age, sex and educational depend upon the various behavioural patterns.
status (including both illiterate and literate). Composite parameters of evaluating
These patient were divided into Control (C1) personality, such as memory retention, also
Stress group (E1), Dose group (E2) and Stress include hyperactivity, short attention span,
+Dose group (E3) and were subjected to impulsive and explosive behaviour, erratic
memory retention and recall test. Student t’ task performance and poor social adjustments,
test was used to analyze the results. The study lack of concentration etc. are very important
demonstrated that N.jatamansi root extract variables for a developed personality.
showed its anti-stress effect on drug treated Memory is a cognitive process involving
volunteers as compared to stressed. collection, analysis, encoding, storage and
For Correspondence: retrieval of information as and when required
1Deptt. of Zoology, K. L. Mehta Dayanand College for (Kaplan and Sadock, 1995). The key role
Women, Faridabad H Played by hippocampus in memory functions
2Deptt. of Zoology, Pacific College of Basic and

Applied sciences, PAHER University, Udaipur, has been well documented in the past
Singh et al./VIII: Special Edition: 2: 2017/54 – 61

(Rawlins, 1985; Squire, 1987 and Sutherland syncope and hysteria (Hamied et al., 1962),
and Rodriguez, 1989). antiparkinsonism (Ahmad et al., 2006), it
A reduction in the hippocampal volume and improves memory and reduces forgetfulness.
cell numbers has been reported in animal It acts as memory restorative agent in people
models of aging, depression, and with memory loss. (Vinutha, 2007; Joshi and
alcoholism—conditions that have all been Parle, 2006) and antidepressant (Habibur
associated with memory loss in humans(Heine Rahman and Muralidharan, 2010).
et al., 2004; Herrera et al., 2003).Chronic Neuropharmacological profile of jatamansone
stress is associated with hippocampus- was studied by Arora, (1965b), which is the
dependent learning and memory impairments active ingredient of Nardostachys jatamansi,
have been reported in animals subjected to 6 h reduced aggressiveness, restlessness.
of physical restraint each day for 21 Children with marked mental retardation
days(Sunanda, et al., 2000). Behavioral showed corresponding improvement in I.Q.
deficits in animal models of chronic stress were also noted (Gupta and Virmani 1968).
have been associated with loss of Habibur Rahman et al. (2010) have also
hippocampal neurons, dendritic atrophy, and concluded that methanolic extract of N.
increase in dendritic spines and excrescences jatamansi DC possesses protective activity
(Sunanda, et al., 1995; Uno et al., 1989) and from the loss of memory and cognition
Such models therefore provide an useful deficits. Karkada et al. (2012) also described
approach to study the pharmacological efficacy of Nardostachys jatamansi in the
potential of agents in preventing/reversing prevention of stress induced memory deficit.
stress-related cognitive impairments. Although these studies give significant results
that N.jatamansi work as nervine tonic and
In Ayurveda there are so many drugs that are
have memory enhancing properties but there
used as memory and intelligence enhancers.
is no evidence of human testing. This study
Some of them are as Guduchi (Tinospora
was conducted to understand the mechanism
cordifolia), Jyothishmati (Celastrus
of Nardostachys jatamansi DC in protection
panniculata), Shankhapushpi (Evolvulus
on loss of memory and cognition deficit
alsenoids), Brahmi (Baccopa monniera),
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera).
The plant Nardostachys jatamansi DC of Material and Methods
family Valerianaceae is a well-known plant in The study was conducted on 16 clinical out
the Indian traditional medicinal system and patients for known stress related disorders
has historically been used in Ayurveda as such as proved and known cases of cognitive
Medhya (Brain tonic), Rasayana disorders, depression etc, at local Ayurveda
(Rejuvenative to the mind), Nidrajnana hospital with prior permission of the
(Promotes sleep) and Manasrogaghna authorities. For control studies, a group of
(Alleviates mental diseases) (Pandey, 1991; fifteen persons were selected by a pre-test for
Sharma et al., 2001). N. jatamansi DC quickly the study and as per practitioner’s selection.
relieves from psychosis, maniac psychosis, Healthy persons of both sexes and similar age
group were allowed to volunteer for the study.
Singh et al./VIII: Special Edition: 2: 2017/54 – 61

