Lesson 2
◆ Drilling Systems
◆ Drilling Rigs
◆ Drilling a Well
◆ Definitions
From the Houston Chronicle, Sunday, January 13, 2002
2
From the Houston Chronicle, Sunday, January 12, 2003
3
From the Houston Chronicle, Sunday, January 12, 2003
4
Noble
Drilling’s
Cecil
Forbes
A Jack
Up Rig
5
Sonat’s A Semi
George Submersible
Washington Rig
6
Zapata’s
Trader
A
Drillship
7
8
TENSION LEG PLATFORM
9
Shell’s
Bullwinkle
World’s tallest
offshore
structure
1,353’ water
depth
Production
began in 1989
45,000 b/d
80MM scf/d
10
Fig. 1.4
The
rotary
drilling
process
11
Fig. 1.5
Classification of
rotary drilling rigs
12
Fig. 1.13
Engine
power
output
P=F.V
13
TABLE 1.1  HEATING VALUE
OF VARIOUS FUELS
14
Example 1.1. A diesel engine gives an output
torque of 1,740 ftlbf at an engine speed of 1,200
rpm. If the fuel consumption rate was 31.5 gal/hr,
what is the output power and overall efficiency of
the engine?
16
Efficiency = (Power Out / Power in)
Qi = w f H
3.78 lbm/min (19,000Btu/lbm) (779 ft  lbf/Btu)
Qi =
33,000 ft  lbf/min/hp
Qi = 1,695.4 hp
Thus, the overall efficiency of the engine at 1,200
rpm given by Eq. 1.3 is
P 397.5
Et = = = 0.234 or 23.4%
Q i 1,695.4
17
Drilling a Well
20
Steps to Drill a Well  cont’d
22
Drilling Operations
Field Engineers, Drilling Foremen
24
Making a mouse hole connection
25
Moving Kelly
to Single in
Mousehole Single
Added.
Stabbing Ready to
the Pipe Drill
Use
Elevators
Put Kelly in
for
Rathole
tripping
27
Tripping
one stand
at a time
6090 ft
● Derrick
● Drawworks
● Mud Pumps
● Drillstring
● Mud System
● Blowout Preventer
● Power Plant
29
T W
T W
T=W
Derrick Load = LD = 2W
(assumes no friction in sheave)
30
n = number
of lines,
Crown block
To
Travelling
block
W = weight
(hook load)
LD = load
on derrick
• FIG 12 Block and Tackle System
Why n + 2?
Assuming no friction
W=4T T = W/4 n+2
LD = W
LD = 6 T = 6 W/4 n
31
Example 1.1
(no friction)
32
Solution (no friction):
n+2 10 + 2
LD = W = 400,000 = 480,000 lbf
n 10 33
Solution, cont.
34
A Rotary Rig
Hoisting
System
Note:
Generally we
need to consider
friction in the
sheaves
35
Projection of
Drilling Lines
on Rig Floor
TOTAL
36
Load on Derrick
(considering friction in sheaves)
Fd = W + Ff + Fd
W W 1 + E + En
Fd = W + + = W
En n En
E = overall efficiency: E = en
e.g., if individual sheave efficiency = 0.98 and n = 8, then E = 0.851
37
Example 1.2
W 300,000
F= = = 44,590 lb
E n 0.841 * 8
Ph = E•pi = 0.841(500)
Ph = 420.5 hp.
41
Solution
33,000 ft  lbf/min
420.5 hp
Ph hp
vb = =
W 300,000 lbf
s 90 ft
t = =
v 46.3 ft/min
t = 1 . 9 min .
43
Solution
n+ 4 8+ 4
Fde = W= * 300,000
n 8
45
Solution
Fd 382,090
Ed = =
Fde 450,000
E d = 0.849 or 84.9%
46
RIG COMPONENTS
Definitions
1. Gin Pole  An “A” frame structure
located at the top of standard derricks used
to list and lower the crown block into
position.
2. Water Table The water table is the walk
around at the top of standard derricks which
supports the crown block.
RIG COMPONENTS
Definitions
3. Crown Block  A series of sheaves
affixed in the top of the derrick used to
change the direction of pull from the
drawworks to the traveling block.
4. Derrick  Vertical structure that allows
vertical clearance and strength to raise and
lower the drill string. This structure with
stands two types of loading: compressive
loading and wind loading.
RIG COMPONENTS
Definitions
Types of Derricks:
Triple has the capacity of pulling 90’
stands of pipe
Double has the capacity of pulling 60’
stands of pipe
Single has the capacity of pulling
30’stands of pipe (one 30ft joint)
RIG COMPONENTS
Definitions
Standard Derricks  Four sided structures
that must be assembled and disassembled
when transporting.
Portable Derricks  Telescoping and
jackknife types. The telescoping derrick is
raised and lowered in an extending and
collapsing fashion and lowered in one piece,
but may be disassembled to some degree
after being lowered.
RIG COMPONENTS
Definitions
5. Stand  A stand generally consists of two
to four joints of madeup drill pipe. The
stand is generally used when running or
pulling the drill string in and out of the hole.
6. Monkey board  (Stabbing board) The
platform on which the derrick man works
when tripping pipe.
RIG COMPONENTS
Definitions
7. Racking Fingers  Fingers or members
where the stands are racked and secured
while tripping pipe.
8. “A” Frame  The “A” frame structure on
a jackknife used to raise and lower the mast.
It also supports the derrick in the raised
position.
RIG COMPONENTS
Definitions
9. Bull line and Sheaves  The large line and
sheaves located on the “A” frame of a
jackknife used to raise and lower the
derrick. E
sheave
b = (0 . 98
pairs
)n where
in the
n
crown
is the
and
number
traveling
of
blocks.
Lesson 3
Drilling
Equipment, Costs, Problems
1
Schematic
of Rig
Circulating
System for
liquid
drilling fluid
2
3
Example 1.3
Compute the pump factor in units of
barrels per stroke for a doubleacting
duplex pump having 6.5inch liners, 2.5
inch rods, 18inch strokes and a volumetric
efficiency of 90%.
π
( )
Fp = L s E v 2 d L2 − d r2
2
Eq. 1.10
π
[
= (18 )(0 . 9 ) 2 (6 . 5 ) − (2 . 5 )
2
2
]
2
= 1991 in 3 / stroke 4
Recall:
There are 231 in.3 in an U. S. gallon and 42
U.S. gallons in a U.S. barrel. Thus
converting to the desired field units yields:
7
Example: Pump Rate
= 7.554 bbl/min
8
Hydrocyclone
• desander
• desilter
* No moving parts
* Pressure drop * Low cost
* Diameter
9
Decanting Centrifuge Use?
