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conflict with
God's conflict
the dragon dragon
theand and the sea
the sea
Echoes of
Echoes of a Canaanite a Canaanite
myth in the myth in the
Old Testament Old Testament

Fellow and Tutor of Lady Fellow
and Lady Margaret
ofLecturer in Hall and Lecturer in
Old Testament
Old Testament in the University of Oxfordin the University of Oxford

The right of the

— Vÿ
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University of Cambridge University of Cambridge
to print and sell to print and tell
manner of books ail manner of books
granted by was granted by
Henry VIII in Henry VIII in 1334.
The University has printed The University has printed
and published continuously and published continuously
since since 1384.


A r\ /ÿN
published for the
University of Cambridge Oriental of Cambridge Oriental Publications
published for the
Faculty of Oriental StudiesFaculty of Oriental Studies
list 232 for the complete
See page
See page 232 for the complete list

Published by the Press Syndicate of by
the the Press Syndicate
University of the University of Cambridge
of Cambridge
The Pitt Building, The Pitt Building,
Street, Cambridge CB2 Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP
32 EastN 57th
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U SNew
Y 10022,
Preface Preface ix
10 Stamford
10 Stamford Road, Oakleigh, Melbourne Road,
3166, AustraliaMelbourne 3166, Australia
Abbreviations Abbreviations x

© © University
University of Cambridge, Faculty of of Cambridge,
Oriental 1985 of Oriental Studies 1985
1 Creation
1 Creation and the divine conflict and
thedivine conflict with the dragon
First published 1985 First published 1985 and the sea and the sea 1
Reprinted 1988 Reprinted 1988
The problem
The problem of the connection of the
of the connection
creation of the
with the sea creation with the se
Printed in Great Britain atPrinted in Great Press,
the University at the University Press, Cambridge
BritainCambridge and
and dragon conflict in thedragon conflict
light of in the lightinof its non-mention i
its non-mention
the Ugaritic texts the Ugaritic texts 7
Library of Congress catalogue ofnumber:
card catalogue card number: 83-21045
The Psalms The Psalms
British Library Cataloguing Library Cataloguing
in Publication Data in Publication Data Sitz Sitz im Leben
Leben of the Chaoskampf of the Chaoskampf motif
Day, John, 1948- Day, John, 1948- Psalm 74:12-17 Psalm 74:12-17 21
God's conflict with the dragon conflict with the dragon and the sea :
the sea: Psalm Psalm 89: 10-15 (ET 9-14)
9-14) 25
echoes of a Canaanite mythechoes ofOld
in the a Canaanite
Testament. - in the Old Testament. -
myth Psalm 104:1-9 Psalm 104:1-9 28
(University of Cambridge (University
oriental of Cambridgeno. oriental
35) publications; no. 35) Psalm 65: 7-8 (ET 6-7)
Psalm 65: 6-7) 35
1. Myth in the Old Testament
1. Myth in the Old Testament
2. Mythology, Canaanite 2. Mythology, Canaanite Psalm 93 ' Psalm 93 35
I. Title I I . Series I. Title II. Series Psalm 24
Psalm 24 - probable implied - probable
battle with theimplied
sea battle with the
37 sea
221.68 BS1183
The conflict with chaos with
the book of chaos
Job in the book of Job38
ISBN 0 25600 3 ISBN 0 521 25600 3 Chaoskampf
Chaoskampf in the book of Job in the book of Job 38
Job 9:5-14 Job 9:5-14 39
Job 38:8-11 Job 38:8-11 42
Job 7: 12 43
3:8 Job 3:8 44
Job {ETJob
34)40 :15-41:26 (ET 34) 48
The importance of theThe importance
Chaoskampf of the
motif Chaoskampf motif in49Job
in Job
Yahweh's control of Yahweh's
the cosmiccontrol
watersofas the cosmic
simply a j owaters
b of as simply a job of
work work 49
ST ST Genesis 1:2, 6-10 Genesis 1:2, 6-10 49

Contents vii Conten
vi Contents vi Contents
The chaoticfor
54 The chaotic sea as a designation as a designation for Babylon
seaBabylon 104
Excursus on Genesis Excursus on Genesis 1:26 54
56 15Habakkuk 3:8-10, 15 104
Psalm 33:7-8 Psalm 33:7-8 56
24, 27-9 56 The dragon as a designation
The dragon as a designation for Babylon109
for Babylon
Proverbs 8:24, 27-9 Proverbs 8 : 56
57 Jeremiah 51:34 Jeremiah 51 :34
Jeremiah 5:22b Jeremiah 5:22b 57 57 The great fish in theThe
Jeremiah Jeremiah 31 :35 57 book fish
of Jonah:
great in the
not book
a of
symbol Jonah:
for not a symbol f

as a feature of his present Babylon Babylon

Yahweh's victory over the
Yahweh's victory over the sea as a feature of sea
his present
57 The dragon as an uncertain
lordship over creationlordship over creation 57 The dragon as an
political uncertain political enemy
57 Isaiah 27:1 Isaiah 27:1 112
Psalm 29 Psalm 29 57 60 Psalm (ET Psalm 44: 19-20 (ET 18-19)
Nahum 1 :4
60 61
Summary Bashan:
not a name for not a name
the mythical for the mythical sea serpent
sea serpent
Summary 61
62 Psalm (ET22) Psalm 68:23 (ET22) 113
2 The alleged naturalization
2 The alleged naturalization
of Leviathan of Leviathan and62Behemoth
and Behemoth
in beast
62 The beast of the reedsThe Ps. of the (ET 29) in
reeds (ET 29) - probably n
Ps. 68:30not
- probably
Leviathan Leviathan 62 a chaos monster a chaos monster
Job (ETJob 40:25-41 :26 (ET 41 :1-34) 62
72The cosmic waters as Thethe cosmic
nations waters as the nations in general
in general 120
Psalm 104:24-6 Psalm 104:24-6 72
75 Psalm Psalm
2-3) 46:3-6 (ET 2-3) 120
Behemoth Behemoth 75
75 Psalm 18:5-18 (ET 4-17), Psalm144:5-7
18:5-18 (ET 4-17), 144:5-7 122
Job 40: 15-24 75
The origin
84The origin of the ' conflict of the ' conflict
with the motifwith the nations
125' motif
Excursus: M . theory
Excursus: ofWakeman's
M. K. an earth monster earth monster
theory of an 84
86Summary Summary 139
Summary Summary 86
4 The
4 The eschatologization eschatologization
of the divine conflict of thethe
with divine conflict with the drag
3 The historicization 3ofThe
the divine of thethedivine
conflict with
historicization dragon and with the dragon and
and the sea and the sea
the sea and the originthe of sea
the and the
' conflict origin
with of
the the 'conflict with the nations'
motif 88
88The dragon-conflict inThe dragon-conflict
Isaiah in Isaiah
and related 27 :1 and
material in related material
the ' Isaiah the 'Isaiah Apocalypse' 142
The historicization of
The divine conflictofwith
thehistoricization divine
the the conflict with the dragon
88 Isaiah 27:1 Isaiah 27:1 142
and the sea and the sea 88 relatedinmythological
Other related mythological Isaiah 24-7 motifs in Isaiah 145 24-7
The dragon as a designation
The dragon as a designation for Egypt 88
for Egypt
89The exaltation of the The
one exaltation
like a son of the one
of man overlike
thea son of man over the
Isaiah 30:7 Isaiah 30:7 89
90 dragons in Daniel 7 dragons in Daniel 7 151
Psalm 87:4 Psalm 87:4 90
91 The four beasts from theThesea
four beastsfrom the sea 151
Isaiah Isaiah 51 :9-11 91 The
93 The origin of the figure theafigure
the oneoflike
of origin son ofofmanthe one like a son of man
Ezekiel 29:3-5, 32:2-8Ezekiel 29:3-5, 32:2-8 93 The as
96 The one like a son of man like
onethe of man as the angel Michael
a sonMichael
The Chaoskampfmythos and the Exodusfrom Egypt
The and the Exodus from Egypt 96 96
17-21 (ET 16-20) Summary Summary 177
Psalm (ET Psalm 77: 96 97
Isaiah Isaiah 51:9-11 97
97 Summary and conclusions
Summary and conclusions 179
Exodus 15 :1-18
as a designation for Assyria
101 Some concluding reflections
Some concluding reflections 187
The chaoticfor
The chaotic sea as a designation seaAssyria 101 101
Isaiah 17:12-14 Isaiah 17:12-14 101 103
Bibliography Bibliography 190
Isaiah 8:5-8 Isaiah 8:5-8 103
viii Contents viii Contents
214 214P R E F A C E PREFACE
Indexes Indexes
Index of passages cited
Index of passages cited
214 214
A Old Testament A Old Testament
221 221
B Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
B Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
C New Testament C New Testament
221 221
221 221
D texts D Ugaritic texts
224 224
Index of Authors Index of Authors
229 229
General Index General Index

The present monograph present monograph

The represents a thoroughrepresents
revision of part of a revision of
a thorough
dissertation accepteddissertation
for the degree accepted
of Ph.Dfor bythe the
degree of Ph.D
University of by the Univ
Cambridge in 1977. Cambridge
The research in was The research
1977.supervised was supervised
by Prof. J. A. by Pr
Emerton and the examiners
Emerton andDr
were the(now
Prof.) were J. Dr (now Prof.)
and K. J. Cath
Dr (now Prof.) B. Lindars.
Dr (now Prof.) B. Lindars.
It is impossible
It is impossible to acknowledge acknowledge
fullytothe debt whichfully I owe thetodebt which
Prof. Emerton. I amProf. grateful I
mostEmerton. toam himmostfor grateful
all the helpto himandfor all the
encouragement he has given me both
encouragement he haswhen givenI wasme aboth when I was a
student and subsequently. subsequently.
addition to Prof. In addition
Emerton I am Prof. Emerton I
to also
indebted to Prof. D . indebted
Pardee and to Prof.
the Rev.D. Pardee and the
B. A. Mastin forRev.
B. A. Mastin fo
earlier drafts of thisearlier
work, drafts
all of of this work,
whom have madeall of suggestions
whom have made su
which considerably improved it.
which considerably improved it.
I must also acknowledgeImust myalso acknowledge
indebtedness indebtedness
to the Heb-to the Kennic
rew Fund at Oxford rew and Fund at Oxford andFund
the Bethune-Baker the Bethune-Baker
at Cambridge, Fund at Ca
both of which
both of which made generous grantsmade generous
towards the cost towards the cost of p
of publishing
this work. Finally, I am work. Finally,
thisgrateful Iam grateful
to Dr Gordon Johnson to Dr accept- Johnson fo
for Gordon
ing it for publication ing it for
in the publication
Oriental in the Oriental
Publications Series. Publications Series.

Lady Hall, Lady

OxfordMargaret Hall, Oxford JOHN D A Y JO
January, 1984 January, 1984
Abbreviations xi Abbreviatio

ABBREVIATIO NS IDBS The Interpreter's Dictionary the
The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible of
Supplementary Bible Supp
Volume (Nashville, Ten.,Volume (Nashville, Ten., 1976)
Israel Exploration Israel Exploration Journal
JAOS Journal ofJthe
AOS American Journal
Oriental of Society
the American Oriental Society
JBL Journal ofJBL
Biblical Journal
Literature of Biblical Literature
Journal ofJCS Journal of Cuneiform Studies
Cuneiform Studies
JEA Journal ofJEA
Egyptian Journal of Egyptian Archaeology
Journal ofJJS
Jewish StudiesJournal of Jewish Studies
JNES Journal ofJNES
Near Eastern Journal
Studies of Near Eastern Studies
Journal ofJPOS
the Palestine Journal
Oriental ofSociety
the Palestine Oriental Society
Jewish Quarterly ReviewJewish
Quarterly Review
Af Archiv
O fur Orientforschung JRAS Journal ofJRAS Journal
the Royal Asiatic of Royal Asiatic Society
American AJSL American
Journal of Semitic Journal
Languages of Semitic
and Languages and Literatures
Literatures SOT JSOT
Journal for the Study ofJournal
the Oldfor the Study of the Old Testament
J.B. Pritchard
ANEP (ed.), TheJ.B. Pritchard
Ancient Near (ed.),
East The
in Ancient
Pictures Near East in Pictures Relat-
Relat- Journal ofJSS Journal of Semitic Studies
Semitic Studies
ing to the Old Testament ing (2nd withTestament
ed. Old
to the suppl., Princeton, with suppl., Princeton, N.J.,
(2nd ed. N.J., Journal ofJTS
Theological Journal
Studies of Theological Studies
1969) 1969) JThC Journal ofJThC
Theology Journal of Theology and the Church
the Church
NearPritchard, AncientRelating to the Texts
Near Eastern Relating to the KAI
J.B. Pritchard, Eastern Texts H. Donner H. Donner
and W. Rollig, and W. und
Kanaandische Rollig, Kanaanaische und ara
Old Testament (3rd ed. Old withTestament
suppl., Princeton, with suppl., Princeton, N.J., 1969)
(3rd ed. N.J., Inschriften (3 vols., Wiesbaden, 1962-4)
(3 vols., Wiesbaden,
Alter Orient und Alter Orient
Testament und Altes Testament KB L. KoehlerKBand W. L. Koehler (edd.), and W.Lexicon
Baumgartner (edd.), Lexicon in
in Veteris
Annual ofAST I
the Swedish Theological Swedish Theological Institute
Annual of theInstitute Testament
Testamenti Libros (Leiden, 1958) iLibros ( Leiden, 1958)
BA BA Archaeologist
The Biblical The Biblical Archaeologist Ken Ken
B. Kennicott B. Kennicott
BASOR Schools of
the American Bulletin
Bulletin ofBASOR ofthe American
Oriental Schools of Oriental Research
Research KTU KTU
M. Dietrich, O. Loretz,M.J. Dietrich,
Loretz, J. Sanmartin, Die keilalphab
BDB F. Brown,BDB S.R. DriverF.and C.A.S.R.
Brown, Driver
Briggs, and C.A.
A Hebrew andBriggs, A Hebrew Texte aus Ugarit. Texte aus Ugarit. Teil I:24,
1: Transkription Transkription
Neukir- (AOAT 24,
Testament (Oxford, 1907)
English Lexicon of the Old English Lexicon
Testament of the Old
(Oxford, 1907) chen, 1976) chen, 1976)
BH3 R. R. Kittel
BH3 Biblia Hebraica
(ed.), (3rd ed.)Biblia Hebraica (3rd ed.)
(ed.), LXX LXX
The Septuagint The Septuagint
BHS BHSBiblia Hebraica
R. Kittel (ed.) (ed.) Biblia Hebraica Stutlgartensia
R. KittelStuttgartensia LXXB codex Vaticanus
The Septuagint, The Septuagint, codex Vaticanus
Bulletin ofBJRL
the John RylandsBulletin of the John Rylands Library
Library MS(S) MS(S) Manuscript(s)
BZ Biblische BZZeitschrift Biblische Zeitschrift MT Massoretic MTtext Massoretic text
BZA W BZAW Beihefte zur Zeitschrift f ur die alttestamentliche W issenschaftNAB
Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fur die Wissenschaft New AmericanNAB Bible New American Bible
Catholic Biblical Catholic Biblical
Quarterly NEB New English NEBBible New English Bible
A. Herdner, A A. Herdner,
des tablettes en Corpus
des tablettes en cuneiformes alphabetiques
nF neue nF neue Folge
(2 vols., Paris, 1963) (2 vols., Paris, 1963) n.s. New seriesn.s. New series
ed. ed.
edition, editor edition, editor NTS NTS Studies New Testament Studies
New Testament
edd. edd.
editors, editions editors, editions NTT NTT Tidsskrift
Norsk Teologisk Norsk Teologisk Tidsskrift
Eph. Eph. Theol. Old Old Latin0 Codex
Old Latin version, Old Latin version,
Parisinus Codex
Latinus, Parisinus Latinus, bibli
Lovan. Theologicae Ephemerides
Ephemerides Lovan.
Theologicae Lovanienses nationalis nationalis 11947
English translation English translation OT OT
Old Testament Old Testament
EQ EvangelicalEQ Quarterly Evangelical Quarterly PEQ PEQ
Palestine Exploration Palestine Exploration Quarterly
Exp. Times Expository Exp. Times Expository Times
PG PGPatrologia, J.Series
Migne's P. Migne's
GraecaPatrologia, Series Graeca
GK A.E. Cowley, Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar as edited and
PL PLPatrologia, J.Series
Migne's P. Migne's
LatinaPatrologia, Series Latina
GK A.E. Cowley, Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar as edited and
enlarged by the late E. Kautzsch (2nd ed., Oxford, 1910) Praep.
enlarged by the late E. Kautzsch (2nd ed., Oxford, 1910)
Ev. Eusebius' Praep. Ev. Eusebius'
Praeparatio Evangelica Praeparatio Evangelica
Hebrew Union Hebrew Union College Annual
College Annual
PRU Le Palais PRO
Royal Le Palais Royal d'Vgarit
The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible (4 vols., Nashville,
Thanksgiving Qumran
Hymns Thanksgiving Hymns
The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible (4 vols., Nashville,
Ten. and New York, 1962)
Ten. and New York, 1962) lQIs" Scroll aQumran Isaiah Scroll a
RB Revue RB Revue Biblique
xii Abbreviations xii Abbreviations

Ras RS
RHPR et de et de Philosophie Religieuses
Revue d'Histoire
Ras Shamra
1 1
RSV Revised Standard
RSV Revised Standard Version
Revised Version
RV Revised Version the divineand
Creation and Creation the divine conflict
SJT Scottish Journal Scottish Journal of Theology
SJT of Theology
SVT Supplements
SVTto Vetus Supplements to Vetus Testamentum
with the dragon thethe
sea and the sea
TGUOS Transactions of the Glasgow Universityof the
Transactions Glasgow
Oriental University Oriental Society
UF Ugarit-Forschungen
UT C.H. Gordon,
UT Ugaritic C.H.
Textbook (Rome,
Gordon, 1965) Textbook (Rome, 1965)
VT Vetus Testamentum
WZKM fur die
Wiener Zeitschrift Kunde des Zeitschriftfur die Kunde des Morgenlandes
ZA Zeitschrift ZA
fur Zeitschrift fur
Assyriologie Assyriologie The subject of this The subject of
monograph is this monograph
the divine the divine
conflictis with the conflict w
fur Wdie
Zeitschrift ZA Zeitschriftfur die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft dragon and the sea in dragonthe Old the sea in Ithe
andTestament. Oldreceived
t first Testament. a thor-It first received
ZDMG der deutschen Zeitschrift der deutschen
Zeitschrift ZDMG morgeniandischen Gesellschaft
Theologie und Kirche
ough consideration in ough 1895 consideration
with the publicationin 1895 with of Hthe publication of H. G
. Gunkel's
ZThK fur Theologie Zeitschrift
Zeitschrift ZThK und Kirche fur book Schbpfung und Chaos
book Schopfungin Urzeit und und Endzeit.
Chaos inHowever,
Urzeit and in Endzeit.
spite However
of the fact that a fairofamount
the fact has thatbeena fair written
amount on has
this been
over on this to
the years, there are still
the many years, disputed
there arepoints of interpretation,
still many disputed points so of interpret
that a reconsiderationthat of the material is clearly
a reconsideration desirable.
of the material is clearly desirable.
In this first chapter In this first
I shall chapter
consider the I shall consider
question the question of th
of the divine
conflict with the dragon and withthe seathe indragon
relationandtothethesea in relation
creation of to the cre
the world. It will first
the be It will that
world. first bethereestablished
are passages that inthere are pas
which a causal relationwhich exists between
a causal this divine
relation exists conflict
betweenand thisthedivine conflict
creation, and that thecreation,
imageryand of thethatconflict is Canaanite
the imagery and notis Canaanite
of the conflict
Babylonian in origin.Babylonian
Then I shallindiscuss origin. the Then problem
Ishall whydiscusstheretheisproblem why
this connection betweenthis the conflict between
connection and creation, when this
the conflict andseems
creation, when th
not to be the case not in the to Ugaritic
be the case Baal-Yam conflict, which
in the Ugaritic Baal-Yam is conflict, w
generally thought to generally
underlie the Old Testament allusions. I
thought to underlie the Old Testament allusions shall
also deal with the question
also deal of with
the Sitz Leben of
the question of the
the motif
Sitz iminLeben
the of the mo
Autumn Festival. The largest part of the chapter,
Autumn Festival. The largest part of the chapter, however, will be however
given over to a detailed consideration of the individual
given over to a detailed consideration of the individual p passages:
first in the Psalms first
(Ps. 74:12-17,
in the Psalms 89:10-15, ET 9-14, 89:10-15,
(Ps. 74:12-17, 104:1-9, ET 9-14,
65:7-8, ET 6-7, 93, 65:7-8,
and, in ET addition, 24), then in Job (26:5-14,
6-7, 93, and, in addition, 24), then in Job (
9:5-14, 38:8-11, 7:12, 9:5-14, 3:8), 38:8-11,
and finally, 7:12, those
and finally,in whichthose passages i
God's control of the God's
waterscontrol has been of the waters has beenthat
demythologized so it is
demythologized so t
simply a job of work simply
(Gen. 1:2, 6-10, with an excursus
a job of work (Gen. 1 :2, 6-10, with an on Ps.excursus on 1
33:7-8; Prov. 8:24, 27-9;
33:7-8; Jer.Prov.
5:22b, 31:35).
8:24, 27-9; AtJer.
very end thereAt the very e
is a discussion of Ps. is
29aand Nah. where Yahweh's
discussion of Ps. 29 and Nah. 1:4, where victory over Yahweh's vict
the sea is a feature of the
his seapresent lordship over the Creation.
is a feature of his present lordship over the Creation
As was indicated above, As was the indicated above, theofeffective
effective beginning the study beginning
of of the
the theme which is the thesubject
theme of which
this is the subjectcame
monograph of this monograph
about with came ab
the publication of the thebook publication
by H . Gunkelof the book entitledby H. Gunkelund entitled Schop
2 God's conflict with
2 theGod's conflict
dragon the drayon
and the and the sea Creation
Creation and the divine conflictand the
3 divine con