Both control and patient volunteers were learning word list. 5 trials were made to find
explained related aspects of drug and test to be out the effect of repetition on long-term
conducted without explaining them the real retention. Percent value of word recall is
purpose of the tests prior to start of the calculated for each person and each trial.
experiment. Test was conducted everyday Mean value, standard deviation, standard error
between 10 AM to 12 PM after one hour of of mean was calculated for all groups in both
drug intake in all the four groups. Drug (N sexes. Student‘t’ test was used to find out the
Jatamansi) was given as per ayurvedic significance of the results. All values are
practitioner’s prescription depending on the represented Mean ± SEM (N = 4).
patient’s condition. Persons of both sexes Group Male Female
were separately divided into Control (C1), Control 77 ± 8.16 84 ± 7.40
Diseased persons (stress group; E1), only Stressor Diseased 43 ± 4.18 45 ± 3.14
(E1) +++ +++
Dose group (E2) and Diseased persons Only Dose (E2)
supplemented with dose (Stress + Dose group, 72 ± 4.73 75 ± 4.54
1st Week
E3). Volunteers were grouped according to *** ***
72 ± 5.83 80 ± 4.78
their age, sex and educational status 2nd Week
*** ***
(including both literate and illiterate). In each 78 ± 7.27
3rd Week 80 ± 3.16 **
group at least five volunteers selected were Stress or Disease + Dose (E3)
illiterate. 1st Week 53 ± 3.87 49± 4.10
Tests were designed keeping the educational 2nd Week 58 ± 3.74 57 ± 3.46
status of the volunteers with the help of 3rd Week
67 ± 4.42 66 ± 6.05
*** ***
Department of Psychology, M.L.S.
University, Udaipur. Literate persons in all
groups were given test papers in Hindi or Results
English language according to their In control group, 4 volunteers of both sexes
preference. Illiterate persons in all groups were taken of near about same age groups. In
were given pictures of articles, animals, birds, 1st trail 50-60 % word recall was observed. In
and specific scenes for testing memory status. 2nd to 5th trial word recall percentage
English and Hindi word list including nouns increased gradually. First Trial in Males word
were taken from paper of Yuile and Madigan, list recall was 50% it increased with increased
(1969). number of trails. In both male and female
Mode of Test word list recall was increased with each
successes trail.
Each volunteer in all control and experimental
groups was given a list of 20 words and made In stressed or diseased group E1, Patient
to read aloud for 30 seconds one by one. The suffering from varied disease and other
person recalled these words in 1-minute time psychosocial stress related disorders including
period. Numbers of words recalled were epilepsy and depression. The word recall was
noted. After each trial a set of 10-15 words or significant less (P< 0.05 in male and P<0.05
pictures were given as distracters, to avoid in Female) as Compared to Control group.

Singh et al./VIII: Special Edition: 2: 2017/54 – 61

In E2 or only dose group the effect of drug percentage for all the three weeks was done.
extract was evaluated to find out any This observation showed that after first and
discrepancies due to drug intake. The second week of drug intake both male and
observed values suggest that after every week female groups did not show any significant
of drug intake word recall values were found increase in word recall, but after third day of
to be significant in both male and female as drug intake both male and female showed
compared to stressed male and female. significant increase (P<. 05) in memory level
In stress or disease + dose group (E3) same as compared to stressed group. Data are
patients were tested for the word list recall for summarized in figure 1-3.
3 weeks. Analysis of the word recall

90 Male
*** ***
% of Words Recall

70 Female
40 +++ +++
Control Stress or Only Dose Stress or
Diseased Diseased + Dose


FIGURE 1: Effect of various treatments on word recall percentage after 1st week. Values are expressed as mean ±SEM
and significance is obtained from student t-test showing p<0.01=++; p<0.05=+++ as compared to stress;
p<0.01=**;p<0.05=*** as compared to stress group.

