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Perforated Tray Design

Jainik Modi – 1642023

Bhavi Patel – 1642005
Renish Kanani – 1642013
Group - 3
Parth Jani – 1642007
Ankit Mehta – 1642038
Keval Mehta – 1642012
Introduction: -
Distillation is the technique of preferential separation of the more volatile
component(s) from theless volatile ones in a feed solution by partial vaporization
of the feed followed by condensation. The vapor produced is richer in the more
volatile component(s). The distribution of the components in the two phases is
governed by the vapour-liquid equilibrium relationship. Onlypartial separation of
the components can be achieved in this way. In order to have a larger degree of
separation, multistage contact between the vapour and the liquid phases is arranged
in suitable device called a distillation column. The most important parts of a
distillation unit as illustrated in Figure are:(a) a column having trays or packing
and suitable internals, (b) a reboiler, and (C) a condenser. The feed enters at a
suitable point of the tower. The reboilernormally heated by steam, partially
vaporizes the liquid received from the bottom of the column. The vapour flows up
through the trays or through the packing in the column, leaves at the top and enters
into an overhead condenser. A part of the condensate is withdrawn as the top
productand the rest is fed back into the column as reflux which flows down the
trays or the packingan intimate contact between the downflowing liquid and the
upflowingvapour occurs on thetrays or on the packing surface- Exchange of mass
takes place between the liquid and the vapourphases. The more volatile
components move from the liquid to the vapour phase and the lessvolatiles move in
the reverse direction from the vapour to the liquid phase. As a result,
theconcentrations of the less volatiles increase in the liquid phase as it flows down
the column. Inthis way, a higher degree of separation of the more volatiles from
the less volatiles is achieved.The top product drawn from the condenser is rich in
the more volatiles. The bottom product hashigh concentration of the less volatiles
and only a small amount of the morelvolatiles. The morenumber of trays and the
more reflux ratio, the better is the separation A distillation column describe above
performs the job of "fractional distillation. i.e. separation of a feed into two or
more products differing in boilingpoints or boiling ranges. Distillation is the more
mature, albeit energy-intensive, technique of separation of liquid mixture in small
to large capacities. Columns as big as 10mi in diameter andhaving 150 or more
trays havebeen reported to be in operation.

Distillation, which is one of the oldest mass transfer operations, is reported to have
beeninvented in Alexandria in the first century AD. The early use was in the
production ofalcoholic beverages. The history of distillation has been described by
Forbes.It will be useful to distinguish between distillation and evaporation since in
the latter operationalso, the components in solution are separated by volatilizing
some of them. The major differenceis that in evaporation a solution containing a
volatile solvent and a non-volatile soluteis separated by vaporizing out a part or
whole of the solvent. Examplesare:evaporation of a sugar solution,evaporation of a
glycerol solution. But in distillation, the components have reasonable
volatilityExample: distillation of aqueous ethanol.Distillation is the most common
mass transfer operation in the process industries, particularlythe organic process
industries. The function of distillation may be separation of products froma
mixture, recovery of a product, or increasing the purity of a product. Distillation is
again the mostimportant operation in a petroleum refinery. A petrochemical
complex also uses a large numberof distillation columns. Sometimes, distillation
may be used in conjunction with a few other masstransfer operations. For example,
in an acrylonitrile plant, the productis separated from the reaction mixture by
absorption in water. The aqueous solution ofacrylonitrile leaving the absorption
tower is separated in a distillation column to produce aacrylonitrile of desired
purity. Similarly, the extract and raffinate streams from an extractioncolumn may
be further separated in a distillation column depending uponthe difference in
volatility of the components. Because of its importance and wide use in separation
of mixtures, distillation is called the workhorse of chemical industries. Despite the
advent of newer and advanced separation processes, distillation still remains the
most widely used separation technique of liquid mixtures and solutions. The
estimated cost of annual worldwide throughput of distillation columns was 524
billion dollars about ten years ago as reported by porter.
The perforated tray (also known as sieve plate) is a flat perforated metal
sheet. The hole diameter from 1.5 to 25 mm are very commonly used. The sieve
tray layout is a typical square or equilateral triangular pitch holes. The gas/vapor
flows upward through the perforation and disperses into the flowing liquid over the
plate. There is no liquid seal in case of trays without downcomer and the liquid
weeps (called weeping) through the holes at low flow rates, reducing the efficiency
of plate. For this reason, perforated tray has the lowest turndown ratio. perforated
tray construction is simple and relatively cheap.