Chaos in undChaosEndzeit (Gottingen,

in Urzeit and Endzeit
1895). The American1895). The Americanthat the two were causally
(Gottingen, that theconnected.two were That causally connected.
Saggs' positionThat is notSaggs* positio
scholar G.A. Barton 1 had writtenBarton1 much more briefly
had written much more two years briefly two years the most natural, the
however, most is natural,
supported however,
by the is
fact supported
that we do by the fact that we
scholar G.A.
earlier on the subject and it has even been suggested that he may
earlier on the subject and 2 it has even been suggested that he may other passages in other
which passages
the creation in which
is (he
associated creation
and causally
is associated and
possibly have been plagiarized by Gunkel, although it is perhaps
more probable that possibly this is yet have been plagiarized
a further example ofbythe Gunkel,3
common although it is perhapsconnected with Yahweh's connectedconflict withwithYahwch's
or control conflict
of thewithprimordial
or control of the pr
experience of two scholars probable that coming
more independently this is yet a further
to similar example of the commonsea, e.g. Ps.
conclu- sea.
Job e.g.38:8-11,Ps. 104:6-9,
Prov. 8:29, Job 38:8 and since elsewhere
1 1, Prov. 8:29, and since e
sions at the same time. experience of two scholars independently coming to
In any case it was Gunkel who first sub- similar conclu- the sea is mentioned the sea
parallel is mentioned
with the dragon,
parallel withwith which
the it is
dragon, with wh
jected the material to a really exhaustive
at the same time. In any case it was Gunkel
He who first sub- closely associated (e.g.closely
Is. associated
51:9-10), we can
(eg, only
Is. conclude
51:9 10), that
we can pass-
only conclude th
recognized the mythical character of the various passages in the whichwith
Old Testament whichjected speak the of a material
conflict between to a really Yahwehexhaustive and the examination.
Heages which refer to ages a conflict referthe to dragon
a conflict in with
the context
the dragon of in the co
character of the various passages in the creation similarly allude
creation to a struggle
similarly at
allude that to time.
a Ps.
struggle 74:12-17
at that time. Ps. 7
sea and a dragon orrecognized the mythical
dragons, variously called Leviathan, Rahab,
etc., and saw these asOld being an Israelite
Testament which speak of a conflict
appropriation of the Baby- between Yahwch and theand 89:10-15 5
(ET 9-14), for example,
and 89:10-15 (ET certainly
9-14), forfall into this
example, cate-
certainly fall into th
lonian myth of Marduk'sand
sea victory over at the
a dragon or dragons, variously called Leviathan. time of cre- Rahab, gory. gory.5
ation recounted in a work sometimes called 'the
appropriation of the Baby- At this point mention this point
At should be madeshould
also mention of D.J.also be made of D.J. Mc
Babylonian creation etc.. andbutsawwhich
epic', these isasnot being an Israelite
primarily concerned 6
whose article on ' " Cwhose
r e a t i o article
n " on
motifs ",Creation"
in ancient motifs
Hebrew in ancient
with the creation butIonian with the myth of Marduk's
glorification victory over
of Marduk. on J. at the time
EarlyTiamat of ere- Hebrew
Wellhausen is said to ationhaverecounted
referred to Enuma elish,
in Gunkel's work a aswork sometimes called 'the also tended to play also
down tended
the to play
association downof the
with cre-
of Chaoskampf w
Chaos Schopfung', 3
Babylonian creation epic', but which is not primarily concerned
and subsequently a number of scholars ation in the Old ation
Testament. in theHe Old
examinesTestament. examples He examines
of what heexamples of
chose to reject Gunkel's thesis. I n general,with
with the creation but
however, Gunkel ulti-
the glorification of Marduk. Early on is the earliest claims Hebrew is poetry
the earliest
(Gen.Hebrew 49; Ex.poetry (Gen. Deut.49; Ex. 15:2 1
mately won the day, though, as will be seen below, the mythology 32:1-43, Deut. 33; 32:1-43.
Judg. 5; 2 Dcut.
Sam. 33;
22 = Ps.
Judg. 5;
18; 2 Ps.
Sam.29, 2268) and
Ps. 18; Ps. 29.
in question has nowWellhauscn proved to isbesaid referred to rather
to have Canaanite
specifically Gunkel's work as 'mehr =
Chaos als Schopfung',5 and subsequently a number of scholars argues that when argues
'creation' that when
language is there
'creation' used, it
language is histori-
is there used, it is
than Babylonian in origin.
chose to reject Gunkcl's thesis. In general, however. Gunkcl ulti- since Israel wascized, since
interested in
was not
interested cosmic
in origins.
historical, not cosmic
below, the mythology He thereby cautions us
He to refrain
thereby from
cautions thinking
us to refrain Chaoskampf
from thinkingas of Chaosk
mately won the day, though, as will be seen
rather creation myth. However,creation a number
myth. of points
However, may
a be
number madeof about
points be mad
in question has now proved to be specifically Canaanite may
McCarthy's study. To begin with,
McCarthy's it should
study. To be noted
begin with, that
it only be noted th
than Babylonian in origin.
three of the passages selected
three of thebypassages McCarthy contain
selected by the Chaos- contain the
Even today, however, Eventhe today,
occasional however, scholar occasional
the refuses scholar refuses to accept
to accept
kampf motif, viz. Ex. kampf motif, viz. Ex. 15:2-18, 2 Sam. 22 =and
2 Sam. 22 = Ps. 18, and Ps. 29,
that there occurs in the thatOldthereTestament
occurs ina the Old Testament
specific causal connection a specific causal connection Ps. 18, and Ps.
with of these it is true that
of historicization
these it is true has
that taken place in the
historici?ation has first
taken place in
between the conflict with between chaos theand conflict with This
creation. chaosis and case with This
the creation. is the case
the Divine two, but the third, two,
in whilstbut nottheconcerned
third, with not
whilst ultimate origins,
concerned with ultimate
H.W.F. Saggs in hisH.W.F. book on Saggs his book with
The inEncounter on The Encounter
the Divine in with
that, although seems to locate the seems Chaoskampf to in nature
locate the rather thaninhistory
Chaoskampf (cf.
rather than his
and (London, and Israel
Mesopotamia He (London. 1978).4
argues that, although He argues nature
3, 10). I t would surely vv. 3. be 10). wrong
It to draw
would surely large
be conclusions
wrong draw from large
there are a few passages therein are
which a few creationin
thepassages and whichconflict with sea and
the creation conflict with sea to conclusio
89:10-15, ET this limited body ofthis material.
limitedSecondly, body of itmaterial. should Secondly,
be noted that it should be not
monsters are mentioned monsters togetherare mentioned
(Ps. 74:12-17, together 89:10-15,(Ps. 74:12-17,
McCarthy is rather McCarthy selective inis the rathertexts which
selective he
in includes
the for
9-14; Job 26), it does not Job
9-14; 26), it does
necessarily not necessarily
or indeed probably or indeed
follow probably follow texts which he inclu
discussion under the discussion heading ofunder early theHebrew poetry, since
heading of early Hebrew Ps. 93
poetry, since
may well be just as early may 29just
andas68, earlybut here the conflict with
1 G.A. Barton, 1 G.A. Barton. 'Tiamat', JAOS 15
AOS 15 (1893), pp. 1-27. too T (1893),
. K . pp.
Cheyne, 1-27.
reviewCf. too T K. Cheyne. review as Ps. 29 and 68. but here the conf
chaos is associated with chaoscreation (cf. vv. 1-4). Finally,(cf.
of Gunkel, Critical Review of 5 (1895),
Gunkel. pp. 256-66.
Cnriral Review 5 (1895). pp 256-66 is associated with creation of vv. course,
1-4). Finally, of
of Genesis'. JTS there are plenty of other passages
2 W . G . Lambert, 'A new 2look W.G. at Lambert,
the Babylonian look at the ofBabylonian
'A newbackground Genesis', background
n. 4 and p. 25. n. 2. but docs
there are plentyinofthe other Old Testament, to be
passages in the Old Testamen
16 n.s. (1965), p. 288. Gunkel cites(1965).
16 n.s. Barton 288.p.Gunkcl
p. on 4, n. 4 and cite*p.Barton
25, n. 2, onbut
p. 4,
does considered later in this chapter, where the conflict with chaos is
not admit his indebtedness not to Barton for the
admit his indebtednessgeneral thesis
to Barton
of the for the
work. general thesis of the work considered later in this chapter, where the conflict with c
3 Although this quip cannot be found
3 Although thisinquipany cannot in any ofit Wcllhausen's
be found writings,
of Wellhausen's is writings, it associated
is with creation. Although
associated with most creation. (though not necessarily
Although most (though not nec
apparently based on an authentic
apparently oralbased
on anCf.authentic
W. oral tradition.
Hermann Cf. W Klatt. Hermann Gunkel.
Zu seiner Theologie der Zu seiner Theoloyie und tier zur Entstehung der untl zur Entstehuny tier form
Reltgionsgcschichle ÿ

geschichtlichen (Gottingen,
geschicht lichen 1969), p. 70, n.
Methode 2. At any 1969).
(Gottingen. 70. n. 2. At any rale, it clearly5 Cf. too below, p. 23, for5 further
p. clearly
rate, it Cf loocriticisms
below, p. of for further
23,Saggs of Saggs
in connection Ps. connection wi
reflects accurately Wellhausen's
reflectsearlier opinion,
accurately Wellhausen's modifiedalthough
he lateropinion,
although earlier it he later modified it Saggs has also been criticized Sagg?byhas H. also been criticized
Ringgren, ' etby H. Ringgren, ' Yahvi in el RahabLcv
somewhat. Cf. W. Klatt, op. pp. 70-4.Cf. W. Klatt. op. eft™ pp. 70-4. A. Caquot and M. Delcor A. Caquot
(edd.), and M.
Melanges Delcor (edd.).
bibliques Melanges
et orientaux en bibliquesdeel oricntaux en I'h
somewhat. M
Vosberg. Stuilien 111m Reden mm Schbp/er in den Psalmen M. Henri Cazelles 212,Henri Cazelles 1981), (AOAT pp.212, Ncukirchen, 1981), pp. 387-93.
4 Pp. 54-6. Cf. L . Vosberg, 4 Pp 54-6. Cf. L.
Studien Reden in den Psalmen
(Munich, 1975), pp. 46-50 (Munich.
(inaccessible 1975), pp 46-50
to me). (inaccessible to me). 6 CBQ 29 pp. 6
393-406. CBQ 29 (1967), pp. 393 406.
4 God's conflict with
4 theGod's conflict
dragon and the the dragon and the sea
withsea Creation
Creation and the divine 5 divine con
conflictand the

all) of these passages all)may be later

of these in date,
passages may they later inancient
be reflect date, they reflect ancient 'the twisting 8 *the(btn. twisting* CTA serpent '(bin. = KTU bri), CTA 5.1 I = KTU,
cf. nahas
mythological ideas. Quite often,
mythological it should
ideas. be
Quite noted,
often, theit most
should strik-
be noted, the most strik- in Job 26:13; bariab
Is. 27:1) in Job
but 26:13;
also 'the Is. 27:1)
crooked but also
serpent' *the(btn. crooked serpe
ing parallels with Ugaritic come in relatively late texts. I relatively n any case, In any case. 'qltn, CTA 3.IIID.38, 5.1.2 KTU I.3.III41,
the number of passages with Ugaritic
parallels the conflict with chaos with the
ingassociating come in late texts. CTA 3.IIID.38, = KTU 1.3.III.41, = cf. Is. 27:1)., cf. I
creation is sufficientlythelarge number of passages associating
to justify our seeing it as one of the the conflict with chaos with the We also find Leviathan We also
called findtnn Leviathan
'dragon', acalled
term identical
tnn 'dragon', with a term ident
major uses of creation is sufficiently
in the Old large to
Testament. justify our seeing it as one of the the mentioned the in various
tannin mentioned
Old in
Testament various passagesOld (cf.
TestamentIs. passage
major uses of Chaoskampf imagery in the Old Testament. 27:1, 51:9; Job 27:1.
Ezek. 51:9; 29:3, Job32:2; 7:12;Jer.Ezek. 29:3, Ugaritic
32:2; Jcr. tnn 51:34). Uga
All those passages in Allthe thoseOldpassages
Testament in the which OldspeakTestament about which speak aboutwas vocalized tu-un-na-nu, was vocalized as we now know ,from
tu-un-na-nu as weUgariticanow know V. from Uya
God's control of the (iod's sea at control
the time sea at the
ofofthecreation time ofpresup-
naturally creation naturally presup- 137.8. The name 137.8. The name Itn has generally been vocalized Lot
has generally been vocalized since
pose the archaic world view archaic
shared by world
the view
ancient shared by
Israelites the
alongancient Israelites along Albright proposed this Albright
in proposed However, this as in 1932.9 e r t o n 1 0 has
E mHowever, as J.A. Emerto
pose the
with other peoples of the ancient near of
east the thatancient
both near
above cast
the that both above thenoted, this raises problems noted, when
this raiseswe problems
come to relate when it tocome
we the to relate it
with other peoples
domed firmament of domed and belowof
heaven firmament earth and
theheaven therebelow the earth there is a cosmicHebrew form Leviathan
is a cosmic Hebrew form Leviathan The latter(liwyaian).
seems to be Therelatedlatter seems to be
sea. Rain was regarded sea.asRain having wasitsregarded
origin inasthe having
cosmic origin
its sea abovein the cosmic sea above to the Hebrew wordto the
liwyah Hebrew'wreath' and bears
word liwyah 'wreath* the meaning and bears the
the firmament and coming the firmament down through and coming the windowsdown through of heaven, the windows of heaven.' twisting one,' which 'is whollyone,'
twisting appropriate
which isfor a snake.
wholly I f so, Uga-
appropriate for a snake. If
while the world's seas while andthe world's
lakes were seas thought and lakesof as were being thoughtcon- of as being con-ritic ought similarly ritictoItnbeought cognate with the
similarly to be verb cognatebut with then the verb Iwy,
nected with the subterranean ncctcd with partthe of subterranean
the cosmic seapart (cf. of
Gen.the cosmic sea (cf. Gen. 7:11).we are left wondering wewhat arc left has wondering
happened what to thehas y. Alternatively
happened to the y. Alter
References to Leviathan References
or Rahab Leviathan
to etc. relate to oraRahab
dragonetc. relate to a dragon associatedone might claim thatone
some might other claim rootthat liessomebehind other the root
namelies andbehind the na
that the y in the Hebrew that is
the a ysecondary
in the development, but
Hebrew is a secondary development, but no satis-
with this cosmic sea. with this cosmic sea.
Granted that there Granted are passages that inthere the are Oldpassages
Testament the Old Testament whichfactory root has been
in which suggested.
factory root has Accordingly,
been suggested. Emerton suggests Emerton
conflict with a that the Ugaritic name that should
the be
Ugaritic vocalized
name should and proposes
be vocalized Lllan(u), and p
associate the creation associate
of the world the creation with a of the world
divine conflictwith witha divine
dragon or the sea, what dragonis theororiginthe sea. of this is the origin motif?
whatmythological of this As mythological motif? Asthe wholly explicable the development
wholly explicable liwyatan(u) > liwyitan(u)
development >
liwyaian(u) > liwyit
> fiyitan(u) > fitan(u),
was noted above, Gunkel was notedarguedabove, that the Gunkel argued thatreferences
Old Testament the Old Testament references
were an Israelite version were an of Israelite
the conflict version between of the conflictand
Marduk between Marduk and
Tiamat contained i nTiamat Enuma containedelish. I n this in Enuma
myth the elish. this myth the god Marduk.8
godInMarduk, 'twisting 8 Nal)dl appears
serpent' banal) 'twisting
not onlyserpent'
in Job 26:13appears butnotalso only in Job 26:13 but a
in Is.
27 : 1 (in (lie latter without the vowel letter yodh), where
it 18 paralle
armed with the powers armed of the with storm, defeatedofthe
the powers the terrible monster the terrible monster
storm, defeated (in the latter without the vowel
letter yodh), where it is parallel to
'crooked serpent', and similarly the Ugaritic and similarly in the isUgarilic texts Lev
texts Leviathan
Tiamat, representingTiamat, the salt-water
representing ocean, salt-waterwith her together
the together ocean, with her called calledwith
in parallelism bin.btn.brl) 'qltn
in parallelism
(CTA with= bin,
KTU'qltn (CTA S.I. 1-2 = KTU
helpers, and proceeded to make
helpers, and heaven
proceeded and to make
earth of theand
outheaven twoearth out of the two The verb brh in the Old Testament The verb brb means tn the flee' Testament
' to Old means ' to' flee
and the translation ' and the translatio
from serpent' hasM.H. been held by some (e.g. M.H. Pope, T.H. Gaster, R.SF),
halves of her body. Since halvesthe of discovery
her body. of Sincethe the discovery
Ugaritic texts offrom the Ugaritic texts serpent' has been held by some (e.g. Pope,
translation asor"twisting*,
such 'convulsive'
T . H . Gaster, RSV), but some
such translation as 'tortuous''convulsive*
(C. Rabin), or *tortuous* (C. Rabin)
1929 onwards, however, 1929 onwards, however, it has become clear that the
it has become clear that the immediate immediate (H. Gunkel) or 'slippery' (H. (G.R. Uunkel)
Driver)oris*slippery' (G R Driver)
to be preferred. is toisbe
' T o twist' onepreferred.
of 'To twist'
background of the Old Testamentofallusions
background the Old Testament to the sea monster allusionsisto the sea monster is the basic meanings of brh the basic Semitic meanings of brl)
languages, Semitic
andin this meaninglanguages,
fits theand this meanin
not onlytexts contain not only parallelism with 'qltn 'crooked' parallelism with 'qltn
in Ugaritic and'crooked'
Hebrew better in Ugaritic
than 'to Hebrew better than
not Babylonian but Canaanite.not Babylonian The Ugaritic
but Canaanite. texts containThe Ugaritic and inand factthe both the Targum and the readVulgateand
and in fact both the Vulgate respectively respectively read ‫ן‬
an account of Baal'sandefeat account of Baal's defeat of the rebellious
of the rebellious sea-god Yam, as a sea-god Yam, as a in Job 26:13, which in added
Job 26:13,support which givesrendering.
to this added support W.F. to this render
result of which he was result acclaimed
of whichking he was (CTAacclaimed 2= king 1.2),(CTAbut 2 = KTU 1.2), but Albright, 'Are the Ephod and Albright, *Arc the Cphod
the Teraphim mentioned and in theUgaritic
Tcraphim mentioned in Ugaritic lite
(fin Litan. lit. 'twisting BASOR 83 (1941), p. 39, n.BASOR 5, suggests 83 (1941),
that brh 39, n. 5.'primaeval',
p means suggests that onhrl)
basis 'primaeval', on
also allusions to a defeat of
also allusions Leviathan to a defeat of Leviathan
= lit. ' twisting = of Arabic
7 of Arabic 'past (of time)', and hartb
he also 'past (of time)',
compared and hedralso compared
Egyptian 'from of Egyptian dr bj)
one', from one', from Iwh 'to twist V whom
' t o twist'), whom we learn had seven heads
we learn (CTAhad seven heads ( CTA However, he has been old*. opposed
However,byheT .has been opposed
H . Gaster, ' Folklore by motifs
T.H. 'Folklore m
3.IIID.37-9, =3.1IID.37-9.
KTU 1.3.40-2, 5.1.1-3 = KTUPs.1.3.40 74:14 2. refers to Ps. 74:14 refers to Canaanite myth', JRAS (1944),; Canaamte p. 47 myth',
and C .JRASRabin,' (1944), p. 47 and47C(1946),
JTS Rabin,p.' Ban'b*. JTS 47
38. Caster dr claims that'before,
Egyptian dr b'ÿ)) means 'before,
' but does not *heads'specify how but doesmany) not and who how
specify is called
many) notand onlywho is called not only 38. Gaster claims that Egyptian old ',outandthat
means previously', not 'from of previously', not
and Rabin rightly points Rabin rightly pointsisout
a ' past that the
hardly a 'past as a ' is hardly the s
' primaeval *primaeval
In general, see Cserpent'
. Rabin, op. In general, pp.sec
38-41C. Rabin,
on the op. cil., pp. 38-41 on th
1977). p.
7 There is no reason to follow 7 There is no r canon
Norin, to followdas
Er spaltete t.. Norin.
SiMeer (Lund, spahne
Er 1977), p. das Meer (Lund. of of brl)ÿ
69 in supposing that the name Leviathan that
69 in supposing the name Leviathan
is a translation of Egyptian is a translation
(a of Egyptian m(w (a9 W.F. Albright, 'New light 9 W.F.
on early Albright,
Canaanite 'Newlanguage
light on early C'anaanitc BASOR
and literature', language and literature '
name of Apophis), takenname over of whenApophis),
Baal was taken over when
identified Seth.was
with Baal identified with Seth. Since 46 (1932), p. 19.
Since 46 (1932), p. 19.
is such aa natural describe a serpent, this is hardly 10 and
J.A. Emerton, 'Leviathanofand
' twisting/coiling is such a natural termone'
'twisting/coiling to describe this to
serpent,term is hardly 10 Emerton, 'Leviathan the vocalization theItn: the vocalization
Ugaritic word for the of the llgantic wor
necessary. necessary. dragon', VT 32 (1982), pp.dragon 327-31.*. VT 32 (1982), pp. 327-31
6 God's conflict with
6 the conflict
Citd's and the the dragon and Ihe sea
withsea Creation
Creation and the divine conflictand 7the divine con