10
Fig. 1.33
Schematic of
Rotary
System
11
Fig. 1.34
Cutaway
View of
Swivel
* Seals
ROTATING * Bearings
12
PIN
BOX
Fig. 1.38
TJ Cutaway View and
Shoulder
Dimensions for
Example Tool Joint
13
Fig. 1.39
Stabilizer
14
Fig. 1.41
Kick Detection During
Drilling Operations
3
GAIN IN PIT
VOLUME EQUAL
TO KICK VOLUME
KICK 2
1
15
Fig. 1.46
Remote
Control
Panel for
operating
CHOKE
Blowout
Preventers
16
DP
TJ
DC
OH
Press
21
Fig. 1.63 Subsea Equipment
Installation Procedure 22
Typical Casing Strings
Water Level
Depth
Below ML
Seafloor
Conductor pile 36” 30” 200’
Depth
Below ML
24
What is the capacity of 10,000 ft of 5”
OD, 19.50 lb/ft drillpipe?
• The AFE
• Drilling Cost and Bit Change
• Factors Affecting Drilling Rate
• Bit Weight, Rotary Speed
• Bottomhole Cleaning
• Mud Properties, Solids Content
• Hydrostatics
26
Before getting approval to drill a well the
Drilling Engineer must prepare an AFE
 a detailed cost estimate for the well
DRY COMPLETED
HOLE
INTANGIBLE COSTS $ $
TANGIBLE COSTS $ $
TOTAL COST $ $
27
AUTHORIZATION FOR EXPENDITURE (AFE)
EXPENDITURE DRY HOLE COMPLETED
(24.5 DAYS) (32.5 DAYS)
INTANGIBLE COSTS
LOCATION PREPARATION 30,000 65,000
DRILLING RIG AND TOOLS 298,185 366,613
DRILLING FLUIDS 113,543 116,976
RENTAL EQUIPMENT 77,896 133,785
CEMENTING 49,535 54,369
SUPPORT SERVICES 152,285 275,648
TRANSPORTATION 70,200 83,400
SUPERVISION AND ADMIN. 23,282 30,791
SUBTOTAL 814,928 1,126,581
TANGIBLE COSTS
TUBULAR EQUIPMENT 406,101 846,529
WELL HEAD EQUIPMENT 16,864 156,201
COMPLETION EQUIPMENT 0 15,717
SUBTOTAL 422,965 1,018,447
DEPTH
ft
TD
DAYS or DOLLARS
29
The Drilling Engineer
• pump operation
• bit selection
30
The Drilling Cost Equation:
C b + C r( tb + tc + tt ) $
Cf = Eq. 1.16
∆D ft
Cf = drilling cost, $/ft Cb= cost of bit, $/bit
Cr= fixed operating cost of rig, $/hr
tb= total rotating time, hrs
tc= total nonrotating time, hrs
tt= trip time (round trip), hrs
∆D = footage drilled with bit, ft
31
Example 1.5
32
Example 1.5 cont’d
Assume that each of the bits was operated at near
the minimum cost per foot attainable for that bit.
Mean
Bit Rotating Connection Penetration
Cost Time Time Rate
Bit ($) (hours) (hours) (ft/hr)
A 800 14.8 0.1 13.8
B 4,900 57.7 0.4 12.6
C 4,500 95.8 0.5 10.2
35
Drilling Costs
C = aebD …………………..(1.17)
36
Fig. 165. Leastsquare curve fit of 1978 completed well costs
37
for wells below 7,500 ft in the south Louisiana area.
Drilling Time cont’d
Plotting depth vs. drilling time from past
drilling operations:
38
Cost per ft for one entire bit run
Minimum Cost
39
An increase in
TORQUE may
indicate that a bit
should be pulled.
Experience often
dictates when to
pull bit (footage or
hours).
40
Factors that affect Penetration Rate
42
Bit Weight and Rotary Speed
43
40,000 lbf
Consider 10” hole
(don’t overdo!!)
Drilling Rate, ft/hr
48
Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient
Fresh Water Pressure Gradient = 0.433 psi/ft
Density of Fresh Water = 8.33 lb/gal
MW = 16.03 lb/gal 51
Hole Problems
• Lost Circulation
• Stuck Pipe
• Keyseat Crooked Hole
• Differential Sticking
• Mechanical Sticking
• Junk in Hole
• Kicks and Blowouts
• Crooked Hole
52
Hole Problems  Lost Circulation
Indication:
53
Hole Problems  Lost Circulation
Causes:
54
Hole Problems  Lost Circulation
Results:
55
Hole Problems  Lost Circulation
Preventive Measures:
4 Crew Education
4 Good Mud Program
4 Study Wells in Area
…to be prepared
56
Hole Problems  Lost Circulation
Remedial Measures:
Indication:
• Cannot Pick Up Pipe (Venezuela case)
Causes:
4Cave  ins
4Keyseat  Crooked Hole
58
Hole Problems  Stuck Pipe
Causes, cont’d:
59
Hole Problems  Stuck Pipe
Results:
• Fishing Operations
Back off, POH, RIH w/fishing string
• Loss of Hole
or at least part of the hole
60
Hole Problems  Stuck Pipe
Preventive Measures:
• Use Minimum Mud Weight Required
to Control Formation Pressures.
• Use Special Drill Collars (spiral)
Remedial Measures:
If Circulation Can Be Established:
62
Hole Problems  Stuck Pipe
Remedial Measures:
If Circulation Cannot Be
Established:
63
KEY
SEAT
64
P1 >> P2
P1
P2
65
Thick Filter Cake F = µN
N = ∆P A
Indication:
67
Hole Problems  Junk in Hole
Cause:
4Negligence of Crew
Result:
4Fishing Operation
68
Hole Problems  Junk in Hole
Preventive Measure:
• Crew Education
Remedial Measures:
Indication:
70
Hole Problems  Blowout
(oil, gas or water)
[surface or underground]
Causes:
Results:
72
Hole Problems  Blowout
Preventive Measures:
• Crew Education
• Be Alert
73
Hole Problems  Blowout
Remedial Action:
If on Bottom:
4Use proper Mud Weight
4Add Lost Circulation Materials
75
Hole Problems  Crooked Hole
Indication:
• Casing Problems
76
Hole Problems  Crooked Hole
Causes:
4 Too much Weight on Bit
4 Dipping Formation
4 Anisotropic Formation
4 Too Small Drill Collars
4 No Stabilizers
77
Hole Problems  Crooked Hole
Results:
78
Hole Problems  Crooked Hole
Preventive Action:
Remedial Action:
¾Use Whipstock
80
Lost Circulation Example
This Example shows how to determine the mud weight
that can be supported by the formation and also the mud
weight that will control the subsurface pressure.
Water  20 bbls
400 ft
12,500 ft
16,000 ft
BHP = ? BHP = 13,963 psig 82
Example  Solution
Solution:
VWATER 20 bbl
= = 400 ft of water
v ANNULUS 0 .05 bbl / ft
83
G = 0.052 * ρ
Example 3.1 GW = 0.052 * 8.33
GM = 0.052 * 17
13,963
Effective mud weight = = 16.78 lb/gal
(16,000)(0 .052)
84
Example 3.1
10,869
Effective mud weight = = 16.72 lb/gal
(12,500)(0.052)
85
Before Water After Water
Water  20 bbls
400 ft
12,500 ft
10,869 psig EMW = 16.72 lb/gal
16,000 ft
BHP = 13,963 psig EMW = 16.78 lb/gal
86
Drilling
Lesson 4
Wellbore Hydraulics,
Pressure Drop Calculations
1
Wellbore Hydraulics
• Hydrostatics
• Buoyancy
• Pipe Tension vs. Depth
• Effect of Mud Pressure
• Laminar and Turbulent Flow
• Pressure Drop Calculations
– Bingham Plastic Model
– API PowerLaw Model
2
Fig. 43.
