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Stage Age Characteristics Goal

Motor activity without use of symbols. All

Birth to 18–24 Object
Sensorimotor things learned are based on experiences, or
months old permanence
trial and error.

Development of language, memory, and

Preoperational 2 to 7 years old imagination. Intelligence is both egocentric
and intuitive.

More logical and methodical manipulation of

Concrete Operational
7 to 11 years old symbols. Less egocentric, and more aware of
operational thought
the outside world and events.

Use of symbols to relate to abstract concepts.

Formal Adolescence to Abstract
Able to make hypotheses and grasp abstract
operational adulthood concepts
concepts and relationships.