As for the name Rahab As for (cf.thePs. name 87:4, Rahab 89:11, (cf. ET Ps. 10; 87:4,
Job 9:13, 89:11. ET 10; Job 9:13, deriving from a placederiving or timefrom a place
different from or thelimeUgaritic
differenttexts, frominthe Ugaritic
26:12; Is. 30:7, however, this has not hitherto been found view of its absence there.
view Occasionally
of its absence it is supposed that Rahab
26: 12; Is. 30:7. 51 :9)" however, this has not hitherto been found
was a female monster, 15
there. Occasionally it is supposed tha
mentioned in any extra-biblical text, Canaanite or
mentioned in any extra-biblical
text, Canaanitc or otherwise,12 The was abut female there is no supporting evidence for
monster.15 but there is no supporting evid
name apparently means 'boisterous one,' an apt term for the per- this.
sonified raging 13
The fact thatmeans
apparently Rahab ' boisterous
and 'theone." crooked an apt term for the per- this.
serpent' (nahas bariah) ragtng sca.1J
are mentioned
sonified The factverses
in parallel that i nRahab Job and *the crooked Turning now from the Turning
dragonnow to thefrom sea,thewedragonfind that theaddition
to in sea. we find that in
26:12-13, and that Rahab is mentioned parallel
serpent' (naftai banal)) are mentioned in parallel verses to 'the dragon' in Job to 'the waters' to 'the
cf. Ps. waters'
29:3, (mayim,
77:17 (ET cf. 16),
Ps. 29:3,
93:4; 77: 17 (ET 16). 93:4; I
Is. 51:10,
in Is. suggests that Rahab
26:12 13, and that may Rahab simply be an alterna-
is mentioned parallel to 'the dragon' etc.), we find allusions etc.),notweonly findtoallusions
'the sea'not onlycf. 'the74:13,
to Ps. sea* (yam, cf. P
tive name for Leviathan, who is likewise called 'the crooked
(tannin) in Is. 51:9, suggests that Rahab may simply be an altcrna- 89:10, ET 9; Job 7:12, 89:10. 9:8,ET 26:12,9; Job 38:8; 7:12,Nah. 9:8. 26:12,
1:4; Hab. 38:8;3:8, Nah.
15, 1:4; Hab
serpent' and 'the dragon' in Is. 27:1 (cf. CTA = KTU
Even though Rahab tivc and nameLeviathan for Leviathan,
may be equated who isinlikewise the O l dcalled 'the crooked etc.) but also, etc.)
interestingly, but to also,
' interestingly, to 'rivers' or ' floods ' (n'harbl,
or ' floods'
Testament (but even serpent' this is not *the dragon'
andcertain), it is still in Is. 27:1 that
possible (cf. CTA the 5.1.1 = KTV (cf. Ps. 93:3; Nah. (cf.
1:4; Ps,
Hab. 93:3: This1 :4;
3:8, Nah.
9). recallsHab.Baal's 3:8. 9). opponent
This recalls in Baal's opp
two different namesEven betoken that in origin
though Rahab and Leviathan may they were separate be equated in the Old CTA 2 ( = KTU 1.2.)CTA
called 2 not
(= KTV
only 1.2.) 'Prince but
called not only zbl ym *Prince Yam' also
(though similar) monsters. The presence of the h indicates that it is the tpt nhr ' Judge
Testament 1 4(but even this is not certain), it is still possible that (pt nhr Judge River'.
not an Akkadian loan w o r d , whilst the evidence of the other
dragon-expressions used two different
suggests that namesit betoken is not anthat in origin they were separate All the expressions considered
independent All the expressions so far prove considered
to be Canaaniteso far prove in to be Cana
(though similar)
Israelite creation. Presumably it too ismonsters.of Canaanite The presence
origin, though of the h indicates that it isorigin. There is one more termorigin. There to is beone more term
mentioned, Thornto be 'thementioned,
deep' t'hom 'th
not an Akkadian loan word,14 whilst the evidence of the other (Ps. 77:17, ET 16, 104:6; (Ps. 77:17. Is. 51:10; ET 16. Hab. 104:6;3:10;; Gen. Hab. 1:2; Ps. 3:10; cf. Gen.
dragon-expressions used suggests that it is not an independent This has often 33:7). This has often
been compared with been the name compared of Tiamat,with the the name of Tia
Israelite creation. Presumably it too is of Canaanitc origin, though chaos
chaos monster defeated by Marduk monster defeated in connection by Marduk with the increation
connection with the
of the world in Enuma of elish.
the world However, in Enuma although elish.Thorn However, and Tiamatalthough t'hbm and
Urieil and Endult (Goltingcn, 1895), p. 40, are certainly arc certainly
related, etymologically
there is no related,
reason to there
think isthat
no reason to th
H . Gunkel, 11 H. Gunkel, Schopfunp und Chaos
und Chaos in Urzeit und Endzeit in
(Gottingen, 1895), p. 40,
proposed that in addition proposed
Rahab is that in addition
mentioned in theRahab Ps. 40:5 ( EinT ihc
plural isinmentioned 4), plural in Px. 40:5 (ET 4),the Hebrew term is directly the Hebrew derived term fromis directly
the derived from the Babylonian: i
if it were
' Mann, der 'HetlJahvedemzuMann, seinerder Zuversicht und zu seiner
machl Jalive R'habim und nicht den R'habima Babylonian loan word,
den Zuverxicht a Babylonian
we shouldloan word,
by a number of other
expect wehave
it to should the expect
feminine it to have the
sich ergiebt, zur Luge abfallt.' He haszur
sich crgiebl, beenLuge abfallt.'
followed by He has beenoffollowed
a number other
(New York. 1965), p 245, who renders ending in -ah and to ending
have ', in
not •ah h, and
as theto have
middle '. h
not , as Thethe form
middle radical. T
scholars, e.g. M.J. Dahood, scholars, e g. M.J. Dahood. Psalms
Psalms 1 (New York, 1965), p. I
245, who renders
r'habim as 'pagan idols'.ChabimIt is arguedas 'pagan in favouridols'.ofItthis is argued
view that in favour of thin view that Chakim comparable to Hebrew thm, comparable Thorn is, however,to Hebrew t'hbm is.
attested in however,
Ugaritic attested in
thereby provides a good thereby
parallel provides
to aatgood the parallel
end of the to kdzab
verse, at the end of the verse, a term(cf. Ugaritica
a term (cf. 24.244,
RS Ugaritica 1 =K.7.1,
KTU RS 24.244,thus
1.100.1) KTV 1.100.1) thus su
sometimes used of pagan sometimes
deities, as well used as of being deities, as well
paganappropriate aftera being'el, appropriate after panah 'el.
sometimes used in connection with other gods.
sometimes used in connection However, this
with view
is However,
probably this view is probnbly the view that the Old the view
Testament that the
term Old
is Testament
Canaanite. term is Canaanite.
to be rejected in favour of to the view that
be rejected in r'hdbim
favour of simply
the viewrefersthatto r" hakimorsimply refers to proud or It may be concluded,Ittherefore,
proud may be concluded, that the dragon therefore, and that the dragon and sea
sea mythol-
arrogant men. There are two main reasons
arrogant men. There which areincline
two main one reasons
to this view. incline one to this view. First,ogy of the Old Testament
whichFirst, ogy of is the Old Testament is of
the name Rahab nowhere the else name
occursRahabin the nowhere
plural, soelse that somein the plural,
other meaning so that some other meaning
of Canaanite and not Canaanitc
Babylonian and not Ba
is likely. Secondly, r'habimisoccurs alongside sate ' those who
alongside fall awaykazab
to 'those who fall away toorigin as Gunkel origin
thought, as
and Gunkel
it is a thought,
matter of and
regret it is
that a there
matter of
are regret that t
likely. Secondly, Chakim occurs sate
lies'. The latter are clearlylies'.
human Thebeings,
latter are so that
clearlyit is more beings,
human natural so to that
expectit is more natural to expectstill scholars who have still
not scholars who havethis
fully recognized fully recognized this fact.
not fact.
the parallel r'habim to be theso likewise. It may be
parallel Chab'tm to added that
be so likewise. can be
It may added that panah can be used
be used
in connection with any false object
in connection of confidence,
with any not
false only
of and that
confidence, not only gods, and that kazab
The problem tbc connection
of creation
The problem of the connection of the with the the and
ofsea creation with the sea an
may denote falsehood in general,
may denote not falsehood
necessarilyingods. Accordingly
general, this verse
not necessarily gods. Accordingly this verse
may be rendered,' Blessed may is the man who has made the Lord his trust, and has Lord his and hasdragon conflict in the dragon
light of conflict
its in
non-mention the light in of
the its non-mention
Ugaritic texts in the Ugaritic
be rendered. Blessed is the man who has made
' the trust
not turned to the proud and those who fall away to lies.'
not turned to the proud and those who fall away to lies.'
206,' and 'Death ' (AOAT 1980), p.206, Neukirchen, 1980), p. Although it is now generally Althoughconceded it is nowthat generally conceded
the allusions to thatGod's the allusions t
12 B. Margalit, A matter of ' and
12 B. Margalit, '
A matter of 'l.lfe
178, sees some connection178. sees some connection
between Rahab and between
in CTA Rahab
6.V.2 ( and
= KTUrbm in CTA 6.V.2 ( = KTV conflict with the conflict
dragon i n with
the Oldthe dragon
Testament in the
are Old
Canaanite Testament and are Canaa
1.6.V.2) rbm. bktp, which
I.6.V.2) herbm.rendersymbf. 'Thehktp, which he
Arrogant herenders
did smite 'The withArrogant
a he did smite with anot Babylonian in origin, not Babylonian
the fact remains in origin, thatthe thefact remains
Ugaritic textthat the Uga
bludgeon (?).' However, rbm lacks the
bludgeon so that it rbm
(7).'h,However, is more the h. so
lacksnatural to that
render it more natural to render it
it is
the containing the myth containing of Baal's defeat the myth of theof Baal's
sea-goddefeat Yamof(CTA the sea-god Yam
as ÿthe mighty'.
13 The general view that13 the The general view
name Rahab that
means the name
'boisterous Rahab
one' means
may beÿboisterous one' may be
accepted there is (Heb.
root rhb):accepted no reasonroot to r/16): is no inreason
follow seeking to anfollow Norin in seeking an E.g., F . F . Bruce, This IS E.g., F.F.
is That. The Bruce, This is Thai.
New Testament The NewofTestament
Development Some Old Development of
'snake' + in Egyptian
etymology in Egyptian etymology 'crooked, *snake' + b'h
r'bent' 'crooked,
Norin, bent' (S.I.L. Norin. op. cit., Testament Themes (Exeter,Testament
op. cit., 1968), p. 41. Themes tExeler.this
Presumably 1968).
is aphangover
41. Presumably
from thethis is a hangove
p.74f). p. 74r1. view of Gunkel that Rahab view isoftoGunkel that Rahab
be equated with the is to be equated
Babylonian female
with the Babyloni
14 On the principle involved 14 Onhere, thecf.principle
A Heidel, involved
The Babylonian Heidel.(2nd
here, d. AGenesis Theed.,Babylonian Genesis (2nd ed., monster Tiamat, rather than monster due Tiamat. rather than
to unconscious due to unconscious
assimilation to Rahab theassimilation to R
Chicago and London, 1951), p. 100,and
Chicago n. 58.London, 1951), p. 100, n. 58. harlot! harlot!
8 8 theGod's
God's conflict with conflict
dragon and the the dragon and the sea
withsea Creation
Creation and the divine conflictand the
9 divine confli

2 = KTU 1.2), which2is=generally KTU 1.2), which to

thought is generally
underlie the thought
Old Tes-to underlie the Old Tes- ht. 'ibk (9) Now ht. ,ibk
your(9) b'lm. Baal,Now your enemy, Baal,
tament allusions, makes lament allusions, to
no reference the creation
makes no reference of thetoworld.
the creation of the world. ht. 'ibk. ht.
now your 'ibk. tmb$.
enemy you will nowsmite,
your enemy you will smite,
Why is this? It is toWhy the attempt to issolve this problem that this
is this? Itwe to the attempt to solve this problem that this ht. nowht. you
t$mt.will $rtksmite your now will smite your foe.
section is directed. However, before do this, we must first sum-
However, before we do this, we must first sum- (10)willtqb•take
mlk.your 'lmk.everlasting
You willkingdom,
take your everlasting kingdom
marize the contents ofsectionCTA 2is( directed.
= KTU 1.2). (10) You
marize the contents of CT.4 2 ( = K TU 1.2). drkt. dt. drdrk drkt.
your dt, drdrkfor everyour
dominion and dominion
ever. for ever and ever.
is CTA placed( =first
Generally placed firstGenerally KTU is CTA 2.111
1.2.III). ( = KTUit 1.2.111). Although it
I n order to achieve this In order to achieve this Kothar-andÿtjasis
then fetched two clubs then fetched tw
is fragmentary, its main ideas can beits
is fragmentary, mainout.
made ideas can be made out. Kothar-andÿyasis, and called them Yagrush (Expeller) and uttering
who of the rivers, who
and called them Yagrush (Expeller) and Ayyamur (Driver), Ayyamur (Driver), u
the craftsman god, went to
the craftsman the source
at god, went to of El the source
incantations over them to aid the first
incantations over them to aid their effectiveness. their effectiveness.
Although Although t
instructed him to build a palacehim
instructed forto Yam.buildThe god Athtar
a palace for Yam. whoThe is god Athtar who is
club was not successful club
in was
defeating Yam, thein
not successful defeating
second was. the second one was
one Yam.
described as possessing kingship,
described as was rebuked
possessing kingship, was rebuked by the sun-goddess
by the sun-goddess
Shapash, who told him that who
Shapash, would tolddeprive
him that his kingship.
himF.Iofwould deprive him of his kingship. wyrtq$. bd b'l wyrtq$.The$md. club bd b'l
swooped fromThe clubhand,
Baal's swooped from Baal's h
Then Athtar complained that he had no house (i.e. palace)
had like the
house (i.e. palace) like the 24 [km.] nsr. 24 [km.]
[like] nSr.
an b'u$b'th.
eagle from his [like]
fingers,an eagle from his fingers.
Then Athtar complained that he no
a wife next qdqd. (25) ylm. Itqdqd,
struck zbl (25)
the [ym.]
crown of It
struck Yam,the crown of Prince Ya
gods, whereas Yam was have one.
gods,towhereas Yam was tolack
Athtar's haveofone. Athtar's lack of a wife next
a reason, the text breaks
but thenas a reason, but then the text breaks bn. nhr. bn. cnm.
between ipt. nhr.
the eyes of Judgebetween the eyes of Judge River,
seems to as
seems to have been proffered have been proffered
ym. (26) yprsb. Yam yql (26) I'ars
ym.collapsed, he fell toYam earth;
thecollapsed, he fell to the eart
off. pnth. tn£$n. hispnth.
joints quivered his joints quivered
However, the texts that However,really the texts that
concern us inreally concernwith
connection us in connection with wydlp. andtmnhhis form crumpled.and his form crumpled.
Baal and Yam are CTA Baal andand Yam 2.IV are( =CTA KTU2.1 and and 2.IVIV). (= KTU CTA 1.2.1 and IV). CT.4 (27) yqt b'l. wyst. ym. (27) yqt Baalb'l. wySt. ym.
dragged out Yam and Baalput him down,
dragged out Yam and put him
( = KTU opens
2.1 (=in fragmentary
KTU 1.2.1) form
opens but
in we can
fragmentary makeform it but we can make it tpt. nhr ykly,heipt. nhr an end of Judge
made he Nahar
made an end of Judge Nahar
out sufficiently to out that Yam tois see
see sufficiently Yam is (by
beingthatthreatened being threatened (by
that he will be defeated
Kothar-and-Hasis) that with he will magic weapons.with magic weapons. The goddess Astarte The
be defeated then goddess
instructed AstartcBaal then instructed
to scatter Yam, Baal which to scatter Yam,
on of the gods on he did. Finally, it is he did.
declared, Finally, it is declared,
Then Yam sent envoys ThentoYamand sentthe assembly
envoys to Elofand the thegods
Mount in order thatMountthey LI demand
in order thethat they demand
surrender of Baal,the so surrender
that of Baal, so that 32 ym. b'lm yml[k]32 Yam ym. Imt, b'lm yml[k]
is indeed dead! Baal Yam be king!
is indeed
shall dead! Baal shall he k
Yam might possess Yam his gold. might envoyshisarrived
Thepossess gold. The the gods
whileenvoys arrived while the godsAfter this there are a few very fragmentary lines and then the text
gods, beside El. The gods, After this there arc a few very fragmentary lines and then th
were sitting at banquet were Baal at
andsitting was standing
banquet and Baal wasThe
beside standing conflict with
breaks off. This is the end of
breaks off.the
to their knees but Baal rebukedYam, but CTA 3 and 4 ( = KTU 1. 3 and 4), which follow,
on Baal rebuked This is the of
of the account of Baal's conflic
afraid, lowered theirafraid, on to their
heads lowered headsbut
their knees Yam,
tell of
as but CT A 3 and 4(= KTV 1. 3 and 4). which follow,16
them for this. Thenthem the for Then the envoys delivered Yam's message, asthe building of Baal's
this. delivered
envoys Yam's message,
the palace, andof this seems to be the natural
them, but Baal building Baal's palace, and this seems to be the n
instructed. was prepared
instructed. EI was prepared to deliver up Baal to them, but Baalconsequence of his having
to deliver up Baal to
consequence and acquired theYamkingship.
He had to be his having defeated and acquired the kin
was furious at this and wasmade furious at this and made to attack the envoys. He had to beHow exactly we are to
to attack the envoys.
Howinterpret the meaning of Baal'sthe victory overof
The end of the tablet exactly we arc to interpret meaning Baal's victor
restrained by the goddesses Anat and Astarte. The end of the tabletYam is uncertain. Clearly
restrained by the goddesses Anat and Astarte.
Yam is have to do
weuncertain. with we
Clearly a battle between a a battle
off altogether. CTA 2.II ( = KTU have to do with betw
is fragmentary and is fragmentary and then breaks off altogether. CTA 2.II (= KTU
then breaks
here, but it is so fragmentary that storm god and the sea.storm god and it istheseen sea. asOften17
reflecting it theseen
is as reflecting the
1.2.II) presumably followed here, but it is so fragmentary that
presumably followed
nothing at all can benothing deducedat from all can it. Certainly
be deduced fromis it.
what required
Certainly what is required
here is the beginning of the conflict betweenofBaal and Yam himself.
the conflict between Baal and Yam himself. 16 J.C. dc Moor,
16 J.C.Pattern TheUgaritic
Seasonal of in the V garitic
here is the beginning Moor, The Seasonal in the Pattern
Myth 16, Myth
of Ba'lu {AO
the 1,2.1V) we find the Neukirchen, 1971), pp. 40-3, Neukirchen,
proposes 1971),
that pp.
CTA40-3, proposes
3 (KTU CTAto 3 {KTV 1.3), rela
1.3), thai
With the opening ofWithCTA the opening
V KTUof CTA 2.IV we(= KTU
autumn, precedes CTA 1autumn, precedes
and 2 (KTU andA 2)I and
1.1 CT 2 (KTV
(winter), whereas and 2)4 (winter), whereas
1.1 CTA
battle between Baal battle
and Yam in fullBaal
between Yam
flight, Yamin full
is clearly and Yam is clearly in
flight, in (KTU 1.4) (spring) follows{KTV 4) (spring)asfollows
them. 1However, Gibson
J . C . L . them. notes, Canaanite
However, as J.C.L. Gibson notes, Ca
that Baal
the ascendant, for we we read
for sank thattheBaal
under sankofunder the throne of
throne Myths and Legends (Edinburgh,Myths and1978,Legends 5), it seems 1978,
p. 7, n.(Edinburgh. 7, n.Baal's
forcedp that 5), it seems forced tha
however, and palace should
palace should be started, abandoned andbe started,
only completed. and only later completed.
later abandoned
Prince Yam. Prince Yam. then then intervened,
intervened, however,
Kothar-and-yasis and
17 O. Kaiser, des mythische Bedeutung
Die Meeres
17 O. Kaiser, Die mythische Bedeutung des Meeres
78, 1959), J.
p. 65f.;(BZAW 78, 1959). p.
encouraged Baal: encouraged Baal: Gray, The Legacy of Canaan Gray.(SVT
The Legacy of Canaan
5, 2nd ed., 1965), p. (SVT
21; 5.
J.C.2nd Moor,
de ed,, 1965), p. 21; JC. de
Seasonal Pattern, pp. 141-2. Seasonal Pattern,
De Moor, pp. n.
p. 142, 141-2. De Moor.
23 points out that
p. 142. view
the n. 23 points out that t
sometimes put forward, that sometimes forward,
the textput that the gales
to equinoctial in September,
text refers to equinoctial gales in Sep
(8) lk.lzbl.b'l. say Ik.lzbl.b'l.
IrgmtI (8)
Truly to you, O Prince
Truly I say to you, O Prince Baal,
Baal, be correct, evidence not support their does not suppo
cannot be correct, since the cannot
meteorological since the does meteorological evidence
tnt. 'rpt. I repeat
tnt. lrkb. you), O Rider
(to'rpt. of the(to you), O Rider of the Clouds:
1 repeat existence in the vicinity of UgariL
existence in the vicinity of Ugarit.
10 10 theGod's
God's conflict with conflict
dragon and the the dragon and the sea
withsea Creation
Creation and the divine conflictand the divine conflic