90 Male
*** *** Female
% of Words Recall

+++ +++
Control Stress or Only Dose Stress or
Diseased Diseased + Dose

FIGURE 2: Effect of various treatments on word recall percentage after 2nd week. Values are expressed as mean
±SEM and significance is obtained from student t-test showing p<0.01=++;p<0.05=+++ as compared to
stress;p<0.01=**;p<0.05=*** as compared to stress group.

Singh et al./VIII: Special Edition: 2: 2017/54 – 61

90 Male Female
*** **
% of Words Recall
70 *** ***
+++ +++
Control Stress or Only Dose Stress or
Diseased Diseased + Dose

FIGURE 3: Effect of various treatments on word recall percentage after 3rd week. Values are expressed as mean ±SEM and
significance is obtained from student t-test showing p<0.01=++; p<0.05=+++ as compared to stress;
p<0.01=**;p<0.05=*** as compared to stress group.

Discussion Study in rodents has revealed that GCs

Clinical study in patients clearly demonstrates enhance or impairs performance dependent on
neuroprotective effects of Nardostachys the specific memory type tested and on the
jatamansi root extract. Study performed in timing of the stress exposure, respectively
patients under strict control of a ayurvedic (Diamond et al., 1996; Lupien and McEwen,
physician has also shown significant 1997; de Quervain et al., 1998; De Kloet et al.,
improvement in retention and recall of the 1999; Roozendaal, 2000). Experimental
memory after treatment with the drug extract. studies in humans have repeatedly shown that
This inference is based on significant changes GC administration can interfere with
observed i.e., gradual increase in score of the performance in working memory as well as
drug treated diseased as compared to only declarative memory tasks, (Newcomer et al.,
diseased and control volunteers from first 1999; Wolf et al., 2001) and delayed
week to third week of the treatment with the recall of declarative material (De Quervain et
extract. Results of the study thus suggest al., 2000). Memory impairing effects have
that N.Jatamansi root extract could be an been also observed in young and elderly
alternative treatment for cognitive subjects after exposure to psychosocial
disturbances. laboratory stressors (de Quervain et al., 1998;
Kirschbaum et al., 1996; Wolf et al., 1999).
This study first time describes the
Prolonged treatment (several days) seems to
influence of Nardostachys jatamansi root
be needed in order for declarative learning
extract on a subjective trial in human
deficits to occur (Young et al., 1999; Wood
volunteers suffering from various cognitive
and Shors, 1998). Gender plays an important
disorders such as memory deficit and memory
role in the effects on cognition (Carlson and
disturbances. Stress influences cognition in
Sherwin, 1999).
both animals and humans is well established.
One of the symptoms of stress is Other than GCs, stress decreases the level of
release of glucocorticoids (GC's; certain chemicals such as brain monoamines
Corticosterone in rats, Cortisol in humans). (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine
Singh et al./VIII: Special Edition: 2: 2017/54 – 61