A Complex
Liquid
Column
p = 0.052ρ D + p0
∆p = 0.052ρ ∆D
n
p = p 0 + 0 . 052 ∑ρ
i =1
i ( D i − D i −1 )
3
PPUMP = ?
p0 = 0 psig
∴ p a = 1, 266 psig
5
Buoyancy Force = weight of fluid displaced
(Archimedes, 250 BC)
ρf
∴ We = W 1 −
ρs
Buoyancy Factor
9
Simple Example  Empty Wellbore
Drillpipe weight = 19.5 lbf/ft 10,000 ft
0 lbf 195,000 lbf
OD = 5.000 in
ID = 4.276 in
DEPTH, ft
A=
π
4
(OD 2 − ID 2 )
A = 5.265 in2
OD = 5.000 in
ID = 4.276 in
DEPTH, ft
A=
π
4
(
OD 2 − ID 2 )
A = 5.265 in2
Example
A drill string consists of
10,000 ft of 19.5 #/ft drillpipe and
600 ft of 147 #/ft drill collars
suspended off bottom in 15 #/gal mud
(Fb = bit weight = 0).
490 lb / ft 3 ft 2
10,600’
13
A1
Example – cont’d
147
A2 = * 144 = 43 . 2 in 2
490
A2
Differential area = A 2 − A1
= 43.2 − 5.73 = 37.5 in 2
14
Example  cont’d 4
Compressive force = p A
3
lbf 2
= 8 , 268 * 43 . 2 in 2
in 2 1
= 357,200 lbf
= 88,200  357,200
= 269,000 lbf
16
Example  cont’d 4
FT = W1+W2+F1F2Fb 3
2
= 88,200 + 7,800 lbf/in2 * 37.5in2  357,200
1
= 269,000 + 292,500
= + 23,500 lbf
17
Example  cont’d 4
4. At Surface
FT = W1 + W2 + F1  F2  Fb
3
= 19.5 * 10,000 + 88,200 2
+ 292,500  357,200  0
1
= 218,500 lbf (= 23,500 + 195,000)
Alternatively: FT = WAIR * BF
= 283,200 * 0.7710 = 218,345 lbf
18
Fig. 411. Axial tensions as a function of depth for Example 4.919
Example  Summary
20
Axial Load with FBIT = 68,000 lbf
21
22
For multiple nozzles in parallel
∆p q
vn = c d −4 & v n = 3 .117 A
8.074 * 10 ρ t
8.311 * 10 ρ q
5 2
∆p bit = 2 2
Cd = 0.95
C A
d t
23
Hydraulic Horsepower
q∆p
Power, in field units: HHP =
1714
400 * 3 ,000
HHP =
1714
… developed by bit?
If: C D = 0 . 95
q = 400 gal/min
ρ = 12 lb/gal
∆p n = 1,169 psi
Fj = 0.01823 c d q ρ ∆p
25
Impact = rate of change of momentum
∆(mv ) m ρ q vn
Fj = = ∆v =
∆t ∆t 32.17 * 60
Fj = 0.01823 c d q ρ ∆p
26
Laminar Flow
Rheological Models
¾ Newtonian
¾ Bingham Plastic
¾ PowerLaw (ADE & API)
Rotational Viscometer
Laminar Flow in Wellbore
¾ Fluid Flow in Pipes
¾ Fluid Flow in Annuli
27
Laminar Flow of Newtonian Fluids
F V
Experimentally: = µ
A L
28
Newtonian Fluid Model
τ dyne • sec
µ = • 2
γ cm
dyne  s g
1 poise = 1 =1
cm 2
cm − s
.
τ = µγ
Slope of line = µ
31
Apparent Viscosity
•
Apparent viscosity = τ / γ • • •
is the slope at each shear rate, γ 1, γ 2 , γ 3 .
32
Typical Drilling Fluid Vs. Newtonian,
(Plotted on linear paper)
Bingham and Power Law Fluids
33
Rheological Models
What if τy = 0? 34
Rotating
Sleeve
Viscometer
35
Rotating Figure 3.6 Rheometer
Viscometer
We
determine
rheological
properties Infinite
of drilling parallel
fluids in plates
this device
36
Rheometer (Rotational
Viscometer)
sleeve
BOB τ = f (γ )
fluid
Shear Stress = f (Dial Reading)
Shear Rate = f (Sleeve RPM)
Shear Stress = f (Shear Rate)
Plastic Viscosity:
θ600 = 20
µ p = θ 600 − θ 300 θ300 = 12
= 20  12
See Appendix A
µ p = 8 cp
39
Example  cont’d θ600 = 20
θ300 = 12
Yield Point:
= 12  8
τ y = 4 lbf/100 ft 2
40
Gel Strength
41
Gel Strength
= shear stress at which fluid movement begins
42
Gel Strength
43
Velocity Profiles
(laminar flow)
300
or µa = θN
N
⋅
5 . 066
γ = 2
N
r
46
Table 4.3  Summary of Equations for
Rotational Viscometer
oror
µ p = θ 600 − θ 300 µp =
300
(θ N 2 − θ N1 )
N 2 − N1
or
or
τ y = θ 300 − µ p N1
τ y = θ N1 − µp
300
τ g = θ max at 3 rpm 47
Example 4.22
6π
1”
7” 5”
48
Example 4.22
_
v = 1.362 ft/s
_
dp f µv
=
1000 (d 2 − d1 )
2
dL
49
Example 4.22
_
dp f µv
=
1000 (d2 − d1 )
2
dL
∆ p f = 51 psi (= 51.0750 )
50
Total Pump Pressure
51
Types of flow
Laminar Turbulent
Fig. 430. Laminar and turbulent flow patterns in a circular pipe: (a) laminar
flow, (b) transition between laminar and turbulent flow and (c) turbulent flow52
_
Turbulent Flow 
928 ρ v d
Newtonian Fluid N Re =
µ
In Pipe
_ 1 . 75 _ 1 . 75
0 . 25
dp f ρ µ
0 . 75
v 0 . 25
dp f ρ v µp
0 . 75
= =
dL 1800 d 1 . 25 dL 1800 d 1 . 25
In Annulus
_ 1 . 75 _ 1 . 75
0 . 25
dp f ρ 0 . 75
v µ 0 . 25
dp f ρ 0 . 75
v µp
= =
dL 1,396 (d 2 − d 1 )
1 . 25
dL (
1,396 d 2 − d 1 )1 . 25
54
API Power Law Model API RP 13D
K = consistency index
n = flow behaviour index
τ=K γn
SHEAR
STRESS
τ
psi
0
SHEAR RATE, γ , sec1
55
Rotating Sleeve Viscometer
(RPM * 1.703)
SLEEVE
56
Pressure Drop Calculations
• Example Calculate the pump pressure in
the wellbore shown on the next page, using the
API method.