storms at sea around storms Ugarit,atand around

sea this may Ugarit,
be correct. this may
and Others seebeit correct. Others sec it associate creation with associate
the defeat creation of the withchaos the defeat the chaos monster
monsterof Tiamat.
as more cosmic. However, the
as more cosmic. fact remains,
However, as was
the noted
fact at
remains, the as was noted at the Such a view is taken Such
by B.S.a view
Childs, is 22
taken by B.S.
Jeremias Childs.22
and Jorg Jcremias23 and
beginning of this section, that nothing is said in CTA 2 ( = isKTU said in CT A 2 KTU 24 W. Schmidt.24 The difficulty with this view
section, that
thisare we to account for the fact nothing (= W. Schmidt. The difficulty with this view is that the monster is that the m
the world.ofHow
1.2) of the creation ofbeginning
that Baal's conflict with 1.2) of
Yam creation in
the appears of no world. How
the way to be connected are we to account for the fact terminology used is terminology
so definitely used is
Canaanite, so definitely
as has Canaanite.
been noted as has been
with the creation of the thatworld, conflictthe
Baal'swhereas with Yam appears
Old Testament contains in no way to be connected above, that the above,
assumption that
that the
we assumption
have here athat
wc have withhere a conflatio
passages supposedly with deriving from
the creation the thisof Canaanite
world, whereas
myth in the
whichOld Testament contains Babylonian ideas Babylonian
should be ideas
accepted should
only if be
no accepted
more only
satisfactory if no more satis
the conflict with the sea or dragon is associated deriving with the
from creation?
this Canaanitc myth in which explanation is explanation
forthcoming. As we is forthcoming.
have seen, not As wc
even have
the seen,
use of even the
passages supposedly not
the conflict with the sea or dragon is associated with the creation? the word Thorn for thethe word
chaos t'hom
waters for the
indicates chaos
waters indicates
influence. Babylonian in
Sometimes it seems Sometimes to be assumed it seems without to be assumed
further without further discussion The claim has, indeed,
discussion The been claimmade has. by indeed, T. been made that by T. theJacobscn2s t
that Baal's conflict with that Yam
Baal'swas conflict
associated with Yam with was associated1 8 with the creation.1*Marduk-Tiamat conflict
the creation. Marduk-Tiamat
is itself West conflict Semitic is initself
origin.West Semitic
I f this were in origin. If th
But nothing in the text But nothing in the text
we have (CTA 2 wc
KTU have
.1.2) (,CT
is A
said 2 =
about KTU 1.2) is said about the case, one could the
argue case, one
(though could
Jacobsen argue does (though
not doJacobsen
this) that docs not do th
this. It has therefore this. has therefore
beenItproposed, e.g. been
by proposed, e.g.
that by an Kapclrud,10 that an this lends support to this
the lends
view support
that the toWest the view
Semitic that the
original, Westthe Semitic origin
account of the creation account of the creation
was originally preserved was originally
in the lacunapreservedat in the lacuna atconflict between Baal conflict
and between
Yam, was Baal
likewise and Yam,
associated was likewise
with the associated w
the end of the text. the Butend of the text.
as Kapelrud But
himself ashas Kapclrud
more himself
recently has more recently creation. Jacobsen's creation.
case for a Jacobsen's
West Semitic case for
origin a West
for the Semitic
M a r d u origin
k - for the M
noted, 2 0 the numbernoted,20 of lines the for such of
left number anlines
accountleft for is asuch an account is a bit smallTiamat conflict rests Tiamat
bit small on the fact conflict as inon
that, rests thethe fact that,text, as insothe in Baal-Yam tex
(seven or so); moreover, (seven there
or so);is not moreover,
a hint anywhere there is not elsea inhint theanywhere else in theEnuma elish, a god Enuma uses theelish, forcesa of godtheuses storm the to forces of the the
overcome storm to overco
myth that an accountmyth of the that an account
creation stood ofat thethis creation
point. stood
Another at this point. Another rebellious sea (Tiamat, rebellious
like Yam, sea (Tiamat,
means like
'sea'), Yam,
and he means
thinks 'sea'),
it and he th
approach is taken byapproach L.R. Fisher, 21
is taken who by L.R.
holds Fisher,21
that the who holds that the Baal- Yam more likely that the more
theme likely
originatedthat the
in theme
Syria, originated
which is in
adjacent Syria, to which is adja
text is concerned withtext is concerned
creation, not in with
the creation,
sense of not
ultimate in the
origins,sense of ultimate origins, the Mediterranean the
Sea, Mediterranean
than in Mesopotamia, Sea. than in
where Mesopotamia,
the sea is a where the s
which he associates which with he but associates
rather with
in the ELsensebut rather
of bringingin the sense of bringing long way to the southlong way
behind to the
extensive south behind
sweetwater extensive
marshes and
Sweetwater marsh
order to the world, which order he the world,
to claims was whichfar more he claims
important was to farthe more important to thereed-thickets. Jacobsen reed-thickets.
thinks we should Jacobsen thinks think
probably we shouldin terms probably
of think in t
Canaanites. Whilst the Canaanites. Whilst
latter doubtless the
was latter
of doubtless
greater was
importance of greater importance the motif having been the motif
brought having
into been
Mesopotamia brought by into
the Mesopotamia
Amorites, by the Am
to the Canaanites, ittoseems the Canaanites,
a misuse of it seems
language a misuse
to refer of
to language
it as to refer to it as
who founded the who
dynasty founded
of the
Babylon. 1st dynasty
However, of Babylon.
Jacobsen's However,
view Jacobsen
creation. I n any case,creation.
such a view In any does notsuch
case, solvea the viewproblem
does notwith solve the problem withshould probably beshould rejected. probably
I t should be rejected.
be notedIt that should W.G. be noted that
which we are concerned which we are
here, since, concerned
as a matter here, of since,
fact, as
the a matter
Old of fact, the Old Lambert, the world's Lambert,
leading the
authorityworld's on leading
Mesopotamian authority on
creationMesopotamian c
Testament does associate Testament the docs
conflict associate
with the
chaos conflict
with with
ultimate chaos with ultimate mythology, who mythology,
himself once who
maintained himself the once maintained
possibility of the the possibility
origins. origins. Amorite origin of theAmorite conflict originbetween of theMarduk conflict andbetween
Tiamat, 26
Marduk has and Tiamat
Yet another line of approach Yet another is to line
claimof approach
that the is
Old to claim
Testament that the Old Testament
passages associating passagesthe creation associating
of the world the creation
with God's world with God's conflict
of theconflict
22 B.S. Child*. A Study of Myth IXI (PhD
in Genesis Basel Uni- dissertation, Ba
with the dragon and with the dragon
sea contain and sea contain
a conflation conflation of both Babylonian22 B.S. Childs, A Study of Myth
of both aBabylonian
in Genesis
vcrsity, Plymouth,
(PhD dissertation,
versity, Plymouth, Wisconsin, p. 25. Wisconsin. 19S5). p. 25
and Canaanite traditions, and Canaanitc former, in since
since the traditions, Enuma former,
the elish, do in F.numa elish. do23 Jdrg Jeremias, 23 Jorg Jeremus. Theophanie
(Neukirchen, pp. 92-4. (Neuklrchcn. 1965), pp. 92 4.
24 W. Schmidt, 24Gottes
W Schmidt.
in Ugarit Konigtum
und Israel Cones in Ugarit und Israel
80, 1961), p. 41. [fiZAW 80. 1961
Schmidt writes,' Dabei mag Schmidt writes, ' I>.1bc1
babylonischer Einfluss mag babylonixcher
mitgespielt haben.'Einllus*
He con-milgcxpielt haben.'
18 L . R . Fisher, 'Creation 18 L R Fi*her,
at Ugarit and in 'Creation
the Old 81 Ugarit andVT
Testament', in the Old Tentamcnt".
15 (1965), p. VT 15 (1965), p. tinues, however, 'Vielleichttinues, gab es however.
auch 'Vicllcicht gab cs auch
Mythen, diekanaanaische
beide Got- Mythcn, die bc
313 writes, 'Many times, in 313 writes, 'or
a lecture in a time*,
Many in a lecture
conversation, I have in a conversation,
or heard it said Ihave heard it said testaten verbanden.' thetcsteten
2nd ed., verbanden."
1966, p. 49, the first
In the 2nd sentence
cd.. )966,remains
p. 49, thethe first sentence rem
Ugnritic literature is a creation same but the second is putsame the second
butform is put in the form of gar
a question.
- nicht 'Oder gab cs ga
that the battle between Baal that andthe battle betweenin Ugaritic and Yamm
Baalliterature is aincreation in the of a question, 'Oder gab es
Gottwald. A Light to the Nations erhaltene - kanaanaische Mythen, die kanaanaische Mythcn, die bcidc Gottestaten vcrbanden'' '
myth.' This view seems to myth." Thus in
be present viewN.K teem*
. Gottwald, A LightintoN.K.
to be present the Nations beide Gottestaten verbanden?'
25 between
1 Jacobsen, 'Theand battle betweenAOS Marduk and tiamat '. JAOS 88 |19
(New York, 1959), p. 149. (New York. 1959), p. 149. 25 T. Jacobsen, 'The battle Marduk Tiamat', 88 (1968), pp.
Bn'als ikamp mcd havets fyrsle NTT t Ra8 Sjamrn-tekntcnc '. NTT 104-8. 104-8.
19 A.S. Kapelrud, 'Ba'als19 A.S. Kapclrud. havets ' fyrste Ras Sjamra-tekstene',
61 (1960), p. 249(. 26 W.G. Lambert, 'A new26look W.G. at Ijimbcft.
the Bablyonian,A new look at the Bablyonian background of
background of Genesis', JTS Genes
61 (1960), p. 249f.
20 A.S. Kapelrud, 'Creation in the Ra» Shamra text*'. Studio Theologlca 34 16 n.s. (1965), pp. 295-6. 16It n.s may(19651,
be notedpp. 295-6.
that the It Amorite
may be notedorigin that
of the the Amoritc origin
20 A.S. Kapelrud, 'Creation in the Ras texts', Studia 34
(1980), p. I Cf. too hi* article ' Ba'al, Schopfung und Chnot', L'F 11 (1979), pp. Marduk-Tiamat conflict was Marduk Tiamatsuggested
originally conflict was by A.T. originally
Clay, suggestedtheby A.T. Clay, Amu
(1980), p. 1. Cf. too his article Schopfung und Chaos', UL (1979), pp. home of the NorthernPa., 1909), !Philadelphia.
Semites pp. 53-4, andPa., The1909), pp. 53-4. a
407-12. home of the Northern Semites (Philadelphia,
Origin of Biblical TraditionsOrigin BiblicalConn.,
21 L.R. Fisher, op. at., pp. 31 3-24. (NewofHaven, Traditions
1923),(New Haven, Conn., 1923), pp. 87-93.
pp. 87-93.
21 L.R. Fisher, op. cit., pp. 313-24.
12 theGod's
God's conflict with conflict
dragon withseathe dragon and the sea
and the Creation
Creation and the divine conflictand the
13 divine confli
now rejected i t . 2 7 I tnow is now clearit.27
rejected is nowelish
that ItEnuma cleardoesthat not Enuma go elish does not go the conflict of Baal the andconflict
Yam, of which Baal and we Yam,possessof awhich
detailedwc possess a
back to the Amorite hack 1st dynasty of Babylon as Jacobsen thought thought account, and the conflict of
account, Baal
and and
the Anat
conflict with
of Leviathan,
Baal and Yam,
Anat with Leviatha
to the Amorite 1st dynasty of Babylon as Jacobsen
Ars (' El's calf and El's
Ar8 others ofAtik")
which the Ugaritic texts also
but was written only about
but wasMarduk's
B . C . in the time of Nebuchadrezzar
only about 1 100
written plundered statue was restored B.C. in the time of Nebuchadrezzar 0 calf and others
make mention but give us no detailed account, and arguing that Ugaritic te
of which the
I . 2 8 It was in his reign that make mention but give uswith
to Babylon and it was inIt his in his reign that Marduk's
wasreign Marduk is first referred to as plundered statue was restored the latter was a primordial battle associated detailed
no the account,
creation of and argu
king of the gods; accordingly,
to Babylon and it was in his
Enuma elish was written as a theo-reign Marduk is first referred to as the w o r l d . 30 the latter was a primordial battle associated with the cre
logical explanation ofking howofMarduk
the gods; hadaccordingly,
become king. Enuma elish at
An origin was written as a theo- the world. 30
this time makes an Amorite origin much of
logical explanation less likely.
how Furthermore,
Marduk had become it king. An origin at That Baal also defeated Thata Baal
dragon alsoLeviathan
defeated ais dragon
indicated by the is indicate
is now clear, according to Lambert, that certain themes relating to Furthermore, following text {CTAfollowing text
= KTU (CTA 5.1.1-3 =where KTV M1.5.1.1-3),
ot whe
the conflict have theirthis Amorite origin
timein the victories of the god Ninurta and
origin makes an much less likely. it
these have been applied is now clear, according to Lambert,
to Marduk. Ninurta himself is known to that certain themes relating to addresses Baal as addresses Baal as follows:31
have defeated Tiamat theandconflict
aspectshave oftheir
Ninurta's in the victories
origin victory (using the of the god Ninurta and 1 btn. ktmbs. ltn.
1 Because youb{n. br(1Leviathan
smote Becausethe you smote Leviathan the
force of the storm) these over haveAnzubeen have been to
applied appropriated
Marduk. Ninurta t o o , 2 9himself is known to twisting serpent, twisting serpent,
including the idea that it is the third god who attemptsof to over-
Ninurta's victory (using the tkly.made
2(and) bin. 'qltn
come the power endangering have defeated Tiamat and aspects
the gods of the pantheon who is
2 btn. 'qltn an end of the (and) made an end of the crooked
successful, and who force of the storm) over
is then rewarded. Such common themes as Anzu have been appropriated too,29 serpent, serpent,
exist between Enumaincluding elish andthe theidea Baal-Yam the third
that it isconflict god who
cannot be attempts to over- 3 Sly{.
3the d.Sb't.with
tyrant r'aSm the tyrant with seven heads,
seven heads,
attributed to direct come influence mustendangering the gods of to the pantheon who is 4 ttrp. 4 tjkb
the ttrp.
skies 5mm.
will become hot skies will
the(and) will shine
become hot (and) wil
the but
power rather be attributed a
common intellectual successful,
background. The upshot of all this is that one
and who is then rewarded. Such common themes as The fact that Leviathan
cannot postulate a West Semitic background to Enuma elish, and conflict cannot be
The fact that alluded
is here Leviathan to isas here
'the alluded
crooked to as 'the
consequently the latter exist between
is not capable Enuma clish and the Baal-Yam
of supplying support to the serpent, the tyrant with seventhe tyrant
serpent, with it
makes seven
clearheads" is Levi-it clear that it
that itmakes
Baal be attributed to athan that Anat alsoathan
attributed to direct conflictbut
influence must rather a
view that the Canaanite mythology of the between claimsthat Anat overcome
to have also claimsinto have
lines overcome
37-9 of the in lines 37-
and the sea/dragon was common intellectual
associated creation. The upshot of all this is that onefollowing passage {CTA
with thebackground. following passage (CTA = KTU 3.II1D. 34-IV.47 = KTV 1.3.II1.3
cannot postulate a West Semitic background to Enuma elish, andin which her victoriesinover which
Baal's victoriesare
her enemies over Baal's enemies are cited.
consequently the latter is not capable of supplying support to the
34 yp'. 34 mn. 'ib. Whatyp*. foe
lb'l.has What foe has risen up agai
$rt risen up against
view that the Canaanite mythology of the conflict between Baal
Baal, Baal,
and the sea/dragon was associated with the creation. 35 Irkb. 'rpt.
35 'rpt. (What)ImbSt.
enemymddhas risen(What)against enemy has risen aga
A possible solution toA our possible
problem solution our problem lies
lies intodistinguishing in distinguishing between
the Rider of the clouds?the Rider of the clouds?
Surely I smote Surely I smote
36 ym. nhr. 36 'if ym.Yam,
rbm Iklt. nhr. *il.
beloved rbm
of Yam,
surely beloved of El, surely
I made
27 Iam for
27 I am grateful to Prof. Lambert grateful to Prof
discussing withLambert
me his forrevised views. with
discussing me his revised views. A brief
A brief
outline of some of them may outline
be found some of them
of in his article ' may be found in his article
Forschungsstand der 'Zum Eorschungsstand der an end of River, the an
mighty end of River, the migh
sumerisch-bahylonischen ZDMG Suppl. 3, 1 (1977),ZDMG
Literatur-Geschichte ', pp. Suppl. 3, I (1977), pp.
69-71. 69-71.
28 W.G. Lambert, 'The reign28 WofG Lambert. 'The Ireign
Nebuchadnezzar of Nebuchadnezzar
: a turning point in the history 1: a turning point in the history
religion', in The McCullough
W.S, Seed (ed.). The Seed 0J30 30 This possibility was debriefly suggested J.C. dep.Moor,
SeasonalbyPattern, Seasonal Patt
of ancient ancient Mesopotamian
ofreligion', in W.S. McCullough (ed.), of This possibility was briefly suggested by J.C. Moor, 41
and 31, although
notn.treat he does S.E. the problem in detail. S.E. Loew
not treat
Wisdom. Essays in Honour Wisdom. Essays
T.J. Meek in Honour
(Toronto, 1964), pp. Meek (Toronto. 1964). pp. 3-13
of T.J and n. 31, although he does the problem in detail.
29 See 29 See Stn
1875 in Landsberger, 'Einige in Landsberger,
1875 unerkannt 'Eimge
gebliebene oder unerkanni
verkannte gebliebcne oder vcrkannte ‫ןרא‬7‫היסבמ‬ ‫מיתוס‬ ‫אזי‬ ‫וזמזתו‬‫ אוגרית‬1‫הים בנתב‬ ‫מיתתז‬,
', WZKM ST (1961), p. 10, n, 46, line 5: tam-tum (1969).
(1969), pp. 96-101, suggests that pp. 96-101,the
originally conflictthat
suggests originally
between Baal the
the between Baa
Nomina des WZKMdes57Akkadischen
Nomina (1961), p. 10, n. 46, line 5:
reins of lordship .[. . J' Presumably it god with
of thecreation,
sea was andassociated
the godwith creation, the god of the sea w
and have
x[] 'As for Tiamat,
ser-ra-at he-lu-tu x[J of
the reins ' Aslordship . [ . . .the
for Tiamat, ] ' Presumably it god of the sea was associated of the sea would
went on to say that Ninurta on 10 saythese
went snatched Ninurta
that reins snatchedfrom
for himself Thefor himself from her The
theseher. had monstrous form. Thishad he monstrous
finds This he finds
the Old reflected
Testament the Old Testament
previous line mentions 'Asakku, mentions
kingship [. . 'Asakku,
.', and it his kingship [. that
is well-known . .', and it is well-known that rashic
allusions to the dragon allusions
conflict andto theindragon
also conflict and also
the Marduk-Tiamat in the Marduk-Tiama
Ninurta had a struggle with Ninutta had a demon.
the Asakku struggle The the Asakku
withfollowing demon.
lines, The following lines, 6-7, refer
6-7, refer Later the connection withLater the connection
creation with creation
and the monstrous form of andthethe
would form of the g
to his battle with the Anzu his battle
to bird. with ittheis Anzu
Although not possible is not possible to give a precise
to give ait precise
bird. Although have disappeared and this have disappeared
he finds reflected and
in thethis he finds reflected
text fromin the Baal-Yam test from
Assyrian known copy goes, but obvi-31 31 On the in problems of translation verses,and
in these see the
J.A. following verses
date to the text, it is Latedate
Assyrian far it
to thesotext, asistheLate
known copy so goes, butthe
far as obvi- On the problems of translation these and the following
ously a library text, and soously a library
unlikely to be text, so unlikely
and copy
the first ever. But to be no the
wouldcopy ever. But no one would Emerton, 'A difficult partEmerton, difficult topart
of Mot's'Amessage of inMot's
Baal message to
the Ugaritic Baal in the Ugari
suspect that Ninurta mythology thatbased
Ninurta mythology since was based on Marduk's, since in general it is Austrialian
Journal of Biblical Journal
Archaeology no.Biblical
2, of Archaeology
1 (1972), pp. 50-71, 2, andno. I(1972), pp. 50-71, a
suspectwas on Marduk's, in general it is
exactly the opposite way round. theMarduk's
opposite way round Cf.ofMarduk's
appropriation motifs from appropriation
the of motifs from the 'A further note on CTA 'A further UFnote on CTA
10 (1978), pp.5J.4-6',
73-7. InVPthe 10 (1978),
latter pp he
article 73-7. In the latter
see On
myth, the AnzuDermyth, see B. HruSka,Anzu inDer Mythenadler Anzu In
modifies in
modifies some of his conclusions somethe of his ofconclusions
light A. van in the'Alight of A. van Selms, 'A s
Anzu myth. On the Anzu Anzumyth, B. Hruska, Mythenadler
Mesopotamien (Budapest, 1975).
des alten 1975). approach to UF 7 to CTA 5,1,1 8'. I
pp. 477-82. IF 7 (1975), pp 477-82.
Literatur und des alien und Vorstellung
!.iterator (Budapest,
14 14 theGod's
God's conflict with conflict
dragon and the the dragon and the sea
withsea Creation and the divine conflictaiul the
Citation 15 divine conflic