This is the simplest type of cross-flow plate. The vapour passes up through
perforations in the plate; and the liquid is retained on the plate by the vapour flow.
There is no positive vapour liquid seal, and at low flow-rates liquid will “weep”
through the holes, reducing the plate efficiency. The perforations are usually small
holes, but larger holes and slots are used.
Schematic Diagram: -

 Distillation column: -

The process of distillation should be familiar to most readers. The basic

concept is that we can separate a mixture of two pure liquids with different boiling
points by heating the mixture to a temperature between their respective boiling
points. For example, water boils at 100°C and ethanol boils at around 83°C at
atmospheric pressure. If we heat the mixture to say 92°C, the ethanol will boil and
be transformed into vapour (which is collected and condensed) while the water will
remain as a liquid. This phenomenon is usually quantified by the relative volatility
of the two components.

A distillation column is used to make this process more efficient. A schematic

diagram of a distillation column is shown below.
The distillation column itself is made up of a series of stacked plates. A liquid feed
containing the mixture of both liquids enters the column at one or more points. The
liquid flows over the plates, and vapour bubbles up through the liquid via holes in
the plates. As liquid travels down the column, vapour comes in contact with it
many times (due to the multiple plates). This is the critical process in distillation
columns. The liquid and vapour phases are brought into contact because as one
molecule of higher boiling material converts from vapour to liquid phase by energy
release, another molecule of the low boiling material utilizes the free energy to
convert from liquid to vapour phase.

The base of the distillation column contains a large volume of liquid, which is
mostly the liquid with higher boiling point (in our example, this would be water).
Out of the base flows some of this liquid, some of which is heated in the reboiler
and returned to the column. This is called the boil up, and is labeled V. The
remaining liquid is the bottom product, labeled B.
Some vapour escapes from the top of the column and is returned to a liquid state in
the condenser. Some of this liquid is returned to the column as reflux L, and the
remainder is the top product or distillate D.

Vapour and liquid phases on a given plate approach thermal, pressure and
composition equilibrium to an extent depending upon the efficiency of the plate.

 Perforated Tray: -

In this tray the bubble caps are replaced by holes or perforations for entrance of the
gas into the liquid. The holes are of relatively small diameter. This is why the name
'perforated tray. For clean services, use of a hole diameter of inch is comm.
However, for liquids that foul or cause deposition, a hole diameter of ½ inch may
have to be used. In vacuum services, ¾-inch-hole diameter is preferred. Small
holes enhance tray capacity, reduce entrainment, reduce weeping promote froth
regime operation and exhibit better mass transfer characteristics. Holes are made
by punching rather than by drilling a tray sheet (small holes may have to made by
drilling) in order to reduce the labor cost These are arranged on an equilateral
triangular pitch or a square pitch. The pitch (i.e. the centre-to-centre distance
between the two adjacent holes) varies between 2.5dH and 5dH (3.8dH is
common), where dH is the hole diameter [as show marked on Figure] The rows of
holes are oriented normal to the direction of liquid flow A-sieve tray typically has
a free area of 6 to 10% [free area fraction-hole area/tower cross- section, less the
downcomer areal. The layout of a sieve tray, the downcomers and are shown in
Figure. The assembly of a sieve tray is shown in Figure the weirs and the
downcomers are shown in the figure.
Working Procedure: -

In a sieve tray as shown in the figure below, thevapour passes through a large
number of “holes” known as perforations (sieves) and emerges through the liquid
in a vertical direction.

