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10/12/2018

Electrics/
Criterium Hydraulics Pneumatis Mechanics
electronics
Shafts,
Oil (liquids in linkages,
Energy carrier Air Electrons
general) belts, chains,
wheels etc.
Energy Pipes, hoses, Electrically Shafts, belts,
Pipes, hoses,
transmission tubes, conductive linkages, belts,
tubes, bores
bores Material chains
Generators,
Conversion Pumps, Compressors, batteries,
from or into cylinders, cylinders, Electric motors,
mechanical Hydraulic pneumatic (PN) magnets,
energy motors motors solenoids,
Linear motors
Most
Pressure p Pressure p voltage u Force, torque,
important
(30. 400 bar), (approx. 6 bar), electric current velocity,
Charact.
flow Q flow Q I rotational speed

Electrics/
Criterium Hydraulics Pneumatics Mechanics
electronics
Power Excellent
Good Fair to good Good
efficiency
Excellent due
Accuracy of Excellent Fair to good Differs
to positive
motion (oil can hardly (air is considerably
mechanical
be compressed ) Compressible)
connection
Good
Fair to good Volumetric and Due to there
Good
frictional losses during primary being no
As long as
and secondary energy conversion, energy
Efficiency electricity is
as well as with the open and conversion.
available as
closed-loop control of valves Mechanical
primary energy
frictional
losses
For small powers
Controllability Excellent, Excellent, Fair to good
excellent

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aplikasi

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Ue

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Hydraulics cylinder

Function: Convert Hydraulics Energy (p and Q)


into mechanical energy (linier motion)

Hyd. Cylinder:
Single acting (plunger)

Double acting

Telescopic Two speed

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Pump and motor

design
characteristics

Gear pump and motor Axial piston pump

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Radial piston pump (var. disp) Working principle

Vane pump

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Directional control valve (in general) Graphic symbols and designations


Distinct positions and ports
1. Function The number of ports and the number of distinct, or valve, positions is of
It is the task of directional-control valves to connect various hydraulic lines particular importance with directional-control valves. This information is
to one another, to disconnect them from one another, and to continuously always placed directly in front of the designation. Each valve position is
make a variety of cross-linkage connections between these different represented by a square. Arrows and lines within this square provide the
information concerning the connections between the ports. The complete
hydraulic lines. Using such valves, it is possible to influence the direction of
graphic symbol is comprised of a number of squares joined together in a row.
effect of pressures and volumetric flows, and therefore to control the
consumers (cylinders or hydraulic motors) as regards Start, Stop and
Direction of Motion.

Types of design

Internal sealing
Poppet-type valves Sliding-spool type

Rotary-spool-type valves

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Pilot-operated directional-control valves

Directional-control valves
for sub-plate connection

Directly operated
directional-control
valves

valve banks
1. General
For certain applications, mainly in the field of automotive
hydraulics, in which more than two functions are to be controlled,
special directional-control valves are available which have been
blocked together to form valve banks. As regards their size and port
dimensions, they are not subject

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Pressure-control valves 1.2 Directly-operated pressure-relief valves

1. Pressure-relief valve
1.1 Function 1.2.1 Basic principles
The most important task of this valve is to limit the pressure in a system and thus
protect the individual components and lines from overload and the danger of
bursting. This valve is also termed a maximum-pressure valve or safety valve
due to its function. Limitation takes place by the closed valve opening when the
specified pressure is reached and diverting the surplus delivery flow from the
1.2.2 Graphic symbols
pump into the tank. When used in this manner, the pressure-relief valve is fitted
in the bypass.

1.2.3 Poppet-type and


spool-type valves

1.3 Pilot operated pressure-relief valve

2. Pressure-reducing valve
Function and graphical symbol
1.3.4 Unloading function
It is the task of the pressure-relief valve to limit the pressure in the complete
system to a given level. The task of the presure-reducing valve, on the other hand,
is to reduce the pressure in a particular branch of the circuit to that required by a
special load or consumer. When the input pressure exceeds the selected pressure,
the valve continuously closes a connection which initially is fully open.

2. Pressure-reducing valve

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2.2 Directly-operated 2.4.3-way pressure-reducing valve


pressure-reducing
valve

2.3 Pilot-operated
pressure-reducing valve

Sequence valve
3. Sequence valve with 4. Sequence valve with with external input, Sequence valve with external
internal signal input signal input, pilot-operated
external signal input directly-operated

Over centre valve


(with variable counterbalance pressure)
Charge valves
Unloading valve
for accumulators

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Pilot-operate pressure-relief valve NG 8

Pressure-relief valve with


by-pass check valve

Sequence valve and


unloading valve with
special pilot stage

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Flow-control valves Throttle valves

Design of throttles and throttles with reverse


free flow
2-way flow-control valve

Digital flow-control valves

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Check valves
Applications for check valves
Function, design, graphic symbols
It is the job of check valves to block to block the flow in a given direction, but to
permit unrestricted flow in the opposite direction. For this reason, they are also
known as non-return valves. The flow block must be absolutely free from leaks,
and for this reason these valves are always of the poppet-type construction.

Pilot-operated check valves

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Basic circuit diagram


Pressure limitation

Pressure circulation

Variable capacitive pump with pressure compensator

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Application to directional control valve

Speed control application Meter in meter out

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Differential circuit Locking circuit

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Varying direction of loading

Parallel and in line circuit

Pressure dependent sequent circuit


Sequent circuit

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Pressure reduction
Closed circuit

Application

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Control with 2_way catridge

Element:
Manifold block
Cartridge
Cover plates
pilot valves

Cartridge valve and their variant

Poppet type Spool type


Poppet type Poppet type
Area ratio 1:1.6 Area ratio 1:1 Area ratio 1:1
Area ratio 1:1.6

Pilot valve
Cover plate

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Directional control valve with cartridge 1:1

Directional control function

Directional control valve with a number of


ports

Influencing the switching time

When opening When closing

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Defining the flow direction

The switching operation the opening pressure

Pressure control

Leakage in spring chamber Pressure peak

Check valve

Sequence valve Simple check valve

Pilot operated

equivalent

equivalent

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Hydraulic accumulator applications


Accumulators
Function
Hydraulic accumulators can be used in a variety of different applications:
•Energy storage for economizing on pump drive power in installations which are
operated intermittently.
•Emergency power source, e.g. in case of pump break-down.
•Compensation for leakage losses.
•Damping of shocks and vibration when they are of periodic nature.