37 tnn. 3 3
37 ]I'iStbra." Surely lifted up the Surely
tnn. I'tStm[ dragon,IIlifted . . . up the dragon, I. .. It is important to note It isthatimportant
neither toLeviathan note thatnor neither
any of Leviathan
the nor an
38 mbst. btn. 'qltn 38 mbit (and) bin. 'qltn
smote the crooked (and) smote the crooked serpent,
serpent, other monsters alluded other to monsters
in the above alluded text,tois in the aboveintext,
mentioned the is mentione
39't. 39 $lyt. dib't. the tyrant r'aimwith the seven tyrant with the seven heads.
theheads. account of Baal's defeat account of Yam of Baal's in CTA defeat2 of (= Yam KTU in1.2). CTOne A 2 ( = KTU 1
40 'ar[s] 40 mbSt- Imdd smote 'ilm. 'ar[§) beloved of I smote Ar[S] beloved of El, might care to argue, might of course, care thatto argue, their of defeatcourse, wasthat their defeat
described in was desc
41 'il. 'tk 41 smt. 'gl. I put 'tk end to El's calfIput
'il. an Atikan end to El's calf Atik
part of the broken section part ofofthe CTA broken 2 ( =section
KTU of 1.2).CTA Although2 (= KTV this 1.2). Althou
42 'ist 42 mb$t.Iklbt. smote 'ilm El's'iitbitch the Fire, Ismote El's bitch the Fire,
cannot be ruled out cannot entirely,beit ruled is striking that theitpreserved
out entirely, is strikingfrag- that the preserv
43 bt. 'il. dbb. 43 kit. bt. 'il dbb. 'imlbS•
ksp made an end of ksp
El's made
daughter antheend of El's daughter the
Flame. I will conquer the Flame.silver, Iwill conquer the silver, ments of CTA 2 ( = KTU
rncnts of
1.2)CTA strongly 2 (= KTU
give the 1.2) strongly
impression give
that the impress
44 'itrt. b'l 44 'itri. br$• I will!rd. take b'l possession ofIwill the gold take possession of the gold Yam stands alone Yam
against stands
Baal andaloneit against
seems Baal
surprising and thatit the
seems text surprising that
of him who has driven of Baal him who has driven Baal as we have it has not as we
the have
slightest it has
not the
to slightest
any allusion
accomplices, if
to any accom
45 45 brnrym. from the heights of Zaphon,
$pn.m5$$.k.'$r from the causingheights of Zaphon. causingsuch there were. Thesuch virtuallytheredecisive
were. The virtuallyindecisive
argument support argument of the in suppo
(him) like a bird to flee(him) like a bird to flee view that CTA view that CTA ( = KTU 3.IIID.34-IV.47
1.3.III.37-IV.3) (= KTU refers 1.3.III.37-
to IV.3)
46 'udnh. grsh. 46 'udnh.his lks't. mlkh
grih. expelling hishim lordship,34 expelling him some other occasionsome than other the eventsoccasion of than CTA the 2 (= KTU of1.2),
events CTA 2 (= KT
from his royal throne, from his royal throne, however, lies in the however, role ascribed lies in to theAnat role in ascribed
the former Anat in the former
to passage.
47 drkth 47 lnbt Ikbl• drkth
from the resting place, from the seat the resting place, the scat There she herself laysThere claimshe to herself
have smitten lays claim Yam,tothus havemaking smittenanYam. thus ma
of his dominion. of his dominion end of him. It seems end of him. to
impossible It seems
reconcile impossible
this withtothe reconcile
accountthis with the
It has sometimes been It hassupposed
sometimes been supposed
that Leviathan is simply that to Leviathan
be is simply to be in CTA 2 ( = KTU in
1.2),CTAfor 2 (=
there KTU
it is 1,2),
clear for
that there
Baal it
aloneis slew that Baal alo
equated with However,
equated withagainstYam.35thisHowever, stands the against
fact that this thestands the fact that the Yam. By the time the Yam.
text By
breaks the time
off Yam the is
textalreadybreaks ofT
dead Yam
(cf. is already dead (
names Yam and Leviathan names never Yam and appear Leviathan
togethernever appear together
in parallelism in in parallelism in2.IV.32, 34 = KTU 2.IV.32,
1.2.IV.32, 34 34)= soKTU that 1,2.
there IV. 32.
is no34) role
so that
for Anat
there is no role f
such a way as to suggest such that a way they as are identical
to suggest that they are
(contrast Yam identical
and (contrast Yam and to play in killing Yam to play
in the in fewkilling
broken Yam linesin the
that few broken
remain. At lines
the that remain
Judge River, which frequently Judge River, occur which frequently occur
in parallelism). Nor in is parallelism),
there Nor is there same time, the story same of time,
Baal's the
defeat storyof of
Yam Baal's
is defeat
sufficiently of well
Yam is sufficien
anything to suggest anything that Yam,tolike suggestLeviathan, that Yam. had like the form Leviathan, of a had the form of apreserved to make it preserved clear that to Anatmake didit not clearassist that inAnat killing didYam, not assist in killin
dragon. On the one dragon. occasionOn in the which one Yam occasion and in which Yam
Leviathan are and Leviathan arc whatever other role whatever
she might other
conceivablyrole she havemight had conceivably
in any earlier have had in any
mentioned together, in the abovetogether,
mentioned text, it is the above
in clear that they text,are it istwo clear that they are two broken part of CTA broken
2 ( = KTU
part of
1.2). CTA The 2 only
(= KTU
conclusion 1,2). The
that it
only conclusion
of a series of four creatures of a series of four by
overcome Anat (cf.
creatures lines 36,by37-9,
overcome Anat (cf. lines 36, 37-9. seems possible to drawseems is possible
that Anat, to draw
together is that
with Baal
Anat, (cf. CTA
together with Baal (c
40-1, 42-3), the verbrnhfls 40 I,'smite' 42-3), the being verb mbi 'smite'
employed oncebeing in connec-employed once in connec- = KTU 5.1.1 3
= KTU Yam,
Leviathan, defeated and Yam,
the Leviathan,
other and th
tion with each of them. tion with each of them. monsters on some occasion
monsters on
other some
than occasion
the events otherof than
CTA 2the ( = events of CT
KTU 1.2.). This conclusion KTU 1.2.). This conclusion
is reinforced by the is fact reinforced
that we by do the fact that
32 sbm has generally been32rendered Shin hasasgenerally
' been rendered
However, as ÿmuscle".
J . Barr, ' Ugaritic However,
and J Bare, 'Ugaritic andpossess brief, thoughpossess fragmentary,brief, though allusions fragmentary,
to the defeat allusions
of the to the defea
Hebrew Hebrewpp."kbm'T.
18 (1973), 17-39, has JSSshown18 (1973),that pp. Arabichas
the 17-39. shown thai ihc Arabic evidence
on which this view was on based doesthis
which notview was based
substantiate such does not substantiate
a meaning. Barr such a meaning. Barrdragon (i.e. Leviathan) dragon by (i.e.
both Leviathan)
Baal and by
Anat, both
in Baal
Ugaritic and texts Anat, in Ugari
tentatively suggests that the meaning suggests
tentatively is something that thelikemeaning is something
' lift up, remove, get ridlike ' lift up. remove, get rid which clearly come from whicha clearly different come scribe from from a different
Elimelek,scribe the one from F.limclck,
o f in CTA 3.IIID.37 ( = KTU of' in CTA 3.IIID.37
1.3.III.40), a meaning|- KTU,
developing from a basic developing from a basic
n meaning who transcribed CTA who 1-6 transcribed
1.1-6). 1-6
The (= KTU
occurrence 1.1 -6).
of the The occurrenc
meaning 'be high' attestedmeaning in South'be high' attested
Arabian. In KTUin1.83.8-9 South Arabian.
(UT 1003.8-9), In KTU 1.83.8-9 {UT 1003.8-9),
a passage reminiscent of CTA 11 passage reminiscent of CTA 3.HID.37 = KTU
3.IIID.37 KTU 1.3.III.40), we (
read in con-, we read in con•rare root in rare
connection root $bm
with in
Anat's connection
defeat of with
the Anat's
dragon defeat
in the of the drago
nection with Anat, (tnn).
ncction with tst. If we follow
Anat, ran (tnn).Barr, lihmthistit. If wc' follow
means She putBarr, the this means 'She put the first of these passages, firstinofKTU these 1.83.8,
passages, as in in CTA KTU3.IIID.37 1.83.8, as( =in C7\4 3.IIID
dragon on high', which then formsonanhigh
dragon excellent
'. which parallel
then forms to thean excellentwords
following parallel to the following wordsKTU 1.3.III.40) above, KTU puts1 .3.111.40)
it beyondabove, doubtputs thatitthis beyond is thedoubt event that this is th
in lines 9-10, trks 'she bound
in lines it to
9-10, theImrym
trks heights'.'she bound it to the heights'.
33 Prof. D. Pardee has examined33 Ptof.the Pardee
D.text hashand
at first examined the lexl
and states that first hand
at 'istm[ ] is toand states that 'firm[ ] is to
10 which the latter to
passage which is the latter
referring. passage is referring.
be read here. Accordingly,be this
readform here. Accordingly,
is not a repetition thisofform is not
the first word in the of the firsl word in the
a repetition
line as is often supposed. The line as ix often supposed.
second-last The second-last
letter is probably / or d, and letter probably Ior if, and the last
theislast KTU 1.83.3-10 (UT 1003.3-10) KTU 1.83.3-10 (1ÿ T 1003.3-10)
letter certainly h, p or 'i. letter certainly h, p or '1.
34 See J. 34
ug. See BasisJ. Sanmartin.
NSS und das ' Die ug. Basis des B'l NSS(KTU und das 1.3 I"VNest * des B'l (KTU 1.3 IV If.)',
3 b'ars
In3 the land of In the land of
UF 10 (1978), pp. 449-50UF for 10 (1978),
this renderingpp. 449-50of rendering
this 'udnh.
forfc.'sr It has m5«. k.'yr 'uJrth It has the
of the 4 t r p 3 6 ym. 4 rt1(jmn. trp3' ym.
it swirled (?) the Mbnm sea, it swirled (7) the sea,
advantage of putting a verb of expulsion
advantage of putting
in this aline,'verbcause to flee' in this line, 'cause to flee' (S-partieipIc
of expulsion
of paralleling 'drive out' paralleling
of njjl. in the preceding (rd 'drive lineout' and in grsthe in theline and gri 'expel' in the36 KTU has '(?)rp or
'expel' 36 KTU this '(word
for has ')ÿÿ/) or
and 1( /")'(
t'rp?)rp line this
in for 6 but wordProf. and t'rp in line 6 but Pro
following line. following line. who has examined the tablet who at ha* examined the tablet
hand, informs me atthat firsttrphand, informs
and ttrp are me that [rp an
35 A.S. Kapelrud, Baal in35 theA.S.Ras Kapcltud, Baal
texts In the Rax Shamra
(Copenhagen, 1952), texts (Copenhagen, 1952), pp. 101-2.
pp. 101-2. virtually certain (with virtually certain !with UT).
16 16 theGod's
God's conflict with conflict
dragon and the the dragon and the sea
withsea Creation
Creation and the divine conflictand the divine confl
5 its5 tongues
lsnm. tlfik.
licked its tongues licked,
it is possible that this it is possible
passage, that this
coming as itpassage,
does atcoming as it
6 smm. ttrp the6 heaven,
smm. ttrp its tails the heaven, its tails the very end of the Baal the very
cycle,end of the
refers Baaltime
to the cycle,of the
to end
the oftime of the ver
7 7 ym. (?)
swirled dnbtm.
the sea. swirled (?) the sea. the year and the approach the yearofand the theNewapproach
Year when of the New
the battleYear
withwhen the ba
8 (tnn). She8 t'an
put the
(tnn). lsbm
dragon She put the dragon the dragon was in people's minds. 4 1 This is significant for the point
the dragon was in people's minds.41 This is significant for th
9 tst. trks on9 high, 37
tst. trks she bound it on high,3 7 she bound it issue here,
at issue here, since the at creation of since the creation
the world of the world
would naturally havewould natura
10 t o the
10 Ibnn38
lmrym. of Leban . heights of Lebanon.
too nthe
been regarded as occurring been regardedat the time as occurring
of the very at the
first time of
New Year, the very first Ne
KTU 3(UT 1001.1-3) KTU 1.82.1-3 (UT 1001.1-3) so that this provides so that this
evidence thatprovides evidencemay
the Canaanites that have
the Canaanites
associ- may have
1 [ ] b'l [ ]y. t n n .1 [ mfi§.‫נ‬ ] tnn. wygl. wynsk. '[ ]
b'l [ ]y.
wynsk.'[ ated the creation with atedthethe creation
conflict withwiththe the conflict
dragon. 4 2 with the dragon.42
In any case, In a
2 [ ]y. l'ar$. 2 [ ]y.'idy. 'in 'alt. 1'alis. 'idy. 'alt. 'in ly
l'ar$. [.i]dy. quite apart from thisquite line of apart from this
argument line of
it must be argument it must be strongly
strongly empha-
3 [ ]t. b'l. rsp. bn. km. ]t. b'l. h1tsp• bn. km. yr. klyth. wlbh
3 [yr. sized that the fact that sized thethatOldthe fact that so
Testament thefrequently
Old Testament uses the so frequently
1 Baal smote . . . the dragon 1 Baalandsmote ... the
rejoiced and dragon
poured and rejoiced
.. and poured out . . . imagery of the divineimagery conflict of withthethe divine conflictand with
the sea theindragon
associ- and the sea in
2 ... on. .the
2 . . . o n the earth . . . support . I earth u p p o r t ... Ihave no support
have n. o. . ssupport ation with creation, ation when with creation,iswhen
this imagery this imagery
Canaanite, leads one is Canaanite,
to leads
3 . . . the archer Resheph, 3 ...son
the of archer Resheph,
Km, shot son of Km,
his kidneys his his kidneys and hisexpect that the Canaanites
and shot that theconnected
expectlikewise Canaanitesthe likewise
two themes.connected the two them
heart. heart. There are grounds for There are grounds
believing, therefore, believing,
for that therefore, that the Ca
the Canaanites
The fact that both Baal Theand that both
factAnat are saidBaalto andhaveAnat are said
overcome theto have overcome themay have associated may
the have
creation associated
of the the
world creation
with of
Baal's thevictory
world with Baal's
dragon need involve dragon need involve
no contradiction, since contradiction,
no in the Baal-Mot since in the Baal-Mot cycle
cycle over the dragon and over
the the
sea, dragon
even and
though the
the sea, even
Ugaritic though
Baal-Yam the Ugaritic Ba
both Baal and Anat both are similarly Anat are similarly text
M o t ( attacking Mot (cf.
represented (CTA 2 = text
1.2) ( CT
is A
not 2 = KT
concerned J 1.2)
with is not
the concerned
creation. with the creatio
Baal and represented as attacking
CTA 17-22 = KTU 7, 6. VI. 17-22 = KTU
CTA 6.II.30—, 1.6.VI. 17-22).
17-22). does not imply that does
we not
should imply
regard that
Baalwe should
as the regard
creator, however. the creator, h
Baal as
When did the conflictWhen with the the conflict
did dragon take with
place? the dragon take place? An indication
indication Rather this function Rather
amongst thisthe function
Canaanites amongst seems the Canaanites
to have been seems to ha
is provided by the Ugariticis providedtext by the Ugaritic( text = KTU 6.VI.50-2 (= KTU 1.6.VI.51—
CTA1.6.VI.51- appropriated by appropriated
as is attested by byEl as
various is attested
inscriptions by referring
various inscriptions r
3), where at the very3), endwhereof the the very
at Baal cycleend of the Baa!
contained in CTA contained in C TA 1-6
cycle 1-6
(= KTU 1.1-6) we find (ÿ= KTU 1.1-6)towethe
a reference find a reference
threat posed by the threat
to the sea posed by the sea compared the description compared the description
of the destruction of the calf
of the golden destruction of theSee
in Ex. 32:20. golden calf in Ex. 3
my critical comments in Ch.my2,critical
n. 62. comments in Ch. 2, n. 62.
monsters Ars and themonstersdragon (tnn Ar§ =and the dragon (tnn = Leviathan).
Leviathan). 41 Cf. .J.C, de Moor, op. cit., p. 244, and
41 Cf. J.C. de Moor, op. cit., p. 244, and New Year with Canaanites New Year with1Canaanites and Is
and Israelites
50 'ars. wtnn In50
thebym. 'ars.Ars
sea are wtnn thethe
and In sea are ArS and the dragon,
dragon, (Kampen, 1972), pp. 5-6. (Kampen,
M.J. Mulder, 1972),
' H app. 5-6.inM.J.
t man UgaritMulder, 'Hat man in Ugarit die Son
die Sonnenwende
begangen?', UF 4 begangen?',
pp. 79-96, UF relates 4 (1972), pp. 79-96,
this passage to therelates
time this
of the passage to the tim
ktr. wbss. yd 51 ktr. wjjss. yd
May driveKothar-and-yasis
May (them) away, drive (them) away,
winter solstice. However, winter
this is solstice.
surely too However,
late. The thispassage
is surely too late.
follows imme- The passage follow
52 ytr. ktr. 52 ytr. ktr. wfiss May Kotharÿandÿyasis
cut (them) off. cut (them) off. diately after Baal's victory diately
over Mafter Baal's victory to
o t , corresponding overtheMot, of the first rainto the time of the
time corresponding
in the autumn,
in the autumn, which is usually in September which(cf. is de
Moor, in Seasonal
(cf. de Moor, Seasona
Since the mythSinceclearly Baal myth
the contains seasonal 39
contains seasonal
clearly elements (e.g. elements39 (e.g. pp. 98, 238.) pp. 98, 238.)
Anat's treatment of Anat's M o t like c o r n 4 0 of
treatment CTA like
in Mot corn40 = CTA 6.II.30-35 = KTU42 KTU 1.83 (UT 1003)42and
in KTU KTU 1.83
If KTU 1.82 (UT
(UT 1003)1001) and KTU 1.82
are explicitly (UT 1001)
concerned are explicitly conce
the creation of the world,the thecreation
references of the
to the world, the references
heavens and Lebanon to the(KTU heavens and Leban
1.83.6, 10)
1.83.6, 10) and the earth (KTU andasthealready
1.82.2) earth (existing
KTU 1.82.2) would ashave already
to beexisting would h
37 Cf. above, n. 32. 37 Cf. above, n. 32. taken as referring to them taken
in their referring tochaotic
asprimordial them instate, primordial to
theircomparable chaotic
Gen. state, comparab
38 KTU has lbn*t but 38is KTU
certainhas lhn*\D but
(Prof. Ibnn is certain (Prof D. Pardee).
. Pardee). 1:1-2 and Ps. O n 1:1-2
the other Ps. 74:12.
and hand, if they the other hand,
Onpresuppose the worldif they presuppose the wo
in its
39 Cf.op.
39 Cf. especially, J . C . de Moor, especially, de Moor,
J.C. who
cit., passim, sees a op. cit., passim,
seasonal patternwho sees a seasonal pattern under- present state and simply relate
under- presentto the andofsimply
statetime the New relate
Year, one time
to the may of still New Year, one may
lying the whole Baal cycle.lying the whole
We need all de We
Baal cycle.
not follow Moor's not follow
needexamples in all de Moor's examples in order that creation, the time of the
order creation,
thatfirst New Year,the time of the firstsimilar
presupposed New Year,
events.presupposed similar even
to accept that there are clear seasonal
to accept that there are
elements in the seasonal elements in the work.
clearwork. 43 B.Creation
43 B. Margalit, 'The Ugaritic Margalit, M *The Ugaritic
y t h : fact CreationUF
or fiction?', Myth: fact orpp.
13 (1981), fiction?', UF 13 (
40 We read there, 'She seized 40 We readMthere,
divine *Shea seized
o t , with blade shedivine
splitMot, sieve she split him, with a sieve 137-45, has recently queried
witha ablade
him,with 137-45, has recently
the view that queried
was regarded the view that El of
as creator wastheregarded as crea
she winnowed him, with fire winnowed
sheshe burnt him, him, with
with fire she burnt
mill-stones him, with
she ground him,mill-stones
in she ground him, in cosmos at Ugarit. However, cosmos at However,
his argument based on his and nois alterna-
silence based on silence and n
field she
a field she sowed him.' Thea piling up sowed him.' Theterms
of agricultural piling up is
here agricultural terms here is unmistakable. tive deity is proposed for this
of unmistakable. deityIndeed,
live role. is proposed there for thismore
is no Indeed,
role.likely there is in
candidate, no more likely can
See J . C . de Moor, op. cit., Seepp.J.C. dc Moor, for the op.detailed 208 -15 for the
cit., pp.interpretation of detailed
this interpretation of this view of the fact that is view
clearly the fact to
of alluded thatas El is clearly
creator of the alluded
earth to outside the of the earth o
as creator
passage and a refutation of S.E. and a refutation
passage ' Theof S.E. Loewenstanim,
Ugaritic fertility myth 'The - Ugaritic fertility myth Ugaritic texts, including oneUgaritic
from texts,
the timeincluding
of their from the time
onecomposition of their composition (E

the result of a mistranslation', pp. 87-8, IEJ

the result of12a (1962). and 12'The(1962). pp. 87-8. and The Ugaritic and
Ugaritic and El
certainly is the creator mankind is
of certainly (asthewell as theofgods)
creator mankind (as well
at Ugarit. The as the gods) at U
fertility myth - a reply", infertility13myth(1963), app. reply',
130-2,in who 13 (1963),that
IEJ thought 130-2, who thought thai nothing fact that
pp.nothing fact thatseems
on present evidence, El, on presenttoevidence,
unlikely have engaged seems in unlikely to have engaged in th
more than the simple destructionmore than of the was indestruction
M o tsimple mind. In 'Theof Mot was inand
making mind, in 'The making and conflict (unlike Baal), is notconflict (unlike against
an argument Baal), ishis an argument
nothaving against
been creator of his
the having been crea
destruction of the golden destruction Biblicaof 48 goldenpp.
the(1967), calf,
481-90, 48 (1967). pp. 481-90, Loewenstamm cosmos.
BiblicaLoewenstamm cosmos.
18 God's conflict 18 theGod's
dragon withseathe dragon and the sea
and the
conflict Creation
Creation and the divine conflictand the
19 divine confl

to qn creator ' 4 4 (cf. Gen.