The sieve tray has the simplest design among the various tray types. There are no
mechanical moving parts. There is no liquid seal and it is the passage of vapour
that efficiency prevents the loss of liquid through the sieves. A phenomenon
known as weeping – as shown in the figure below can occur at low vapour flow
and/or high liquid rates when the liquid height on the tray exceeds the tray pressure

Typical layout for sieve tray follows either a square hole pitch or equilateral
triangular hole pitch. Hole pitch is the centre-to-centre hole spacing.

Typical sieve sizes used industrially range from as small as 1/6-inch to 1-inch.
Small sieves are not suitable for fouling or corrosive services as they may be
susceptible to blockage, leading to excessive pressure drop and premature

Small holes have better turndown characteristics because they reduce tray weeping
and therefore increase tray capacity. In terms of cost, larger holes are cheaper as
the holes can be punched, and there are fewer holes to be punched. Smaller holes
are more expensive as drilling may be required.

Industrial Application: -

Distillation column: -

 Turpentine, naptha, phenols, toluene andphytosterols are obtained

using Distillation column.
 Argon can be obtained in distillation plant via employing air
separation technology.
 Pyridine can also be obtained using distillation column, Pyridine is an
essential component used in industries as a solvent and water proofing

Oil Refining

 Distillation column are widely used in industries in refining oils from

the crude oil.
 When crude oil is extracted it contains manyhydrocarbons mixed in
the extracted chemical mixtures.
 Hydrocarbons boils at the different temperatures and can be separated
from each other using distillation column .
 Each separated hydrocarbon offer variousapplication in chemical

Desalinizing Water

 Distillation Plants is abon to the areas where water is not available in

sufficient quantity or is impure.
 Distillation column provide an effective means to supply pure water
to those regions.
 Distillation plants can convert ocean water into drinking water and
supply it to areas having scarcity of water.

Distilled Spirits

 Liquor, beer and wine are produced after undergoing through several
stages of distillation which eliminates the additive and produce a final
distilled form of the spirits.

Other Applications

 Industries dealing in production of various cosmetic product, pharma

products, and chemicals.
 It is also used in several manufacturing industries.
Calculation Procedure: -

Mathematical Equations & step for the solution procedure: -

 Mass flow rate-

 Step 1: - Convert All Flowrates From lb/hr To Kg/s

6160 lb 1 hr 0.454 Kg Kg
LWT = × × = 0.7768
hr 3600 second 1 lb Second
18160 lb 1 hr 0.454 Kg Kg
LWB = × × = 2.29
hr 3600 second 1 lb Second
9670 lb 1 hr 0.454 Kg Kg
VWT = × × = 1.22
hr 3600 second 1 lb Second
6670 lb 1 hr 0.454 Kg Kg
VWB = × × = 0.84
hr 3600 second 1 lb Second

 Density-

Step 2: - Convert All Density From lb/(ft)3 To Kg/m3

lb 0.454 Kg 1 ft 3 Kg
ρLT = 507 × × (0.305 m) = 811.27
(ft)3 1 lb m3

lb 0.454 Kg 1 ft 3 Kg
ρLB = 44.6 × × (0.305 m) = 713.65
(ft)3 1 lb m3

lb 0.454 Kg 1 ft 3 Kg
ρVT = 0.178 × × (0.305 m) = 2.85
(ft)3 1 lb m3

lb 0.454 Kg 1 ft 3 Kg
ρVB = 0.19 × × (0.305 m) = 3.04
(ft)3 1 lb m3
 Step 3: - Find Column Liquid-Vapour Factor for Top and Bottom and With
the Help of Figure 11.34 We Find the Value of K1 For Top and Bottom and
Convert Plate Spacing intometer from ft

