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DRILLING

Lesson 2
◆ Drilling Systems

◆ Drilling Rigs

◆ Drilling a Well

◆ Definitions
From the Houston Chronicle, Sunday, January 13, 2002

2
From the Houston Chronicle, Sunday, January 12, 2003

3
From the Houston Chronicle, Sunday, January 12, 2003

4
Noble
Drilling’s
Cecil
Forbes

A Jack-
Up Rig

5
Sonat’s A Semi-
George Submersible
Washington Rig

6
Zapata’s
Trader

A
Drillship

7
8
TENSION LEG PLATFORM
9
Shell’s
Bullwinkle
World’s tallest
offshore
structure

1,353’ water
depth

Production
began in 1989
45,000 b/d
80MM scf/d

10
Fig. 1.4
The
rotary
drilling
process

11
Fig. 1.5
Classification of
rotary drilling rigs
12
Fig. 1.13
Engine
power
output

P=F.V

Power = Force * Velocity

13
TABLE 1.1 - HEATING VALUE
OF VARIOUS FUELS

Fuel Density Heating Value


Type (lbm/gal) (Btu/lbm)

diesel 7.2 19,000


gasoline 6.6 20,000
butane 4.7 21,000
methane --- 24,000

14
Example 1.1. A diesel engine gives an output
torque of 1,740 ft-lbf at an engine speed of 1,200
rpm. If the fuel consumption rate was 31.5 gal/hr,
what is the output power and overall efficiency of
the engine?

Solution: The angular velocity, ω , is given by


ω = 2π (1,200) = 7,539.8 rad/min.)
The power output can be computed using Eq.1.1
7,539.8 (1,740) ft - lbf/min
P =ω T = = 397.5hp
(33,000 ft - lbf/min )/hp
15
Since the fuel type is diesel, the density is 7.2
lbm/gal and the heating value H is 19,000
Btu/lbm (Table 1.1). Thus, the fuel consumption
rate w f is:
 1 hour 
w f = 31.5 gal/hr (7.2 lbm/gal)  
 60 minutes 
wf = 3.78 lbm/min.

The total heat energy consumed by the engine is


given by Eq. 1.2:

16
Efficiency = (Power Out / Power in)

Qi = w f H
3.78 lbm/min (19,000Btu/lbm) (779 ft - lbf/Btu)
Qi =
33,000 ft - lbf/min/hp
Qi = 1,695.4 hp
Thus, the overall efficiency of the engine at 1,200
rpm given by Eq. 1.3 is
P 397.5
Et = = = 0.234 or 23.4%
Q i 1,695.4
17
Drilling a Well

■ Steps in Drilling a Well


■ Duties of Drilling Engineer
■ Making a Connection
■ Making a Trip
■ Rig Selection Criteria
■ Derrick Loading
■ Definitions (Lesson 2B) (separate)
18
Steps to Drill A Gas/Oil Well

1. Complete or obtain seismic, log,


scouting information or other data.
2. Lease the land or obtain concession.
3. Calculate reserves or estimate from best
data available.
4. If reserve estimates show payout,
proceed with well.
5. Obtain permits from conservation/
national authority.
19
Steps to Drill a Well - cont’d

6. Prepare drilling and completion


program.
7. Ask for bids on footage, day work, or
combination from selected drilling
contractors based on drilling program.
8. If necessary, modify program to fit
selected contractor equipment.

20
Steps to Drill a Well - cont’d

9. Construct road, location/platforms and


other marine equipment necessary for
access to site.
10. Gather all personnel concerned for
meeting prior to commencing drilling
(pre-spud meeting)
11. If necessary, further modify program.
12. Drill well.
21
Steps to Drill a Well - cont’d

13. Move off contractor if workover unit is


to complete the well.
14. Complete well.
15. Install surface facilities.
16. Analysis of operations with concerned
personnel.

22
Drilling Operations
Field Engineers, Drilling Foremen

A. Well planning prior to SPUD


B. Monitor drilling operations
C. After drilling, review drilling results and
recommend future improvements
- prepare report.
D. General duties.
What are the well requirements?
Objectives, safety, cost
23
Making Making
a a
Connection Trip

24
Making a mouse hole connection
25
Moving Kelly
to Single in
Mousehole Single
Added.
Stabbing Ready to
the Pipe Drill

Making a mouse hole connection - cont’d


26
Making a trip
Why
trip?

Use
Elevators
Put Kelly in
for
Rathole
tripping

27
Tripping
one stand
at a time

60-90 ft

Making a trip - cont’d 28


Criteria for determining
depth limitation

● Derrick
● Drawworks
● Mud Pumps
● Drillstring
● Mud System
● Blowout Preventer
● Power Plant
29
T W
T W

• FIG 1-1 Simple Pulley System

T=W
Derrick Load = LD = 2W
(assumes no friction in sheave)
30
n = number
of lines,
Crown block
To
Travelling
block

W = weight
(hook load)
LD = load
on derrick
• FIG 1-2 Block and Tackle System
Why n + 2?
Assuming no friction
W=4T T = W/4 n+2 
LD =  W
LD = 6 T = 6 W/4  n 
31
Example 1.1
(no friction)

The total weight of 9,000 ft of 9 5/8-inch


casing for a deep well is determined to be
400,000 lbs. Since this will be the heaviest
casing string run, the maximum mast load
must be calculated. Assuming that 10
lines run between the crown and the
traveling blocks and neglecting buoyancy
effects, calculate the maximum load.

32
Solution (no friction):

The tension, T, will be distributed equally


between the 10 lines. Therefore,
T = 400,000/10 = 40,000 lbf
The tension in the fast line and dead line
will also be 40,000 lbf, so the total load is
40,000 X 12 = 480,000 lbf

n+2  10 + 2 
LD =   W =  400,000 = 480,000 lbf
 n   10  33
Solution, cont.

Example 1.1 demonstrates two additional


points.

1. The mast load decreases


with additional lines.

2. The total mast load is always


greater than the load being lifted.

34
A Rotary Rig
Hoisting
System

Note:
Generally we
need to consider
friction in the
sheaves

35
Projection of
Drilling Lines
on Rig Floor

E = efficiency = Ph/Pi = W/(n Ff ) or Ff = W/(nE) … (1.7)

TOTAL
36
Load on Derrick
(considering friction in sheaves)

Derrick Load = Hook Load + Fast Line Load


+ Dead Line Load

Fd = W + Ff + Fd

W W  1 + E + En 
Fd = W + + =   W
En n  En 
E = overall efficiency: E = en
e.g., if individual sheave efficiency = 0.98 and n = 8, then E = 0.851
37
Example 1.2

A rig must hoist a load of 300,000 lbf. The


drawworks can provide an input power to the
block and tackle system as high as 500 hp.
Eight lines are strung between the crown block
and traveling block. Calculate
1. The static tension in the fast line
when upward motion is impending,
2. the maximum hook horsepower
available,
38
Example 1.2, cont.

3. the maximum hoisting speed,


4. the actual derrick load,
5. the maximum equivalent derrick load,
and,
6. the derrick efficiency factor.

Assume that the rig floor is arranged as


shown in Fig. 1.17.
39
Solution

1. The power efficiency for n = 8 is given


as 0.841 in Table 1.2. The tension in the
fast line is given by Eq. 1.7.

W 300,000
F= = = 44,590 lb
E n 0.841 * 8

( alternatively, E = 0.988 = 0.851 )


40
Solution

2. The maximum hook horsepower


available is

Ph = E•pi = 0.841(500)

Ph = 420.5 hp.

41
Solution

3. The maximum hoisting speed is given by

 33,000 ft - lbf/min
420.5 hp  
Ph  hp 
vb = =
W 300,000 lbf

vMAX = 46.3 ft/min


42
Solution to 3., cont.

To pull a 90-ft stand would require

s 90 ft
t = =
v 46.3 ft/min

t = 1 . 9 min .

43
Solution

4. The actual derrick load is given by


Eq.1.8b:
 1 + E + En 
Fd =  W
 En 
 1 + 0.841 + 0.841(8) 
=  (300,000)
 0.841(8) 
= 382,090 lbf.
44
Solution

5. The maximum equivalent load is given


by Eq.1.9:

n+ 4 8+ 4
Fde =   W=  * 300,000
 n   8 

Fde = 450,000 lbf

45
Solution

6. The derrick efficiency factor is:

Fd 382,090
Ed = =
Fde 450,000

E d = 0.849 or 84.9%
46
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
1. Gin Pole - An “A” frame structure
located at the top of standard derricks used
to list and lower the crown block into
position.
2. Water Table -The water table is the walk-
around at the top of standard derricks which
supports the crown block.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
3. Crown Block - A series of sheaves
affixed in the top of the derrick used to
change the direction of pull from the
drawworks to the traveling block.
4. Derrick - Vertical structure that allows
vertical clearance and strength to raise and
lower the drill string. This structure with-
stands two types of loading: compressive
loading and wind loading.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
Types of Derricks:
Triple- has the capacity of pulling 90’
stands of pipe
Double- has the capacity of pulling 60’
stands of pipe
Single- has the capacity of pulling
30’stands of pipe (one 30-ft joint)
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
Standard Derricks - Four sided structures
that must be assembled and disassembled
when transporting.
Portable Derricks - Telescoping and
jackknife types. The telescoping derrick is
raised and lowered in an extending and
collapsing fashion and lowered in one piece,
but may be disassembled to some degree
after being lowered.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
5. Stand - A stand generally consists of two
to four joints of made-up drill pipe. The
stand is generally used when running or
pulling the drill string in and out of the hole.
6. Monkey board - (Stabbing board) The
platform on which the derrick man works
when tripping pipe.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
7. Racking Fingers - Fingers or members
where the stands are racked and secured
while tripping pipe.
8. “A” Frame - The “A” frame structure on
a jackknife used to raise and lower the mast.
It also supports the derrick in the raised
position.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
9. Bull line and Sheaves - The large line and
sheaves located on the “A” frame of a
jackknife used to raise and lower the
derrick. E
sheave
b = (0 . 98
pairs
)n where
in the
n
crown
is the
and
number
traveling
of
blocks.

10. Traveling Block - The block and tackle


which is rigged with the crown block by
multiples of drilling line strung between the
crown block and the traveling block. The
efficiency, En, can be computed as
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
n
En = 0.98
where
En is the overall hoisting efficiency
n is the number of lines strung
between the crown block and
travelling block, and (in this case)
0.98 is the efficiency of each sheave
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions

11. Swivel - That part of the drill sting


which connects the rotary hose to the drill
string and allows circulation and rotation at
the same time.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
12. Kelly - The square or hexagonal
member at the upper most part of the drill
string (immediately below the swivel) that
passes through a properly fitting bushing
known as the kelly bushing or drivebushing.
The drive bushing transmits rotary motion
to the kelly which results in the turning of
the drill string.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
13. Kelly Bushing/Drive Bushing - That
bushing which fits inside the rotary bushing
and transmits rotary torque to the kelly.
14. Rotary Bushing - The bushing that fits
inside of the rotary table opening. This is
where the drill pipe and collar slips seat
when the drill string is suspended from the
rotary table for connections or tripping pipe.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions

15. Rotary - Transmits the rotary motion or


torque from the power source to the drive
bushing.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
16. Kelly Cock - Safety valves located above
and/or below the kelly. These valves are of a
ball type and must be manually operated. Their
primary purpose is to prevent flow up the drill
string in case of emergencies. A third kelly cock
is generally kept on the drill floor to be used in
the drill string in the event flow up the drill
string occurs while making a connection or
tripping pipe.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
16. Kelly Cock, cont. - (Federal leases,
USGS, requires two kelly cock valves-
above and below the kelly- and a third one
on the drill floor in the opened position.) A
secondary use of the kelly cock valve below
the kelly is to prevent the loss of mud from
the kelly while making a connection. This
should be discouraged to prevent wear on
the kelly cock valve.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
BOP Valve - This valve is also
17. Inside POB
used to prevent flow up the drill string when
the well kicks and a connection or tripping
operations are under way. This valve
operates like a check valve and is always
kept in open position on the rig floor. This
valve is required to be on the rig floor in the
open position for Federal leases.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions

18. Kelly Saver Sub - A sub located blow


the lower kelly cock valve. The function of
this sub is to prevent wear on the kelly’s
threads and to centralize the kelly by means
of a rubber protector, thus preventing wear
on the kelly’s hexagonal or square shape.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
19. Elevators - The elevators are used for latching
on to the tool joint or lift sub of the drill pipe or
drill collars. This enables the lifting and lowering
of the drill string while making a trip. The
elevators are connected to the hoisting system
(traveling block) by means of bails.
20. Bails - The bails connect the traveling block
and elevators. They are solid steel bars with eyes
at both ends.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
21. Hook - The hook is located beneath the
traveling block. This device is used to pick
up and secure the swivel and kelly.
22. Slips - Latch around the drill pipe and
seat in the rotary bushing in the rotary table.
The slips support and transmit the weight of
the drill string to the rotary table while
making a connection or tripping pipe.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
22. Slips, cont. -
A. Drill Pipe
B. Drill Collar
C. Casing
23. Drawworks - The principal parts of the
drawworks are the drum, the drum brakes,
transmission, and cathead.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions

23. Drawworks, cont. - The principal


function is to convert the power source into
a hoisting operation and provide braking
capacity to stop and sustain the weights
imposed when lowering or raising the drill
string.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions

23. Drawworks, cont. -


A. the drum is housed in the drawworks
and transmits the torque required for
hoisting and braking. It also stores the
drilling line required to move the
traveling block the length of the derrick.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
23. Drawworks, cont. -
B. The cathead is a shaft with a lifting
head that extends on either side of the
drawworks and has two major functions.
It is used in making up and breaking out
tool joints in the drill string. It is also
used as a hoisting device for heavy
equipment on the drill floor.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
23. Drawworks, cont. -
B. This is done by wrapping the catline
(catline is generally made of rope and is
connected to a piece of chain used to tie
on to equipment) around the lifting head.
The number of turns of rope on the head
and the tension provided by the operator
controls the force of the pull.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
23. Drawworks, cont. -
C. The drawworks contains all of the
controls to divert the rig power to
needed operations.
24. V-Door Ramp - The ramp which
connects the “V” door to the cat walk.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
25. Sandline - The sandline is a small
drawworks system. The line is generally used for
running surveys or fishing for lost surveys. These
units are usually integral parts of the drawworks.
26. Kelly Spinner - A pneumatic operated spinner
located above the kelly. It is used to spin the kelly
to make up tool joints when making connections.
The kelly spinner can generally spin clockwise to
speed up connections.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
27. Tongs - Large wrench-like devices that
are used to tighten up and break out tool
joints or connections. The tongs are
connected to the break out and make up
catheads. Hydraulic tongs are generally
used to make up casing and tubing, deriving
power from a hydraulic unit.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
28. Auxilliary Brakes - The drawworks
generally have two braking systems; the
band-type brakes on the drawworks drum,
and the auxiliary brakes. The auxiliary
brakes are used only when going in the hole
on a trip. These are used to prevent burning
the band-type brakes. The auxiliary brakes
are of two types: hydro-dynamic or
electromagnetic.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
28. Auxilliary Brakes, cont. -
A. The hydro-dynamic type braking is
provided by water being impelled in a
direction opposite to the rotation of the
drum. The brake is mounted on a shaft
that can be engaged to the drawworks.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
28. Auxilliary Brakes, cont. -
B. The electromagnetic type braking is provided
by two opposing magnetic fields. The magnitude
of the magnetic fields is dependent on the speed
of rotation and the amount of external excitation
current supplied. In both types of auxiliary
braking systems, the heat development must be
dissipated using a liquid cooling system.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
29. Deadline Reel and Clamp - The drilling
line strung through the traveling block and
to the drawworks is secured by the deadline,
which is wrapped around the deadline reel
and clamped. This prevents the line from
slipping and the traveling block from
falling.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
30. Mud Pumps - Mud pumps are used for
circulating the drilling fluid down the drill pipe and
out of the annulus. These are high-pressure and
high-volume pumps. They can be double-acting
duplex pumps or single-acting triplex pumps.
A. The double-acting duplex pump has
four pumping actions per pump cycle.
B. The single-acting triplex pump has
three pumping actions per pump cycle.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
31. Shale Shaker - The shale shaker is a
contaminant removing device. It is used to
remove the coarser drill cuttings from the
mud. This is generally the first solids-
removing device and is located at the end of
the flow line. The shale shaker is composed
of one or more vibrating screens though
which mud returns pass.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
32. Desander - Desilter- The desander and
desilters are for contaminant or solids removal
purposes. These devices separate sand-size
particles from the drilling mud. Both devices
operate like a hydrocyclone. The mud is pumped
in at the top of the cyclone. This causes the mud
stream to hit the vortex finder which forces the
mud down the cyclone in a whirling fashion
towards the apex of the cyclone.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
32. Desander - Desilter- The heavier
particles are forced outward faster than the
smaller particles. The heavier particles on
the outside of the whirling fluid are
deposited out of the apex while the much
smaller particles follow the path of the
liquid and reverse their path in the center
and flow out of the cyclone through the
vortex finder.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
32. Desander - Desilter cont. - If used as a
desander or desilter, the waste product is
deposited at the bottom and the fluid
moving trough the vortex finder is returned
to the active system. If used as a clay
ejector, the under-flow contains barite
particles which are returned to the mud
system, while the fluid moving out of the
vortex is deposited as waste.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
32. Desander - Desilter cont. - The
difference between the various operations of
the desander, desilter, and clay ejector relate
to the size of the cyclone.
Cyclone Size
Desander 6” or larger
Desilter 4” or larger
Clay Ejector 2” or larger
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
33. Decanting Centrifuge - A solids-control
device which consists of a rotating cone-
shaped drum which has a screw conveyer
attached to its outer surface. Rotation of the
cone creates a centrifugal force that throws
the heavier particles to its outer housing.The
screw conveyer moves the separated
particles to the discharge.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
33. Decanting Centrifuge, cont. - This
device has to be monitored closely in a
water-based mud because it allows
discharge of bentonite (gel). The bentonite
controls viscosity and fluid loss. If allowed
to operate for long periods of time without
adding bentonite to the mud system,
filtration control will be lost.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
34. Degasser - This vessel is used for gas
contamination removal. It consists of a vessel
which has inclined flat surfaces in thin layers and
a vacuum pump. The mud is allowed to flow over
the inclined thin layers which helps break out
entrained gas in the mud. The vacuum pump
reduces the pressure in the vessel to about 5 psia
which extracts the gas from the mud. This device
is about 99% efficient.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
35. Mud Gas Separator - This is generally
the first device available to extract gas from
the mud. It consists of a tower with baffle
plates, which are flat plates that force the
fluid through a certain path. The mud is
allowed to flow in the tower over the baffle
plates which separates some of the
entrained gas. This device generally can
extract 50% to 60% of the gas.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
36. Accumulator - The accumulator is a
hydraulic system that maintains and stores
enough high-pressured fluid to operate every
function of the blow-out preventors (BOP’s) at
least once and still have a reasonable reserve, as
defined by the governing agency rules. The
system has a pump which pumps the hydraulic
fluid into storage bottles.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
36. Accumulator, cont. - The storage
bottles have floats which separate the
hydraulic fluid from the gas (nitrogen) in
the upper part of the chamber. As fluid is
pumped into the chamber bottles, the gas is
compressed, resulting in the pressure
needed to move the hydraulic fluid to
operate the BOP’s.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
37. Bag-Type Preventers (Annular Preventers)
This preventer is used the most because the rubber
sealing element can conform to any shape or size
conduit in the hole. The annular preventer can
further collapse completely and seal the annulus
with no conduit to the hole. (This is not
recommended.)
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
37. Bag-Type Preventers (Annular Preventers)
The annular preventers consist of a rubber-
covered, metal-ribbed sealing element. This
element is caused to collapse and seal by
allowing the pressurized hydraulic fluid from
the accumulator to move a tapered, form-fitted
cylinder against the rubber which causes
collapse.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
37. Bag-Type Preventers
(Annular Preventers) cont.
This type preventer is the most versatile
because the drill string can be raised,
lowered, and rotated while closed. There are
two types of rubber sealing elements:
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
37. Bag-Type Preventers (Annular
Preventers) cont.-
A. Real rubber sealing elements which
wear much longer but should not be
used with oil-base muds or known oil
fields because of the adverse effect of
the oil on the rubber.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
37. Bag-Type Preventers
(Annular Preventers) cont.
B. Synthetic rubber sealing elements
which do not last as long as the real
rubber, but can be used with oil-base
muds or in known oil fields.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
38. Ram Preventers - This type BOP is used
mainly as a backup to the bag-type preventer or
for high-pressure situations.
A. The pipe rams have two rams on
opposite sides that close by moving
towards one another. The rams themselves have
semicircular openings which match the diameter
of pipe being used. Each different size pipe
requires correctly sized rams.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
38. Ram Preventers, cont. -
B. If a tapered string is being used to
drill a well, such as a 5” drill pipe and a
3-1/2” drill pipe, then two ram-type
preventers must generally be used. This
type preventer cannot allow the pipe to
be worked through it.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
38. Ram Preventers, cont. -
C. The blind rams do have the semicircular
opening of the pipe rams. Instead, the front
surface of the blind rams is flat, and they can
only be used to seal the annulus when there is no
pipe in the hole.
D. The shear blind rams are designed to cut
through the drill pipe and seal the hole. this type
of preventer should only be used as a last resort.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
39. Diverter System - The diverter system is
used in conjunction with the annular
preventer to divert the path of mud flow
either overboard or through the mud gas
separation facilities. This system is
generally only used when drilling at shallow
depths where the formation has a weak
fracture gradient.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions

39. Diverter System, cont. - This system


generally consists of a drilling spool with
two 4” outlets. Attached to the outlets is a
valve or valves which connect to a line
leading away from the rig.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
40. Choke Manifold- This is a system of
valves and lines which are attached to the
choke line, and in some cases, kill line. The
manifold is used to help control a well that
has kicked by diverting the flow to various
functions such as an adjustable choke. It is
designed for versatility in diverting the mud
flow after experiencing a kick.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
41. Adjustable Choke - The adjustable choke is
usually hydraulically controlled from a remote
panel located on the rig floor. The purpose of the
adjustable choke is to hold the correct back
pressure on a well when controlling a kick so as
not to allow any more formation fluid into the
hole and/or prevent breaking the formation down
while controlling the well.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
42. HCR Valve - the HCR valve is a
hydraulically operated gate valve. This
valve is used on diverter systems and choke
lines leading from the blow out preventers.
The advantage of the valve is that it can be
operated remotely.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions

43. Float - The float is a check valve run in


a special sub in the bottomhole assembly. It
prevents any back-flow up the drill pipe.
This should be run in shallow drilling
operations to help control “shallow” kicks.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
44. Underreamer - The underreamer is to
increase the diameter of the hole without
running a full gauge tool into the hole. It is
hydraulically operated. As the pump
pressure increases, a piston inside is driven
down, thus forcing three arms with cones to
extend. With arms extended, the hole can be
opened to the designated size.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
45. Hole Opener - The hole opener serves
the same purpose as the underreamer, which
is to enlarge the previously drilled hole.
Unlike the underreamer, the hole opener is
full-gauged.
46. Rat Hole - The steel casing extending
below the rig floor where the kelly and
swivel are stored while tripping.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
47. Mouse Hole - A section of steel casing
that extends below the rig floor where drill
pipe is placed to be made up in the drill
string or to the kelly. It is further used in
laying down drill pipe. The joint of drill
pipe is broken off in the mouse hole, picked
up with the sir hoist or catline, and moved
out the V-door down to the catwalk.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions

48. Drill Collars - The drill collars are thick-


walled heavy steel tubulars used to apply
weight to the bit. The drill collars should
take all of the compressive loading, leaving
the drill pipe in tension.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
49. Drill Pipe - The major part of the drill
string is composed of drill pipe. Drill pipe is
hot-rolled, pierced, seamless tubing. Drill
pipe is specified by its outside diameter,
weight per foot, steel grade, and range
(length). The drill pipe transmits rotation,
vertical movement and drilling fluid to the
bit.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
50. Heavyweight Drill Pipe - Thick-walled
heavy drill pipe is used in lieu of drill
collars. It is generally used in high-angled
well where too many drill collars hamper
drilling operations.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions

51. Standpipe - The standpipe is that pipe


which carries mud from the rig floor into
the derrick to the kelly hose. It must be
pressure-tested to the working pressure of
the BOP’s.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions

52. Kelly Hose - The kelly hose is a section


of high-pressured hose connecting the
standpipe and the swivel. The kelly hose
allows for the vertical movement of the drill
string as well as circulation of fluid down
the drill string.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
53. Substructure - the substructure provides
the support for the derrick and derrick
loading. It also provides the necessary
clearance beneath the rig floor for he
preventor stack.
54. Keyway - The keyway is the opening on
an inland barge or offshore jackup in which
the drilling operations are performed.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
56. Moonpool - The hole through a floater
or semi-submersible structure is which the
drilling operations are performed.
57. Motion Compensator - A pneumatic,
hydraulic surface unit that compensates for
the heave of a drillship or semi-submersible.
This allows the drill string and bit to remain
stationary with respect to the earth.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
57. Bumper Subs - The bumper sub is a
downhole motion compensator. It operates
as a slip joint. Most bumper subs have a 3-5
feet stroke and can be run in tandem for
motion exceeding 3-5 feet. The bumper sub
is used on floating operations to reduce the
heaving motion of drillships or semi-
submersibles on the bits.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
57. Bumper Subs, cont. - A disadvantage of
the bumper sub is maintenance costs both
for the tool itself and lost time due to
tripping pipe when one fails. Furthermore,
the position of the bumper sub is not ever
really known while drilling operations are
being carried out, so its effectiveness can be
limited.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions
58. Pods and Control Lines - The pods and
control lines are used in subsea operations;
the control lines run from the accumulator
to the pods which are located on the subsea
BOP stack. These two devices are
responsible for transmitting the hydraulic
pressure from the accumulator to actuate the
various functions of the subsea BOP stack.
RIG COMPONENTS--
Definitions

59. Cat Walk - The cat walk is where the


pipe is laid down from the drill floor. Any
elevated walkway may be referred to as a
catwalk.
Drilling Engg

Lesson 3
Drilling
Equipment, Costs, Problems

1
Schematic
of Rig
Circulating
System for
liquid
drilling fluid

2
3
Example 1.3
Compute the pump factor in units of
barrels per stroke for a double-acting
duplex pump having 6.5-inch liners, 2.5
inch rods, 18-inch strokes and a volumetric
efficiency of 90%.
π
( )
Fp = L s E v 2 d L2 − d r2
2
Eq. 1.10

π
[
= (18 )(0 . 9 ) 2 (6 . 5 ) − (2 . 5 )
2
2
]
2

= 1991 in 3 / stroke 4
Recall:
There are 231 in.3 in an U. S. gallon and 42
U.S. gallons in a U.S. barrel. Thus
converting to the desired field units yields:

1991 in.3/stroke * gal/231 in.3 * bbl/42 gal.