of'44 22) (cf. Gen. 14:19, 22) which74, 89, 65. and 93, 74, (cf.
89, Ps. 104.29 65.and andthe93,implications
(cf. Ps. 29 and the24).
of Ps. implications of
to '/ofqnthe'(*?e a'El
r t h creator which
of the 2nd mil- myth of the 2nd mil-What was the specific What
Sitz was
im the
Leben specific
of this Sitz im Leben of
motif this
in important mo
appears as as Elkunirsa in a Canaanite-Hittite
in a Canaanite-Hittite
lennium and the UgariticB.C.43epithets
and the bny epithets
of Ugaritic of El
'creator ofhnv bmvt 'creator ofJerusalem cult? There Jerusalem
are many cult?
which are many
strongly factors
that strongly sug
created things' (CTA created things' etc. = 4.11.11. 6.III.5, etc. = KTU
6.IIT.5. (C'T/1 '1.4.II.11, it, was an aspect of theit was
Feast an ofaspect of
Tabernacles, the Feast
and of
here Tabernacles,
it would haveand here it wo
etc) and 'Father of ,ah 'adrn 'Father of mankind' 43, etc.(CTA = 14,1.37, 43, etc. = been one of the motifsbeen one
associated of the
with motifs associated
Yahweh's kingship. with Yahweh's kingship.
etc) and
KTU 43, KTU,43, etc.) 46 Ps. 74, 93 and 29 Ps. 74, 93 associate
explicitly and 29 explicitly
the Chaoskampf associate with the Chaoskam
We shall now turn toWe the shall
Old now Testament the Oldbearing
turn tomaterial Testament on thematerial bearing on the Yahweh's kingship, Yahweh's
just as the kingship,
Ugaritic just
Baal as the
myth Ugaritic
connects Baal
Baal's myth connec
and with the but
dragon and the sea, but before victory over Yam victory
with his over Yam
enthronement with and his enthronement
Enuma elish and
links Enuma eli
theme of the divine conflict
theme of with
thethe divine
dragon conflict the sea, before
considering individual passages we
considering individual
shall deal passages
with the shall deal
wequestion of with the question of Marduk's kingship Marduk's
with his kingship
overcoming with
of his
Tiamat. overcoming
We know of Tiamat.
that We kn
the latter was the
celebrated latter
in the was celebrated
Babylonian Newin the
Year Babylonian
(Akitu) New
fes- Year { Ak
the Sitz itn Leben of the themotif in Leben
Sitz im the motif in ancient Israel.
t i v a l , 4 7 and the thesis tival,47
was first the thesis by
andsuggested wasP.first z , 4 8 and greatly
V o l suggested by P. V01z,4s and
elaborated by S. Mowinckel, elaborated 49
by S. Yahweh's kingship,that Yahweh's
more spe- kingship, m
The Psalms The Psalms
cifically his enthronement, cificallywas hissimilarly
enthronement,associated was withsimilarly associated with th
the Feast
Sitz Sitz im Leben of the Chaoskampf motif
Leben of the Chaoskampf of Tabernacles, whichoftook Tabernacles,
place around whichthe took timeplace
of the around the time of the Au
A number of passages in the Psalter alludeintothethePsalter allude to the
Chaoskampf Chaoskampf New Year in New Year
Israel in
(cf. pre-exilic
Ex. Israel (cf. Ex. 23:16,
Probably 34:22).50 Prob
A number of passages
it specifically Ps. creation include
to the should
Ps. regard it as should
taking regard
place on it
the as taking
eve of place
the New on the
Year, eve of
rather the New Yea
motif. Those which motif.itThose which torelate
specifically the creation include
than at the beginning thanof theat the New beginning
Year, since,of the of New Year, since, of the exp
the expressions
44 The expression qn 44 occurs 'I qn 'rj occurs
in the Phoenician
The expression inscription Azitawaddainscription of Azitawadda
in theof Phoenician
front Karatepe and in (KAI
26 from Karatepe a 26 A.I 11. 1 8) and infrom
inscription Leptis inscription from Leptis
a neo-Punic
18.1 [RS 1929. no. 17. 18.1 [RS
where 1929,
777ft no. 17,
appears to 1],
be where 'il'ihalongside
mentioned appears to77be mentioned alongs
Magna, 129. 1).Tripolitania
(KAIMagna, In addition, (KAI 129. 1). In addition,
the form n a form 'Iqwnr occurs in a
occurs i the
and v '17).are
the fact that 'ars >and thementioned
fact that 'ar$ iv smm in
after areno way guarantees mentioned after him in no way g
bilingual text from Palmyra, bilingual he isfrom
where text equated with where
Palmyra, Poseidon (J.equated
he is Cantineau, with Poseidon (J. Cantineau,
that they are his children. that they are his children.
'Tadmorea. No. 31: Un
N o . 3 1 : U n Poseidon Poseidon palmyrenien
Syria pp. ',cf. G. 19, 1938, pp. 78-9, cf. G.
47 The
47 The festival was celebrated festival
under the Latewas celebrated
Babylonianunder kingsthe Late Babylonian
(625-539 B.C.) and kings (625- 539
Levi delta Vida, Leviindelia
GenesisVida, 'El *ElyonJBL 63, 1944,14p.18-20',
in Genesis N . JBL 63, 1944, p. 8). N.
of the old city of Jerusalem, 1971', was essentially the same aswas far essentially
back as 750 theB.C.samein as far back
Babylon. Howas 750
much in Babylon. How mu
'Excavations in the Jewish'Excavations
Avigad, quarter of the the Jewish
in old quarter
city of Jerusalem, ', it went
it went back is not known. I t is back
clear isthat known.elish
notEnuma It iswas clearrecited
that Enuma
on 4th elish was recite
J 22 pp. refers22to(!972),
IEJ a seventh centuryrefers
pp. 195-6, E.G. to a seventhwhich
inscription century he B.C. inscription which he
be no certaintyisthat this reconstruction is Nisan and that later, either Nisan
on theand8th, that10thlater,oreither
11th on Nisanthe Marduk's
8th, 10th or 11th Nisan Marduk
restores as qn but restores
there can as be 'r$, but there
['/]noqncertainty can reconstruction
that this over Tiamat was ritually
over Tiamat was ritually enacted, his statue (or cultenacted,
symbol)his being (or cult
statue on asymbol) being pl
correct. correct. dais representing the sea daisin the representing
A k i t u house. the On in this
sea all the Akitu
see W.G. house. On all this see W.G.
45 The text containing 45 The the Hittite
form Elkunirsa clearly the
text containing form
refers to ElkunirSa clearly
as his wife is refers to El, as his wife is 'The great battle of the 'The great battle religious Mesopotamia!!
of theyear. The conflictreligious
in the AkTtu
year. The conflict in
p. 519, (Asherah)
Aÿertu cf. H . Often,(ANET p. 519, cf. H. Otten,
' E m, kanaanaischer Mythus 'Ein auskanaanaischer Mythus aus house', Iraq 25 (1963), p phouse', and25 (1963),and
1, 1953, pp. 125-50). . 189-90, Iraq pp.ritual
189-90, and 'Mythbyand
as conceived theritual as conceiv
Mitteilungen des Bogazkoy
Instituts furMitteilungen des Instituts 1, furp pOrientforschung
. Babylonians',
JSS 13 (1968), pp. 104-12. JSS See13too(1968),
S.A. pp. 104-12. The See Babylonian
too S.A. Pallis. The B
46 J.C. de Moor, J.C. de Moor,
the46Creator', 'El, the Creator',
in G . Rendsburg, R. in G. Arfa, N . H . R. Adler, M. Arfa, N.H.
M . Rendsburg, Akitu
Akitu Festival (Copenhagen, Festival
1926) (Copenhagen,
for materia! relating1926)
to the forfestival,
materia! though
relating to the festiva
Winter (edd.), The Bible Winter Essays The
World. (edd,), Bible of
in Honor World.
CyrusEssays in Honor
H. Gordon (Newof Cyrus H. Gordon (New note that it
to gothat beyondwas this and show that El was
note that it is now recognized is nowMarduk's
neither recognized resurrection
that neither norMarduk's
a ritual resurrection no
York, pp. York,
attempts 1980),
to go !71-87,this
pp.beyond attempts
and show
lists from Ugarit, KTU 1.148.23-5
marriage formed part of the marriage formedas part
celebrations Pallisof supposed.
the celebrations
Cf. von
Pallis en,
supposed. Cf. W. v
creator of the cosmos on creator the basis thetwo
of of cosmos on the
lists from Ugarit, of two 1.148.23-5
basis KTU ' G i b t es ein Zeugnis 'Gibt dass ein Babylonier
es die Zeugnis dafiir, an die dass die Babylonier an die Wicderauf
and V. 26.142, V.
and Ugaritica 170:13-15 I(nRSthe26.142,
lines former,lines of a In the former, part of a
part13-15). Marduks geglaubt haben?', MarduksZA 51, geglaubt
n.F. 17haben?',
(1955), pZA p . 51, n.F.and 17 W.G.
(1955), pp. 130-66, a
list of offerings to various list
gods, we find atolistvarious
of offerings gods, we
of sacrifices to find athen 'arssacrifices to 'il'ib, then 'ar$ w
list of
a list ofinUgaritic deities written in
Lambert, JSS 13 Lambert,
pp. 106-7. JSS 13 (1968), pp. 106-7.
and finally 77 The
smmlatter, part of'17a (El).
and finally list of TheUgaritic part ofwritten
latter, deities
and Hum [(?)]. De 48 P. Volz, P. Volz,(Tubingen,
48 Jahwes Das Neujahrsfest 1912). Jahwes (Tubingen, 1912).
Akkadian, has in succession ''?[ ] , has in[(.')
Akkadian, succession
u *I[ ], der$etu
and Hum [(?) u sc/mu(.")]
De 49 S. Mowinckel,
D I Nin
wasname the D , i.e.list was DINGIR.AD, i.e. 'il'ib,
. A latter
49 S. Mowinckel, Psalmenstudien 2 (Kristiania, Psalmenstudien
1922). Cf. too2 (Kristiania,
his work The1922). PsalmsCf. too his work Th
M o o r thinks that the firstMoor i n the that
latterthelistfirst GIR
in Israel's
almost identical list' in Ugaritica V. 170 (so J.C. de in Worship 1 (ET, Oxford, Worship
1962). 1 (ET, Oxford,
pp. 106-92 and 2. pp. 1962), pp. 106-92 and 2, pp. 222-50
' o n the analogy of the almost
'on the identical
analogylist' of the
in Ugaritica V. 170 (so J.C. de
Moor, 'The Semitic Pantheon UFPantheon Ugarit',
of 199). UF 2, a1970, p. 199). However, 50 a is generally accepted50that
It isEx.generally
23:16 and 34:22 that
accepted Ex.to23:16
testify and 34:22
the existence testify to the existe
of an
Moor,of'The Ugarit',
Semitic 2. 1970, p. However,
comparison of the two listscomparison
shows that of thethe two listsisshows
similarity that not
in reality great,is in reality not very great,
the very autumnal New Year in autumnal Israel New and Year in pre-exilic
the springIsrael Newand Yearthatwasthe spring New
in the Ugaritica V is uncertain. adopted adopted
the Babylonians just from
priorthe to Babylonians
or during thejust prior
exile, to or during
as indicated by the exile, as ind
so that the reconstruction so D I R . Areconstruction
I N Gthe
that D in the Ugaritica DINGIR.AD V is uncertain.
the use of Babylonian month names. Clines, however,
D. evidence
Anyway, the fact that 'il'ib Anyway,
is mentioned the fact that 'il'ib issmm
before mentioned
is held to before
justify'ar$thevv smm is held to justify the the use of Babylonian month names. D. however, in for in 'The evi
conclusion that regarded as a form regarded a form El, was
of and creator of heaven and earth, an autumnal new year inanpre-exilic autumnalIsrael year in pre-exilic
new reconsidered'. JBL Israel
93 pp.
reconsidered'. JBl. 93 (1
conclusion thatof'i/'ib,was creatorasof heaven earth,
thoseofinthree deities with those in
withseries doubts the existence of andoubts
autumnal the existence
New Yearofinan autumnalIsrael Newand Year in pre-exilic I
De Moor goes on, in fact,De to Moor
correlate goestheon,series
in fact, to correlate
of three deities the
of Byblos, Elioun called Earth,High,
the Most and Heaven and Earth, and Elos claims Ex. 23:16 and claims
34:22 thatsimply Ex.refer
23:16 to and
the 34:22 simplycycle
agricultural referand
to the agricultural cycle
Philo the Most High,
of Byblos, Elioun Heaven
called and
who is Kronos. However, who de Mis o oKronos.
r draws However,
larger conclusions drawsthelarger conclusions from the evidence the calendar year. This isthe calendarhowever.
unlikely, year. This Interis alia
later however.
Judaism's Intercele- alia later Judais
de Moor from evidence
than are justified, since, whilst form 'il'ib
of is(cf. very likely a V,form of E! (cf. Ugaritica V, bration of the New Year inbration
the Autumnof the is New Year in
rendered the Autumn is rendered inexplicable.
than 777ft is very likely
are justified, since,awhilst Ugaritica
20 God's conflict with
20 theGod's
conflict withseathe dragon and the sea
and the Creation
Creation and the divine conflictand the
21 divine confli
used to define the time used of tothedefine
festival, the time of the festival,
hassanah ' at the bÿjej
going hassanah 'at the going Thirdly, it appears that Thirdly,
the Ark it appears
was carried that in theprocession
Ark was carried at the in processio
out of the year' (Ex. out 23:16) of theandyear' (Ex.hassanah 23:16) and 'at teqitpat
the circuit hassanah
of of
'at the circuit festival of Yahweh's festival
of Yahweh's enthronement/kingship cf. Ps. 24:7ff., 47:6- cf. Ps. 24:7
the year' (Ex. 34:22),the theyear' former almost certainly refers to thecertainly
almost end refers to the end (ET 5), 68:2 (ET 1; cf. (ET Num.
5), 68:210:35).(ETThis 1; cf.isNum.
also referred to in Ps.
(Ex. 34:22), the former 132 (cf. 2 Sam. 6-7), and it is probably significant that 1 Kings
10:35). This is also referred t
of the any case, the Chaoskampf motif, intimately related
motif, intimately related 132
of the year.51 In any case, the Chaoskampj' (cf. 2 Sam. 6-7),
specifically links the bringing up of the A r k into the and it is probably significant
with that 1 Kin
to that of Yahweh's kingship, would have had its setting there also.
to that of Yahweh's kingship, would have had its setting there also. the Feast of specifically
Tabernacles. links the bringing up of the Ark into the Tem
Clearly so significant a theme as that of Yahweh's kingship or
enthronement must have Clearly hadsoitssignificant
setting i n a feast themeofas great of Yahweh's kingship or
thatimpor- the Feast of Tabernacles.
tance - one of the three great feasts must
enthronement and havenumeroushad its setting
other piecesin ofa feast of great impor-Fourthly, the theme of Fourthly,
Yahweh's thekingship
theme ofwas Yahweh's
closely kingship
associatedwas closely as
evidence support the view that this was Tabernacles. There is a
tance - one of the three great feasts - and numerous other pieces with the creation of with
of the worldthe creation
- cf. Ps.of the world 93:- cf.24: 7ff,
Ps. 74:12ff,
wide measure of support for this, even amongst scholars who Tabernacles. 93: If,, 24:
evidence support the view that this was are There isetc. a Also, it should be Also,
etc.noted it
that should
other be noted
psalms that
dealing with
other the
psalms dealing w
otherwise sceptical of theories.
wide measure of support for this, even amongst scholars who are Chaoskampf, to be dealt Chaoskampj,
with below, be dealt with
to associate it with the creation
below, associate-it with the cre
otherwise sceptical of Mowinckel's theories. cf. Ps. cf. Ps. 89: 1Off. (ET 9ff.),
Off. (ET 9ff.), (ET 6f.).104:What5ff, 65:7f.would (ET be 6f.). What w
First it may be notedFirst that it may be noted that Zech.refers
specifically thespecifically refers to the more appropriate more than for appropriate
the creation than (and for the with creation the (and with
celebration of Yahweh's kingshipofinYahweh's
celebration connection kingship
with the in connection
Feast of of
with the FeastChaoskampf) Chaoskampj)
to be celebrated abouttothe be celebrated
time of New Year,the
about whentimewe of New Year, w
Tabernacles: "Then everyone Tabernacles: that *Thensurvives of all the
everyone survivesthat
thatnations of all the nations that
recall that for the ancient recall Israelites
that for the creation
ancientwould naturally
Israelites creation havewould natura
have come against Jerusalem have come shallagainst year aftershall
go upJerusalem year go up year after year to worship
to worship been regarded as taking been regarded
place at theas time of the
taking firstatNew
place Year?of the first New Ye
the time
the king, the Lord ofthe hosts,king, and thetoLord keepofthe Feast
hosts, and of to keep the Feast of Tabernacles.Finally, there is evidence
Tabernacles. Finally, there isaevidence
suggesting link between suggesting a linkof
the festival between the fe
And if any of the families And of the of
if any earth
the do not goofup
families thetoearth do nottogo up to JerusalemYahweh's
Jerusalem to enthronement Yahweh's
and the enthronement
Covenant. Thus, and the the Covenant.
reference to Thus, the refer
worship the king, the Lord of
worship thehosts,
king,therethe Lord will be no rainthere
of hosts, uponwill be no rain upon the sin at Massah and the Meribah
sin at Massah in the and Meribah inPsalm,
Enthronement Ps.
the Enthronement Psa
them.' The mention them.' of rainThe here fits in of
mention wellrainwithhere thefits in well
motif of with the motif95:8 of is referred to in 95:8 is referredrenewal
the Covenant to in the Covenant
Psalm, Ps. renewal (ET 7). Psalm, Ps. 81:8
Yahweh's control of Yahweh's the cosmiccontrol waters of (cf.thethecosmic
Tabernacles (cf. the Tabernacles Psalm,
waters Psalm, Jewish tradition actually Jewish traditionPs.
associated actually withassociated
the New Ps. Year, 81 and
with the New Ye
Ps. 8ff. ET 7ff., which combines
Ps. 65:8ff. thesewhich
ET 7ff., combines
two motifs), andthese alsomotifs), and it is also
it is two similarly we find thatsimilarly we findbook
Covenant that Deutronomy
the Covenantwas book to Deutronomy
be wa
interesting that Zech.interesting
nations, which derives
14 contains
nations,from which
the conflict
motif 14
the conflict
the motifthe
the conflict
of the conflict with read
with chaos (cf. below,
the out every sevenread
and in Neh. 8:2
31 :9ff.),
out atevery
we read andthat
the seven
in Neh.
Feast years
of Tabernacles
read wethe
at the Feast
the law
of Tabernacles
read the book of
chapter 3). Althoughchapter the evidence 3). Although of Zech. the evidence of Zech. 14:16f. is sometimes
is sometimes at the time of the New the time of the New Year.
dismissed as late, it should dismissed be notedas late, it should
that (a) thisbe noted that
passage may (a) wellthis passage may well Taking all these points Taking all these pointsitinto
into consideration, mayconsideration,
be argued thatit may be argu
not be as late asnot be quite as late as is sometimes
is sometimes (b) the cult supposed,52
tends to (b) the cult tendsa to strong case can bea made strongincase can be
support of made in support
the argument thatof the the argument t
be very conservative be so very
that conservative
Zech. that Zech.
soprobably 14:16f.
reflects much probably reflects much motif of Yahweh's kingship, motif ofand Yahweh's
with it kingship,
the Chaoskampf and with with which
it the Chaoskampf with
older ideas, and (c) the older testimony
ideas, and (c) the testimony
of Zech. of Zech. by
is reinforced 14: 16f. is reinforcedwe byare primarily concerned we are here,primarily concerned
its Sitz im Leben here, had in theits Feast
Sit.z im Leben in th
other evidence to be considered other evidence below. to be considered below. of Tabernacles at New of Year's
Tabernacleseve. Since at New bothYear's
the Feast of Taberna-
eve. Since both the Feast of Ta
Secondly, the L X X heading Secondly,ofthe Ps. LXX heading ofassociates
29 specifically Ps. 29 specifically
it associates clesit(cf. Judg. 9:27) and clesthe(cf. festal
Judg. theme9:27) and of the theking-god
festal theme in conflict
of the king-god in
with the Feast of Tabernacles with the Feast of Tabernacles
and, similarly, Jewishand, similarly,
tradition con- Jewish tradition con- with the chaos waterswith werethe chaos watersfrom
appropriated werethe Canaanites, from
appropriated it is the Canaanit
nected the Enthronement nectedPsalm, the Enthronement
Ps., 47 with the Psalm,NewPs., Year47 Fes-with the New Year reasonableFes- to suppose reasonable
that thistomotif suppose was that also thisa feature
motif of wasthealso a feature
tival. Indeed, the kingship tival. Indeed, of Yahweh the kingship
was at the of Yahweh
centre ofwas theat the centre ofCanaanite the Canaanite
Autumn Festival. 54
Autumn Festival.54
Jewish New Year. Jewish New Year.53
Psalm 74:12-17 Psalm 74:12-17
51 See E. " ' . . . am51 See E.des Kutsch, . .ZAW
am Ende83 des Jahres"',
pp. 15-21. ZAW He 83 (1971), pp. 15-21. He V. 12 J But you O V. 12 But
are my kingyou O fromGod,55
of old,are my king from of old,
shows that when the rootshowsisthat usedwhen the root yj' is
of (lay, used
or of
yearday,in night,
post- month or year in post- doing victorious things doing
in the victorious
earth. things in the earth.
Iwould also note that this
Biblical Hebrew and Akkadian
fits the fact that Tabernacles
both Ex. 23 and 34.
it refers
both Ex. 23 and 34.
to and
its end.
1 wouldit also
the last
of theisthree major
to its
refersnote end.
that this
mentioned inthe three major festivals in I 54 For an interesting
54 For an interesting but admittedly speculativebut admittedly
attempt speculative attempt
at a reconstruction of the at a reconstructio
Thus. ofP.D. The Dawn of Apocalyptic
Hanson, (Philadelphia, (Philadelphia, Pa., 1975), p. 400, Canaanite
cf. J.C. Autumn
de Moor,Festival, cf. J.C.
with de Moor, New
52 Thus. P.D. Hanson, The 52 Dawn Apocalyptic Pa., 1975), p. 400, Canaanite Autumn Festival, New Year Canaanites and Year with Canaan
sets Zech. 14 between 475 and sets Zech.
425 B.C. 14 between 475 and 425 B.C. Israelites (2 Israelites
1972). (2 vols., Kampen, 1972).
jiidische Gottesdienst in seiner geschichtlichen Entwicklung 55 for
53 Cf. I . Elbogen, Der judische I. Elbogen, Der
53 Cf. Gottesdienst in seiner 55 Reading M T w"attah since "loh'tm for MT w'eldhvn,
comparison with thesince comparison with the su
(Frankfurt a. Main. 1931). pp. !40-9. ing verses suggests the metreingisverses suggests
one beat the metre is one beat too short.
too short.
(Frankfurt a. Main. pp.
22 God's conflict 22 God's
with the conflict
dragon and the the dragon and the sea
withsea Creation
Creation and the divine conflictand the
23 divine confli
V. Y o u d i v i d e d 5 6 the
V. sea Youy odivided56
13 by u r m i g h t , the sea by your might, Scholars have arguedScholars
whetherhave referencewhether
the argued to the the defeat reference
of the to the defea
y o u b r o k e the heads o f you broke theo nheads
the dragons of the dragons
the waters. on the waters. chaos monster alludes to the time
chaos monster alludes to the time of the creation, a viewthefirstcreation, a vi of
V . 14 Y o u shattered theV.heads 14 You e v i a t h a n ,the heads of Leviathan,
o f Lshattered
propounded by G u npropounded
k e l , 6 0 or to by the Gunkel,60
deliveranceoroftothe theHebrews
deliverance at of the Heb
y o u gave h i m to the people you gaveo f thehim e a s people
w i l dtobthe t s 5 7 as of the wild beasts57 as food.
food. the Reed Sea at the time of the
the Reed Sea at the time of the Exodus, a view going back to the going bac Exodus, a view
V. Y o u cleaved openV.s p15 g a n dcleaved
r i nYou t o r r e n topen
, spring and torrent,
or perhaps, as or perhaps, to as bin oth Against totheboth.62 Aga
Is.. 6 251:9-11,
y o u d r i e d up e v e r - f l o w iyou dried up ever-flowing streams.
n g streams.
view that the Exodus
view that the Exodus is referred to and in favour of seeing is referred to andhere
in favour
a of seeing
V. Y o u r s is the day, V. you 16r s Yours
also the n i g hday,
is the t, yours also the night,
the moon58 and the sun. reference to the creation is
reference to the creation is the fact that the context clearly alludesthe fact that the context clearly
you have established the you o n 5 8established
m ohave a n d the sun.
V. Y o u have fixed all V.the You have fixed
17 boundaries the boundaries of the earth,
o f theallearth,
the creation
to the creation of thetoworld (cf. vv. of the world
16-17), so that fcf.vv. vv. 16-17), so that vv. 13-
you d i d create s u m m e r you a n d did
w i n create
ter. summer and winter. allude to a I allude
mythological to a at
battle mythological
this time. Saggs' battleargument
at this time. 63 Saggs' argumen
the close conjunction of the divine
the close conjunction of the divine conflict with the chaos monster the chaos conflict with
These words form part These of awordspsalmform part offor
of lament a psalm of lament for the destruction
the destruction andworldthe creation the world does
and the creation of the does notofnecessarily or indeed not necessarily
prob- or indee
of the Temple in 586ofBthe . C . 5 9Temple
As in in Ps. 586 B.C.59 As (ETin9-10) and Is. (ET 9-10) and ably
Ps. 89:10-11 Is. ably imply that the two are causally connected is improbab
imply that the two are causally connected is improbable, since
51:9-11 (cf. too Ps. 51:9-11 77:17-21, (cf.ET too16-20), Yahweh'sET
Ps. 77:17-21, 16-20),
defeat Yahweh's defeat of the
of the we have otherthepassages
we have other passages in which creationiniswhich associated the creation
with a is associated
chaos monster(s) in chaos the past monster(s)
is appealed in the to pastas a is appealed
ground of con-to as a ground of con-
conflict between Yahwehconflict andbetween Yahwehsea
the primordial andorthe with primordial
Yahweh'ssea or with Y
fidence for him to actfidence to deliver for himhis people in the present when in
to act to deliver his people thethe present when the control of the e.g. Ps. 104:6-9,
control of the sea, e.g. Ps. 104:6-9, Job 38:8-11, Prov. 8:29. 38:8-11,
sea, Job Prov. 8:2
powers of chaos seem powers to have of chaostriumphed,seem to thehave triumphed, the Deutero-Isaianic this sea could
this sea could be personified by thebedragon personified
(e.g. Is. by 51:9-10),
the dragon (e.g. Is. 51:9-1
it is
passage likewise dating the
from likewise
passage That the fromdefeat the exile.of theThat chaosthe defeat of the chaos onlythat natural to suppose we similarly
thata conflict
only natural to suppose we similarly have with have
the a conflict w
monster is appealedmonster to in this is appealed
way to in indicates that the indicates that the
this way clearly | dragon at the time
dragon at the time of creation here. The reference tohere.
of creation The reference
the earth in v. to the ea
mythology was already mythology was already
well established well established
in pre-exilic Israel. in Wepre-exilic Israel. We 12 does not constitute12a does constitute a valid objection
validnot objection to this, since the earthtointhis, its since the ear
shall in fact be considering shall in in facta be considering
moment psalmsinfrom a momentpre-exilic psalms from pre-exilic primaeval chaotic is similarly
primaeval chaotic state is similarly state to
alluded in Gen. alluded before to in Gen. 1 :2
times which contain this times which
mythology. contain this mythology. God's effective creative work began. Again,
God's effective creative work began. Again, the obscure and uncer- obscure and the

56 Alternatively, the translation 56 Alternatively,

may be ' you thesettranslation
in may becf.' you Arabic commotion ', cf. Arabic farfara,
set infarfara,
tain reference in v. tain
to reference
the givinginofv. Leviathan
wild beasts as
14 to the giving
the wild beasts as food need not imply that the battle occurred need
to the people
of Leviathan
that the
to the p
battle o
KB (1958), p . 782. However, KB (1958),
it may p. be782. However,
alleged in favour it may of the alleged in favour of the traditional
be traditional
provides a'divide'
translation ' d i v i d e ' that ittranslation somewhat it provides
thatbetter parallela to somewhat after Yahweh's effective work
after Yahweh's effective work of creation had taken place. There is
better parallel to the breaking of creation had taken place.
the breaking
of the dragon's heads in the ofsecond half ofheads
the dragon's in the second half of
the verse. the verse. therefore no need to see
therefore no need to see an allusion to any event other than the an allusion to any event other t
57 Pom 57 Camcrux.
is a noteworthy ptjiyyim is a noteworthy
Perhaps the simplestcrux. way Perhaps
of dealing simplest
thewith it way of dealing with it creation here. it were
If the the case that the reference is simulta
creation here. it were the case that reference is simultaneously
is to make the slight emendation is to make to the slight emendation Animals are to Camreferred to asAnimals
fiyyim. a are referred to as a
to the creation and theto the
Exodus,creation and the Exodus,
the creation would certainlythe creation be the would certainl
'people' elsewhere in the 'people' Old Testament.elsewhere C f in the Old
Prov. 30:25-6Testament.
and Joel Cf.2:2. The30:25-6 and Joel 2:2. The
popular view that one should popularread view that one should ' t o the readsharks',Caml'se yam 'to
first suggested the sharks', first suggested dominant allusion, but there is in
dominant allusion, but there is in fact no need to see any reference to see any re fact no need
by I . Low, is to be rejected,bysince I. Low, to be rejected,
it isisunlikely that a root sincewhoseit is unlikely that a root whose basic meaning
basic meaning to the Exodus here. to the Exodus here.
is ' would have given is ' smooth
rise to a' would have given
word meaning ' rise to a word meaning ' shark '.
58 The word translated ' m n ' isword or,
58o oThe translated 'moon'The
lit. 'luminary'. is ma' fact lit. 'luminary'.
The fact that Yahweh is addressed as king in v. 12 relate
it is men- The fact that it is men-The fact that Yahweh is addressed as king in v. 12 relates to the
tioned alongside the sun would tioned suggest
alongside thethe sun would
meaning ' m o osuggest the meaning
n ' . Alternatively, it 'moon". Alternatively, it notion
notion that Yahweh's victory thatoverYahweh's
the chaotic victory sea overwas the chaotic sea was as
as ' be taken collectively as ' luminaries '.
could be taken collectivelycould jl
59 The main alternative view59 Thethatmain alternative
has been view that
held, namely thathasthebeen
refers to that the psalm refers 60
namely to
Originally proposed by . Gunkel, proposed byund
60 HOriginally H.Chaos,
Gunkel, 42-5; cf. und
pp.Schopfung J.A. Chaos, pp. 42-5
Antiochus IV
Antiochus I V Epiphanes' desecration the Templedesecration
of Epiphanes' in is the
B.C., of Templeinin 168 B.C., is untenable in
untenable Emerton,in'"Spring
Psalm Land in Psalm
Emerton, and torrent" XXIV torrent"
15', LXXIV
15 (1966), pp. 15', SVT 15 (1
the light of the fact that hethe not of
didlight the fact
destroy thethat he did
Temple (cf.not destroy
v. 7) but only Temple (cf. v. 7) but only burned
the burned H W H and
130-3, and A. Lelievre, ' Y 130-3, dans ' YHWH et la mer dans
et la A. Lelievre, 56 les psaumes ',
the doors of the Temple the (cf. doors
1 the Temple
of 4:38; 2 I Macc.
(cf.1:8) 4:38; 2 Macc.
and desecrated the 1:8) and desecrated the (1976), pp. 256-63. (1976), pp. 256-63.
sanctuary (1 1:23, sanctuary
2 6:5). 1:23,
(1 Macc. 39; 2 Macc. 6:5). J. -Morgenstern,
Morgenstern, 485 'Jerusalem - 485 61 Cf. E. Konig,1927),
Die Psalmen
61 Cf. E. Die p p . 485 (Giitersloh,
n. 1927),
A. Heidel, Then. 4, 670-1 ; A. He
pp. 485
B.C.', HUCA 27 (1956), p p .B.C.', llVC
101-79, A 27
esp. p. (1956), pp. 101-
130f, relates this79, esp. p.
psalm to 1an relates this psalm to an alleged
30f..alleged Babylonian Genesis (2nd ed., Babylonian
Chicago Genesis (2nd ed., Chicago and London, 1951), pp. 106, 109
and London, pp. 106,
defilement and devastation defilement
of the Templeand devastation of the Temple
by the Edomites i n ca. 485 B.C., by the Edomites in ca. 485 B.C.,
Norin, Er spaltete das S.I.L.
MeerNorin, spaltelep pdas
Er 1977),
(Lund, Meer (Lund, pp. 112-14. (V. 15 w
1977), then
. 112-14. (V. 15 would
whilst others have connected whilst others
it with have connected
a hypothetical it withofa the
pollution Temple i npollution of the Temple in
hypothetical refer in
refer to the provision of water to the provision of
the wilderness water in theSee wilderness wanderings.) See the
wanderings.) the criticisms
the reign of Artaxerxes I Ithe reign(359-38
I Ochus of Artaxerxes
B.C.), but Ochus
IIIboth (359-38
these viewsB.C.), but both these views are very
are very of this view in Lelievre, ofcit. this view in Lelievre, loc. cit.
dubious. Similarly implausible the view of implausible
Similarly F. Willesen,is'The F. Willesen, 'The cultic situation
the view ofsituation 62 Cf. A. Weiser, Die Psalmen62 Cf.(5th Weiser,
A. ed., Die Psalmen
Gottingen, 1959),(5th Gdttingen,
ed., (ET
p. 354, 1959), p. 354, (ET Th
The Psalms,
of Psalm 2 (1952),
of Psalm Ixxiv', VT
p p . 289-306, that2 the
psalm 289 no
pp. has 306, that the
relation to psalm has no relation to London, p. 520); H.-J. Kraus, Psalmen 2 (Neukirchen, 1978), p. 6
London, 1962. p. 520); Kraus, 1962,
Psalmen 2 (Neukirchen, 1978), p . 681.
any specific historical eventany merely historical
butspecific one. but merely to a cultic one.
to a culticevent H.W.F. Saggs, op. cit., pp. 24-6.
63 24-6.
63 H E. Saggs, op. cit., pp.
24 God's conflict 24 God's
with the conflict
dragon and the the dragon and the sea
withsea Creation
Creation and the divine conflictand the
25 divine conflic