L ρ 0.7768 2.85
FLVT = V WT × √ρ VT = × √811.27 = 0.038
WT LT 1.22

L ρ 2.29 3.04
FLVT = VWB × √ρ VB = × √713.65 = 0.180
WB LB 0.84

Plate Spacing = 1.5 ft = 0.45 m

By Graph K1T = 0.082 & K2B = 0.055

 This is defined by below graph

 Surface tension-

 Step 4: - Convert Surface Tension From dyne/cm To N/m For Top

14 dyne 10−5 N 100 cm N
σT = × × = 0.013
cm dyne 1m m
 Step 5: - Convert Surface Tension From dyne/cm to N/m For Bottom

14 dyne 10−5 N 100 cm N

σB = × × = 0.013
cm dyne 1m m

 Step 6: - Correction of Surface Tension Is to Be Done

σ 0.2 0.013 0.2
KB = (0.02) × K 2B = ( 0.02 ) × 0.055 = 0.0506

σ 0.2 0.013 0.2

KT = (0.02) × K1T = ( 0.02 ) × 0.082 = 0.0754

 Vapour Velocity-

 Step 7: - We Find Vapour Velocity at Flooding Point Based on Net Area for
Top and Bottom

ρLT − ρVT 811.27 − 2.85 m

ufT = K T × √ = 0.0754 × √ = 1.27
ρVT 2.85 s

ρLB − ρVB 713.65 − 3.04 m

ufB = K B × √ = 0.0506 × √ = 0.77
ρVB 3.04 s

 Step 8: - Take Actual Velocity At 85% Of the Flooding Velocity forTopand

(uactual T ) = 0.85 × ufT = 0.85 × 1.27 = 1.0795
(uactual B ) = 0.85 × ufB = 0.85 × 0.77 = 0.6545
 Volumetric flow rate-

 Step 9: - Find Volumetric Flow Rate for Top and Bottom

VWT 1.22 m3
V̇T = = = 0.4280
ρVT 2.85 s

VWB 0.84 m3
V̇B = = = 0.2763
ρVB 3.04 s

 Area and Diameter-

 Step 10: - Find Area onTop, Diameter on Top and Area onBottom, Diameter
on Bottom

V̇T = AT × uactual T

0.4280 = AT × 1.0795

AT = 0.3964 m2 = × dT 2

dT = 0.7106 m

V̇B = AB × uactual B

0.2763 = AB × 0.6545
AB = 0.4222 m2 = × dB 2

dB = 0.7333 m

 Entrainment-

Entrainment can be estimated from the correlation given by Fair. which gives
the fractional entrainment (kg/kg gross liquid flow) as a function of the liquid-vapour
factor FLV, with the percentage approach to flooding as a parameter. The percentage
flooding is given by:

 Step 11. Find Percentage Flooding for Top and Bottom and Fractional
Entrainment for Top and Bottom.

un (actual velocity based on net area)

(PFT ) =
uf (flooding vapour velocity on top)

(PFT ) =

(PFT ) = 85%

un (actual velocity based on net area)

(PFB ) =
uf (flooding vapour velocity on bottom)

(PFB ) =

(PFB ) = 85%

For fractional entrainment,

(FET ) = 0.095 = ΨT

(FEB ) = 0.0015 = ΨB
Column area = 4 × Dc 2 = 0.3968 m2 =Ac

Downcomer area = 0.12× Ac = 0.048m2 =Ad

Net area =Ac − Ad = 0.3488 m2 = An

Active area=Aa = AC − 2 × Ad = 0.3008 m2

 Area-
AC =total column cross-sectional area
AD= cross-sectional area of downcomer
AN = net area available for vapour-liquid disengagement, normally equal
to Ac -Ad, for a single pass plate
AA= active, or bubbling, area, equal to Ac-2Ad for single-pass plates
AH= hole area, the total area of all the active holes
AP= perforated area (including blanked areas)
AAP = the clearance area under the downcomer apron

 Step 12. Find Column Area,DowncomerArea, Net Area, Active Area and
Hole Area.

Assume that the hole area is 10% of the active area,

AH = 0.1 × Aa

AH = 0.03008 m2
 This is defined by the below graph

∗ 100 = 10

 Length of weir-

 Step 13. Find Length of Weir.