= 0.2052 bbl/stroke.

Thus: Pump Factor = 0.2052 bbl/stroke


5
Pump Factor = 3 * π/4 dL2 LS EV/(231 * 42)
6
Example:

Pump Factor for Triplex Pump


π 2 
= 3 ∗  d L L S  ∗ Eυ
 4 
π  2
( )
3
in bbl
= 3   6 (12 )0 . 90 in .
 4  stroke 231 ∗ 42
= 0 . 09442 bbl/stroke

7
Example: Pump Rate

Pump Rate = Pump Factor * Strokes/min


bbl stks
= 0.09442 ∗ 80
stk min

= 7.554 bbl/min

Pump Rate = 317.3 gal/min

8
Hydrocyclone
• desander
• desilter
* No moving parts
* Pressure drop * Low cost
* Diameter

9
Decanting Centrifuge Use?
10
Fig. 1.33
Schematic of
Rotary
System

11
Fig. 1.34
Cutaway
View of
Swivel

* Seals
ROTATING * Bearings

12
PIN
BOX
Fig. 1.38
TJ Cutaway View and
Shoulder
Dimensions for
Example Tool Joint
13
Fig. 1.39
Stabilizer

* Keeps pipe in center of hole


* Aids in drilling straight hole
* Prolongs bit life

14
Fig. 1.41
Kick Detection During
Drilling Operations

3
GAIN IN PIT
VOLUME EQUAL
TO KICK VOLUME

KICK 2

1
15
Fig. 1.46
Remote
Control
Panel for
operating
CHOKE
Blowout
Preventers

What to do if KICK occurs?

16
DP
TJ
DC
OH

Press

Fig. 1.44 Annular Blowout Preventer 17


Ram Blowout Preventer
18
SHEAR / BLIND
RAM ASSEMBLY

Ram Blowout Preventer - cont’d 19


Fig. 1.51
High-
Pressure
Circulating
System for
Well
Control
Kick Operations

Keep BHP const. 20


Fig. 1.58
Schematic of
Equipment
for Marine
Drilling

21
Fig. 1.63 Subsea Equipment
Installation Procedure 22
Typical Casing Strings
Water Level

Depth
Below ML
Seafloor
Conductor pile 36” 30” 200’

Conductor Casing 26” 20” 1000’

Surface Casing 17 1/2” 13 3/8” 4000’

Hole Csg. Depth23


Some Typical Casing Strings

Depth
Below ML

Conductor pile 36” 30” 200’

Conductor Casing 26” 20” 1000’

Surface Casing 17 1/2” 13 3/8” 4000’

Hole Csg. Depth

24
What is the capacity of 10,000 ft of 5”
OD, 19.50 lb/ft drillpipe?

Capacity = Area * Length


Area = π/4 d2 = π/4 * 4.2762 = 14.36 in2
Length = 10,000 ft = 120,000 in

Capacity = 14.36 *120,000 in3 /(231*42 in3 /bbl)


Capacity = 177.6 bbls
25
Drilling Cost and Drilling Rate

• The AFE
• Drilling Cost and Bit Change
• Factors Affecting Drilling Rate
• Bit Weight, Rotary Speed
• Bottom-hole Cleaning
• Mud Properties, Solids Content
• Hydrostatics
26
Before getting approval to drill a well the
Drilling Engineer must prepare an AFE
- a detailed cost estimate for the well

DRY COMPLETED
HOLE
INTANGIBLE COSTS $ $
TANGIBLE COSTS $ $
TOTAL COST $ $
27
AUTHORIZATION FOR EXPENDITURE (AFE)
EXPENDITURE DRY HOLE COMPLETED
(24.5 DAYS) (32.5 DAYS)

INTANGIBLE COSTS
LOCATION PREPARATION 30,000 65,000
DRILLING RIG AND TOOLS 298,185 366,613
DRILLING FLUIDS 113,543 116,976
RENTAL EQUIPMENT 77,896 133,785
CEMENTING 49,535 54,369
SUPPORT SERVICES 152,285 275,648
TRANSPORTATION 70,200 83,400
SUPERVISION AND ADMIN. 23,282 30,791
SUB-TOTAL 814,928 1,126,581
TANGIBLE COSTS
TUBULAR EQUIPMENT 406,101 846,529
WELL HEAD EQUIPMENT 16,864 156,201
COMPLETION EQUIPMENT 0 15,717
SUB-TOTAL 422,965 1,018,447

SUB-TOTAL 1,237,893 2,145,028


+ CONTINGENCY (15% ??) 1,423,577 2,466,782 28
Drilling Cost vs. Time

DEPTH
ft

TD

DAYS or DOLLARS
29
The Drilling Engineer

• Examples of routine rig operations

• drilling fluid treatment

• pump operation

• bit selection

• problems during the drilling process

30
The Drilling Cost Equation:
C b + C r( tb + tc + tt ) $
Cf = Eq. 1.16
∆D ft
Cf = drilling cost, $/ft Cb= cost of bit, $/bit
Cr= fixed operating cost of rig, $/hr
tb= total rotating time, hrs
tc= total non-rotating time, hrs
tt= trip time (round trip), hrs
∆D = footage drilled with bit, ft
31
Example 1.5

A recommended bit program is being prepared


for a new well using bit performance records
from nearby wells. Drilling performance records
for three bits are shown for a thick limestone
formation at 9,000 ft. Determine which bit gives
the lowest drilling cost if the operating cost of
the rig is $400/hr, the trip time is 7 hours, and
connection time is 1 minute per connection.

32
Example 1.5 cont’d
Assume that each of the bits was operated at near
the minimum cost per foot attainable for that bit.
Mean
Bit Rotating Connection Penetration
Cost Time Time Rate
Bit ($) (hours) (hours) (ft/hr)
A 800 14.8 0.1 13.8
B 4,900 57.7 0.4 12.6
C 4,500 95.8 0.5 10.2

Which bit would you select?


33
Solution:
The cost per foot drilled for each bit type can
be computed using Eq. 1.16. For Bit A, the
cost per foot is
C b + C r( tb + tc + tt ) $
Cf =
∆D ft

800 + 400 (14 . 8 + 0 . 1 + 7 )


Cf = = $ 46 . 81/ft.
13 .8(14 . 8 )
34
Solution, cont’d
Bit A: $46.81 /ft
Bit B: $42.56 /ft
Bit C: $46.89 /ft

The lowest drilling cost was obtained using


Bit B. - Highest bit cost …but -
intermediate life and intermediate ROP...

35
Drilling Costs

• Tend to increase exponentially with depth.


Thus, when curve-fitting drilling cost data,
it is often convenient to assume a
relationship between total well cost, C, and
depth, D, given by

C = aebD …………………..(1.17)

36
Fig. 1-65. Least-square curve fit of 1978 completed well costs
37
for wells below 7,500 ft in the south Louisiana area.
Drilling Time cont’d
Plotting depth vs. drilling time from past
drilling operations:

A. Allows more accurate prediction of time and


cost for drilling a new well
B. Is used in evaluating new drilling
procedures (designed to reduce drilling
time to a given depth).

38
Cost per ft for one entire bit run

Minimum Cost

39
An increase in
TORQUE may
indicate that a bit
should be pulled.

Experience often
dictates when to
pull bit (footage or
hours).

40
Factors that affect Penetration Rate

Variables: • Drill bit


• Bit weight
• Rotary speed
• Bottom-hole cleaning
• Mud properties

Fixed Factors: 4 Rock hardness


4 Formation pore pressure
41
Bit Selection is based on

• Past bit records

• Geologic predictions of lithology

• Drilling costs in $/bit

• Drilling cost in $/ft

42
Bit Weight and Rotary Speed

• Increasing bit weight and rotary speed


boosts drilling rate

• These increases accelerate bit wear

• Field tests show that drilling rate


increases more or less in direct
proportion to bit weight

43
40,000 lbf
Consider 10” hole

(don’t overdo!!)
Drilling Rate, ft/hr

Bit Weight x 1,000 lb/in 44


Don’t overdo!
Casing wear,
bit life ...
Drilling Rate, ft/hr

Rotary Speed, RPM 45


EFFECT OF BACK PRESSURE
0 - 5,000 psi
Drilling Rate, ft/hr

Hydrostatic Pressure, 1,000’s of psi 46


EFFECT OF DRILLING FLUID
water vs. air
Depth, ft

Rotating Time, hours 47


EFFECT OF SOLIDS IN THE MUD

48
Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient
Fresh Water Pressure Gradient = 0.433 psi/ft
Density of Fresh Water = 8.33 lb/gal

Hydrostatic Pressure (at 12,000 ft depth):

with water: p = Gw * Depth (vertical depth)


= 0.433 psi/ft * 12,000 ft
= 5,196 psi
49
Hydrostatic Pressure
with 14 lb/gal mud: p = GM * Depth
 ρ Mud 
=   * 0 . 433 psi/ft * Depth
 8.33 

Pressure = 0.052 * Mud Weight * Depth

= 0.052 *14.0 *12,000


= 8,736 psig
With water: 5,196 psi 50
Hydrostatic Pressure Required
What mud weight is required to
balance a pore pressure of 10,000 psig
at a vertical depth of 12,000 ft?
Pressure
Required Mud Weight =
0.052 * Depth
10,000
Required Mud Weight =
0.052 * 12,000

MW = 16.03 lb/gal 51
Hole Problems

• Lost Circulation
• Stuck Pipe
• Keyseat- Crooked Hole
• Differential Sticking
• Mechanical Sticking
• Junk in Hole
• Kicks and Blowouts
• Crooked Hole
52
Hole Problems - Lost Circulation

Indication:

• Flow out < Flow in (e.g 400 < 500)


• Drop in mud Return Rate
• Drop in Mud Pit Volume
• Blowout

53
Hole Problems - Lost Circulation

Causes:

• High Formation Permeability (e.g. fractures)

• Low Formation Pore Pressure


• Poor Drilling Fluid Characteristics
• Induced Fracturing of Formation
From Rapid Pipe Movement

54
Hole Problems - Lost Circulation

Results:

• Costly Mud Makeup


• Loss of Production
• Fire
• Loss of Permit to Drill

55
Hole Problems - Lost Circulation

Preventive Measures:

4 Crew Education
4 Good Mud Program
4 Study Wells in Area
…to be prepared

56
Hole Problems - Lost Circulation

Remedial Measures:

4 Use Lost Circulation Material


as Mud Additive (fibrous or granular)
4 Drill Through Troublesome
Interval and Case Off
4 Decrease Mud Weight
4 Decrease Circulation Rate
57
Hole Problems - Stuck Pipe
(drill pipe, drill collars, casing)

Indication:
• Cannot Pick Up Pipe (Venezuela case)

Causes:

4Cave - ins
4Keyseat - Crooked Hole

58
Hole Problems - Stuck Pipe

Causes, cont’d:

4 Differential Pressure Sticking


4 Filter Cake
4 Deposited AFTER Circulation Stops
- While Still on Bottom

59
Hole Problems - Stuck Pipe

Results:

• Fishing Operations
Back off, POH, RIH w/fishing string

• Loss of Hole
or at least part of the hole

60
Hole Problems - Stuck Pipe

Preventive Measures:
• Use Minimum Mud Weight Required
to Control Formation Pressures.
• Use Special Drill Collars (spiral)

• Use Centralizers on Casing


• Periodically Establish Circulation
while Running Casing or Drillpipe
in Deep Hole
61
Hole Problems - Stuck Pipe

Remedial Measures:
If Circulation Can Be Established:

• Erode Mud Filter Cake - at High Fluid


Velocity (speed up pumps)
• Spot Special Fluid; Oil, Acid
• Reduce Mud Weight as Far as Possible
• Rotate Pipe - Keep Moving Pipe

62
Hole Problems - Stuck Pipe

Remedial Measures:

If Circulation Cannot Be
Established:

4Cut Pipe or Unscrew Joint


- and Fish

63
KEY
SEAT

64
P1 >> P2

P1
P2

65
Thick Filter Cake F = µN

N = ∆P A

Thin Filter Cake


F = µ ∆P A

How is filter cake formed?