with his assumption with of effectivehis assumption

kingship (cf. of effective
Ps. 93), justkingship
as was (cf.thePs. 93), just as was 3.IIID.34ff.
the ( = KTU 3.IIID.34ff.
1.3.III.37ff.) (= which
KTU Anat L3.III.37ff.)
claims which to have Anat claims t
case with in thecase
Ugaritic Baal-Yam
with Baal in the myth
Ugaritic and Marduk
Baal-Yam in the
myth and Marduk in defeated.
the Ps. 89:11 defeated.
(ET 10) Ps. 89:11
similarly (ET
speaks 10) of similarly
a plurality of
speaks of a plur
Babylonian Enuma elish. In this connection it is interesting to note, enemies in Yahweh'senemies conflict in with Rahab. conflict
Yahweh's I t thus with seemsRahab.unneces- It thus seems u
Babylonian Enuma elish. In this connection it is interesting to note,
sary to follow O. Eissfeldt, 67
following Lelievre, 6 4 that the assumption of kingship by and sary to
who emends the
follow O. Eissfeldt,67 who of Ps. 74:13
emends the MT of Ps
Marduk resulted, after following Lelievre,64 that the
the victory over the sea, in a temple being assumption of kingship by Baal and
from plural 'dragons' to singular tannin 'dragon', pre-
built in their honour. Marduk Similarly resulted, after the victory
Yahweh's receiving of a temple over the sea, in a temple being
sumably equating him fromwith plural
Leviathan. tanriimm 'dragons' to singular tannin 'drago
could be portrayed asbuilt following
in their on honour.
his manifestationSimilarlyofYahweh's
kingship in receiving of a temple sumably equating him with Leviathan.
his victory at the sea couldas webe know from
portrayed Ex.
as 15:17.
following This
on fact
his enables
manifestation of kingship in
V. has traditionally 15 hasunderstood
V. been traditionally as been
referring understood
to the cre- as referring to
us to see the special relevance of vv. 12-17 in the present psalm, ation of springs and 68
streams. J.A. Emerton,68 however, ha
know from Ex. 15:17. This fact enablesation of springs and streams. J.A. Emerton, however, has noted
motivated as it is his by victory at the sea of the
the destruction
as we
temple, since if against this that
of 12-17 in the psalm,
against this that the second half of the the second
verse alludeshalf of
to the
the verse
drying alludes to the
Yahweh's temple hasusbeen to see the special
destroyed, it is relevance vv.
fitting to remind him of present
his victory over themotivated sea and his destruction
it is by the kingship which
as accompanying of the temple, since up if up of
streams', ' ever-flowing
referring streams',
back to the referring
chaos back
waters to
of the chaos w
provided the basis onYahweh'swhich he temple receivedhas hisbeentemple. destroyed, it is fitting to remind himvv.of 13-14, so that a vv. 13-14, to
reference thatcreation
so the a reference to the creation
of ordinary springs of ordinary
his victory over the sea and his accompanying kingship which and streams would beand streams would
premature. Furthermore,be premature. he notes, Furthermore,
a friendly he notes, a
provided the basis on which he received his temple. reference to the watersreference
at the to the
beginning waters of at
v. the
15 beginning
would be of v. 15 would be
It is interesting that v. It is
14 interesting
refers to the thatheadsv. 14 ofrefers to
Leviathan. the heads
I t has of Leviathan. It when
has the second halfwhen
of the
the second
verse and half
the of the
preceding verse and
verses the preceding verses
been established from been theestablished
Ugaritic texts from that Ugaritic texts
the Leviathan in factthat Leviathan in them
fact as hostile. He them
also as
rejects hostile.
the viewHe also
that rejects
v. 15 the
speaks view that
generally v. 15 speaks g
possessed seven heads possessed (cf. CTA heads (cf.andCTA =HID.
seven 3.IIID.39 3. KTU 39 and 5.1.3 = of
KTU God's power over oftheGod's
waters powerto over
make the
them waters
flow to
or make
stop, them
since flow or sto
and 1and and
this tradition and this tradition
is independently is independently
reflected in reflected in
this does not fit the this does
context not
which fit the
speaks context
of which
specific speaks
primaeval of specific pr
the seven heads of the seven heads
the 'dragon' of the
in the 'dragon'
Odes of Solomon 22, 5, in the Odes of Solomon 22, 5,
events. He argues events.
convincingly He argues
that we convincingly
have here that
rather awe have
reference here rather a re
Pistis Sophia 66 andPistis Kiddushin Sophia29b, 66 andand Kiddushin 29b,
is taken up into apoca- and is taken up into to
apoca- springs cleft opento springs
so that cleft
the open
primaeval so that
waters the primaeval
might be waters m
lyptic lyptic in in
the New Testament thethe New seven heads ofinthe
Testament the' seven in heads of the 'dragon' in
removed from the removed
earth, from
comparable the to earth,
the comparable
removal of theto the
waters removal of the
Rev. 12:3 and the seven Rev.heads 12:3 of and thethe seven in
'beast' Rev.of the 'beast'
heads Rev. 13: 1 and 17:3. of the flood in this way of the
in 1flood
Enoch this way
in 89:7f., in 1 Enoch
Jubilees 6:26 and 89 : 7f., Jubilees 6:26 and
There is no evidence There that Tiamatis no evidence
had seven that Tiamat
heads, had seven
as is sometimes heads, as is sometimes of Samosata, De Dea of Samosata,
Syria Some De Dea
other Syria
of the 13. Some
water other
would of the water wou
still claimed. 65
M.J.stillD a claimed.65
hood 66
M.J. Dahood66
maintains maintains
that Leviathan's seven that Leviathan's flowed
seven off the land byflowed
rivers offintothe land
the sea, by andriversthis into
is the
probablysea, the this is proba
heads explain why there headsareexplain seven why 'attah'sthere in are
Ps. seven 'attah'swhich in Ps. 74:13-17, which
reason for the allusion reason
to for the allusion
torrent, to
stream, nafyal ' torrent, stream, wadi
he thereby supposes he therebya supposes
contains subtle artistry.contains a subtle
This view is to be artistry. This view is to be
Psalm (ET 9-14) Psalm 89:10-15 (ET 9-14)
rejected, however, since rejected, however,
it is quite likelysince quite likely that
that ita isfurther is toa further ,attah is to
V. 10 Y o u rule the V. 10of You
surging the sea,rule the surging of the sea,
be read in the text in be 12, in the text
making in v.
eight 12, making
altogether, andeightit is altogether,
a and it is a
when its waves rise, youwhen still its waves rise, you still them.
further disadvantage further for Dahood'sdisadvantage view that not all theview
for Dahood's that not all the ,attaKs
Y o u did crush R aV. b Youa did
h a11 mortalcrushblow, Rahab with a mortal blow,
occur in those versesoccur relating in those versestorelating
specifically specifically
the conflict with Levi-to the conflict with Levi- you did enemies
you did scatter your enemies with youryour
scatter mighty arm. with your mighty arm.
athan or even the sea athan (cf. vv.or even the sea (cf. vv. 16-17). ' ' V. V. 12 yours
Y o u r s are the heavens, Yours also are theis theheavens,
earth, yours also is the earth,
V. 13 refers to dragons V. 13 refers towhose dragons heads (tanriiriim ) whose
are broken. heads are broken.
These ; These you have founded the world you have and founded
all that isthe world and all that is in it.
in it.
are probably to be seen are as probably
helpers to of be
Leviathan: helpers
seen as one may compare of Leviathan: one ;may compare V. 13 Y o u have createdV. the13north
You and havethe south,the north and the south,
the reference to ' the the helpersreference
of Rahabto 'the (probably Rahab (probably
helpers =of Leviathan)' in = Leviathan)' in T a b o r and Taborpraise
joyously and Hermon
your name. joyously praise your name.
Job 9:13 (cf. Tiamat'sJob 9:13 (cf.
'helpers' inTiamat's 'helpers' in
Enuma elish tablet IV, line 107), Enuma elish tablet IV, line 107), V. 14 Y o u have a mighty V. a14
r m You
; have a mighty arm;
one of whom, it will laterone of argued,it was
bewhom, later be argued,
will Behemoth (Job was Behemoth (Job 40: 15-24), Strong is your hand, exalted Strong is your
your righthand,hand.exalted your right hand.
list of dragons associated with Leviathan in CT A V. 15 Righteousness and V. 15
are the and
foundation justice
of your the foundation of your th
are throne,
and the list of dragons and theassociated with
Steadfast love and faithfulness Steadfast go love
beforeandyou. faithfulness go before you.
64 A. Lelievre, op. cit., pp. 64 A. Lelievre, op. cit., pp. 266-8.
65 Contra 65 Contra Myth
Cross, Canaanite Cross,
F.M. and Hebrew Epic Myth
Canaanite (Cambridge, 67 O. Eissfeldt, ' G o t t und67dasO. Eissfeldt,
Mass., Epic (Cambridge, Mass.,
and Hebrew 'Gott
Kleine Schriften Meer', Kleine Schriften
und das3 (Tubingen, p. 259,3 (Tubingen, 196
The Book of Revelation (London, n. 2. Originally published n.in2. Originally published in Pedersen
1974), Studia Orientalia loanni Pedersen sept
1973), p. 119; O Beasley-Murray, BookBeasley-Murray,
1973), p. 119; of Revelation (London,
dicata (Copenhagen, dicata
p. 79, (Copenhagen,
n. 1953), p. 79, n. 11.
pp. 192. 198. pp. 192, 198.
J.A. Emerton, op. cit., pp.68 122-33.
J.A. Emerton, op. cit., pp. 122-33.
66 M.J. Dahood, Psalms 266 MJ.
(New Dahood,
York, 1968), p. 205.2 (New York, 1968), p. 205.
26 26 theGod's
God's conflict with conflict
dragon and the the dragon and the sea
withsea Creation
Creation and the divine conflictand the
27 divine confli
In this PsalmIntoo, Lament Psalm
this Yahweh's defeat too,of the chaotic defeat
Yahweh's sea at of the chaotic seaview, at points to the similaritiesview, pointsintoexpression the similarities between in expression
Ps. 89 and between Ps.
the time of creationthe is time
presented as a ground
of creation is presented as a ground of confidencepart
of confidence in in of the Song ofpart the of Seathe Ex. of the a Sea
in Song versein extolling
Ex. 15:11, thea verse extol
Yahweh's power to deliver Israel from present distress, here a situ- distress, here a situ- incomparability
Yahweh's power to deliver Israel from present incomparability of Yahweh amongst ofthe gods, 7 amongst
Yahweh 5
but thisthemotif gods,75 but th
ation in which the covenant seems abrogated. Unlike the
ation in which the Davidic
comparable Ps. 74 an exilic date appears to be ruled out, since covenant seems abrogated. Unlike the
appears to be related appears
to the to be related
sea-conflict to
itself the sea-conflict
rather than itself
specifi- rather than
following the reference comparable
to the king's 74 an exilicwe
Ps. humiliation datefindappears
him alive to be ruled out, since cally to the Exodus. One cally mayto the Exodus.the
compare One Baal may compare
myth the Baal myth from
from Ugarit,
and still speaking in following
vv. (ET
the 50-1).
reference Thetopsalmthe king'smust humiliation
therefore we find him alive where the council of where the gods the iscouncil
afraid of of the
Yam and ishis
gods afraid of Yam and his mes
be pre-exilic. Whether we have here a reference
in vv. 51-2 to a(ET specific
The psalm must therefore (cf. CTA (cf. CT1.2.I.22ff.)
KTU A 2.1.22ff.and = KTU it is left1.2.I.22ff.)
to Baal and it is left to Baal
to over-
and still speaking
cal calamity or a cultic event is disputed. In my view such scholars
69 be pre-exilic. Whether we have here a reference to a specific histori-
come him; Baal maycome him ;be
therefore Baalsaidmay to betherefore be
incomparable said among
to be incomparable
as A.R. Johnson are correct who think the latter, since no known
historical event adequately cal calamityfits the a cultic eventInisits
or description. disputed.
reference to In my view such the
scholars gods. the gods.
the king's humiliation as itA.R. Johnson69
is similar to Ps. are correct and who in thethink latterthethe latter, since no known The motif of Yahweh's Thevictory
motif over of Yahweh's
the dragon victory
and overthe seathe here
dragon and the s
king is spoken of as historicalbeing in the eventgripadequately
of the chaotic fits the power of the In its referencealluded
description. to to is, of course, alluded to is, of course,
an appropriation to an appropriation
Yahweh of a theme to Yahweh of a
waters (cf. Ps. 18:5ff., ET 4ff.). If this were implicit also in Ps.
the king's humiliation it is similar to Ps.89, 18,it and in the latter originally
the associatedoriginally
with the associated
Canaanite with god the Baal.Canaanite
There may god Baal. The
would give added meaning to the reference to Yahweh's primaeval
victory over the sea in vv. king is spoken of as being in
just as Yahweh defeated chaos inthe grip of the chaotic power of the
therefore be, as has therefore
been suggested,be, as a has been
polemical suggested,
element a polemical
here and in element here
the past, so he would waters be (cf. Ps. 18:5ff.,
implored ET 4ff.).his
to renew If this
victorywere overimplicit also in Ps. 89, otherit comparable passages other comparable
against Baalism. passages 76
against Baalism.76
Beginning with Eiss- Beginning wi
chaos. 70 would give added meaning to the reference to Yahweh's primaeval feldt, 7 7 a number offeldt,77 scholars a number
have held of that
scholars in v.have 13 (ETheld12) that wein v. 13 (ET
victory over the sea in vv. !Of. : just as Yahweh defeated chaoshave in a polemical reference have a polemical to Baal's reference
Syrian sacred to Baal's mountainSyrian sacred m
the past, so he would be implored to renew his victory over Zaphon (as well as other Zaphon sacred(as well as otherThey
mountains). sacred wouldmountains).
translateThey would tr
chaos.70 this verse as follows:this ' Y overse
u have follows: Zaphon
as created 'You have and created Zaphon (or and Ama
The majority of scholars The majoritysince G u e l 7 1 have
ofn kscholars since Gunkel71 that the have held that the Tabor and Amana),joyously Tabor and Hermon
praise your joyouslyin praise place of your name' in
defeat of the chaos monster defeat ofisthe here chaos monster
associated with is here associated
the creation of with the creation theofmore traditional the more traditional
rendering ' You have rendering
created the 'Younorth have
the the north
the world (cf. Ps. 74) the world this is(cf. and this isbystrongly
Ps. 74)supported
strongly the referencesupported by the reference south, Tabor and south, Tabor and
Hermon joyously Hermon
praise your joyouslyunderstand-praise your name', unde
to the creation in vv.to12-13 the creation
(ET 11-12). in vv. 12-13 minority (ETof11-12).
scholars, 72
A minority of scholars,72
ing asingreferring
$apon w'jdmlnto the names of mountains,
as referring to the names thoughof mountains,
however, hold that the reference
however, hold to thetheExodus
is that reference andisthe the Exodus and the deliver-
to deliver- in order to achieve this
in order to achieve this yatriin has to be emended
yamin has to be emended to 'amn, hmn or to 'amn,
ance at the Reed Sea, ance butatthisthe ignores
Reed Sea, the but this ignores
context, whilst others the context, whilst others or in the case 'amnh, or in the case of Dahood,78 understood as an umpa
of D a h o o d , understood as an umparalleled
think that there is simultaneous
think that there allusion to both the allusion
is simultaneous creation to and both the creation alternate
and spelling of alternate
'amn. It isspelling thought of that
'amn.this then
It is provides
thought thata this then pro
73 74 better parallel to the second half of the verse with its allusions to with its allus
the Exodus. N oExodus.73
the rin, whoS.I.L. recentlyNorin,74
defended who the recentlyExodus defended the Exodus better parallel to the second half of the verse
Tabor and Hermon Taborthe and traditional rendering ' the north
Hermon than the traditional rendering 'the no and
69 A.R. Johnson, Sacral 69 Kingship in AncientSacral
A.R. Johnson, Israel Kingship Israel pp.
Ancient 1967),
(2nd ed.,inCardiff, (2nd ed., Cardiff, 1967),thepp.
The most the detailed
southstudy '. The of this detailed
most questionstudy has been
of this madequestion has bee
106ff. 106ff. 79
equating the enemy with
be the by theO. M o w a n , who by argues
O. in
Mowan,79 support of the view that
who argues in support of are there the view that th
70 I t has been suggested to 70me that been
It has Ps. 89suggested
cannot be me that Ps.
to equating the 89 cannot
enemy with
chaos powers, since elsewhere chaosinpowers,
the psalm since Yahweh in
it is himself who it
the psalm is is Yahweh
said to himself who is said
twoto mountain namestwo in the first halfnames
mountain of theinverse, maintaining
the first half of thethat verse, maintaini
the disaster on Israelbring the39ff.,
disaster on Israel (cf. vv.one39ff., ET 38ff.) However, one should consider with the meaning ' is nowhere
(cf. vv. ET 38ff.) However, should consider
allows the powers of chaos tempo- yamxn with the meaningelse in theis Old
'south' nowhere Testa-else in the Old
the possibility
the possibility of double agency: Yahweh doublethe
of allows powersYahweh
agency: of chaos tempo-
rarily to be dominant. Cf.rarily to be dominant. Cf. Deutero-Isaiah,
who seems to regard the who comingseems to regard the coming
deliverance from Babylondeliverance
as a new deliverance from Babylon fromasthea new
powers of chaosfrom the powers of chaos75(Is.
deliverance On this motif, cf. C.J. 75 On this motif, The cf. C.J. Labuschagne,
Incomparability The Incompatibility
of Yahweh in the Old of Yahweh in
51:9-11; cf. 44:27, 50:2), even though
cf. 44:27, 50:2), even though elsewhere the Babylonians are regarded elsewhere the Babylonians are regarded
Testament (Leiden, 1966). Testament (Leiden, 1966).
as God'son
as God's instrument of judgement instrument
Israel. of judgement 011 Israel. 76 Cf. A.H.W. Curtis, 'The 76 Cf. A.H.W. Curtis,
"subjugation of the'The "subjugation
waters" motif in of
the the waters" motif in the
71 Cf. H . Gunkel, 71 Cf.undH. Chaos,Gunkel, 34-5, andund
pp.Schopfung DieChaos
Psalmen 34-5,ed.,
, pp. (4th and Die Psalmen (4th ed., imagery of polemic?', JSS imagery ofpp.
23 (1978), polemic?',
245-56. JSS 23 (1978), pp. 245-56.
Gottingen, 1926), p. 387; H.-J. Kraus, 1926),
Gottingen, Psalmenp. 387; H.-J. Kraus,
2 (Neukirchen, Psalmen
1978), 2 (Neukirchen, 1978), pp. 787-8;
pp. 787-8; 77 O.
77 O. Eissfeldt, Baal Zaphon, pp.Eissfeldt,
12-13; M . H . Zaphon
Baal Pope, in, pp. 12-13;
H.W. M.H.
Haussig Pope, in H.W. Haussig (e
A. Weiser, Die Psalmen 2 A. Weiser,
(5th Die Psalmen
ed„ Gottingen, 2 (5t!1 ed., Gottingen,
1959), p. 403 (ET The Psalms, 1959), p. 403 (ET The Psalms,
terbuch der Mythologie 1terbuch der Mythologie
(Stuttgart, 1965), p. 258; 1 (Stuttgart,
O. Mowan, 1965), p. 258; O. Mowan, '
' Quatuor
London, 1962, p. 592). London. 1962. p. 592). monies sacri in Ps. 89, 13?',montes sacriDomini
in Ps. 41 13?', Verbum
89,(1963), Domini
pp. 11-20; R. de41Vaux,
(1963), pp. 11-20; R.
72 Cf. E. Konig, Die Psalmen72 Cf. E. Konig,1927), Die Psalmen E.J. Kissane,1927),
p. 485; (Gutersloh, p. 485;
The Book of E.J. Kissane, The Book of'Jerusalem et 'Jerusalem les prophetes',
RB 73 et(1966), p. 506; M.J. RBDahood,
73 (1966), p. 506;
Psalms 2 M.J. Dahood,
89; S . I . 2L .(Dublin,
Psalms 2 (Dublin, 1954), p.Psalms Norin. op.1954), p.p.89;
115.S.i.L. Norin, op. cit., p. 115. (New York, 1968), pp. 308. (New314;York, 1968), F.M pp. 308, 314;
. Cross, NEB; Myth
Canaanite F.M. andCross, Canaanite M
73 Cf. G.W. 89: G.W. Ahlstrom, PsalmRitual
73 Cf.
Psalm 89: eine desLiturgie dem Ritual des leidenden Konigs
aus Kbnigs
leidenden Hebrew1973),
Hebrew Epic (Cambridge, Mass., Epic (Cambridge,
p. 135, n. 79. Mass., 1973), p. 135, n. 79.
(Lund, 1959). p. 71. (Lund, 1959), p. 71. 78 M.J. Dahood. op. cit., p.78 M.J. Dahood, op. cit., p. 314.
74 See n. 72. 79 O. Mowan, cit. 79 O. Mowan, loc. cit.
74 See n. 72.