Lw/ Dc = 0.73

Lw = 0.711×0.73
= 0.51903 m
= 519.03 mm

 This is defined by the below graph

 Maximum vapour velocity-

 Step 14. Find Maximum Vapour Velocity Through Holes and Dry Plate
Pressure Drop (Head of Liquid).

Maximum vapour velocity through holes,

(Volumatric flow rate v)B 0.2763 m
uh = = = 9.1855
Ah 0.03008 s
uh 2 ρvb
hd = 51 [ ]
c0 ρlb

 Pressure Drop-

 Step 15. Find Plate Residual Pressure Drop (Head of Liquid) And Height of
Liquid Crest Over Downcomer Weir.

The pressure drop over the plates is an important design consideration. There are
two main sources of pressure loss: that due to vapour flow through the holes (an
orifice loss), and that due to the static head of liquid on the plate. A simple additive
model is normally used to predict the total pressure drop. The total is taken as the
sum of the pressure drop calculated for the flow of vapour through the dry plate (the
dry plate drophd); the head of clear liquid on the plate (h W +hOW); and a term to
account for other, minor, sources of pressure loss, the so-called residual loss hr. The
residual loss is the difference between the observed experimental pressure drop and
the simple sum of the dry-plate drop and the clear-liquid height. It accounts for the
two effects: the energy to form the vapour bubbles and the fact that on an operating
plate the liquid head will not be clear liquid but a head of “aerated” liquid froth, and
the froth density and height will be different from that of the clear liquid.

It is convenient to express the pressure drops in terms of millimetres of liquid. In

pressure units:

Assume plate thickness is = 5mm

Plate thickness/Hole diameter = 1

Ah/Aa = 0.03008/0.3008 = 0.1

(Ah×100/Aa) = 10

uh = (Volumetric Flow Rate)B / Ah

= 0.2763/0.03008
= 9.1855 m/s
9.1855 2 3.04
hd = 51 [ ] =25.9780 mm liquid
0.84 713.65

 Residual head-

Methods have been proposed for estimating the residual head as a function of
liquid surface tension, froth density and froth height. However, as this
correction term is small the use of an elaborate method for its estimation is
not justified, and the simple equation proposed by Hunt et al. can be used:

12.5 × 103 12.5 × 103

hr = = = 17.5156 mm liquid
ρlb 713.65

This equation is equivalent to taking the residual drop as a fixed value of 12.5 mm
of water (1/2 in.)

lbw 2/3 2.29 2/3

how = 750 [ ] = 750 [ ] = 24.8401 mm liquid
ρlb × lw 713.65 × 0.519
hw = 45mm (Assumed)

 Total pressure drops-

 Step 16. Find Total Plate Pressure Drop (Head of Liquid), Apron Clearance, Clearance
Area Under Apron and Total Plate Pressure Drop.

ht = hd + hw + how + hr
ht =25.9780+45+24.840+17.5156
=113.3337 mm liquid

Total plate pressure drop=ht ∗ 9.81 ∗ 10−3 × ρlb

ΔPt = 795.4386 Pa

hap = 45-5 = 40 mm (less than hw)

lw d 2
hdc = 166 [ ]
ρl × Am

where hap is height of the bottom edge of the apron above the plate.
hdc= head loss in the downcomer (mm)

 Step 17. Take Values of Maximum Liquid Flow Rate andDowncomer Cross-
Sectional Area.

Maximum Liquid Flow Rate = 2.29

Downcomer Cross-Sectional Area = 0.02076 m2

 Step 18. Find Head Loss in Downcomer And Height of Liquid Backed-Up

Aap = hap× Lw
= 40× 519.03
= 0.02076 m2
Ad = 0.048 m2
Aap< Ad
Lwd = max. liq flow rate
= 2.29 kg/s
hdc = 166 [ ]
713.65 × 0.02076
= 3.9660 mm liquid

hb = hw + how + ht + hdc
=45 + 24.8401 + 113.3337 + 3.9660
= 186.9398 mm liq.