Pipe Stuck in Wall Cake


66
Hole Problems - Junk in Hole

Indication:

• Bit Parts Missing


• Items from Surface Dropped into Hole
• Erratic Torque

67
Hole Problems - Junk in Hole

Cause:
4Negligence of Crew

Result:

4Fishing Operation

68
Hole Problems - Junk in Hole

Preventive Measure:
• Crew Education

Remedial Measures:

4Run Junk Basket


4Run Basket with Collapsible Teeth
(“Poor Boy” Basket)
4Run Magnet
69
Hole Problems - Blowout
(oil, gas or water)

Indication:

• Returns to Surface after Circulation is


Stopped (KICK!)
• Well Out of Control - Big Problem!
• Lost Circulation . . .

70
Hole Problems - Blowout
(oil, gas or water)
[surface or underground]

Causes:

4Loss of Hydrostatic Head


due to Lost Circulation
4Poor drilling Fluid
4Swabbing Effect while Pulling Drillpipe
4Insufficient Mud Weight
71
Hole Problems - Blowout

Results:

4Possible Loss of Life and Property


4Legal and Financial Problems

72
Hole Problems - Blowout

Preventive Measures:

• Crew Education

• Be Alert

• Blowout Control Equipment on RIG


including Pit Volume Indicators

73
Hole Problems - Blowout

Remedial Action:
If on Bottom:
4Use proper Mud Weight
4Add Lost Circulation Materials

In Extreme Case of Blowout:


4May Have to Directionally
Drill a Relief Well
74
Relief Well
For Controlling
a Blowout

75
Hole Problems - Crooked Hole

Indication:

• Periodic Directional Surveys

• Stuck Drill String

• Casing Problems

76
Hole Problems - Crooked Hole

Causes:
4 Too much Weight on Bit
4 Dipping Formation
4 Anisotropic Formation
4 Too Small Drill Collars
4 No Stabilizers
77
Hole Problems - Crooked Hole

Results:

4 Uneven Spacing (on bottom)


4 Legal Problems
4 Production Problems
4 Cementing Problems

78
Hole Problems - Crooked Hole

Preventive Action:

¾Avoid Buckling of Drill Pipe by using


sufficient number of drill collars
¾Use “Oversize” Drill Collars
¾Use Reamers and Stabilizers
¾Start the Hole Vertically
79
Hole Problems - Crooked Hole

Remedial Action:

¾Plug Back and Sidetrack

¾Use Whipstock

¾Use Reamers in 3 Locations

80
Lost Circulation Example
This Example shows how to determine the mud weight
that can be supported by the formation and also the mud
weight that will control the subsurface pressure.

¾ Well depth = 16,000 ft


¾ Protective casing seat = 12,500 ft
¾ Mud Weight = 17.0 lb/gal
¾ Drillpipe size = 4.5 in.
¾ Hole size, casing I.D. = 8.5 in.
¾ Annulus volume = 0.05 bbl/ft
¾ Water required to fill hole = 20 bbl
81
Before Water After Water Addition

Water - 20 bbls

400 ft

Mud - 17.0 lb/gal

12,500 ft

16,000 ft
BHP = ? BHP = 13,963 psig 82
Example - Solution

Determine: The effective hydrostatic head


and equivalent mud weight
in lb/gal.

Solution:

VWATER 20 bbl
= = 400 ft of water
v ANNULUS 0 .05 bbl / ft
83
G = 0.052 * ρ
Example 3.1 GW = 0.052 * 8.33
GM = 0.052 * 17

Pressure imposed at total depth:

400 ft of water x 0.433 psi/ft = 173 psi


15,600 ft of mud x 0.884 psi/ft = 13,790 psi
Total pressure at 16,000 ft = 13,963 psi

13,963
Effective mud weight = = 16.78 lb/gal
(16,000)(0 .052)
84
Example 3.1

Pressure imposed at the casing seat:

400 ft of water x 0.433 = 173 psi


12,100 ft of mud x 0.884 = 10,696 psi
Total pressure at 12,500 ft = 10,869 psi

10,869
Effective mud weight = = 16.72 lb/gal
(12,500)(0.052)

85
Before Water After Water

Water - 20 bbls

400 ft

Mud - 17.0 lb/gal

12,500 ft
10,869 psig EMW = 16.72 lb/gal

16,000 ft
BHP = 13,963 psig EMW = 16.78 lb/gal
86
Drilling

Lesson 4
Wellbore Hydraulics,
Pressure Drop Calculations

1
Wellbore Hydraulics

• Hydrostatics
• Buoyancy
• Pipe Tension vs. Depth
• Effect of Mud Pressure
• Laminar and Turbulent Flow
• Pressure Drop Calculations
– Bingham Plastic Model
– API Power-Law Model
2
Fig. 4-3.
A Complex
Liquid
Column

p = 0.052ρ D + p0

∆p = 0.052ρ ∆D

n
p = p 0 + 0 . 052 ∑ρ
i =1
i ( D i − D i −1 )
3
PPUMP = ?

Fig. 4-4. Viewing the Well as a Manometer (U-Tube) 4


Figure 4.4 ∆p = 0.052ρ ∆D

pa = p0 + 0.052 { 10.5(7,000) + 8.5(300) + 12.7(1,700)


+ 16.7(1,000) − 9.0(10,000) }

p0 = 0 psig

∴ p a = 1, 266 psig

5
Buoyancy Force = weight of fluid displaced
(Archimedes, 250 BC)

Figure 4-9. Hydraulic forces acting on a submerged body6


Effective (buoyed) Weight
We = buoyed weight
We = W − Fb W = weight in air
= W − ρfV W=ρV Fb = buoyancy force
V = volume of body
W ρf = fluid density
= W − ρf
ρs ρs = body density

 ρf 
∴ We = W  1 − 
 ρs 
Buoyancy Factor

Valid for a solid body or an open-ended pipe! 7


Example

For steel, ρs = 65.5 lbm / gal (= 490 lbm/ft3 )

immersed in mud, (ρ f = 15.0 lbm / gal)

the buoyancy factor is:


 ρf   15 . 0 
 1 −  =  1 −  = 0 . 771
 ρs   65 . 5 

A drillstring weighs 100,000 lbs in air.


Buoyed weight = 100,000 * 0.771 = 77,100 lbs
What causes buoyancy? 8
Axial Forces in Drillstring
Fb = bit weight
F1 & F2 are pressure forces

9
Simple Example - Empty Wellbore
Drillpipe weight = 19.5 lbf/ft 10,000 ft
0 lbf 195,000 lbf

OD = 5.000 in
ID = 4.276 in

DEPTH, ft
A=
π
4
(OD 2 − ID 2 )

A = 5.265 in2

AXIAL TENSION, lbf

W = 19.5 lbf/ft * 10,000 ft = 195,000 lbf


10
Example - 15 lb/gal Mud in Wellbore
Drillpipe weight = 19.5 lbf/ft 10,000 ft
- 41,100 0 153,900 195,000 lbf

OD = 5.000 in
ID = 4.276 in

DEPTH, ft
A=
π
4
(
OD 2 − ID 2 )

A = 5.265 in2

AXIAL TENSION, lbf


F=P*A
= 7,800 * 5.265 Pressure at bottom = 0.052 * 15 * 10,000 = 7,800 psi
= 41,100 lbf W = 195,000 - 41,100 = 153,900 lbf 11
Axial Tension in Drill String

Example
A drill string consists of
10,000 ft of 19.5 #/ft drillpipe and
600 ft of 147 #/ft drill collars
suspended off bottom in 15 #/gal mud
(Fb = bit weight = 0).

• What is the axial tension in the


drillstring as a function of depth?
12
Example A1

Pressure at top of collars


= 0.052 (15) 10,000 = 7,800 psi

Pressure at bottom of collars


= 0.052 (15) 10,600 = 8,268 psi
10,000’

Cross-sectional area of pipe,


19 . 5 lb / ft 144 in 2
A1 = * = 5 . 73 in 2

490 lb / ft 3 ft 2
10,600’
13
A1
Example – cont’d

Cross-sectional area of collars,

147
A2 = * 144 = 43 . 2 in 2

490
A2
Differential area = A 2 − A1
= 43.2 − 5.73 = 37.5 in 2

14
Example - cont’d 4

1. At 10,600 ft. (bottom of drill collars)

Compressive force = p A
3
lbf 2
= 8 , 268 * 43 . 2 in 2

in 2 1
= 357,200 lbf

[ axial tension = - 357,200 lbf ]


15
Example - cont’d 4

2. At 10,000 ft+ (top of collars)


Fb = FBIT = 0
FT = W2 - F2 - Fb 3
2
= 147 lbm/ft * 600 ft - 357,200
1

= 88,200 - 357,200

= -269,000 lbf
16
Example - cont’d 4

3. At 10,000 ft - (bottom of drillpipe)

FT = W1+W2+F1-F2-Fb 3
2
= 88,200 + 7,800 lbf/in2 * 37.5in2 - 357,200
1

= -269,000 + 292,500

= + 23,500 lbf
17
Example - cont’d 4

4. At Surface
FT = W1 + W2 + F1 - F2 - Fb
3
= 19.5 * 10,000 + 88,200 2
+ 292,500 - 357,200 - 0
1
= 218,500 lbf (= 23,500 + 195,000)

Alternatively: FT = WAIR * BF
= 283,200 * 0.7710 = 218,345 lbf
18
Fig. 4-11. Axial tensions as a function of depth for Example 4.919
Example - Summary

1. At 10,600 ft FT = -357,200 lbf [compression]

2. At 10,000 + ft FT = -269,000 lbf [compression]

3. At 10,000 - ft FT = +23,500 lbf [tension]

4. At Surface FT = +218,500 lbf [tension]

20
Axial Load with FBIT = 68,000 lbf

21
22
For multiple nozzles in parallel

Vn is the same for each nozzle


even if the dn varies!
This follows since ∆p is the same
across each nozzle.

∆p q
vn = c d −4 & v n = 3 .117 A
8.074 * 10 ρ t

8.311 * 10 ρ q
-5 2

∆p bit = 2 2
Cd = 0.95
C A
d t
23
Hydraulic Horsepower

… of pump putting out 400 gpm at 3,000 psi = ?

q∆p
Power, in field units: HHP =
1714

400 * 3 ,000
HHP =
1714

Hydraulic Horsepower of Pump = 700 hp


24
What is Hydraulic Impact Force

… developed by bit?

If: C D = 0 . 95
q = 400 gal/min
ρ = 12 lb/gal
∆p n = 1,169 psi

Fj = 0.01823 c d q ρ ∆p
25
Impact = rate of change of momentum

∆(mv )  m  ρ q vn
Fj = =  ∆v =
∆t  ∆t  32.17 * 60

Fj = 0.01823 c d q ρ ∆p

Fj = 0.01823 * 0.95 * 400 12 * 1,169 = 820 lbf

26
Laminar Flow
Rheological Models
¾ Newtonian
¾ Bingham Plastic
¾ Power-Law (ADE & API)
Rotational Viscometer
Laminar Flow in Wellbore
¾ Fluid Flow in Pipes
¾ Fluid Flow in Annuli

27
Laminar Flow of Newtonian Fluids

F V
Experimentally: = µ
A L

28
Newtonian Fluid Model

In a Newtonian fluid the shear stress is directly


proportional to the shear rate (in laminar flow):
F V
= µ
A L
dyne  1 
i.e.,
• =µ  
τ = µ γ cm 2
 sec 

The constant of proportionality, µ is the


viscosity of the fluid and is independent of shear
rate.
29
Newtonian Fluid Model

τ dyne • sec
µ = • 2
γ cm

Viscosity may be expressed in poise or centipoise.

dyne - s g
1 poise = 1 =1
cm 2
cm − s

1 centipoise = 0.01 poise


30
Shear Stress vs. Shear Rate for a
Newtonian Fluid

.
τ = µγ

Slope of line = µ
31
Apparent Viscosity


Apparent viscosity = τ / γ • • •
is the slope at each shear rate, γ 1, γ 2 , γ 3 .
32
Typical Drilling Fluid Vs. Newtonian,
(Plotted on linear paper)
Bingham and Power Law Fluids

33
Rheological Models

1. Newtonian Fluid: τ = shear stress


µ = absolute viscosity


τ = µγ γ = shear rate

2. Bingham Plastic Fluid:


• τ y = yield point
τ = τ y + µp γ
µp = plastic viscosity

What if τy = 0? 34
Rotating
Sleeve
Viscometer

35
Rotating Figure 3.6 Rheometer
Viscometer

We
determine
rheological
properties Infinite
of drilling parallel
fluids in plates
this device

36
Rheometer (Rotational
Viscometer)
sleeve

BOB τ = f (γ )
fluid
Shear Stress = f (Dial Reading)
Shear Rate = f (Sleeve RPM)
Shear Stress = f (Shear Rate)

τ( TAU ), the Shear Stress depends on the


value of γ (GAMMA), the Shear Rate
37
Rheometer - base case
N (RPM) γ (sec-1)
3 5.11
6 10.22
100 170
200 340
300 511
600 1022

RPM * 1.703 = sec-1


38
Example
A rotational viscometer containing a Bingham plastic
fluid gives a dial reading of 12 at a rotor speed of 300
RPM and a dial reading of 20 at a rotor speed of 600 RPM
Compute plastic viscosity and yield point

Plastic Viscosity:
θ600 = 20
µ p = θ 600 − θ 300 θ300 = 12

= 20 - 12
See Appendix A
µ p = 8 cp
39
Example - cont’d θ600 = 20
θ300 = 12

Yield Point:

τ y = θ 300 − µ p (See Appendix A)

= 12 - 8

τ y = 4 lbf/100 ft 2

40
Gel Strength

41
Gel Strength
= shear stress at which fluid movement begins

• The yield strength, extrapolated from the


300 and 600 RPM readings is not a good
representation of the gel strength of the fluid

• Gel strength may be measured by turning the


rotor at a low speed and noting the dial
reading at which the gel structure is broken
(usually at 3 RPM)

42
Gel Strength

The gel strength is the maximum dial reading


when the viscometer is started at 3 rpm.