Q = 280 gal/min
ρ = 12.5 lb/gal
+ ∆PBIT NOZZLES
+ ∆PDC/ANN + ∆PDP/ANN
+ ∆PHYD
58
OD = 4.5 in
Pressure Drop In Drill Pipe ID = 3.78 in
L = 11,400 ft
PowerLaw Constant (n):
R 600 65
n = 3 . 32 log = 3 . 32 log = 0 . 737
R 300 39
60
OD = 4.5 in
Pressure Drop In Drill Pipe ID = 3.78 in
L = 11,400 ft
NOTE: NRe > 2,100, so a
f =
Friction Factor in Pipe (f): NRe
b
a 0 .0759
So, f = b
= 0 .2690
= 0 .007126
NRe 6,616
61
OD = 4.5 in
Pressure Drop In Drill Pipe ID = 3.78 in
L = 11,400 ft
Friction Pressure Gradient (dP/dL) :
2
dP f V ρ 0.007126 * 8 2 * 12.5 psi
= = = 0.05837
dL 25 .81 D 25.81 * 3.78 ft
dP
∆P = ∆L = 0.05837* 11,400
dL
So, a 0.0759
f = b
= 0.2690
= 0.005840
NRe 13,870
65
OD = 6.5 in
Pressure Drop In Drill Collars ID = 2.5 in
L = 600 ft
Friction Pressure Gradient (dP/dL) :
2
dP f V ρ 0.005840 * 18 .28 2 * 12 .5 psi
= = = 0.3780
dL 25 .81 D 25 .81 * 2.5 ft
dP
∆P = ∆L = 0.3780 * 600
dL
67
Pressure Drop
in DC/HOLE
Annulus
Q = 280 gal/min
DHOLE = 8.5 in
ODDC = 6.5 in
L = 600 ft
68
Pressure Drop DHOLE = 8.5 in
ODDC = 6.5 in
in DC/HOLE Annulus L = 600 ft
PowerLaw Constant (n):
R 100 20
n = 0 . 657 log = 0 . 657 log = 0 . 5413
R3 3
0.5413 −1 0.5413
144 * 3.808 2 * 0.5413 + 1
µ e = 100 * 6.336 = 55.20 cP
8 .5 − 6 .5 3 * 0.5413
2
dP f V ρ 0.01500 * 3.808 2 * 12.5 psi
= = = 0.05266
dL 25.81(D 2 − D1 ) 25.81 (8.5 − 6.5 ) ft
dP
∆P = ∆L = 0 .05266 * 600
dL
q = 280 gal/min
ρ = 12.5 lb/gal
DHOLE = 8.5 in
ODDP = 4.5 in
L = 11,400 ft
72
Pressure Drop DHOLE = 8.5 in
ODDP = 4.5 in
in DP/HOLE Annulus L = 11,400 ft
PowerLaw Constant (n):
R 100 20
n = 0 .657 log = 0 .657 log = 0 .5413
R3 3
2
dP fV ρ 0.02299 * 2.1972 * 12.5 psi
= = = 0.01343
dL 25.81(D2 − D1 ) 25.81(8.5 − 4.5) ft
dP
∆P = ∆L = 0 . 01343 * 11,400
dL
P
∆PDS = ∆PDP + ∆PDC + ∆PBIT NOZZLES =
0
= 665 + 227 + 1,026 = 1,918 psi
= 32 + 153 = 185
∆PHYD = 0
2,500
DRILLPIPE
"Friction" Pre ssure , psi
2,103
2,000
1,500
DRILL COLLARS
1,000
BIT NOZZLES
500 ANNULUS
0
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000
Cumulative Distance from Standpipe, ft
78
Hydrostatic Pressures in the Wellbore
9,000
BHP
H ydrostatic Pre ssure , psi
8,000
7,000
6,000
DRILLSTRING ANNULUS
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000
Cumulative Distance from Standpipe, ft
79
Pressures in the Wellbore
10,000
9,000
8,000
CIRCULATING
Pressures, psi
7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,103
2,000
1,000 STATIC
0
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000
Cumulative Distance from Standpipe, ft
80
Wellbore Pressure Profile
2,103
0
2,000
DRILLSTRING
4,000
Depth, ft
6,000
ANNULUS
8,000
10,000
(Static)
12,000
BIT
14,000
0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000
Pressure, psi 81
Pipe Flow  Laminar
In the above example the flow down the
drillpipe was turbulent.
Under conditions of very high viscosity, the flow
may very well be laminar.
NOTE: if NRe < 2,100, then
Friction Factor in Pipe (f):
2
16 dP f V ρ
Then f = and =
N Re dL 25.81 D
82
Annular Flow  Turbulent
In the above example the flow in the
annulus was laminar.
Under conditions of very low viscosity, the
flow may very well be turbulent.
NOTE: if NRe > 2,100, then
Friction Factor in the Annulus (f):
f V ρ
2
a dP
Then f = and =
dL 25.81 (D2 − D1 )
b
NRe
83
84
n = 1.0
_
dp fρ v 2
=
dL 25 .8 d 85
Drilling
Casing Design
1
Casing Design
Diameter Example
1. Drive pipe or structural pile
{Gulf Coast and offshore only}
16”60” 30”
150’300’ below mudline.
5
Types of Strings of Casing
Diameter Example
6. Liner(s)
7. Tubing String(s)
6
Example Hole and String Sizes (in)
1,000’
4,000’
Surface pipe
IntermediateString
Production Liner
8
Classification of CSG.
RANGE 1 1625 ft
RANGE 2 2534 ft
11
Casing Threads and Couplings
Required Design
13
Abnormal
Master
Valves
Wellhead
• Hang Csg. Strings
• Provide Seals
• Control Production
from Well
16
Wellhead
17
Wellhead
18
Casing Design
Tension Tension
Depth
Burst
Collapse
Collapse
STRESS
Burst:
Burst Assume full reservoir pressure all along the wellbore.
Collapse: Hydrostatic pressure increases with depth
Tension: Tensile stress due to weight of string is highest at top
19
Casing Design  Collapse
21
Casing Design  Burst
(from internal pressure)
p Internal p
Pressure
22
Casing Design  Burst
Example 1
25
26
23 lb/ft
26 lb/ft
N80 27
Collapse Pressure
28
Casing Design
2
1/ 2
1. SA S A
YPA = YP 1− 0.75 − 0.5
YP YP
FA 100,000
SA = = = 24,820 psi
Area π 5.5 2 − 5.012 2
( )
4
30
2
S S
Example 3 cont’d Y PA = 1 − 0 . 75 A − 0 . 5 A Y P
Y Y
p p
= 38,216 psi
¾ Example Problem
¾ API Design Factors
¾ “Worst Possible Conditions”
¾ Effect of Axial Tension on Collapse Strength
¾ Iteration and Interpolation
¾ Design for Burst, Collapse and Tension
35
Casing Design Example
Depth
= 6,000 psi *1.1
PB = 6,600 psi
Pressure
The whole casing string must be capable of
withstanding this internal pressure without failing in
burst.
