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1. The relationship between the different trophic levels.

The Greek root of the word troph, means food or feeding. Links in food-webs primarily
connect feeding relations or trophism among species. Biodiversity within ecosystems can
be organized into vertical and horizontal dimensions. The vertical dimension represents
feeding relations that become further removed from the base of the food chain up toward
top predators. The horizontal dimension represents the abundance or biomass at each
level. When the relative abundance or biomass of each functional feeding group is
stacked into their respective trophic levels they naturally sort into a ‘pyramid of
numbers’. Functional groups are broadly categorized as autotrophs (or primary
producers), heterotrophs (or consumers), and detrivores (or decomposers). Heterotrophs
can be further sub-divided into different functional groups, including: primary consumers
(strict herbivores), secondary consumers (predators that feed exclusively on herbivores)
and tertiary consumers (predators that feed on a mix of herbivores and predators).
Omnivores do not fit neatly into a functional category because they eat both plant and
animal tissues. It has been suggested, however, that omnivores have a greater functional
influence as predators because relative to herbivores they are comparatively inefficient at
The emergent pyramidal arrangement of trophic levels with amounts of energy
transfer decreasing as species become further removed from the source of production is
one of several patterns that is repeated amongst the planets ecosystems. The size of each
level in the pyramid generally represents biomass, which can be measured as the dry
weight of an organism. Autotrophs may have the highest global proportion of biomass,
but they are closely rivaled or surpassed by microbes.
Functional trophic groups sort out hierarchically into pyramidic trophic levels
because it requires specialized adaptations to become a photosynthesizer or a predator, so
few organisms have the adaptations needed to combine both abilities. This explains why
functional adaptations to trophism (feeding) organizes different species into emergent
functional groups. Trophic levels are part of the holistic or complex systems view of
ecosystems. Each trophic level contains unrelated species that grouped together because
they share common ecological functions. Grouping functionally similar species into a
trophic system gives a macroscopic image of the larger functional design.
Links in a food-web illustrate direct trophic relations among species, but there are
also indirect effects that can alter the abundance, distribution, or biomass in the trophic
levels. For example, predators eating herbivores indirectly influence the control and
regulation of primary production in plants. Although the predators do not eat the plants
directly, they regulate the population of herbibores that are directly linked to plant
trophism. The net effect of direct and indirect relations is called trophic cascades. Trophic
cascades are separated into species-level cascades, where only a subset of the food-web
dynamic is impacted by a change in population numbers, and community-level cascades,
where a change in population numbers has a dramatic effect on the entire food-web, such
as the distribution of plant biomass.
The factors that limit the number of trophic level.
A keystone species is a species that is disproportionately connected to more species in the
food-web. Keystone species have lower levels of biomass in the trophic pyramid relative
to the importance of their role. The many connections that a keystone species holds
means that it maintains the organization and structure of entire communities. The loss of
a keystone species results in a range of dramatic cascading effects that alters trophic
dynamics, other food-web connections and can cause the extinction of other species in
the community.
Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are commonly cited as an example of a keystone
species because they limit the density of sea urchins that feed on kelp. If sea otters are
removed from the system, the urchins graze until the kelp beds disappear and this has a
dramatic effect on community structure. Hunting of sea otters, for example, is thought to
have indirectly led to the extinction of the Steller's Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas).
While the keystone species concept has been used extensively as a conservation tool, it
has been criticized for being poorly defined from an operational stance. It is very difficult
to experimentally determine in each different ecosystem what species may hold a
keystone role. Furthermore, food-web theory suggests that keystone species may not be
all that common. It is therefore unclear how generally the keystone species model can be

2. a. Pheromones : In contrast to hormone, one that constitute internal signal for individual's
ala insect, feromon constitutes chemical material that secreted comes out insect body by
eksocrin's gland so reacts outside body (among individual). Feromon bridges individual
communication in one species. Its utility is medley begins from affinity among genital,
looking for couple, signing danger, marking track and region, and a variety interaction
another intraspecific.