In field units, τ g = 1.06 θ lbf / 100 ft 2

In practice, this is often approximated to

τg = θmax,3 lbf / 100 ft 2

43
Velocity Profiles
(laminar flow)

Fig. 4-26. Velocity profiles for laminar flow:


(a) pipe flow and (b) annular flow 44
3D View of Laminar Flow in a pipe
- Newtonian Fluid

“It looks like concentric rings of fluid


telescoping down the pipe at different velocities” 45
Table 4.3 - Summary of Equations for
Rotational Viscometer

Newtonian Model µa = θ300

300
or µa = θN
N

5 . 066
γ = 2
N
r
46
Table 4.3 - Summary of Equations for
Rotational Viscometer

Bingham Plastic Model

oror
µ p = θ 600 − θ 300 µp =
300
(θ N 2 − θ N1 )
N 2 − N1

or
or
τ y = θ 300 − µ p N1
τ y = θ N1 − µp
300
τ g = θ max at 3 rpm 47
Example 4.22

Compute the frictional pressure loss for a 7” x 5”


annulus, 10,000 ft long, using the slot flow
representation in the annulus. The flow rate is 80
gal/min. The viscosity is 15 cp. Assume the flow
pattern is laminar.


1”
7” 5”

48
Example 4.22

The average velocity in the annulus,


_
q 80
v = =
2 2
2.448(d 2 − d1 ) 2.448(7 − 5 )
2 2

_
v = 1.362 ft/s
_
dp f µv
=
1000 (d 2 − d1 )
2
dL
49
Example 4.22

_
dp f µv
=
1000 (d2 − d1 )
2
dL

dp (15 ) (1 .362 ) (10 ,000 )


∆p f = D =
dL 1000 ( 7 − 5) 2

∆ p f = 51 psi (= 51.0750 )
50
Total Pump Pressure

• Pressure loss in surf. equipment


• Pressure loss in drill pipe
• Pressure loss in drill collars
• Pressure drop across the bit nozzles
• Pressure loss in the annulus between the drill
collars and the hole wall
• Pressure loss in the annulus between the drill
pipe and the hole wall

• Hydrostatic pressure difference (ρ varies)

51
Types of flow

Laminar Turbulent

Fig. 4-30. Laminar and turbulent flow patterns in a circular pipe: (a) laminar
flow, (b) transition between laminar and turbulent flow and (c) turbulent flow52
_
Turbulent Flow -
928 ρ v d
Newtonian Fluid N Re =
µ

where ρ = fluid density, lbm/gal


_
v = avg. fluid velocity, ft/s
d = pipe I.D., in
µ = viscosity of fluid, cp.

We often assume that fluid flow is


turbulent if Nre > 2100
53
Turbulent Flow - Turbulent Flow -
Newtonian Fluid Bingham Plastic Fluid

In Pipe
_ 1 . 75 _ 1 . 75
0 . 25
dp f ρ µ
0 . 75
v 0 . 25
dp f ρ v µp
0 . 75
= =
dL 1800 d 1 . 25 dL 1800 d 1 . 25

In Annulus

_ 1 . 75 _ 1 . 75
0 . 25
dp f ρ 0 . 75
v µ 0 . 25
dp f ρ 0 . 75
v µp
= =
dL 1,396 (d 2 − d 1 )
1 . 25
dL (
1,396 d 2 − d 1 )1 . 25

54
API Power Law Model API RP 13D

K = consistency index
n = flow behaviour index
τ=K γn

SHEAR
STRESS
τ
psi

0
SHEAR RATE, γ , sec-1
55
Rotating Sleeve Viscometer
(RPM * 1.703)

VISCOMETER SHEAR RATE


RPM sec -1
3 5.11
ANNULUS
100 170.3
BOB
300 DRILL 511
600 STRING 1022

SLEEVE

56
Pressure Drop Calculations
• Example Calculate the pump pressure in
the wellbore shown on the next page, using the
API method.

• The relevant rotational viscometer readings


are as follows:
• R3 = 3 (at 3 RPM)
• R100 = 20 (at 100 RPM)
• R300 = 39 (at 300 RPM)
• R600 = 65 (at 600 RPM)
57
PPUMP
Pressure Drop
Calculations

Q = 280 gal/min
ρ = 12.5 lb/gal

PPUMP = ∆PDP + ∆PDC

+ ∆PBIT NOZZLES

+ ∆PDC/ANN + ∆PDP/ANN
+ ∆PHYD
58
OD = 4.5 in
Pressure Drop In Drill Pipe ID = 3.78 in
L = 11,400 ft
Power-Law Constant (n):
 R 600   65 
n = 3 . 32 log   = 3 . 32 log   = 0 . 737
 R 300   39 

Fluid Consistency Index (K):


5.11 R600 5.11 * 65 dyne sec n
K = n
= 0.737
= 2.017
1,022 cm 2
1,022
Average Bulk Velocity in Pipe (V):

0 . 408 Q 0 . 408 * 280 ft


V = = = 8 . 00
D2 3 . 78 2
sec
59
OD = 4.5 in
Pressure Drop In Drill Pipe ID = 3.78 in
L = 11,400 ft
Effective Viscosity in Pipe (µe):
n −1 n
 96V   3n + 1
µe = 100 K    
 4n 
 D   
0.737−1 0.737
 96 * 8   3 * 0.737 + 1
µe = 100 * 2.017    = 53 cP
 3.78   4 * 0.737 

Reynolds Number in Pipe (NRe):

928 D Vρ 928 * 3.78 * 8.00 * 12 .5


NRe = = = 6,616
µe 53

60
OD = 4.5 in
Pressure Drop In Drill Pipe ID = 3.78 in
L = 11,400 ft
NOTE: NRe > 2,100, so a
f =
Friction Factor in Pipe (f): NRe
b

log n + 3.93 log 0.737 + 3.93


a= = = 0.0759
50 50

1.75 − log n 1.75 − log 0.737


b= = = 0.2690
7 7

a 0 .0759
So, f = b
= 0 .2690
= 0 .007126
NRe 6,616
61
OD = 4.5 in
Pressure Drop In Drill Pipe ID = 3.78 in
L = 11,400 ft
Friction Pressure Gradient (dP/dL) :

2
 dP  f V ρ 0.007126 * 8 2 * 12.5 psi
  = = = 0.05837
 dL  25 .81 D 25.81 * 3.78 ft

Friction Pressure Drop in Drill Pipe :

 dP 
∆P =   ∆L = 0.05837* 11,400
 dL 

∆Pdp = 665 psi


62
OD = 6.5 in
Pressure Drop In Drill Collars ID = 2.5 in
L = 600 ft
Power-Law Constant (n):
 R 600   65 
n = 3 . 32 log   = 3 . 32 log   = 0 . 737
 R 300   39 

Fluid Consistency Index (K):


5.11R 600 5.11 * 65 dyne sec n
K= n
= 0.737
= 2.017
1,022 1,022 cm 2

Average Bulk Velocity inside Drill Collars (V):


0 . 408 Q 0 . 408 * 280 ft
V= = = 18 .28
D2 2 .5 2
sec
63
OD = 6.5 in
Pressure Drop In Drill Collars ID = 2.5 in
L = 600 ft
Effective Viscosity in Collars(µe):
n −1 n
 96V   3n + 1
µe = 100 K    
 D   4n 
0.737−1 0.737
 96 * 18.28   3 * 0.737 + 1
µe = 100 * 2.017    = 38.21cP
 2.5   4 * 0.737 

Reynolds Number in Collars (NRe):

928 D V ρ 928 * 2.5 * 18 .28 * 12 .5


NRe = = = 13,870
µe 38 .21
64
OD = 6.5 in
Pressure Drop In Drill Collars ID = 2.5 in
L = 600 ft
NOTE: NRe > 2,100, so a
f =
Friction Factor in DC (f): NRe
b

log n + 3.93 log 0.737 + 3.93


a= = = 0.0759
50 50

1.75 − log n 1.75 − log 0.737


b= = = 0.2690
7 7

So, a 0.0759
f = b
= 0.2690
= 0.005840
NRe 13,870
65
OD = 6.5 in
Pressure Drop In Drill Collars ID = 2.5 in
L = 600 ft
Friction Pressure Gradient (dP/dL) :

2
 dP  f V ρ 0.005840 * 18 .28 2 * 12 .5 psi
  = = = 0.3780
 dL  25 .81 D 25 .81 * 2.5 ft

Friction Pressure Drop in Drill Collars :

 dP 
∆P =   ∆L = 0.3780 * 600
 dL 

∆Pdc = 227 psi


66
Pressure Drop across Nozzles

DN1 = 11 32nds (in)


156ρ Q 2
DN2 = 11 32nds (in)
∆P =
(D
N1
2 2
+ DN2 + DN3
2
) 2
DN3 = 12 32nds (in)

156 * 12.5 * 280 2


∆P =
(11 2
+ 11 + 12
2
)
2 2

∆PNozzles = 1,026 psi

67
Pressure Drop
in DC/HOLE
Annulus

Q = 280 gal/min

ρ = 12.5 lb/gal 8.5 in

DHOLE = 8.5 in
ODDC = 6.5 in
L = 600 ft

68
Pressure Drop DHOLE = 8.5 in
ODDC = 6.5 in
in DC/HOLE Annulus L = 600 ft
Power-Law Constant (n):
 R 100   20 
n = 0 . 657 log   = 0 . 657 log   = 0 . 5413
 R3   3 

Fluid Consistency Index (K):


5.11R100 5.11 * 20 dyne sec n
K = n
= 0.5413
= 6.336
170 .2 170 .2 cm 2

Average Bulk Velocity in DC/HOLE Annulus (V):


0 . 408 Q 0 . 408 * 280 ft
V = = = 3 . 808
2
D 2 − D1
2
8 .5 − 6 .5
2 2
sec
69
Pressure Drop DHOLE = 8.5 in
ODDC = 6.5 in
in DC/HOLE Annulus L = 600 ft

Effective Viscosity in Annulus (µe):


n −1 n
 144V   2n + 1
µ e = 100 K    
 3n 
 D2 − D1   

0.5413 −1 0.5413
 144 * 3.808   2 * 0.5413 + 1
µ e = 100 * 6.336    = 55.20 cP
 8 .5 − 6 .5   3 * 0.5413 

Reynolds Number in Annulus (NRe):


928 (D2 − D1 ) V ρ 928 (8.5 − 6.5) * 3.808 * 12.5
NRe = = = 1,600
µe 55.20
70
Pressure Drop DHOLE = 8.5 in
ODDC = 6.5 in
in DC/HOLE Annulus L = 600 ft
NOTE: NRe < 2,100
Friction Factor in Annulus (f):
24 24
f = = = 0 .01500
NRe 1,600

2
 dP  f V ρ 0.01500 * 3.808 2 * 12.5 psi
 = = = 0.05266
 dL  25.81(D 2 − D1 ) 25.81 (8.5 − 6.5 ) ft

 dP 
∆P =   ∆L = 0 .05266 * 600
 dL 

So, ∆Pdc/hole = 31.6 psi


71
Pressure Drop
in DP/HOLE Annulus

q = 280 gal/min

ρ = 12.5 lb/gal

DHOLE = 8.5 in
ODDP = 4.5 in
L = 11,400 ft

72
Pressure Drop DHOLE = 8.5 in
ODDP = 4.5 in
in DP/HOLE Annulus L = 11,400 ft
Power-Law Constant (n):
 R 100   20 
n = 0 .657 log   = 0 .657 log   = 0 .5413
 R3   3 

Fluid Consistency Index (K):

5.11R100 5.11* 20 dyne secn


K = n
= 0.5413
= 6.336
170.2 170.2 cm2
Average Bulk Velocity in Annulus (Va):