42
Casing Design  Solution
Collapse Requirements
For collapse design, we start at the bottom of
the string and work our way up.
43
Casing Design
Depth
Collapse Requirements, cont’d Pressure
45
Casing Design
Depth
To what depth might we
be able to run N80, 47
#/ft? The maximum Pressure
annular pressure that this
pipe may be exposed to,
is:
Collapse pressure of pipe 4,760
Pc = = = 4,231 psi
design factor 1.125
47
Casing Design
First Iteration
At what depth do we see this pressure (4,231
psig) in a column of 12.5 #/gal mud?
Pc = 0 . 052 * 12 . 5 * h 1
Pc 4 , 231
∴ h1 = = = 6 ,509 ft
0 . 052 * 12 . 5 0 . 052 * 12 .5
48
Casing Design
This is the depth to which the pipe
could be run if there were 6,509’
no axial stress in the pipe… 8,000’
50
Casing Design
51
Casing Design
Interpolation between these values shows
that the collapse resistance at 5,877 psi
axial stress is:
S − S1
Pc1 = P1 − (P1 − P2 )
S 2 − S1
(5,877 − 5,000)
Pc1 = 4,680 − * ( 4,680 − 4,600 ) = 4,666 psi
(10,000 − 5,000)
4,666
With the design factor, Pcc1 = = 4,148 psi
1.125
52
Casing Design
Second Iteration
Now consider running the 47 #/ft
pipe to the new depth of 6,382 ft.
86 ,563 lbf
S2 = 2
= 6,378 psi
13 . 572 in
56
Casing Design
Interpolating again,
1 S − S1
Pc1 = P1 − (P1 − P2 )
D.F. S 2 − S1
1 6,378 − 5000
pcc2 = 4,680 − * (4,680 − 4,600) = 4,140 psi
1.125 5000
1 6,429 − 5,000
thus Pcc3 = 4,680 − * (4,680 − 4,600)
1.125 5,000
59
Casing Design
∴ NO!
61
N80
43.5 #/ft?
Depth = 5,057?
5,066?
5,210?
N80
47.0 #/ft
Depth = 6,369
6,369
N80 6,382
53.5 #/ft 6,509
8,000
62
Tension Check
∴ 47.0 # / ft is OK to surface
64
Drilling
Lesson 6
Casing Design  cont’d
1
Casing Design
• Casing Threads
• Using the Halliburton Cementing Tables
• Yield Strength of Casing (in tension)
• Burst Strength
• Effect of Axial Tension on Collapse Strength
• Effect of Pipe Bending
• Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide
• Selection of Casing Settling Depths
2
N80
43.5 #/ft?
Depth = 5,057?
5,066?
5,210?
N80
47.0 #/ft
Depth = 6,369
6,369
N80 6,382
53.5 #/ft 6,509
8,000
3
Casing Design Review
y = mx + c
P = mS + C (i)
P1 = mS 1 + C (ii)
P 2 = mS 2 + C (iii)
9
Linear Interpolation
P2 − P1
(iii) − (ii) P2 − P1 = m(S2 − S1 ) ⇒ m=
S2 − S1
P2 − P1
(i) − (ii) P − P1 = m(S − S1 ) = (S − S1 )
S2 − S1
10
Linear Interpolation
S − S1
∴ P = P1 + (P2 − P1 )
S 2 − S1
~ Square Threads
* Longer
* Stronger
Integral Joint
* Smaller ID, OD
* Costs more
* Strong
14
15
16
< BURST > < TENSION >
Tensional force balance on pipe body
Example 7.1:
Compute the bodyyield
strength for 20in., K55
casing with a nominal
wall thickness of 0.635
in. and a nominal weight
per foot of 133 lbf/ft.
Ften = σyield * A s 17
Tensional force balance on pipe body
K55
Solution:
This pipe has a minimum
yield strength of 55,000 psi
and an ID of:
Ften = σyield * A s
4
and a minimum pipebody yield
is predicted by Eq. 7.1 at
an axial force of:
Ften = σyield * A s
π
Py = (D2 − d2 )Yp
4
where
Py = pipe body yield strength, lbf
Yp = specified minimum yield strength, psi
D = outside diameter of pipe, in
d = inside diameter of pipe, in
20
Pipe Body Yield Strength
Example
What is yield strength of body of 7”, 26 #/ft, P
110 casing?
π 2
Py = (D − d2 )Yp
4
π
= ( 7 2 − 6 .276 2 )110 ,000 = 830 , 402
4
FT
2 Yp t
P = 0.875 FP
D
where FP = DLP
P = internal yield pressure, psi FT = 2tLYP
Yp = minimum yield strength, psi DLP = 2tLYP
2 Yp t
P = 0.875
D
(7  6.276)
= 0.875 * 2 * 110,000 *
2*7
= 9,955
24
COLLAPSE
TENSION
25
α = dogleg severity, deg/100 ft
= angle build rate, deg/100 ft
18,000
Build Radius =
πα
26
Length of arc, L = R∆θR L
∆L = (R + r)∆θ  R∆θ ∆θ
R R+r
dn
∆L = r ∆θ = ∆θ
2
∆L dn ∆θ dn α π
∆ε = = =
L 2 L 2(12 ) 100 180
30 * 10 6
π
∆σ = E∆ε = αdn = 218αdn
2,400 180
∆σ = 218 α dn F = 218 α dn A s (7.14a)
27
Figure 7.14  Incremental stress caused by
bending of casing in a directional well
Fab = 64 α d n w.............................(7.14b)
α = 5 deg/100 ft
d n , = 7 in
w = 35 lbf / ft
Fab = 64 α d n w.............................(7.14b)
30
31
32
33
34
Production casing design load for burst.
35
Production casing design load for collapse.
36
Tensile Strength of Casing
37
Tensile Strength of Casing
F
What is the maximum length of N80
casing that can hang in an airfilled
wellbore without exceeding the
minimum yield strength of the pipe?
LMAX = 23,510 ft W
Lesson 9
Well Control Concepts
1
Well Control Concepts
3
Causes of Kicks
4
Causes of Kicks
5
Causes of Kicks
6
7
8
9
What?
What is a kick?
◆ An unscheduled
entry of
formation
fluid(s) into the
wellbore
10
Why?
◆ Swabbing on trips
12
What ?
¹ BLOWOUT !!!
13
Typical Kick Sequence
1. Kick indication
2. Kick detection  (confirmation)
3. Kick containment  (stop kick influx)
4. Removal of kick from wellbore
5. Replace old mud with kill mud (heavier)
14
Kick Detection and Control
1. Pit gain;
2. Increase in flow of mud from the well
3. Drilling break (sudden increase in
drilling rate)
18
Kick Detection
19
Dynamic Kick Control
[Kill well “on the fly”]
20
Dynamic Kick Control
1. DRILLER’S METHOD
(Engineer’s Method)
24
Driller’s Method  Constant Geometry
Information required:
Well Data:
Depth = 10,000 ft.