noradrenaline, catecholamine, and GABA). stimulates the healthy nervine functions and
Scientific studies have found that N.jatamansi help combating cognitive performance,
increases the cerebral levels of GABA learning, memory and other age related
(GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID). N. neurodegenerative disorders.
Jatamansi is likely to reduce depression by
increasing the levels of monoamines in the
brain (Dhingra and Goyal, 2008). In their Ahmad, M.; Yousuf, S.; Khan, Badruzzaman;
study Prabhu V et al., (1994) also Studied the Hoda, N.; Ahmad, M.A.; Ishrat, T.;
Agarwal, A.K.; and Islam, F. (2006):
effect of acute and sub chronic administration
Attenuation by Nardostachys jatamansi
of alcoholic extract of the roots of N.
of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced
jatamansi DC on nor epinephrine (NE),
parkinsonism in rats: behavioral,
dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT),
neurochemical, and immune-
5hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA),
histochemical studies. Pharmacol and
gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) on male
Biochem Behav. 83:150-60.
albino Wistar rats. A significant increase in
Arora, R. B. (1965b): Cardiovascular
the level of GABA was observed in the drug-
pharmacotherapeuties of six medicinal
treated groups when compared to the controls.
plants indigenous to India. Award
A 15-day treatment resulted in a significant
Monograph Series No. 1, Hamdard
increase in the levels of NE, DA, 5-HT, 5-
National Foundation. New Delhi.
HIAA, and GABA. Jai Prakash and Md
Carlson, L. E.; Sherwin, B. B. (1999):
Nazmul (2015) also demonstrated that
Relationships among Cortisol (CRT),
probably the active ingredients Jatamansone
dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHES)
from Nardostachys jatamansi regulates the
and memory in a longitudinal
metabolic degradation of serotonin, study of healthy elderly men and
norepinephrine, dopamine and other women. Neurobiol aging. 20: 315–24.
endogenous amines in CNS through
Carlson, L. E.; Sherwin, B. B. (1999):
interaction with GABA ergic receptors and
Relationships among Cortisol (CRT),
help to increase their level. dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHES)
These data indicate that alcoholic extract of and memory in a longitudinal
the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi causes an study of healthy elderly men and
overall increase in the levels of central women. Neurobiol aging. 20: 315–24.
monoamines. In the present study it was also De Kloet, E. R.; Oitzl, M. S. and Joels, M.
observed that the females show less (1999): Stress and cognition: are
effect of stress on short term memory than corticosteroids good or bad guys?
males. Trends Neurosci. 22:422–26.
Conclusion De Quervain, D. J.; Roozendaal, B.; Mcgaugh,
From the above results of the present study, it J. L. (1998): Stress and glucocorticoids
is concluded that Nardostachys Jatamansi act impair retrieval of long-term spatial
as nervine tonic, its de-stressing effects memory. Nature. 394: 787–90:

Singh et al./VIII: Special Edition: 2: 2017/54 – 61

De Quervain, D. J.; Roozendaal, B.; Nitsch, R. aging dentate gyrus, in absence of an

M. and Mcgaugh, J. L. (2000): Acute age-related hypothalamus-pituitary-
cortisone administration impairs adrenal axis activation. Neurobiol
retrieval of long-term declarative Aging. 25: 361–75.
memory in humans. 3: 313–314. Herrera, D. G.; Yague, A. G. and Johnsen–
Dhingra, D. and Goyal, P. K. (2008): Inhibition Soriano, S. (2003): Selective
of MAO and GABA: probable impairment of hippocampal
mechanisms for antidepressant-like neurogenesis by chronic alcoholism:
activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DC. Protective effects of an
In mice. Indian J Exp Biol. antioxidant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
Diamond, D. M.; Fleshner, M.; Ingersoll, N. and 100: 7919–24.
Rose, G. M. (1996): Psychological Singh, Jai Prakash and Nazmul Huda, Md.
stress impairs spatial working memory: (2015): Efficacy and safety of a herbal
relevance to electrophysiological preparation in the management of major
studies of hippocampal function. Behav depressive disorder. IJPPDR. 5(1): 24-
Neurosci. 110: 661–72. 28.
Gupta, B. D. and Virmani, V. (1968): Clinical Joshi, H. and Parle, M. (2006): Nardostachys
trial of jatamansone (syn. Valeranone) jatamansi improves learning and
in hyperkinetic behaviour disorders. memory in mice. J Med Food, 9: 113-8.
Neurology India. 16: 168. Kaplan, H. I. and Sadock, B. J. (1995):
Habibur, Rahman and Muralidharan, P. (2010): Comprehensive Text Book of
Nardostachys jatamansi DC Protects Psychiatri/ VI. 1: 6 Ed. 528.
from the loss of memory and cognitive Karkada, G.; Shenoy, K.; Halahalli, H. and
deficits in sleep deprived Alzheimer’s Karanth, K. (2012): Nardostachys
disease(AD) mice model. 5(3) Article- jatamansi extract prevents chronic
029. restraint stress-induced learning and
Habibur, Rahman and Muralidharan, P. (2010): memory deficits in a radial arm maze
Comparative study of antidepressant task. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 3: 125–132.  
activity of methanolic extract of Lupien, S. J. and mcewen, B. S. (1997): The
Nardostachys Jatamansi DC Rhizome acute effects of corticosteroids on
on normal and sleep deprived mice, Der cognition: integration of animal and
Pharmacia Lettre. 2(5): 441-449. 39. human model studies. Brain Res Revi.
Hamied, K. A.; Bakshi, V. M. and Aghara, L. P. 24: 1–27. 
(1962): Pharmacological, investigation Newcomer, J. W.; Selke, G.; Melson, A. K. and
of Nardostachys jatamansi roots, Sci Hershey, T. (1999): Decreased memory
Ind Res. 21C, 100 performance in healthy humans
Heine, V. M.; Maslam, S.; Joel, M. and induced by stress-level Cortisol
Lucassen, P. J. (2004): Prominent treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 56:
decline of newborn cell proliferation, 527–33.
differentiation, and apoptosis in the