0.408 Q 0.408* 280 ft


V = 2 = = 2.197
D2 − D1
2
8.5 − 4.5
2 2
sec
73
Pressure Drop
in DP/HOLE Annulus
Effective Viscosity in Annulus (µe):
n−1 n
 144V   2n + 1
µ e = 100 K    
 D2 − D1   3n 
0.5413 −1 0.5413
 144 * 2.197   2 * 0.5413 + 1 
µ e = 100 * 6.336    = 97.64 cP
 8 . 5 − 4 . 5   3 * 0 . 5413 

Reynolds Number in Annulus (NRe):

928 (D2 − D1 ) V ρ 928 (8.5 − 4.5) * 2.197 * 12.5


NRe = = = 1,044
µe 97.64
74
Pressure Drop
in DP/HOLE Annulus
NOTE: NRe < 2,100
Friction Factor in Annulus (f):
24 24
f= = = 0 .02299
NRe 1,044

2
 dP  fV ρ 0.02299 * 2.1972 * 12.5 psi
  = = = 0.01343
 dL  25.81(D2 − D1 ) 25.81(8.5 − 4.5) ft

 dP 
∆P =   ∆L = 0 . 01343 * 11,400
 dL 

So, ∆Pdp/hole = 153.2


psi psi
75
Pressure Drop Calcs.
- SUMMARY -

PPUMP = ∆PDP + ∆PDC + ∆PBIT NOZZLES


+ ∆PDC/ANN + ∆PDP/ANN + ∆PHYD

PPUMP = 665 + 227 + 1,026


+ 32 + 153 + 0

PPUMP = 1,918 + 185 = 2,103 psi


76
2,103 psi
PPUMP = ∆PDS + ∆PANN + ∆PHYD

P
∆PDS = ∆PDP + ∆PDC + ∆PBIT NOZZLES =
0
= 665 + 227 + 1,026 = 1,918 psi

∆PANN = ∆PDC/ANN + ∆PDP/ANN

= 32 + 153 = 185

∆PHYD = 0

PPUMP = 1,918 + 185


= 2,103 psi
77
"Friction" Pressures

2,500
DRILLPIPE
"Friction" Pre ssure , psi

2,103
2,000

1,500
DRILL COLLARS

1,000
BIT NOZZLES

500 ANNULUS

0
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000
Cumulative Distance from Standpipe, ft
78
Hydrostatic Pressures in the Wellbore

9,000
BHP
H ydrostatic Pre ssure , psi

8,000
7,000
6,000
DRILLSTRING ANNULUS
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,000
1,000
0
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000
Cumulative Distance from Standpipe, ft
79
Pressures in the Wellbore

10,000
9,000
8,000
CIRCULATING
Pressures, psi

7,000
6,000
5,000
4,000
3,000
2,103
2,000
1,000 STATIC
0
0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000
Cumulative Distance from Standpipe, ft
80
Wellbore Pressure Profile

2,103
0

2,000
DRILLSTRING
4,000
Depth, ft

6,000
ANNULUS
8,000

10,000

(Static)
12,000
BIT
14,000
0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000
Pressure, psi 81
Pipe Flow - Laminar
In the above example the flow down the
drillpipe was turbulent.
Under conditions of very high viscosity, the flow
may very well be laminar.
NOTE: if NRe < 2,100, then
Friction Factor in Pipe (f):
2
16  dP  f V ρ
Then f = and   =
N Re  dL  25.81 D

82
Annular Flow - Turbulent
In the above example the flow in the
annulus was laminar.
Under conditions of very low viscosity, the
flow may very well be turbulent.
NOTE: if NRe > 2,100, then
Friction Factor in the Annulus (f):

f V ρ
2
a  dP 
Then f = and  =
 dL  25.81 (D2 − D1 )
b
NRe

83
84
n = 1.0

_
dp fρ v 2
=
dL 25 .8 d 85
Drilling

Casing Design

1
Casing Design

¾ Why Run Casing?


¾ Types of Casing Strings
¾ Classification of Casing
¾ Wellheads
¾ Burst, Collapse and Tension
¾ Example
¾ Effect of Axial Tension on Collapse Strength
¾ Example
2
Casing Design
What is casing? Casing

Why run casing? Cement

1. To prevent the hole from caving in


2. Onshore - to prevent contamination of
fresh water sands
3. To prevent water migration to
producing formation
3
Casing Design
4. To confine production to the wellbore
5. To control pressures during drilling
6. To provide an acceptable environment for
subsurface equipment in producing wells
7. To enhance the probability of drilling to total
depth (TD)
e.g., you need 14 ppg mud to control a lower zone,
but an upper zone will fracture at 12 lb/gal.
What do you do?
4
Types of Strings of Casing

Diameter Example
1. Drive pipe or structural pile
{Gulf Coast and offshore only}
16”-60” 30”
150’-300’ below mudline.

2. Conductor string. 100’ - 1,600’ 16”-48” 20”


(BML)

3. Surface pipe. 2,000’ - 4,000’ 8 5/8”-20” 13 3/8”


(BML)

5
Types of Strings of Casing

Diameter Example

4. Intermediate String 7 5/8”-13 3/8” 9 5/8”

5. Production String (Csg.) 4 1/2”-9 5/8” 7”

6. Liner(s)

7. Tubing String(s)

6
Example Hole and String Sizes (in)

Hole Size Pipe Size


36” Structural casing 30”
26” Conductor string 20”

17 1/2 Surface pipe 13 3/8

12 1/4 IntermediateString 9 5/8

8 3/4 Production Liner 7


7
Example Hole and String Sizes (in)

Structural casing Mudline


Conductor string
250’

1,000’

4,000’
Surface pipe
IntermediateString
Production Liner
8
Classification of CSG.

1. Outside diameter of pipe (e.g. 9 5/8”)

2. Wall thickness (e.g. 1/2”)

3. Grade of material (e.g. N-80)

4. Type to threads and couplings (e.g. API LCSG)

5. Length of each joint (RANGE) (e.g. Range 3)


6. Nominal weight (Avg. wt/ft incl. Wt. Coupling)
(e.g. 47 lb/ft)
9
σ
ε 10
Length of Casing Joints

RANGE 1 16-25 ft

RANGE 2 25-34 ft

RANGE 3 > 34 ft.

11
Casing Threads and Couplings

API round threads - short { CSG }


API round thread - long { LCSG }
Buttress { BCSG }
Extreme line { XCSG }
Other …

See Halliburton Book...


12
API Design Factors (typical)

Required Design

10,000 psi Collapse 1.125 11,250 psi

100,000 lbf Tension 1.8 180,000 lbf

10,000 psi Burst 1.1 11,000 psi

13
Abnormal

Normal Pore Pressure Abnormal Pore Pressure


0.433 - 0.465 psi/ft gp > normal
14
Design from bottom 15
Press. Gauge
Wing Valve X-mas Tree
Choke Box

Master
Valves
Wellhead
• Hang Csg. Strings
• Provide Seals
• Control Production
from Well

16
Wellhead

17
Wellhead

18
Casing Design

Tension Tension
Depth
Burst

Collapse

Collapse
STRESS
Burst:
Burst Assume full reservoir pressure all along the wellbore.
Collapse: Hydrostatic pressure increases with depth
Tension: Tensile stress due to weight of string is highest at top
19
Casing Design - Collapse

Collapse pressure is affected by axial stress 20


Casing Design - Tension

21
Casing Design - Burst
(from internal pressure)

4 Internal Yield Pressure for pipe


4 Internal Yield Pressure for couplings
4 Internal pressure leak resistance

p Internal p
Pressure

22
Casing Design - Burst

Example 1

Design a 7” Csg. String to 10,000 ft.

Pore pressure gradient = 0.5 psi/ft


Design factor, Ni=1.1

Design for burst only.


23
Burst Example

1. Calculate probable reservoir pressure.


psi
p res = 0 .5 * 10 ,000 ft = 5,000 psi
ft

2. Calculate required pipe internal yield


pressure rating
p i = p res * N i = 5 ,000 * 1 . 1 = 5 ,500 psi

Ni = API Design Factor for BURST = 1.1


24
Example

3. Select the appropriate csg. grade and wt.


from the Halliburton Cementing tables:

Burst Pressure required = 5,500 psi


7”, J-55, 26 lb/ft has BURST Rating of 4,980 psi
7”, N-80, 23 lb/ft has BURST Rating of 6,340 psi
7”, N-80, 26 lb/ft has BURST Rating of 7,249 psi

Use N-80 Csg., 23 lb/ft

25
26
23 lb/ft
26 lb/ft

N-80 27
Collapse Pressure

The following factors are important:

4 The collapse pressure resistance of a pipe


depends on the axial stress

4 The API Design Factor

28
Casing Design

Collapse pressure - with axial stress

 2

1/ 2

1.   SA   S A 
YPA = YP 1− 0.75    − 0.5  
  YP    YP 

YPA = yield strength of axial stress


equivalent grade, psi
YP = minimum yield strength of pipe, psi
SA = Axial stress, psi (tension is positive)
29
Example 3
Determine the collapse strength for a 5 1/2” O.D.,
14.00 #/ft, J-55 casing under axial load of 100,000 lbf

The axial tension will reduce the collapse pressure


as follows:
 2 
SA  SA 
Y PA =  1 − 0 . 75   − 0 .5   YP
  Y   Y 
  p   p 

FA 100,000
SA = = = 24,820 psi
Area π 5.5 2 − 5.012 2
( )
4
30
  
2
  
S S
Example 3 cont’d Y PA =  1 − 0 . 75  A  − 0 . 5  A   Y P
 Y   Y 
  p   p  

The axial tension will reduce the collapse


pressure rating to:
 2
24,820  
 24,820  
YPA =  1 − 0.75   − 0 .5    55,000
  55,000   55,000  
 

= 38,216 psi

Here the axial load decreased the J-55


rating to an equivalent “J-38.2” rating
31
Example 3 - cont’d

The Halliburton Cementing Tables list the


collapse resistance of 5 ½ -in, 14.00 lb/ft J-55
casing at 3,120 psi.

The axial tension in this case would derate the


collapse strength to about 2,550 psi.

We shall be using API Tables to correct for the


effect of axial tension on collapse strength of
casing.
32
33
34
Casing Design Example

¾ Example Problem
¾ API Design Factors
¾ “Worst Possible Conditions”
¾ Effect of Axial Tension on Collapse Strength
¾ Iteration and Interpolation
¾ Design for Burst, Collapse and Tension

35
Casing Design Example

Design a 9 5/8-in., 8,000-ft combination


casing string for a well where the mud wt.
will be 12.5 ppg and the formation pore
pressure is expected to be 6,000 psi.

Only the grades and weights shown are


available (N-80, all weights). Use API
design factors.

Design for “worst possible conditions.”


36
Casing Design - Solution

Before solving this problem is it necessary to


understand what we mean by “Design Factors”
and “worst possible conditions”.

API Design Factors


Design factors are essentially “safety factors”
that allow us to design safe, reliable casing
strings. Each operator may have his own set
of design factors, based on his experience,
and the condition of the pipe.
37
Casing Design

In PETE 661, we’ll use the design factors


recommended by the API unless otherwise
specified.

These are the API design Factors:

Tension and Joint Strength: NT = 1.8


Collapse (from external pressure): Nc= 1.125
Burst (from internal pressure): Ni = 1.1
38
Casing Design

What this means is that, for example, if we


need to design a string where the maximum
tensile force is expected to be 100,000 lbf,
we select pipe that can handle 100,000 * 1.8
= 180,000 lbf in tension.

Note that the Halliburton Cementing Tables


list actual pipe strengths, without safety
factors built in.
39
Casing Design

Unless otherwise specified in a particular


problem, we shall also assume the following:

Worst Possible Conditions


1. For Collapse design, assume that the
casing is empty on the inside (p = 0 psig)

2. For Burst design, assume no “backup”


fluid on the outside of the casing (p = 0 psig)
40
Casing Design

Worst Possible Conditions, cont’d


3. For Tension design,
assume no buoyancy effect
4. For Collapse design,
assume no buoyancy effect

The casing string must be designed to stand up to the


expected conditions in burst, collapse and tension.
Above conditions are quite conservative. They are also
simplified for easier understanding of the basic concepts.
41
Casing Design - Solution

Burst Requirements (based on the expected pore


pressure)
PB = pore pressure * Design Factor

Depth
= 6,000 psi *1.1
PB = 6,600 psi
Pressure
The whole casing string must be capable of
withstanding this internal pressure without failing in
burst.
42
Casing Design - Solution

Collapse Requirements
For collapse design, we start at the bottom of
the string and work our way up.

Our design criteria will be based on


hydrostatic pressure resulting from the 12.5
ppg mud that will be in the hole when the
casing string is run, prior to cementing.

43
Casing Design

Depth
Collapse Requirements, cont’d Pressure

Pc = 0.052 * mud weight * depth * design factor


= 0.052 * 12.5 * 8,000 * 1.125
Pc = 5,850 psi ← req' d at the bottom.