Hole size = 12.415 in. (constant)
Drill Pipe = 4 1/2” O.D., 16.60 #/ft
Surface Csg.: 4,000 ft. of 13 3/8” O.D. 68 #/ft
(12.415 in I.D.)
25
Driller’s Method  Constant Geometry
Kick Data:
Original mud weight = 10.0 #/gal
Shutin annulus press. = 600 psi
Shutin drill pipe press. = 500 psi
Kick size = 30 bbl (pit gain)
26
SIDPP = 500 psi
Constant SICP = 600 psi
Annular DP OD
Geometry. = 4.5 in
Hole dia
Initial = 12.415 in
4,000 ft
conditions:
Kick has just Annular
Capacity
entered the = 0.13006
wellbore bbl/ft
Pressures
have 231 ft
10,000 ft
stabilized BHP = 5,700 psig
27
Successful Well Control
4 the formation
4 the casing
4 the wellhead equipment
28
Successful Well Control
30
Calculate New Bottom Hole Pressure
= 500
+ 0.052 * 10.0 * 10,000
= 500 + 5,200
PB = 5,700 psig
31
Calculate Pressure at Casing Seat
32
Calculate EMW at Casing Seat
This corresponds to a pressure gradient of
2,680 psi
= 0.670 psi/ft
4,000 ft
π 2 2
vx = (D H − D P )L
4
π 2 2 3 gal bbl
= (12 .415 − 4.5 ) * 12 in * 3
4 231 in 42 gal
= 0.13006 bbls/ft
34
Calculate Height of Kick
VB 30 bbl
hB = = = 230 .7 ft
vx 0.13006 bbl/ft
hB = 231 ft
35
Calculate Density of Kick Fluid
The bottom hole pressure is the pressure at
the surface plus the total hydrostatic pressure
between the surface and the bottom:
Annulus Drill String
PB = SICP + ∆PMA + ∆PKB = SIDPP + ∆PMD
600 + 0052
. *10
*(10,000231) + ∆PKB = 500 + (0.052*10*10,000)
600 + 5,080 + ∆PKB = 500 + 5,200
36
Density of Kick Fluid
∴ ∆PKB = 20 psi
20
∴ ρ KB = ≈ 1 .67 lb/gal
0 .052 * 231
37
Circulate Kick Out of Hole
NOTE:
The bottom hole
pressure is kept
constant while the kick
fluid is circulated out of
the hole!
In this case
BHP = 5,700 psig
38
Constant
Annular
Geometry
Driller’s Method.
Conditions When
Top of Kick Fluid
Reaches the Surface
BHP = const. 39
40
Top of Kick at Surface
[ surface ] [bottom]
41
Top of Kick at Surface
2
P0 − 480 P 0 − 684684 = 0
480 ± 480 2
+ 4 * 684 , 684
∴ P0 =
2
800
1,100
40
1,298 psi45
1,298
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0 2,000
0 200 bbls 46
Csg DS DS Csg
Driller’s
Static Pressure Method
Driller’s
Method
Drillpipe Pressure
Engineer’s
Method
2 5 6
49
Drilling
Lesson 10
Well Control, cont’d
1
Well Control, cont’d
Procedure:
1. Raise the kelly to clear
the tool joint
above the rotary
2. Shut down the pump
3. Check for well flow
3
Controlling A Kick when On Bottom
9
Well Control
10
Avoiding Kicks While Tripping:
11
Tripping Out Of Hole
13
Well ControlVariable Geometry
14
Example Problem
17
Initial (ClosedIn) Conditions:
4,000’
9,500’
vdc,hole = 0.04493 bbl/ft
10,000’
20
Height of Kick Fluid,
20 bbl
h10,000 = = 445 ft
0.04493 bbl/ft
lb π
= 31.4 2 * (10.5 − 8 ) in
2 2 2
in 4
W = 1,141 lb
F = ∆P * A = W
22
SICP = 400 psi SIDPP = 200 psi
4,000’
9,555’
9,500’
31.4
445’ psi
10,000’
PB = P 10,000 = 5,400 psi
23
Driller’s Method  kick at csg. seat
Top of
Kick at 4,000’
Casing
Seat
9,500’
10,000’
25
Driller’s Method  kick at csg. seat
Again,
BHP = P4,000 + ∆ PK_4,000 + ∆ PMA
1,098,444
2,264 = P4,000 − (0.52) *
P4,000
27
Driller’s Method  kick at csg. seat
∴ P4,000 =
(
2,264 ± 2,264 + 4 * 571,191
2
) 0.5
2
P4,000 = 2,493 psi => 0.6233 psi/ft < 0.7
28
Driller’s Method  Top of Kick at Casing Seat
P0,ann = ?
4,000’
h4,000 = 441 ft
∆P = 16 psi
9,500’
1,098,444
10,000’ h4,000 =
P4,000
BHP = 5,400 psi
29
Driller’s Method  kick at surface
P10,000 T0
V0 = V10,000 (Z = const.)
P T
0 10,000
5400 70 + 460
∴ (0.13006 ) h0 = 20
P0 70 + 120 + 460
677,084
∴ h0 =    (1)
Po
30
Driller’s
Method
Top of
Kick at 4,000’
Surface
9,500’
10,000’
31
Driller’s Method  kick at surface
weight 1,141 lb
∴∆ PK,0 = =
area π
4
( )
12.415 2 − 4.5 2 in2
32
Driller’s Method  kick at surface
677,084
But, from Eq. (1), h0 =
P0
33
Driller’s Method  kick at surface
So,
677,084
∴ 5,400 = P0 + 11 + 0.52 10,000 −
P0
∴ (5,400 − 5,200 − 11) P0 = P0 − 352,084
2
2
∴ P0 − 189 P0 − 352 ,084 = 0
Quadratic equation . . .
34
Driller’s Method  kick at surface
[ ]
1
189 ± 189 + ( 4 )( 352 ,084 )
2 2
∴ P0 =
2
∴ P0 = 695 . 34 psi ≅ 695 psi
677 ,084
∴ h0 = = 973 . 74
695 . 34
h 0 ≈ 974 ft
35
Driller’s Method  kick at surface
Alternativ ely,
P4,000 = P10,000 − (0.52) * (10,000 − 4,000 )
= 5,400  3,120
= 2,280 psi
36
Driller’s Method. Top of Kick at Surface
P0,ann = 695 psi
h0 = 974 ft
∆PK,0 = 11 psi
4,000’ P 4,000 = 2,280 psi
9,500’
10,000’ P10,000 = ?
37
Wait and
Weight
Method
Top of 4,000’
Kick at
Casing
9,500’
Seat
Old Mud 10,000’
Kill Mud BHP = 5,400 psi
38
Wait and Weight Method
 Density of Kill Mud
SIDPP
Kill mud weight = + Old Mud Wt.
