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FCS Predictive Control in d – q

Reference Frame

In essence, the core technique used in the design of PID controllers is to assign the actual closed-loop
poles to some desired locations specifed by the user (see Chapters 3–5). With the PID controllers, the
implementation of the control system is achieved using the PWM technologies to control the semiconductor switches of a voltage
source inverter (VSI), where approximation of the three phase voltage control
signals took place (see Chapter 2). This chapter departs from the approaches used in the traditional PID control system design
and implementation by directly optimizing the inverter states. As a result, the PWM is not required in the implementation of the
control systems, which simplifes the implementation procedure. Since for a two level
VSI, there are eight combinations of inverter states, the terminology of fnite control set (FCS) is given.
Furthermore, the optimization of the inverter states is performed using the receding horizon control principle, which is the core of
model predictive control. By combining the fnite control set with model
predictive control technology, FCS-MPC is termed. The original FCS-MPC did not have integral action,
and relied on high gain feedback control to reduce the steady-state errors, resulting in performance losses
at its steady-state operation. How to add integrator to this class of control system is not obvious because
the original control problem is solved via numerical optimization. A reverse engineering practice takes
place in this chapter. Starting from the numerical optimization, it is shown in this chapter that, without
constraints, the original FCS-MPC system is a deadbeat feedback control system with a time-varying
feedback control gain where the discrete-time closed-loop poles are at the origin of the complex plane.
Subsequently, an integral controller is added to the original FCS-model predictive controller via a cascade control structure in
which the characteristics of the deadbeat control system are considered. In the
presence of the inverter states constraints, the original objective function is shown to be equivalent to an
objective function expressed in terms of the differences between the optimal inverter state calculated from
using the deadbeat controller and the candidate inverter states. This new FCS-MPC contains an integrator
to overcome steady-state errors, which is called an I-FCS model predictive controller (I-FCS-MPC). A
key outcome of the proposed approach is that the new objective function has an explicit relationship with
the sampling interval Δt, which acts as a weight coeffcient towards the squared errors. This naturally
puts the sampling interval Δt as the parameter for determining the desired closed-loop performance.
Not only does it simplify the design, but also this performance parameter is similar to other classical
control strategies (such as hysteresis used control) in electrical drives and power converters, where their
minimum sampling frequency is restricted.
PID and Predictive Control of Electrical Drives and Power Converters using MATLAB®/Simulink® , First Edition.
Liuping Wang, Shan Chai, Dae Yoo, Lu Gan and Ki Ng.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte Ltd. Published 2015 by John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte Ltd.
Companion Website:
172 PID and Predictive Control of Electrical Drives and Power Converters using MATLAB®/Simulink®
The remainder of this chapter is outlined as follows. In Section 6.1, the states of IGBT inverter are discussed in relation to its
operational constraints, leading to the candidate variables for the control signals.
The next six sections will use the current control of a PMSM as an example to illustrate the FCS-MPC
algorithm and its modifed version (I-FCS-MPC) that has embedded integrators in the control system. In
Section 6.2, the original FCS-MPC algorithm is used to control a PMSM, followed by a MATLAB tutorial
on real-time implementation of FCS-MPC (see Section 6.3). This FCS-MPC method is analyzed to yield
the feedback control gain and the closed-loop system eigenvalues, showing that they are at the origin of
the complex plane. Since the original FCS-MPC algorithm did not have integral action, which is required
to overcome steady-state errors and protect against performance uncertainty, a modifed I-FCS-MPC is
proposed in a framework of cascade feedback control (see Section 6.5). Furthermore, for convenience of
digital implementation, in Section 6.6 the I-FCS-MPC algorithm is derived using the principle of receding horizon to take
advantages of the incremental variables. MATLAB tutorial is given in Section 6.7 for
real-time implementation of the I-FCS-MPC algorithm. In Sections 6.8–6.9, this I-FCS-MPC is applied
to the current control of an induction motor and a power converter with experimental validations. Robustness of the closed-loop
system performance for the original FCS-MPC and the modifed I-FCS-MPC is
compared by using Monte-Carlo simulations with random parameter variations (see Section 6.10). The
fnal two sections of this chapter are devoted to design and implementation of velocity and position control of a PMSM and an
induction motor via the cascade feedback control structures (see Sections 6.11
and 6.12)