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2015 Examination for Mathematics for Engineers and Scientists 4 (F18XD2)

Attempt All Questions. There is a total of 100 marks for the paper.

SECTION A: ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

1. Use the table of Laplace transforms to find:

a) the Laplace transform of


f (t) = e3t (t 4) ,
where is the Dirac delta function.

b) the inverse Laplace transform of the function


4
F (s) = . (10 marks)
s(s 2)

2. Use Laplace transforms to solve the equation

d2 x dx 4t
2
+8 + 16x = 6e
dt dt
dx
for t > 0, with x(0) = 0 and (0) = 0. (10 marks)
dt

3. a) Find a non-parametric equation for the plane passing through the points (2, 2, 2),
(4, 4, 2) and (5, 2, 5).

b) Find the angle between the plane 2x + y + 3z = 4 and the line r = ( 1, 3, 0) + t(1, 2, 1).

(10 marks)

4. Find the ranks of the coefficient and augmented matrices of the following system of
linear equations:

x + y + z = 1,
3x + 4y z = 2,
2x + y z = 8.

Does this system of equations have: a) a unique solution, b) an infinite number of solutions
or c) no solution? (10 marks)

(Paper continued . . . )
F18XD2

5. For a system of linear equations

x + 2y = 0,
x + z = 0,
2x 3y + az = 0.

find for what values of the parameter a it has a non-trivial solution.


(10 marks)

6. The matrix performing clockwise rotations about the x-axis in 3-dimensional space has
the form 0 1
1 0 0
Rx (✓) = @0 cos ✓ sin ✓ A .
0 sin ✓ cos ✓
where ✓ is the angle of rotation.
(a) Use this matrix to calculate the components of the vector
0 1
1
u = @ 2.5A
0.3

after clockwise rotation by ⇡3 about the x-axis.


(b) Check, using matrix multiplication, the identity
⇣⇡ ⌘ ⇣⇡ ⌘ ⇣⇡ ⌘
Rx Rx = Rx .
6 6 3
(10 marks)

7. Find a general solution to the system of equations:


dx
= 8x + 3y,
dt
dy
= 10x 3y.
dt
(10 marks)

(Paper continued . . . )
F18XD2

SECTION B: ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS

8. The concentration y(t) of a chemical in stirred reactor varies over time t, for t > 0,
according to
dy
+ 2y = f (t) , (1)
dt
where f (t) denotes the rate of supply. Initially, the concentration is y(0) = 2. In one
production run, there is no supply, except that a batch of size 3 is instantaneously loaded
into the reactor at time t = 1, so that f (t) = 3 (t 1), where is the Dirac delta function.
Use this f (t) in (1) and apply Laplace transforms to determine the concentration y(t).
(10 marks)

9. A shape approximating the surface S, given by the equation

xy + y 2 + ln z = 4 ,

is to be constructed out of flat plates, each one lying along the tangent plane at a point
on the surface. Check that the point A at (0, 2, 1) lies on S. Find the equation for the
tangent plane to the surface S at the point A, this plane giving the location of one of the
flat plates.
Also find the equation for the normal line to S at the same point A.
(10 marks)

10. In quantum physics the outcome of a measurement corresponds to the eigenvalues of an


operator. The spins of a particle in the x, y and z directions are described by the three
Pauli matrices:
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
0 1 0 i 1 1 0
Sx = , Sy = , Sz =
1 0 i 0 2 0 1
p
where i = 1 is the imaginary unit. Calculate the values of any measurement of spins
along the x, y and z directions, which are given by the corresponding eigenvalues of
Sx , Sy , Sz . (10 marks)

End of Paper

(See over for formula sheet.)


Useful Formulæ for F1.8XD2
Standard Derivatives :
Standard Integrals :
F (x) F 0 (x)
R
f (x) f (x) dx
xn nxn 1

sin ax a cos ax xn (n 6= 1) xn+1 /(n + 1)

cos ax a sin ax cos ax


sin ax
a
tan ax a sec2 ax
sin ax
cos ax
eax aeax a

ln x 1/x tan x ln cos x

cosh ax a sinh ax 1/(1 + x2 ) tan 1


x
sinh ax a cosh ax
ln x x ln x x
0
F (ax + b) aF (ax + b)

u(x)v(x) u0 v + uv 0 eax eax /a

u(x) vu0 uv 0 1/x ln x


Z
v(x) v2 dx
u(x) u(x(y)) dy
dy
du dv
u(v(x))
dv dx

Integration by Parts :
Z b Z b
dv du
u(x) dx = [u(x)v(x)]ba v(x) dx
a dx a dx
Trigonometrical Formulæ :
sin2 A + cos2 A = 1 , sec2 A = tan2 A + 1 ,
sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B , sin(A B) = sin A cos B cos A sin B
cos(A + B) = cos A cos B sin A sin B , cos(A B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A , cos 2A = 2 cos2 A 1=1 2 sin2 A
1
sin A sin B = (cos(A B) cos(A + B))
2
1
cos A cos B = (cos(A B) + cos(A + B))
2
1
sin A cos B = (sin(A + B) + sin(A B))
2
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
A+B A B
sin A + sin B = 2 sin cos
2 2
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
A B A+B
sin A sin B = 2 sin cos
2 2
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
A+B A B
cos A + cos B = 2 cos cos
2 2
✓ ◆ ✓ ◆
A+B A B
cos A cos B = 2 sin sin
2 2
Laplace transforms :

f (t) F (s)

c c/s

t 1/s2

tn n!/sn+1

ekt 1/(s k)

sin at a/(s2 + a2 )

cos at s/(s2 + a2 )

t sin at 2as/(s2 + a2 )2

t cos at (s2 a2 )/(s2 + a2 )2

af (t) + bg(t) aF (s) + bG(s)

f 0 (t) sF (s) f (0)

f 00 (t) s2 F (s) sf (0) f 0 (0)

as
(t a) e

eat f (t) F (s a)

g(t a) t > a as
f (t) = e G(s)
0 t<a