Further up the hole the collapse requirements


are less severe
44
Casing Design
Req’d: Burst: 6,600 psi Collapse: 5,850 psi

45
Casing Design

Note that two of the weights of N-80 casing


meet the burst requirements, but only the
53.5 #/ft pipe can handle the collapse
requirement at the bottom of the hole (5,850
psi).

The 53.5 #/ft pipe could probably run all the


way to the surface (would still have to check
tension), but there may be a lower cost
alternative.
46
Casing Design

Depth
To what depth might we
be able to run N-80, 47
#/ft? The maximum Pressure
annular pressure that this
pipe may be exposed to,
is:
Collapse pressure of pipe 4,760
Pc = = = 4,231 psi
design factor 1.125

47
Casing Design

First Iteration
At what depth do we see this pressure (4,231
psig) in a column of 12.5 #/gal mud?

Pc = 0 . 052 * 12 . 5 * h 1

Pc 4 , 231
∴ h1 = = = 6 ,509 ft
0 . 052 * 12 . 5 0 . 052 * 12 .5
48
Casing Design
This is the depth to which the pipe
could be run if there were 6,509’
no axial stress in the pipe… 8,000’

But at 6,509’ we have (8,000 - 6,509) =


1,491’ of 53.5 #/ft pipe below us.

The weight of this pipe will reduce the


collapse resistance of the 47.0 #/ft pipe!
49
Casing Design

Weight, W1 = 53.5 #/ft * 1,491 ft


= 79,769 lbf
This weight results in an axial
stress in the 47 #/ft pipe

weight 79 ,769 lbf


of S1 = = 2
= 5,877 psi
end area 13.572 in

50
Casing Design

The API tables show that the above


stress will reduce the collapse resistance
from 4,760 to somewhere between

4,680 psi (with 5,000 psi stress)


and 4,600 psi (with 10,000 psi stress)

51
Casing Design
Interpolation between these values shows
that the collapse resistance at 5,877 psi
axial stress is:
 S − S1 
Pc1 = P1 −   (P1 − P2 )
 S 2 − S1 

(5,877 − 5,000)
Pc1 = 4,680 − * ( 4,680 − 4,600 ) = 4,666 psi
(10,000 − 5,000)

4,666
With the design factor, Pcc1 = = 4,148 psi
1.125
52
Casing Design

This (4,148 psig) is the pressure at a


depth
4,148
h2 = = 6,382 ft
0.052 * 12 .5

Which differs considerably from the


initial depth of 6,509 ft, so a second
iteration is required.
53
54
55
Casing Design

Second Iteration
Now consider running the 47 #/ft
pipe to the new depth of 6,382 ft.

W 2 = ( 8,000 − 6,382 ) * 53 . 5 = 86 ,563 lbf

86 ,563 lbf
S2 = 2
= 6,378 psi
13 . 572 in
56
Casing Design
Interpolating again,
1   S − S1  
Pc1 =  P1 −   (P1 − P2 )
D.F.   S 2 − S1  

1   6,378 − 5000 
pcc2 = 4,680 −  * (4,680 − 4,600)  = 4,140 psi
1.125   5000 

This is the pressure at a depth of


4,140
h3 = = 6,369 ft
0 .052 * 12 .5
57
Casing Design
This is within 13 ft of the assumed value. If
more accuracy is desired (generally not
needed), proceed with the:
Third Iteration
h 3 = 6,369 '
W 3 = ( 8,000 − 6,369 ) * 53 . 5 = 87 ,259 lbf
87 ,259
S3 = = 6,429 psi
13 . 572
Pcc3 = ?
58
Casing Design

Third Iteration, cont’d

1  6,429 − 5,000 
thus Pcc3 = 4,680 − * (4,680 − 4,600)
1.125  5,000 

= 4,140 psi = Pcc 2

59
Casing Design

Third Iteration, cont’d


This is the answer we are looking for, i.e.,
we can run 47 #/ft N-80 pipe to a depth of
6,369 ft, and 53.5 #/ft pipe between 6,369
and 8,000 ft.
Perhaps this string will run all the way to the
surface (check tension), or perhaps an even
more economical string would include some
43.5 #/ft pipe?
60
Casing Design

At some depth the 43.5 #/ft pipe would be


able to handle the collapse requirements,
but we have already determined that it will
not meet burst requirements.

∴ NO!
61
N-80
43.5 #/ft?
Depth = 5,057?
5,066?
5,210?
N-80
47.0 #/ft

Depth = 6,369
6,369
N-80 6,382
53.5 #/ft 6,509

8,000
62
Tension Check

The weight on the top joint of casing


would be
(6,369 ft * 47.0# / ft ) + (1,631 ft * 53.5# / ft )

= 386,602 lbs actual weight


With a design factor of 1.8 for tension, a
pipe strength of
1.8 * 386,602 = 695,080 lbf is required
63
Tension Check

The Halliburton cementing tables give a


yield strength of 1,086,000 lbf for the pipe
body and a joint strength of 905,000 lbf for
LT & C.

∴ 47.0 # / ft is OK to surface

64
Drilling

Lesson 6
Casing Design - cont’d

1
Casing Design

• Casing Threads
• Using the Halliburton Cementing Tables
• Yield Strength of Casing (in tension)
• Burst Strength
• Effect of Axial Tension on Collapse Strength
• Effect of Pipe Bending
• Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide
• Selection of Casing Settling Depths
2
N-80
43.5 #/ft?
Depth = 5,057?
5,066?
5,210?
N-80
47.0 #/ft

Depth = 6,369
6,369
N-80 6,382
53.5 #/ft 6,509

8,000
3
Casing Design Review

We have 4 different weights of casing available to


us in this case:
1. Two of the four weights are unacceptable
to us everywhere in the string because they
do not satisfy the burst
requirements.

2. Only the N-80, 53.5 #/ft pipe is capable of


withstanding the collapse requirements
at the bottom of the string
4
Casing Design Review

3. Since the 53.5 #/ft pipe is the most


expensive, we want to use as little of it as
possible, so we want to use as much
47.0 #/ft pipe as possible.

4. Don’t forget to check to make sure the


tension requirements are met; both for pipe
body, and for threads and couplings
(T&C).
5
Casing Design Review

The collapse resistance of N-80, 47 #/ft will


determine to what depth it can be run. Two
factors will reduce this depth:
• Design Factor
• Axial Stress (tension)

“Halliburton” collapse resistance: 4,760 psi


• Apply design factor: 4,760 = 4,231 psi
1.125
6
Casing Design Review

To determine the effect of axial stress requires


an iterative process:

1. Determine the depth capability without


axial stress
4,231
depth = = 6,509 ft
0.052 * 12.5
2. Determine axial stress at this point
7
Casing Design Review

3. Determine corresponding collapse resistance


4. Determine depth where this pressure exists
5. Compare with previous depth estimate
6. Repeat steps 2-6 using the new depth
estimate

7. When depths agree, accept answer


(typically 2-4 iterations) (agreement to
within 30 ft will be satisfactory)
8
Linear Interpolation

y = mx + c
P = mS + C (i)
P1 = mS 1 + C (ii)
P 2 = mS 2 + C (iii)
9
Linear Interpolation

P2 − P1
(iii) − (ii) P2 − P1 = m(S2 − S1 ) ⇒ m=
S2 − S1

 P2 − P1 
(i) − (ii) P − P1 = m(S − S1 ) =  (S − S1 )
 S2 − S1 

10
Linear Interpolation

 S − S1 
∴ P = P1 +   (P2 − P1 )
 S 2 − S1 

With design factor:


1   S − S1  
Pcc = P1 −  (P1 − P2 )
D.F.   S2 − S1  

where D.F. = 1.125


and (S2 – S1) = 5,000 psi 11
12
13
Rounded Threads
* 8 per inch

~ Square Threads
* Longer
* Stronger

Integral Joint
* Smaller ID, OD
* Costs more
* Strong
14
15
16
<--- BURST ---> <--- TENSION --->
Tensional force balance on pipe body

Example 7.1:
Compute the body-yield
strength for 20-in., K-55
casing with a nominal
wall thickness of 0.635
in. and a nominal weight
per foot of 133 lbf/ft.

Ften = σyield * A s 17
Tensional force balance on pipe body
K55
Solution:
This pipe has a minimum
yield strength of 55,000 psi
and an ID of:
Ften = σyield * A s

d = 20 .00 − 2 ( 0 .635 ) = 18 .730 in .


18
Tensional force balance on pipe body

Thus, the cross-sectional area of steel is


π
As = ( 20 − 18 . 73 ) = 38 . 63 sq .in .
2 2

4
and a minimum pipe-body yield
is predicted by Eq. 7.1 at
an axial force of:
Ften = σyield * A s

Ften = 55,000 (38.63) = 2,125,000 lbf


19
Pipe Body Yield Strength

π
Py = (D2 − d2 )Yp
4

where
Py = pipe body yield strength, lbf
Yp = specified minimum yield strength, psi
D = outside diameter of pipe, in
d = inside diameter of pipe, in
20
Pipe Body Yield Strength

Example
What is yield strength of body of 7”, 26 #/ft, P-
110 casing?
π 2
Py = (D − d2 )Yp
4

π
= ( 7 2 − 6 .276 2 )110 ,000 = 830 , 402
4

Py ≈ 830,000 lbs (nearest 1000 lbs).


…agrees with Halliburton
21
Internal Yield Pressure for Pipe (Burst)

FT
 2 Yp t 
P = 0.875   FP
 D 

where FP = DLP
P = internal yield pressure, psi FT = 2tLYP
Yp = minimum yield strength, psi DLP = 2tLYP

t = nominal wall thickness, in  2Y p t 


P= 
D = O.D. of pipe, in  D 
22
Example

For 7”, 26 #/ft P-110 pipe

 2 Yp t 
P = 0.875  
 D 
(7 - 6.276)
= 0.875 * 2 * 110,000 *
2*7
= 9,955

P = 9,960 psi (nearest 10 psi)


…agrees with Halliburton Tables.
23
Ellipse of
Plasticity

24
COLLAPSE
TENSION

25
α = dogleg severity, deg/100 ft
= angle build rate, deg/100 ft

18,000
Build Radius =
πα

26
Length of arc, L = R∆θR L

∆L = (R + r)∆θ - R∆θ ∆θ
R R+r
dn
∆L = r ∆θ = ∆θ
2
∆L dn ∆θ dn α π
∆ε = = =
L 2 L 2(12 ) 100 180
30 * 10 6
π
∆σ = E∆ε = αdn = 218αdn
2,400 180
∆σ = 218 α dn F = 218 α dn A s (7.14a)
27
Figure 7.14 - Incremental stress caused by
bending of casing in a directional well

The area of steel, As, can be expressed


conveniently as the weight per foot of pipe
divided by the density of steel. For
common field units, Eq. 7.14a becomes

Fab = 64 α d n w.............................(7.14b)

where Fab , α , d n , and w have units of


lbf, degrees/100 ft, in., and lbf/ft, respectively.
28
Example

α = 5 deg/100 ft
d n , = 7 in
w = 35 lbf / ft

Fab = 64 α d n w.............................(7.14b)

Fab = 64 * 5 * 7 * 35 = 74,400 lbf

Fab = 74,400 lbf


29
Rc = 22

30
31
32
33
34
Production casing design load for burst.
35
Production casing design load for collapse.
36
Tensile Strength of Casing

What is the maximum


length of N-80 casing that
can hang in an air-filled
wellbore
without exceeding the
minimum yield strength
of the pipe?

37
Tensile Strength of Casing
F
What is the maximum length of N-80
casing that can hang in an air-filled
wellbore without exceeding the
minimum yield strength of the pipe?

FMAX = 80,000 As = As LMAX 490/144


LMAX = 80,000 * 144/490

LMAX = 23,510 ft W

{ With a 1.8 design factor, LMAX = 13,060 ft }


38
Drilling Info

Lesson 9
Well Control Concepts

1
Well Control Concepts

◆ The Anatomy of a KICK


◆ Kicks - Definition
◆ Kick Detection
◆ Kick Control
◆ (a) Dynamic Kick Control
◆ (b) Other Kick Control Methods
* Driller’s Method
* Engineer’s Method
2
Casing Design

3
Causes of Kicks

4
Causes of Kicks

5
Causes of Kicks

6
7
8
9
What?

What is a kick?
◆ An unscheduled
entry of
formation
fluid(s) into the
wellbore

10
Why?

Why does a kick occur?

◆ The pressure inside the


wellbore is lower
than the formation
pore pressure (in a
permeable formation).
pw < pf
11
How?

How can this occur? ( p W < pF )

◆ Mud density is too low

◆ Fluid level is too low - trips or lost circ.

◆ Swabbing on trips

◆ Circulation stopped - ECD too low

12
What ?

What happens if a kick is not


controlled?