 Residence time-

 Step 19. Find Residence Time in Downcomer.

Sufficient residence time must be allowed in the downcomer for the entrained
vapour to disengage from the liquid stream; to prevent heavily “aerated”
liquid being carried under the downcomer.

A time of at least 3 seconds is recommended.

The downcomer residence time is given by:
Ad × hdc × ρLB
tr =

0.048 × 186.93 × 10−3 × 713.65

tr =
t r = 2.7963 second

where tr = residence time

hbc = clear liquid back-up.

 No. of holes-

 Step 20: - Find the Number of Holes

Ah 0.03008
Number of Holes = π = π = 1531 Holes
× d2h 4
× (d)2

 Efficiency-

 Step 21: - Take the Values of Liquid Viscocity And Liquid Diffusivity
and Find Surface Tension Number (Dg), Liquid Schmidt Number
(Sc), Fractional Area, Reynolds Number and Percentage Efficiency by
Van Winkle's Method.

 Van Winkle’s correlation-

Van Winkle have published an empirical correlation for the plate

efficiency which can be used to predict plate efficiencies for binary systems.
Their correlation uses dimensionless groups that include those system
variables and plate parameters that are known to affect plate efficiency. They
give two equations, the simplest, and that which they consider the most
accurate, is given below. The data used to derive the correlation covered both
bubble-cap and sieve plates

Emv = 0.07 (Dg)0.14(Sc)0.25 (Re)0.08

Dg = surface tension number
σl = liquid surface tension
μL = liquid viscosity
uv = superficial vapour velocity
Sc = liquid Schmidt number
DLK = liquid diffusivity, light key component
Re = Reynolds number
hw = weir hight
ρv = vapour density
ρL = liquid density
FA = fractional area = area of holes or riser / total column cross-sectional area
Ah 0.03008
FA = = =0.0758
Ac 0.3948
σL 0.013
Dg = = =13.3807
μL × uv 9 × 10−4 ×1.0795

μL 9 × 10−4
Sc = = 811.27 ×1.24 × 10−9 = 894.6546
ρL × DLK

h w × uv × ρV 45 × 10−3 × 1.0795 × 811.27 × 10−4

Re = = =57.7682
μL × FA 9 × 10−4 × 0.0758

Emv = 0.07 (Dg)0.14(Sc)0.25 (Re)0.08

= 0.07(13.3807)0.14(894.6546)0.25(2029.40)0.08
= 76.1460%

% Efficiency = % Emv = 0.761460 × 100 = 76.1460

 Plate Specification: -

Plate no. 1 Plate material mild steel

Plate I.D. 0.73 m Downcomer material mild steel
Active holes 1531 Plate pressure drop 25.97 mm liq.
Height of weir 45 mm Height of bottom edge 40 mm
Length of weir 0.51 m

Nomenclature: - (With Sr. No, SI Unit and Symbolic Presentation)