Singh et al./VIII: Special Edition: 2: 2017/54 – 61

Pandey, V. N. (1991): Medico- ethno botanical successive water extracts of

exploration in Sikkim Himalaya, Nardostachys jatamansi, Ind J
Central Council for research in Pharmacol. 23: 127-131.
Ayurveda & Siddha, First edition.137- Watanabe, Y.; Gould, E. and mcewen, B. S.
189. (1992): Stress induces atrophy of apical
Prabhu, V., Karanth, K. S. and Rao, A. (1994): dendrites of hippocampal CA3
Effects of Nardostachys jatamansi on pyramidal neurons. Brain Res. 588:341–
biogenic-amine and inhibitory amino- 5.
acids in the rat-brain. Planta Med. Wolf, O. T.; Convit, A.; mchugh, P. F. and
60:114–117. Kandii, E. (2001): Cortisol differentially
Rawlins, J. N. P (1985): The hippocampus as a affects memory in young a.nd elderly
temporary memory store. The Behav. & men. Behav Neurosci. 115:1002–11.
Brain Sc. 8: 479-97, 514-28. Wolf, O. T.; Kudielka, B. M.; Hellhammer, D.
Roozendaal, B. (2000): Glucocorticoids and the H. and Torber, S. (1999): Two
regulation of memory consolidation. weeks of transdermal estradiol
Psychoneuroendocrinology. 25: 213– treatment in postmenopausal elderly
38. women and its effects on memory and
Sharma, P. C.; Yelne, N. B. and Dennis, T. J. mood: verbal memory changes are
(2001): Data base on Medicinal Plants associated with the treatment induced
used in Ayuveda CCRAS, New Delhi.1. estradiol levels.
Pscychoneuroendocrinol. 24: 727–41.
Squire, L. R (1987): Memory and Brain. Oxford
University Press. Wood, G. E. and Shors, T. J. (1998): Stress
facilitates classical conditioning in
Sunanda; Rao, B. S. and Raju, T. R. (2000):
males, but impairs classical
Chronic restraint stress impairs
conditioning in females through
acquisition and retention of spatial
activational effects of ovarian
memory task in rats. Curr Sci. 17:1581–
hormones. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.
Sunanda; Rao, M. S. and Raju, T. R. (1995):
Young, A. H.; Sahakian, B. J.; Robbins, T. W.
Effect of chronic restraint stress on
and Cowen, P. J. (1999): The effects of
dendritic spines and excrescences of
hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons--a
administration of hydrocortisone on
quantitative study. Brain Res. 694:312–
cognitive function in normal male
volunteers. Psychopharmacology. 145:
Sutherland, R. J. and Rodriguez, A. Z. (1989):
260- 66.
The role of the forniz/fimbria and some
related subcortical structures in place Yuile, Madigan Concreteness (1969): Imagery
learning and memory. Behav. Brain Res. and Meaningfulness of925 nouns. J Exp
32: 265-77. Psy.
Vinutha, J. P. (2007): Acetyl cholinesterase
inhibitory activity of methanolic and