28 God's conflict 28 God's
with the conflict
dragon and the the dragon and the sea
withsea conflictand the
Creation and the divine 29 divine confli
attested parallel to attested
ment ' parallel andtothat $apdn this' north ' andthat
indicates that this indicates that V . 5 Y o u set the earth V. o n 5itsYou d a tthe
f o u nset i o n searth
, on its foundations,
the word yamin is corrupt. This, however,
the word yamin corrupt. is is to This,
ignore however,
the is
evidence to ignore the evidence so t h a t i t s h o u l d never so be thatshaken. it should never be shaken.
of Ps. 107:3, where of thePs. 107:3,
readswhereas follows:
the MT reads as follows: ume'ara$dt qibbe$am V. 6 T h e deep covered V. The adeep covered it81 like a garment,
i t 861 like garment,
umiyyam. As it stands this declares
from the uma"rab
'and (he) gathered inmimmizrah lands, from mi$$afldn umiyyam.
the east and from the
As it stands this declares j
the waters s t o o d above the m o u n t stood
the waters a i n s . above the mountains.
west, from the north'and fromgathered
and (he) the west in from the lands,
sea)', but since thefrom the east and from the V. 7. |
A t y o u r r o a r 82 V.
they 7. At
fled, your roar82 they fled,
west, from the
parallelism clearly requires that north and from
the last word should mean ' the west (lit. sea)', but since the at the sound o f y o u r t h uatn dthe
e r sound
they h uof
r r your
i thunder they hurried away.
e d away.
and not 'west', one parallelism
should follow clearlytherequires
generally thataccepted
the last word emen- should mean ' south ' V . 8 TIh e y went up the V. m o8u nThey d o w nupthe
t a i n s ,went thev mountains,
alleys,83 down the valleys,83
dation of the M T from to Accordingly, there is no to the place w h i c h y o u to
a p pthe
o i nplace
t e d forwhicht h e m you
. appointed for them.
and not 'west', one should follow the generally accepted emen-
reason why Ps. 89:13 (ET 12) should not similarly refer to the V. 9 You set a boundary which they should not pass,
north and the south.dation
Since theof the MT from
extremities of theyamearthto ydtriin.
were them-Accordingly, there is no V. 9 Y o u set a b o u n d a r y w h i c h they s h o u l d n o t pass,
that they m i g h t n o t r e t uthat r n t otheycover might the not earth.return to cover the earth.
selves thought to be reason why Ps.being
mountainous, 89: 13known(ET 12) as theshould not of
'pillars similarly refer to the
heaven' (cf. Job norththe and the south.
translation 'theSincenorththe and the south'ofisthe earth were them-Ps. 104 is perhaps best
extremities Ps. 104 is perhaps
understood as best a wisdom understoodpsalm.asThis a wisdom psa
quite satisfactory as selves
a parallel to Tabor and Hermon. is also 'pillars would its Egyptian background
thought to be mountainous, being known as the of
would account for its Egyptian background - as isaccount for known, it-isas is well kno
worthy of note that whose prophecy contains a
remarkably high number heaven' (cf. 11), the translation
Job to Ps. 89, has a reference in Is.
of parallels
26: 'the north and the south' is I dependent
dependent in some way on Akhenaten's hymn to the sun god in some way on Akhenaten's hymn to the
40:28 to Yahweh as quite satisfactory as a parallel to
'the Creator of the ends ofTabor and Hermon. It is also 84 (Aton)84 -
( A t o n ) - for the wise men were in close touch with for the wise men were in close and it with Egyp
the earth', thus paralleling of 89:13a
note (ET that Deutero-Isaiah, whose
' Y o u have created prophecy contains a would also
would also explain the concentration on the theme of creation,explain the concentration on the theme of
the north and the Finally,
remarkably high it should
number be noted
of that
parallels those
to Ps. who
89, has a reference in Is. which was
which was central to wisdom theology, and the reference to central to wisdom theology, and the refer
see a reference to M t ZaphonYahweh in Ps. bore' (ET haare forced
'the to
Creator of the ends of Yahweh's wisdom in v. 24.
40:28 to
emend yamin so as to gain an allusion to M t
as qe$dt_
ares or
Yahweh's wisdom in v. 24.
in the case of Dahood the earth',
to regard thusitparalleling
as an unparalleled (ET 12a) 'You have createdHowever, besides Egyptian
Ps. 89:13aalternate However, besides this
influence Egyptian psalm influence
also shows thisanpsalm also s
the north
spelling and this is clearly and the
a disadvantage south.' Finally, it should
to the view in question be noted that those who ultimate dependence
ultimate dependence on Canaanite mythology, as is attested by the as is atteste on Canaanite mythology,
when the text makessee good a reference
sense as it
to Mt
stands. Zaphon in
Consequently, Ps. 89:13
I con- (ET 12) are forced to
clude that the superficially
emend attractive
yamin so as view which
to gain anfinds
allusiona polemical
to Mt Amanus or Amana, or Since both | the subject 81 Since andboth the the objectsubject !"Worn and the we
are feminine, object 'erejread
should are feminine, we s
reference to M t Zaphon in Ps. 89:13 (ET the Syrian moun- kissattah for M T kissitb. kissattah for MT kissltd.
in the case of Dahood to regard it as an unparalleled alternate 82 'The word here rendered is fl'arah,inwhich
tain where Baal was believed to have defeated the dragon is to be 82 The word here rendered is g"arah, which is'roar' used elsewhere is used elsewhere
rejected. spelling and this is clearly a disadvantage to the view in question tion with God's conflict with tionthewith seaGod'sin Ps.conflict
18:16 (ET with 15)the=sea in Ps.22:16,
2 Sam. 18:16Job
(ET 15) = 2 Sam.
when the text makes good sense as it stands. Consequently, Icon- and Is. 50:2, whilst the 26:11verb and g'rIs. is50:2,
associatedwhilst with the g'r is associated
the verb with the conflict i
in Is. 17:13
and Nah. 1:4. and Nah. 1:4. Usually the noun and verb are rendered 'rebuke' b
elude that the superficially attractive view which finds a polemical scholars, but as Usually the noun and verb are rendered 'rebuke' by modern
'Notes debut
P. Joiion,scholars, as P. Joiion, 'Notes de lexicographie
lexicographic 6 hebrai'que', Biblic
reference to Mt Zaphon in Ps. 89:13 (ET 12) - the Syrian moun- pp. 318-21 has pointed out, 318-2.1
pp.this has inadequate.
is often pointed out,There
this isisoften inadequate.
evidence that the There is eviden
tain where Baal was believed to have defeated the dragon - is to be root often includes in its root
meaning includes
oftenthe notioninofitsthe
emission theofnotion of the
a sound, cf. emission of a
amongst cognate
amongst cognate Semitic languages g'r ' t o languages possibly g'r
neigh' (orUgaritic ' t o' to
cryneigh ' (or possi
rejected. out', 'toArabic
out', ' t o cough', or ' t o moan'), cough', ja'ara or 'to moo, l oArabic
"to moan'), ja'ara ga'ara
w ' , Ethiopic '10 moo, low', Ethio
' t o scream, cry', and Syriac 'to scream, cry', and ISyriac t is clear ge'arta
that 'bellow'.
this was It is clear that this
Psalm 104:1-9 Psalm 104: 1-9 sometimes
sometimes the case in Biblical Hebrew, Is. in Biblical where Hebrew, cf. Is. 30: 17, where 1..XX rend
L X X renders
V . 1 Bless the L o r d , O V.
m y1 Bless the Lord, O my soul ! by 4>wvr]\ (twice),
(twice), and inbyconnection with and in connection
passages concernedwith withpassages
the conflictconcerned with t
O L o r d m y G o d , y o u are O veryLord my God. you are very great ! with the sea, it is significant withthat
the insea, is104:7 significant thatis in Ps. 104:7
parallel with gd"rafka is paralle
with honour and majesty, ' the sound of your ra'am'ka 'the andsoundin Ps. of 18:16
your thunder'
(ET =and in Ps.22:16,
2 Sam. 18: 16 (ET !5) = 2 S
Y o u are c l o t h e d w i t h h oYoun o u rare a n clothed
d majesty,
is parallel with ga'"rateka is 'appeka
vital} parallel with nismatofrual}
' the blast 'appekaof'the
the breath yourblast of the brea
2 y o u cover yourselfV. w i2t h you as w iyourself
l i g h tcover with light as with a garment,
t h a garment, nostrils'. I have accordingly nostrils'.
rendered I have
g'r and accordingly as rendered g'r and g"'arah
' r o a r ' throughout this as 'roar' throu
y o u have stretched o u t you have stretched
the heavens out the heavens like a tent,
like a tent, monograph in passages concerned monographwith in passages
Yahweh'sconcerned conflict with with the Yahweh's
sea, by conflict with th
V. 3 V. 3 you
y o u have l a i d the beams o u r claid
o f yhave h a mthe your chambers on the waters,
s o n theof waters,
b e r beams which we are to understand which wc are to
an allusion to understand an allusion toofthe
the deity's manifestation deity's
anger in manifestation o
y o u m a k e the c l o u d y o uyou make the cloud your chariot, the thunder. O n the meaning the thunder.
of g'r, seeOn also theA.A. meaning of g'r, 'see
Macintosh, also A.A. Macintosh, 'A con
A consideration
r chariot,
of Hebrew VT 19 of Hebrew pp. 471-9, ‫יגער‬. VTwho19also (1969),
regardspp. the471-9, who also regards the
y o u r i d e o n the wings o you f the ride , the wings of the wind,
w i n don translation
translation of the root as 'rebuke' as of the root asand
inadequate, 'rebuke'
contends as inadequate, and contends that
that it denotes
V. 4 y o u m a k e the w i n dV.y o 4u you make the wind your messengers,
r messengers, both God's anger and the both God's
effective anger and
working out ofthehiseffective
anger. working
Cf. too, S.C. of his anger. Cf. too
out Reif,
fire a n d flame80 y o u r and flame80 your ministers. 'A note on 'A note
VT 21 (1971), pp.on 241-4. ‫יגער‬. VT 21 (1971), pp. 241-4.
83 The context clearly requires83 Thethat it is clearly
context the waters requires
and notthat theit ismountains
the watersand and not the moun
valleys, as the RSV holds, whichvalleys,are
as the RSV holds,
the subject here.which are the subject here.
80 Reading 'es M Reading
for80 T 'es 'ek walahal for MT 'es lohe(.. 84 Cf. the parallels noted in 84 Cf. the pp.
370-1." noted in ANET , pp. 370-1.
30 God's conflict 50
with theGod's conflict
dragon the dragon and the sea
and the Creation
Creation and the divine 31 divine
conflictami the confli

allusion to the Chaoskampf allusionand to the Chaoskampfstorm

accompanying theophany in storm theophany ET
and accompanying in 10 = 2 Sam. 22:11 FT[emended],
10 = 2 Sam. 22:11ET
68:34, [emended],
33, 104:3;68:34, Is. ET 33, 104:3; I
the above passage and also by the reference
and to
also Leviathan
by the in
reference v. 26. Leviathan in v. 66:15).
26. Since the Israelites
66:15). were
Since far the more intimately
Israelites were related
far more to the
intimately relate
the above passage to
The above passage is valuable because it unambiguously makes it Canaanites than the Greeks, the than Old Testament parallels involving
The above can passage is valuable because it unambiguously makes it Canaanitcs
rkb are far more relevant in elucidating the meaning of Ugaritic rkb
the Greeks, the Old Testament parallels i
clear that the Old Testament depict the creation as having
been associated with clear Old Testament
that the conflict with chaos (cf. g'r i n v.
a primordial can depict the creation as having rkb arc far more
'rpt than an epithet of the Greek god Zeus. (Interestingly, where relevant in elucidating the meaning of Uga
7), something which is been associated
attested elsewhere withofacourse,primordial conflict
but which some with chaos (cf. g'r in Canaanite v. and other'rpt near than an epithet
eastern traditions of the areGreek god Zeus.
appropriated to (Interestingl
scholars have found 7k it something
easier therewhich to deny. Yahweh's
is attested elsewhere onslaught of course, but which some Zeus, in the conflict Canaanitc with the dragon and other Typhon, nearheeastern is represented
traditions as arc appropr
against the chaos waters was in the thunder (cf. v. 7), a motif Yahweh's onslaught mounting a winged horse, Zeus, asin wethe shall see presently.)
conflict with the dragon Typhon, he is repres
scholars have found it easier there to deny.
ultimately deriving from the Canaanite god Baal who manifested mounting winged horse,
himself in the storm against against ihc the chaos waters was
waters. Vv. 3-4 also apply storm in the thunder (cf. v. 7), a motif a as we shall see presently.)
theophany language ultimately to Yahweh, deriving
the parallelfrom in thePs. Canaanitc (ET god 10)Baal who manifestedHowever, I do not think However, that the IdoUgariticnot think rkbthat 'rpt the ' RiderUgaritic of therkb 'rpt ' Rid
confirming that it toohimself is to beinunderstood
the storm against
as being the
waters. Vv.
against 3-4 also apply stormclouds' has its exact clouds'
equivalent has its
in the
exact equivalent
expression rbkebin the expression rofteb h
the chaos waters. theophany language to Yahweh, the parallel in Ps. 18.11 (ET 10)
used of Yahweh in used
Ps. 68:5of Yahwch
(ET 4), in Ps.
contrary 68:5 to (ET
what 4),is now
contrary a to what i
confirming that it too is to be understood as being directed againstwidely held opinion. widely
I t is held
a sound opinion.8'
principle It is
that a sound
if a principle
Hebrew word that if a Hebr
the chaos waters. makes good sense inmakes
its good
normally sense
attested in its normally
meaning, it attested
should meaning,
be it sh
In v. 3 Yahweh 3 Yahweh rides a This cloud-chariot.
imagery ultimately This imagery ultimately accepted, rather than accepted,
creating rather
an than
unnecessary creating hapax an unnecessary
legomenon. hapa.x leg
derives from Baal, whose derives fromstock Baal,
epithet whose stock
rkb 'rpt (CTA epithet
2.IV.8, rkb 29, 'rpt (CT A 2.1 V.8, Therefore,
29. since Therefore,
in Hebrew since '"rabah
means in
desert, Hebrewit would means seem desert, it wou
etc. = KTU 1.2.IV.8,etc. 29)=may KTUbe1.2.IV.8,accepted29)with maythebemajorityacceptedofwith the majority wiser of to translate wiser to translate as 'Rider rdkeb ba''rabbt
through the 'Rider through the
as deserts'
scholars to mean 'Rider scholars to mean 'Rider of the clouds'.
of the clouds'. Ullendorff, followed Ullendorff.
by followed rather
by than 'Rider rather
on the than
clouds'. 'Rider on
Moreover, the clouds'.
as A.R. Moreover,
Johnson as A.R.
Brock,85 however,
however, comparing the epithet of Zeus the epithet of Zeus
comparing orve4f>e/.1jyepcTÿÿ rightly
or points o u t , 8 8rightly points out,88
this rendering makes thisexcellent
rendering sense makes in the excellent sens
holds that vtd>c/Jf)ÿcpttx
Baal's epithet holdsshouldthat Baal's ratherepithet
be translatedshould rather be translated context, which clearly reflectswhich
context, the Hebrew clearly traditions
reflects theofHebrew the Wan- traditions of th
' Gatherer of the 'Gatherer of the
but against clouds',
this the but
followingagainst this
points the
may following points maydering and the dering
Settlement. and
Thus, thee.g., Settlement.
vv. 8-9 (ET Thus, 7-8), like
c.gÿ, vv. 8-9
Judges (ET 7-8), like
be made. First, as de be Moormade. has First,
pointedas dc Moor
o u t , 86
the pointed
name out,8* the name Bc-'-li-ra- 5:4-5, recall Yahweh's 5:4-5.
marching recall Yahwch's
through the marching
wilderness through
from the
Sinai, wilderness fro
kab-bi, 'Baal of the Chariot' kab-bi, * is Baal of the Chariot"
known from is known
and the from
Egyp- Sam'al. and the Egyp-and v. 7 (ET 6) refers and
to v.
' the7 (ET 6) refers to 'the wilderness'
The full (s'lfilfah).
phrase The fu
tian king Rameses I Itian king Ramcscs 111
I compared himself compared
with Baal himself
when he with
drove Baal when he drovein Ps. 68:5 (ET 4) isin Ps. 68:5
larbkeb (ET 4) is sollu theiarbiyeb
verb ha "raboi,
which isthe verb $11
out in his chariot. Secondly,out in his thechariot. Secondly,
rare occasions when found in when rkb is foundused
the rkb in here being found here being
usedelsewhere in the found Oldelsewhere
Testament in withthe Old the Testament
Ugaritic apart from Ugaritic the expression apart from the
rkb 'rpt expression
show that 'rkb
r i d e'rpt
' or show that 'ride' or
' m o u n t ' is the meaning, 'mount' is the meaning,
not 'gather'. Thus, inot n CTA 'gather'.
14.IV.165-7 Thus, in CTA 14.IV.165-7 87 Earliest
87 Earliest of all in perceiving of all in
a reference to perceiving
the clouds ainreference lo ihe clouds
this expression, even in this expres
before the discovery of thebefore Ugaritic the texts,
discovery of Ihc Ugaritic
was apparently Bishop J.W.
texts, apparently Bishop J.W
(= KTU 1.14.IV.2-4) (= KTU 1.14.IV.
we read 2-4)
flr. we read rkb w •'ly l;r. mydl.
'he rkb tkmn. )}int. 'he The Pentateuch and Book of The Pentateuch
Joshua Critically and Examined,
Book of Joshua (London,Examined, Part 7 (Lond
Part 7Critically
went up to the top ofwent up to the
the tower, top ofthe
mounted tower, mounted
theshoulder of the the shoulder of the wall', appendix 150, pp. 114-15,appendix who compared 150, pp Ps. 114-15.
68:34who ( E Tcompared
33) and wondered Ps. 68:34 (ET 331 and
and we find almost the and we find almost
identical words in the
CTA identical words ( = in CT
KTU A 14.II.74-5 ( = KTU whether should whether
be emended ba*rabbtto should
ba'abbt. be emended
Similarly, S. to badbot.
Mowinckel, Similarly, S. Mowi
Testamentes Ownle Testamentes del: SalmeneSalmehok Fÿrste del:
i oversettelse Salmene i overset/else (
Thirdly, 1,14.11,21-2).
it is significant Thirdly,
that initvarious
is significant that in various Old Testament 1923), p. 94 rendered 'clouds',
Old Testament 1923).' p. 94 rendered
vielleicht 'clouds'. an
in Anlehnung ' vielleichl in Anlehnung an Gratz's
Gratz's Vorschlag
texts, including the one texts, including
currently under one currently under
the consideration, the verb consideration,
rkb the verb rkb Mowinckel, Der .'a/11)/'(S. Mowinckcl,
achtundsechzigste Dcr achlundscchztgste
Psalm, Oslo, 1953, p. 27,Psalm, n. 1). Oslo, 1953, p.
' t o ride' or related 'to nouns ride' or related nouns
meaning 'chariot' meaning
are associated 'chariot' with are associated with Since the discovery of the Since Ugaritic the discovery
texts it hasofbecome
the Ugaritic
very commontexts it hasto equate
become very common
bh'"rbbdt with rkb rokeb 'rpt. Somebtfrabot evenwith emendrkb the 'rpt.Hebrew
Some even text emend to Ihe Hebrew text
the clouds, whether explicitlythe clouds, or whether
implicitly explicitly
(Deut. or
Ps. 18:11,(Deut. 33:26; Ps. 18:11, in order to bring in order
it even closer
(bafrapot to tothebring it even
Ugaritic, e.g.closer to the Ugaritic, eg H.L
H.L. Ginsberg.
'The Ugaritic texts and 'The textualUgariticcriticism', texts JBLand62textual(1943),criticism
pp. '. JBL W .62F . (1943). pp. 112
85 E . Ullendorff,' Ugaritic H. Ullcndorff,
85studies ' Ugantic
within their Semitic studies within their
and Eastern Semitic and Eastern Mediterranean Albright, 'A catalogue of Albright.
Mediterranean early Hebrew lyric poems
'A catalogue (Psalm
of early L X V I Ilyric
Hebrew I ) ' , poems
setting', BJRL 46 (1963-4), selling',
pp. BJRLS.P. 46 (1963—41,
Brock, pp. 243-4; S=P.rkb 'rpt',' Ncfakityf pirn - rkb 'rpt\
Bfock, Part 1 (1950-1), pp. 12,23, 18,Part
whilst others, e.g.
1 (1956-1), pp.G.R.12, 18,Driver,
others, eg,Myths G,R, Dnver. Canaa
VT 18 (1968), pp. 395-7. FT For 18a (1968),
study ofpp. both the For
395-7. expressions of bothof the
a study 'Rider the expressions "Rider of the and Legends (Edinburgh, 1956), p. 128, (Edinburgh.
and Let/ends noting the interchange
1956), p. 128, of Ugaritic
noting the p and
interchange of Uga
clouds' and 'Gatherer of clouds* and 'Gatherer
the clouds', of the clouds',
see M . Weinfeld, 'Rider of seethe Weinfeld. 'Rider of Ihc clouds' Hebrew b, maintain thatHebrew
M.clouds' no emendation
b. maintain is necessary.
that no emendation The emendation of
is necessary. The emen
and 'Gatherer of the clouds'", Journal ofofthe
and 'Gatherer clouds'",
IhcAncient NearJournal
Easternof the of Near Eastern Society of
Society to was made ''roboteven to before
''rapot thewas discovery
made even of thebeforeUgaritic texts by of the UgariU
the discovery
Columbia University 5 (Gaster Columbia University
Festschrift, 5 (Gastcr
1973), pp. 421-6.Fcslschnfl.
Weinfeld 1973).
shows pp. 421-6. Wetnfeld shows F.X. Wutz, Die Psalmen, textkritisch F.X. Wutz.untersucht Die Psalmen, (Munich, 1925),untcrsucht
textkritisch p. 171, referring(Munich. 1925(, p. 17
that both concepts are found thai inbothGreek arc found
concepts and inNearGreek mythology
Eastern mythol-and Near Eastern mythol- to Akkadian eriptu, urpatuto ' Akkadian with the secondary
eriptu, urpatu ÿclouds',form irbitu.
wiih the secondary form irhitu.
ogy, in which latter, he claims,
ogy. they both latter,
in which lie claims,
had their origin.they both had their origin. 88 A.R- Johnson,
88 A.R. Johnson, Sacral Kingship in AncientSacral IsraelKingship
(2nd ed.,in Anrient1967),
Cardiff, Israelp.(2nd 78, ed.. Cardilf. 19
86 J.C. de Moor, Seasonal86 i.C. dep.Moor,
Pattern, 98. Seasonal Pattern, p. 98. n. 6. n. 6.
32 with theGod's
God's conflict 32 conflict
dragon and the the dragon and the sea
withsea Creation and the conflictand the
Creation 33 divine confli
meaning ' t o cast upmeaning
a way 'to (or cast up a way
highway)', and (or never with the and never with the
a cloud-chariot implies a cloud-chariot
that it was drawn implies by that it wasand
horses, drawnI have by horses, an
meaning 'lift up a song', whichTift up a song',
is sometimes which is sometimes
understood here. Now understood here. Now
elsewhere argued the elsewhere
Ugaritic argued
texts may the Ugaritic
actually texts to
allude may themactually
(in allude to
in Is. 40:3 we read ofin Is. 40:3 rabahwe read of 'a ba'"rabah
highway nfsillah 'a highway in the desert'.
in the desert'.
the word Thus,the word
in CTA mdl).93 Thus, ( in
KTU 5.V.6bÿll (=we KTU 1.5.V.6
The fact that we hereThe have fact that we
'"rabah ' here have used '"rabah ' desert 'with
in connection used in connection with
read that the god read that the god
commanded Baal Mot to commanded
descend into Baal
the to descend into th
a noun from the root a nounadds the rootto sll
fromsupport theaddsviewsupport
that to the view that rokeb
the deserts'.89 world withphenomena:
world with his meteorological his meteorological w'at. qh phenomena 'rptk. rhk. : w'at. qh 'rptk. r
ba'"rabbt should beba'arabot
rendered should 'Rider bethrough the deserts'. 89
rendered 'Rider through
may Deutero-Isaiah psalm on this very psalm for
dependent sb't m(rk.
tjnn. 'mk. sb't glmk.
pdry. tmn.
bt. Ijnzrk 'mk.
'ar {t}(ly.pdry. rb,'ar 'mk. {t}(l
bt. bt.
have been dependent may have beenvery
on this
in keeping with his dependence you, (take) your 'Andclouds,you, (take)
your your
wind, clouds,
your chariot your wind,
team, your chariot tea
the expression; if so, the so, this would
would be inif keeping with his bedependence
kingship, which is gener- rain, take with you rain,
your take
seven withservitorsyou your
(and) seven
your servitors
eight boars,(and) your eigh
on other
on other psalms concerned with psalms concerned
Yahweh's kingship,withwhich
Yahweh's is gener-
(take) Pidriya daughter(take) of Pidriya
dew with daughter
you, and of dew
Taliya with you,
daughter and
of T'aliya dau
ally conceded.
ally conceded. Nevertheless, in spiteNevertheless,
of all that has of allitthat
spite said,
in been is has been said, it is
showers with you.' showers with you.'
here that
still islikely
still likely that Yahweh Yahweh
conceived as is here on
riding conceived
a cloud as (cf.riding on a cloud (cf.
A further theophanic reference of ultimately Baalistic or
Ps. 68:34, ET 33), i.e.Ps.it68:34, ET 33),
is thinking himit asis riding
of i.e. thinking on of a cloudas riding on a cloud A further theophanic reference of ultimately Baalistic origin is to
be found in v. 4, where be foundYahweh in v. is 4, addressed,
where Yahweh 'you make is addressed,
. . . fire 'you make
t is also the
through the deserts. Ithrough deserts.
possible, It is also
perhaps even possible,
probable, that even probable, that
perhaps and flame your messengers'. From
and flame your the context this
messengers'. From can the be inter- this can
the expression thebaexpression is ardkeb ba"rabot
deliberate is a deliberate
distortion of the distortion of the disappeared in the earth at its source, whence the Orontes was originally context called
epithet rkb 'rpt. epithet rkb 'rpt.90 Typhon. Also, it may be noted that Herodotus
disappeared in the earth (III.5)
at itsreports
source, that Typhon
whence the wasOrontes was origin
Returning to Ps. 104:3, Returning
we read to that 104:3, we
Ps.Yahweh readon
'rides thattheYahweh
wings 'rides on the wings buried by the Sirbonian Sea, which
Typhon. in
Also, its turn
it may was
be adjacent to the
noted that Herodotus (III.5) Egyptian M t reports that T
Casius (Baal Zaphon). Although buried the the
by location
Sirbonianof theSea, struggle
which between
in its Zeus
turn was and
adjacent to the Eg
the wind'
of the w i n d ' which ofimplies that hiswhich implies thatis his