0.052 *10,000
#
= 0.38 + 10.00 = 10.38
gal
39
Wait and Weight Method
 Capacity of Drillstring
bbl bbl
= 0.01422 * 9,500 ft + 0.0119 * 500 ft
ft ft
= 141 bbl
#
= Quantity of 10.0 mud below the bubble.
gal
40
Wait and Weight Method
 kick at casing seat
P10,000 T4,000
V4,000 = V10,000
P T
4,000 10,000
41
W&W  Pressure at top of kick at 4,000 ft
5,400 578
(0.08743)h4,000 = 20
P
4,000 650
1,098,444
∴ h 4,000 =    (6)
P4,000
But,
BHP = P4,000 + ∆PK_4,000 + ∆PM + ∆PM1    (7)
42
W&W  Pressure at top of kick
 kick at 4,000 ft
141
∆PM1 = 0.052 *10.38* 6,000 − h 4,000 −
0.08743
43
W&W  Pressure at top of kick
 kick at 4,000 ft
141 bbl
∆ PM = 0 . 052 * 10 *
0.08743 bbl/ft
= 839 psi
44
W&W  Pressure at top of kick
 kick at 4,000 ft
1,098,444
∴ 2,177 = P4 000 − (0.5398)
P4,000
∴P 2
4,000 − 2,177 P4,000 − 592,940 = 0
45
W&W  Pressure at top of kick
 kick at 4,000 ft
∴ P4,000 =
[
2,177 ± 2,177 + 4 * 592,940
2
] 0 ,5
46
Wait and
Weight
Method
Top of 4,000’
Kick at
Surface
9,500’
Old Mud
P10,000 T0
V0 = V10,000
T
P0 10,000
5,400 530
∴ 0.13006 * h 0 = 20
P0 650
677,084
∴ h0 =    (4)
P0
48
Wait and Weight Method
(Engineer’s Method)  kick at surface
P10,000 = P0 + ∆P K0 + ∆P M + ∆P M1
12.14 = P0 − (0.5398)h 0
51
Wait and Weight Method
kick at surface
From Eq. 4, substituting for h0
677,084
∴ 12 = P0 − (0.5398)
P0
∴ P02 − 12P 0 − 365,490 = 0
( )
1
12 ± 12 + 4 * 365,490
2 2
∴ P0 =
2
677,084 677,084
h0 = =
P0 610.59
= 1,109 ft
53
Check Pressure at 4,000 ft
 kick at surface
= 611 + 11 + 569 +
+ 0.052 *10.38 * (4,000  1,109  1,093)
Looks OK
54
Wait and Weight Method
Top of Kick at Surface
Old Mud P0,ann = 611 psi
Kill Mud
h0 = 1,109 ft
∆PK,0 = 11 psi
4,000’ ∆POld Mud = 569 psi
10,000’ P10,000 = ?
55
Summary Bubble at 10,000 ft
Driller’s Engineer’s
Method Method
P0 400 400
56
Summary Top of Bubble at 4,000 ft
Driller’s Engineer’s
Method Method
P0 413 342
57
Summary Top of Bubble at surface
Driller’s Engineer’s
Method Method
P0 695 611
58
59
Why the difference?
60
Maximum Casing Pressure, psi
Pump Strokes 62
1,998 psi
CASING PRESSURE, psi
10 bbl kick
63
Well is Shut In
Gas
Bubble
Will Bubble
Rise Rise
! Velocity
?
64
400 psi 200 psi
Variable
Geometry
4,000’
Kick On Bottom
 Well Shut In
9,500’
hB = 445’
10,000’
PB = 5,700 psi
65
Variable Geometry
SICP − SIDPP
ρKICK = ρOLD
MUD −
ρKICK = ρOLD MUD −
SICP − SIDPP
0.052 * Kick Height B
PB Tx Z x
Vx = VB
Px TB Z B
. BHP == Press
2.2BHP Pressatat
toptop of kick
of kick + ∆P HYD,Annulus
+ ∆PHYD, Annulus
Lesson 11
Cementing
1
Cementing
◆ Cementing Processes
• Casing
• Liner
• Squeeze
• Plug
◆ Density of Mixtures
◆ Cementing Equipment
2
Cementing cont’d
◆ LargeHole Cementing
■ Through Casing
■ Through Drill Pipe
■ Through Grout Pipe
◆ Cementing from Floater
◆ Multistage Cementing
◆ Cement Bond Log
3
Cement is used in Drilling
Operations to...
I. Primary Cementing
1. Full String
2. Liners
3. Large Pipe
4. Stage
A. Survey and perforate
B. Stage collars
5
Primary Cementing
Steel
Casing
Borehole
Cement
Steel Liner
1. Shoe
2. Casing (uphole)
3. Openhole (lostcirculation)
7
NEW SLURRY
8
Types of Cementing Processes
III. Plugging
9
10
Types of Cementing Processes
1. On Land
2. Offshore
11
Mixing Cement
(basis is 1 sk. of cmt.)
ρ b = 35.2 lb/gal
13
From Halliburton Cementing Tables, p.14, Grey Pages 14
Rotary Drilling Cementing
(basis is 1 sk. of cmt.)
∑ρ ν i i
ρmix ν mix mass
ρmix = i
=
∑ν i
i ν mix volume
15
16
17
18
Wiper Plugs
Moulded
Rubber
20
Mud film thickness Feet of fill per 1000’
5 1/2” 7”
1/16” 1.6mm 50.6 40
21
22
23
24
25
Float Valve
26
Cementing
After
Cementing
(check valve)
27
28
LargeHole
Cementing
Normal
Displacement
Method
Inner
String
Cementing
Liner
33
34
Displ.
Mud
dart
cmt
ball
mud
35
MultiStage
Cementing
• Displace cmt
• Last plug closes tool
36
Opening
Bomb Closing
Plug
Stage
Collar
Cementing
Basket
37
Cmt
Mud
Cmt
38
BAD
GOOD
39
Before After
Squeeze Squeeze
40
41
Tieback liner showing sealing nipple 42
Liner and sealing nipple
44
Reverse
Circulating
Cementing
45
Scratchers and Wall Cleaners
for Removal of Filter Cake
46
Centralizers to keep Pipe away from Wall
47
Drilling
¾ Shutin Procedures
¾ Soft Shutin
¾ Hard Shutin
¾ Water Hammer
Kick Detection and Control
¾ The focus of well control theory is to
contain and manage formation
pressure.
¾ Primary well control involves efforts at
preventing formation fluid influx into
the wellbore.
¾ Secondary well control involves
detecting an influx and bringing it to
the surface safely.