b. Mimicry : is the similarity of one species to another which protects one or both. This
similarity can be in appearance, behaviour, sound, scent and even location, with the
mimics found in similar places to their models.
c. Stereotyped behavior (instinct) : instinctif's behaviour as one especially available on
insecta and vertebrata contemns comprise of Stereotyped's behaviour thread that marked,
as thread of den makings, sought after food, marriage, spawn, protection to young
creature that constitutes to cycle reproductive on a sort bee or bird.
3. The correlation of morphological, physiological and behavior adaptation
A biological adaptation is any structural (morphological or anatomical), physiological, or
behavioral characteristics of an organism or group of organisms (such as species) that
make it better suited in its environment and consequently improves its chances of
survival and reproductive success. Due to individual phenotypic plasticity (variability),
individuals will be more or less successful. Some adaptations may improve reproductive
success of the population, but not a particular individual, such as seen in altruistic
behavior in social insects.
Organisms that are adapted to their environment are able to :
• secure food, water, and nutrients
• obtain air, warmth, and spaces
• cope with physical conditions such as temperature, light, and heat
• defend themselves from their natural enemies
• reproduce and rear offspring
• respond to changes around them
Adaptation occurs in response to changes in the environment, life style, or
relationship to other organisms. Environmental dynamicity, voluntary or compelled
shifting of habitat, and human activities may put organisms in a new niche or in
environmental stresses or pressures. In such circumstances, the organisms require
characteristics suitable to the new situation. Organisms that are not suitably adapted to
their environment will either have to move out of the habitat or die out. The term die out
in the context of adaptation means that the death rate over the entire population of the
species exceeds the birth rate for a long enough period for the species to disappear.
While adaptations provide for the individual purpose of the organism—survival,
reproduction, development, maintenance—these same characteristics provide diversity
and add to human fascination with, and enjoyment of, nature. Furthermore, while
adaptations often are seen as a static set of suitable characteristics, in reality the process
of developing adaptations is a dynamic process. Whether envisioned as the product of
design or natural selection, or natural selection on the microevolutionary level and design
for macroevolutionary changes, the reality is that new adaptations are needed when
organisms encounter new environments, and such have arisen for millions of years.
In some extreme conditions, it is possible for the previous adaptation to be poorly
selected, the advantage it confers over generations decreasing, up to and including the
adaptation becoming a hindrance to the species' long–term survival. This is known as
There is a great difference between adaptation and acclimation or acclimatization.
The process of developing adaptations occurs over many generations; it is a population
phenomenon involving genetics and is generally a slow process. Acclimation or
acclimatization, on the other hand, generally occurs within a single lifetime or instantly
and deals with issues that are less threatening. For example, if a human being were to
move to a higher altitude, respiration and physical exertion will become a problem.
However, after spending a period of time under the high altitude conditions, one may
acclimatize to the reduced pressure, the person's physiology may function normally, and
the change will no longer be noticed.
4. a. - batesian mimicry : In Batesian mimicry the mimic shares signals similar to the model,
but does not have the attribute that makes it unprofitable to predators (e.g.
unpalatability). In other words, a Batesian mimic is a sheep in wolf's clothing.
Mimics are less likely to be found out when in low proportion to their model, a
phenomenon known as negative frequency dependent selection which applies in most
other forms of mimicry as well. This is not the case in Müllerian mimicry however,
which is described next. Examples, Lepidoptera : The Ash Borer (Podosesia
syringae), a moth of the Clearwing family (Sesiidae), is a Batesian mimic of the
Common wasp because it resembles the wasp, but is not capable of stinging. A
predator that has learned to avoid the wasp would similarly avoid the Ash Borer.
- Mullerian mimicry : describes a situation where two or more species have very
similar warning or aposematic signals and both share genuine anti-predation attributes
(e.g. being unpalatable). At first Bates could not explain why this should be so; if
both were harmful why did one need to mimic another? The German naturalist Fritz
Müller put forward the first explanation for this phenomenon: If two species were
confused with one another by a common predator, individuals in both would be more
likely to survive. The signal receiver is also advantaged by this system, despite being
deceived regarding species identity, as it avoids potentially harmful encounters. The
usually clear identity of mimic and model are also blurred. In cases where one species
is scarce and another abundant, the rare species can be said to be the mimic. When
both are present in similar numbers however it is more realistic to speak of each as
comimics than of a distinct 'mimic' and 'model' species, as their warning signals tend
to converge toward something intermediate between the two.
b. – hibernation : Hibernation is a state of inactivity and metabolic depression in
animals, characterized by lower body temperature, slower breathing, and lower
metabolic rate. Hibernating animals conserve food, especially during winter when
food is short, tapping energy reserves, body fat, at a slow rate. It is the animal's
slowed metabolic rate which leads to a reduction in body temperature and not the
other way around.
- dormantion : constitutes one of being effort for that survive can at its environment
that don't cozy, well most predicts and also not. for example it is on artemia, its egg
can withstand for many years in salt coat at dry lakes at desert. if rain gets in,
therefore lake will fill water and even egg will hatch. artemia quick grows get mature
and result egg.

5. a. Energy is obtained at each trophic level : flow from low energy to high energy to each
food chain.
b. The efficiency of energy transfer between thropic levels : the primary producen is
very important because it result the primary food to another thropical level. The
efficiency energy from thropical level can stabilized the comunitas that compose the
c. Effects toxin on food web is influence the thread of food web that is the highest
thropical level can’t survive because its main food destroy.
6. Correlation between ecology, physiology and morphology in biology
- Ecology is knowledge that studied how to organism are made
- Physiology is knowledge that studied how their function
- Morphology is knowledge that studied how their live