1 Kg/s Flow Rate Of Liquid On Top (LWT)
2 Kg/s Flow Rate Of Liquid On Bottom (LWB)
3 Kg/s Flow Rate Of Vapour On Top (VWT)
4 Kg/s Flow Rate Of Vapour On Bottom (VWB)
5 Kg/m3 Density Of Liquid On Top (𝜌LT)
6 Kg/m3 Density Of Liquid On Bottom (𝜌LB)
7 Kg/m3 Density Of Vapour On Top (𝜌VT)
8 Kg/m3 Density Of Vapour On Bottom (𝜌VB)
9 m Tray Spacing
10 mm Hole Diameter(DH)
11 mm Weir Height (HW)
12 m Value By BS 1600 Of Column Diameter (DC)
13 m2 Downcomer Area Is 12 Percent Of Column Area (AD)
14 m2 Hole Area Is 10 Percent Of Active Area (AH)
15 mm Plate Thickness
16 Ratio Of Plate Thickness And Hole Diameter
17 Kg/(m*s) Viscocity Of Liquid (𝜇L)
18 m2/s Diffusivity Of Liquid(DLK)
19 Column Liquid-Vapour Factor Top (FLVT)
20 Column Liquid-Vapour Factor Bottom (FLVB)
21 Value Of K1 Top (K1T)
22 Value Of K1 Bottom (K2T)
23 N/m Surface Tension On Top (𝜎T)
24 N/m Surface Tension On Bottom (𝜎B)
25 Corrected K1 Bottom (KB)
26 Corrected K1 Top (KT)
27 m/s Vapour Velocity At Flooding Point On Net Area (Top) (uFT)
28 m/s Vapour Velocity At Flooding Point On Net Area (Bottom)(uFB)
29 m/s Actual Vapour Velocity At Flooding Point (Top) (uactual T )
30 m/s Actual Vapour Velocity At Flooding Point (Bottom) (uactual B )
31 m3/s Volumetric Flow Rate Of Vapour On Top (V̇T)
32 m3/s Volumetric Flow Rate Of Vapour On Bottom (V̇B )
33 m2 Area Of Top (AT)
34 m2 Area Of Bottom (AB)
35 m Diameter Of Top (DT)
36 m Diameter Of Bottom (DB)
37 Percent Flooding On Top (PF)T
38 Percent Flooding On Bottom (PF)B
39 Fractional Entrainment On Top (FE)T
40 Fractional Entrainment On Bottom (FE)B
41 m2 Column Area (AC)
42 m2 Downcomer Area (AD)
43 m2 Net Area (AN)
44 m2 Active Area (AA)
45 m2 Hole Area (AH)
46 m Length Of Weir (LW)
47 Orifice Co-Efficient(CO)
48 m/s Maximum Vapour Velocity Through Holes (uh)
49 mm Liquid Dry Plate Pressure Drop (Head Of Liquid) (hd)
50 mm Liquid Plate Residual Pressure Drop (Head Of Liquid) (hr)
51 mm Liquid Height Of Liquid Crest Over Downcomer Weir (how)
52 mm Liquid Total Plate Drop (Head Of Liquid) (ht)
53 mm Apron Clearance
54 m2 Clearance Area Under Apron (Aap)
55 Kg/s Liquid Mass Flow Rate Through Downcomer (LWD)
56 mm Head Loss InDowncomer (hdc)
57 mm Height Of Liquid Backed Up In Downcomer
58 s Residence Time InDowncomer (TR)
59 Number Of Holes
60 Surface Tension Number (Dg)
61 Liquid Schmidt Number (Sc)
62 m2 Fractional Area (AF)
63 Reynolds Number (Re)
64 Efficiency By The Van Winkle's Method (Emv)
65 Ratio Of Hole Area To The Active Area
66 Pa Or N/m2 Total Plate Pressure Drop (∆PT)

Result: -
We get the Efficiency of distillation column is 76.14604% by van winkle’s method and Total
pressure drop of plate is 795.4386 Pa. We get the number of holes is 1531 and residence time is
2.7963 sec. For sieve tray according to find out diameter and given flow rate.

Conclusion: -
According to given flow rate and diameter of the holes in the sieve tray found by us if the
number holes is increased it will cause flooding ,if decreased it will lead to weeping.
Sieve Tray are simple metal plates with hole in them. Its has more efficiency as compared to
bubble cap tray. It has wide operating range and maintenance, cost factor is comparatively less.

Acknowledgement: -
We would like to express special thank of gratitude to Dr. Arijit Ganguly, who give us the
golden opportunity to do this wonderful project of design tray of distillation column on sieve tray.
we came to know about so many new things we are really thankful to him. Our thanks and
appreciations also got to collage in developing the project and people who have willingly helped
us out with their abilities.

References: -
1.R.K. Sinnott, Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering: Chemical
Engineering Design (vol. 6), Butterworth-Heinemann, 5th edition.
2. Robert E. Treybal, Mass Transfer Operations, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 3rd ed. 1981.
4. Binay k. Dutta,Principal of mass transfer and separation Process.