Kicks
¾ Cement hydration
Kick indicators
¾ Indicator ¾ Significance
¾ If a kick is suspected,
What goes
in Must As drilling
come out proceeds, mud
level in pit drops
slowly.
unless a Why?
kick
occurs…or…
Mud Return Rate
Compare
signals
from
drillpipe
and
annulus
Low amplitude
negative pulse
Acoustic kick detection
Pressure, psi
Delta
flow
indicator
Delta flow indicator
Delta flow = qout  qin
Delta Flow Indicator
Lower Alarm
Threshold
Time
Delta flow indicator
Field Examples of Kick Detection and Final
Containment Volumes using the Delta
Flow Method
Water hammer ?
Soft ShutIn
Larger Kick !
Example 5.1
¾A kick is detected while drilling at 13,000 ft.
¾The well is shutin by the ram preventer in
5 seconds.
∆v = 0.94 ft/s
ρ v a ∆v
∆pc =
gc
Example 5.1 cont’d
The surface pressure increase is given by
equation 5.2
“Slugging” of Drillpipe
to prevent “Wet Trip”
… AFTER Flow Check
Failure to keep
the hole full
¾Solution
The displacement factor for open
drillpipe is obtained from Table 5.5 and
the displacement volume is computed
as:
Inside Drillpipe:
Ci = 3.8262/1,029.4 = 0.1422 bbl/ft. and
Inside Annulus:
Cc = (8.0972  4.52)/1,029.4 = 0.04402 bbl/ft.
Example 5.2
¾These values are only approximate since
the effect of the pipe upsets and tool joints are
not considered. The mud level will fall by
Introduction to
Underbalanced
Drilling Technology
UB DRILLING  JOBS
Canad a
M id d le Eas t
US Euro p e
So uth America
Far Eas t
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05
YEAR
Underbalanced Drilling
Wells by Region
2 ,0 0 0
Intl
1 ,8 0 0
US
1 ,6 0 0 Canada
1 ,4 0 0
1 ,2 0 0
1 ,0 0 0
800
600
400
200

©1998 Spears & Assoc.
UBD Definition
Formation Pressure is
equal to or greater than
Circulating Pressure
UBD  Types
• Normally Pressured Reservoirs
Applications for normal to above normal
pressured reservoirs utilizing fluid systems in a
controlled flow (mudcap) drilling technique.
• Depleted Reservoirs
Where a multiphase circulating fluid is
necessary to achieve required Bottom Hole
Circulating Pressure (BHCP)  underbalanced or
with minimal overbalance.
REGULATORY BARRIERS
to
UnderBalance Drilling
◆ The regulators
need assurance
and details
BARRIERS TO UB D&C
◆ Regulatory
◆ Lack of Standards
◆ Lack of knowledge
◆ Little statistical history
◆ Concern about well control
◆ Environmental questions
OPERATORS BARRIERS
◆ The Operator
needs
experience and
confidence.
OPERATORS PROBLEMS
◆ There are
driving
economic
reasons
UBD Forecast by Region
US
UBD Forecast by Region Can
Eur
1,200
SoAm
ME/Afr
1,000
FE
800
Wells
600
400
200

1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
◆ Depleted reservoirs
◆ Awareness of skin damage
◆ Limits of lost circulation matl.
◆ Cost of differential sticking
REASONS FOR UB GROWTH
◆ We were not
ready to put all
of this together
until the 1990’s
TECHNICAL IMPROVEMENTS
◆ Compressor Evolution
◆ Hammer drills
◆ Nitrogen
◆ Increased availability
◆ Reduced cost
◆ On site generation
TECHNICAL IMPROVEMENTS
◆ Improved MWD
◆ Rig assist snubbing units
◆ Coiled tubing equipment
◆ Nondamaging drilling fluids
◆ Top drive
WORKING ON
◆ Lost circulation
Reasons for UB drilling
◆ Lost circulation
◆ Faster Drilling
Reasons for UB drilling
◆ Lost circulation
◆ Faster Drilling
◆ No Differential
Sticking
Reasons for UB drilling
◆ ...
◆ Reduce
Reservoir
Damage
Reasons for UB drilling
◆ ...
◆ Reduce
Reservoir
Damage
◆ Improve Prod.
Evaluation
Effect of Skin on Production Rates
BOPD
1,000
800
600
400
200
0
3 2 1 0 5 10 15
SKIN
Physical Limits to UB Drilling
◆ Borehole
Instability
◆ Poor Casing
Point
Physical Limitation to UBD
• Borehole Instability
• Unconsolidated Sands
• Weak Formations
• Geopressured Shales
• Salt Beds
• Inadequate Casing
◆ Permeability is
so low the zone
needs to be
fraced.
◆ Zones must be
isolated
Types of Flow Regimes
AERATED
LIQUID FOAM MIST GAS
LIQUID
Fluid
Fluid Phase
Phase Continuity
Continuity
AIR/GAS
WATER
FOAM MIST
(097% AIR) (97100% AIR)
Generalized
“Fluid” Systems
Equipment  Rotating Head
SEPARATOR
SAMPLE
CATCHERS
OIL TOP
TANKS DRIVE
NITROGEN SYSTEM
PUMPERS CHOKE
MANIFOLD
RBOP
WATER
TANKS
RIG RETURN
CUTTING
MUD
TANKS RIG
PUMPS
N2 / FLUID
MIX
Choke
Choke Manifold
Manifold
Equipment  Separators
Equipment  Chokes
Equipment  Gas Source
Stainless Steel
Carbon Steel
Vaporizer
Liquid Nitrogen Pump
(320OF) Gaseous nitrogen
to well
80OF, 010,000
psi
6.11.3
Equipment  Lots More
To shale shaker
ESD Manifold
Sample
catchers
Willis choke
Flare
Separator
Rig Manifold 200 psi vessel
Choke
◆ Addition of 6 to 30 bbl/hr of
fluid to the air stream.
◆ Clean and lubricates the bit
◆ Carries the cuttings to the
surface as a mist or more
normally in a modified two
phase flow.
FOAM
FOAM DRILLING
DRILLING
Basic Comments
TT9686 46
Foam Drilling
• The most versatile of the gasgenerated
systems.
• Effective operating range from 0.2 to 0.6 s.g.
• Mixture of gas phase and foaming solution.
• Foam flow varies with depth in the hole.
• Adjustable effective BHP.
• Enhanced lifting and well bore cleaning.
• A “displacing medium”, not a propelling
medium.
Foam (Heading)
Improved Hole Cleaning
Foam Drilling Benefits
Water Transition
Gas Gaseated
Aerated Fluid
Foam Cement
o
TD = 1,440 m MD at 90 o
Inclination, 696 m TVD
Aerated Fluid Layout
Aerated Drilling Problems
Corrosion
Hydraulic Calculations
Vibration
Cuttings Lifting
Fluid Influx
Fire/ Underbalanced
High Torque/ Explosions Completion
Drag
Borehole Stability
MWD Transmission
UB Drilling & Completions Manual
◆ Candidate Selection
◆ Air/Gas/N2/Mist Drilling
◆ Foam Drilling
◆ Aerated Fluid Drilling
◆ Flow “Live” Drilling
◆ Surface Equipment
◆ Downhole Equipment
◆ Field Operations
◆ Downhole Problems
◆ Environment, Safety, Reg.