¹ BLOWOUT !!!
13
Typical Kick Sequence

1. Kick indication
2. Kick detection - (confirmation)
3. Kick containment - (stop kick influx)
4. Removal of kick from wellbore
5. Replace old mud with kill mud (heavier)

14
Kick Detection and Control

Kick Detection Kick Control 15


1. Circulate Kick out of hole

Keep the BHP constant throughout 16


2. Circulate Old Mud out of hole

Keep the BHP constant throughout 17


Kick Detection

Some of the preliminary events that may


be associated with a well-control
problem, not necessarily in the order of
occurrence, are:

1. Pit gain;
2. Increase in flow of mud from the well
3. Drilling break (sudden increase in
drilling rate)
18
Kick Detection

4. Decrease in circulating pressure;


5. Shows of gas, oil, or salt water
6. Well flows after mud pump
has been shut down
7. Increase in hook load
8. Incorrect fill-up on trips

19
Dynamic Kick Control
[Kill well “on the fly”]

For use in controlling shallow gas kicks

• No competent casing seat


• No surface casing - only conductor
• Use diverter (not BOP’s)
• Do not shut well in!

20
Dynamic Kick Control

1. Keep pumping. Increase rate!


(higher ECD)
2. Increase mud density
≈ 0.3 #/gal per circulation
3. Check for flow after each
complete circulation
4. If still flowing, repeat 2-4.
21
Conventional Kick Control
{Surface Casing and BOP Stack are in place}

Shut in well for pressure readings.

(a) Remove kick fluid from wellbore;

(b) Replace old mud with kill weight mud

Use choke to keep BHP constant.


22
Conventional Kick Control

1. DRILLER’S METHOD

** TWO complete circulations **

4 Circulate kick out of hole


using old mud

4 Circulate old mud out of hole


using kill weight mud
23
Conventional Kick Control

2. WAIT AND WEIGHT METHOD

(Engineer’s Method)

** ONE complete circulation **

4 Circulate kick out of hole


using kill weight mud

24
Driller’s Method - Constant Geometry

Information required:

Well Data:
Depth = 10,000 ft.
Hole size = 12.415 in. (constant)
Drill Pipe = 4 1/2” O.D., 16.60 #/ft
Surface Csg.: 4,000 ft. of 13 3/8” O.D. 68 #/ft
(12.415 in I.D.)
25
Driller’s Method - Constant Geometry

Additional Information required:

Kick Data:
Original mud weight = 10.0 #/gal
Shut-in annulus press. = 600 psi
Shut-in drill pipe press. = 500 psi
Kick size = 30 bbl (pit gain)

26
SIDPP = 500 psi
Constant SICP = 600 psi
Annular DP OD
Geometry. = 4.5 in

Hole dia
Initial = 12.415 in
4,000 ft
conditions:
Kick has just Annular
Capacity
entered the = 0.13006
wellbore bbl/ft
Pressures
have 231 ft
10,000 ft
stabilized BHP = 5,700 psig
27
Successful Well Control

1. At no time during the process of


removing the kick fluid from the
wellbore will the pressure exceed the
pressure capability of

4 the formation
4 the casing
4 the wellhead equipment

28
Successful Well Control

2. When the process is complete the wellbore


is completely filled with a fluid of
sufficient density (kill mud) to control the
formation pressure.

Under these conditions the well will not flow


when the BOP’s are opened.

3. Keep the BHP constant throughout.


29
Calculations

From the initial shut-in data we can


calculate:

• Bottom hole pressure


• Casing seat pressure
• Height of kick
• Density of kick fluid

30
Calculate New Bottom Hole Pressure

PB = SIDPP + Hydrostatic Pressure in DP

= 500
+ 0.052 * 10.0 * 10,000
= 500 + 5,200

PB = 5,700 psig

31
Calculate Pressure at Casing Seat

P4,000 = P0 + ∆PHYDR. ANN. 0-4,000


= SICP + 0.052 * 10 * 4,000
= 600 + 2,080

P4,000 = 2,680 psig

32
Calculate EMW at Casing Seat
This corresponds to a pressure gradient of
2,680 psi
= 0.670 psi/ft
4,000 ft

Equivalent Mud Weight (EMW) =


0.670 psi/ ft
= 12.88 lb/gal
0.052 (psi/ ft)(lb / gal)
( ρmud = 10.0 lb/gal )
33
Calculate Initial Height of Kick

Annular capacity per ft of hole:

π 2 2
vx = (D H − D P )L
4
π 2 2 3 gal bbl
= (12 .415 − 4.5 ) * 12 in * 3
4 231 in 42 gal
= 0.13006 bbls/ft
34
Calculate Height of Kick

∴ Height of kick at bottom of hole,

VB 30 bbl
hB = = = 230 .7 ft
vx 0.13006 bbl/ft

hB = 231 ft
35
Calculate Density of Kick Fluid
The bottom hole pressure is the pressure at
the surface plus the total hydrostatic pressure
between the surface and the bottom:
Annulus Drill String
PB = SICP + ∆PMA + ∆PKB = SIDPP + ∆PMD

600 + 0052
. *10
*(10,000-231) + ∆PKB = 500 + (0.052*10*10,000)
600 + 5,080 + ∆PKB = 500 + 5,200
36
Density of Kick Fluid

∴ ∆PKB = 20 psi

20
∴ ρ KB = ≈ 1 .67 lb/gal
0 .052 * 231

(must be primarily gas!)

37
Circulate Kick Out of Hole

NOTE:
The bottom hole
pressure is kept
constant while the kick
fluid is circulated out of
the hole!

In this case
BHP = 5,700 psig
38
Constant
Annular
Geometry

Driller’s Method.

Conditions When
Top of Kick Fluid
Reaches the Surface

BHP = const. 39
40
Top of Kick at Surface

As the kick fluid moves up the annulus, it


expands. If the expansion follows the gas
law, then
P0 V 0 PB VB
=
Z 0 n 0 RT 0 Z B n B RT B

[ surface ] [bottom]
41
Top of Kick at Surface

Ignoring changes due to compressibility


factor (Z) and temperature, we get:
P0 V 0 = PB V B
P0 v 0h 0 = PB v B h B
i. e . P0h 0 = PB h B

Since cross-sectional area = constant


(v 0 = v B = const .)
42
Top of Kick at Surface
We are now dealing two unknowns, P0 and
h0. We have one equation, and need a
second one.

BHP = Surface Pressure + Hydrostatic Head


5,700 = Po + ∆PKO + ∆PMA
5,700 = Po + 20 + 0.052 * 10 * (10,000 - hO )
PB hB
5,700 - 20 - 5,200 = Po - 0.52 *
Po
43
Top of Kick at Surface
2
480 P 0 = P 0 − 0 . 52 * 5700 * 231

2
P0 − 480 P 0 − 684684 = 0

480 ± 480 2
+ 4 * 684 , 684
∴ P0 =
2

P 0 = 240 ± 862 = 1,102 psi


44
40 1,200
50
2,000/40 2,000

800
1,100
40

1,200 + 800 2,000

800 / (0.052 * 14,000)


1.10
13.5
14.6

1,200 * 14.6 / 13.5

1,298 psi45
1,298

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0 2,000
0 200 bbls 46
Csg DS DS Csg

Pressure When Circulating


DrillPipe Pressure

Driller’s
Static Pressure Method

First Circulation Second Circulation


47
Casing Pressure Csg DS DS Csg

Driller’s
Method

Drillpipe Pressure

Volume Pumped, Strokes


48
1 3 4

Engineer’s
Method

2 5 6

49
Drilling

Lesson 10
Well Control, cont’d

1
Well Control, cont’d

g Shut-in Procedures after Taking a Kick


4 Kick Occurs While Drilling
4 Kick Occurs While Tripping
g Casing Pressures During
Well Control Operations
4 Kick on Bottom
4 Kick at surface
g Kick Migration During Shut-in Conditions
2
Controlling A Kick when On Bottom

Procedure:
1. Raise the kelly to clear
the tool joint
above the rotary
2. Shut down the pump
3. Check for well flow

3
Controlling A Kick when On Bottom

4. If well is flowing, immediately close the


blowout preventer and shut in the well
completely, (except on shallow gas
kicks).

5. Notify supervisory personnel.

6. Read and record the stabilized shut-in


drill-pipe pressure. (SIDPP)
4
Controlling A Kick When On Bottom

7. Read and record the stabilized shut-in


casing pressure (SICP)
8. Read and record the pit gain
(pit-level increase = kick size)
9. Record the time
10. Record depth
11. Record mud weight
5
Controlling A Well Kick While
Making A Trip

1. Stop trip operations. Set slips


with tool joint at rotary.

2. Install inside blowout


preventer and release
valve stem or close the
valve if drill-stem valve is
employed.
6
Controlling A Well Kick While
Making A Trip

3. Immediately close the blowout


preventer and shut in the
well completely (except on
shallow gas kicks).

4. Install kelly, open drill-pipe


valve, or pump through
back-pressure valve.
7
Controlling a Well Kick While
Making A Trip

5. Notify supervisory personnel

6. Read and record the stabilized shut-in


drill-pipe pressure or equivalent
(SIDPP)

7. Read and record the stabilized shut-in


casing pressure (SICP)
8
Controlling A Well Kick While
Making A Trip

8. Read and record the pit gain


(Kick Size)

9. Record the time

10. Record the current well depth

11. Record the current mud weight

9
Well Control

g Avoid kicks if possible

g Catch them early if they do occur

g Know how to control kicks


if they do occur

10
Avoiding Kicks While Tripping:

g Keep the hole full.

g Avoid excessive surge pressures.

g Avoid excessive swab pressures

11
Tripping Out Of Hole

If well is not taking enough fluid to replace


volume of steel pulled from hole, fluid may
have been swabbed into well.

Measure fluid volume to fill hole:


1. By counting pump strokes, or
2. By direct measurement from trip tank.

Note: The second method is best.


12
Recommendations

g Do not break circulation with bit and


BHA just above the casing seat.

When breaking circulation,


4 Start the pumps slowly,
4 Rotate the drill string,
4 Pick up on the drillstring at the same time

This will reduce the initial pressure


required to get the mud moving

13
Well Control-Variable Geometry

g Initial Shut-In Conditions


• Driller’s Method
4 Kick at Casing Seat
4 Kick at Surface
• Wait and Weight Method
4 Kick at Casing Seat
4 Kick at Surface

14
Example Problem

1. Determine the pressure at the casing seat


at 4,000’ when using the old mud
(Driller’s) versus using the kill mud
(Wait and Weight) to circulate a gas
kick out of the hole.
2. Determine the casing pressure at the
surface when the top of the gas
bubble has just reached the surface,
for the same two mud weights used
above.
15
Example Problem

Well depth = 10,000’


Hole size = 10.5”
Drill pipe = 4.5”, 16.60 #/ft
Drill Collars = 8” * 3.5” * 500 ft
Surface casing = 4,000’, 13-3/8”, 68 #/ft
Mud Weight = 10 ppg

Fracture gradient @ 4,000’ = 0.7 psi/ft


16
Example Problem

1. Drillers Method (two circulations)

Drop the Z terms


but consider Temperature
T at surface = 70 deg. F
Temperature gradient = 1.2 deg.F/100 ft

17
Initial (Closed-In) Conditions:

SIDPP = 200 psi


SICP = 400 psi
Pit Level Increase = 20 bbl
Initial Mud Weight = 10 # /gal

Initial mud gradient = 0.520 psi/ft


(0.052 * 10 = 0.520)
18
Initial (Closed-In) Conditions:

Bottom Hole Pressure,


psi
P10,000 = (10,000 ft ) * (0.520 ) + 200 = 5,400 psi
ft

Annular Vol/ft outside Drill Collars,


π  gal  bbl 
v dc,ann = (10.5 − 8 )in (12 in)
2 2 2

2 

4  231 in  42 gal 
= 0.04493 bbl/ft
19
vdp.csg = 0.13006 bbl/ft

4,000’

vdp,hole = 0.08743 bbl/ft

9,500’
vdc,hole = 0.04493 bbl/ft

10,000’
20
Height of Kick Fluid,
20 bbl
h10,000 = = 445 ft
0.04493 bbl/ft

Hydrostatics in the Annulus,


BHP = P0 + ∆PMA + ∆PK0
5,400 = 400 + 0.520 * 9,555 + ∆Pkick_10,00 0

Hydrostatic Pressure across Kick Fluid,


∆Pkick_10,00 0 = 5,400 − 400 − 0.520 * 9,555

∆Pkick_10,00 0 = 31. 4 psi


21
Driller’s Method - kick at bottom

Weight of Kick Fluid = Pressure * area

lb π
= 31.4 2 * (10.5 − 8 ) in
2 2 2

in 4

W = 1,141 lb

F = ∆P * A = W
22
SICP = 400 psi SIDPP = 200 psi

4,000’
9,555’

9,500’
31.4
445’ psi
10,000’
PB = P 10,000 = 5,400 psi
23
Driller’s Method - kick at csg. seat

What is the pressure at 4,000 ft when the


top of the kick fluid first reaches that point?
 P10,000   T4,000 
V4,000 = V10,000 *  *
 T


P
 4,000   10,000 
 5,400   70 + 48 + 460 
∴ 0.08743 * h4,000 = 20 *  *
 
 P4,000   650 
1,098,444
∴ h 4,000 =
P4,000
24
Driller’s
Method

Top of
Kick at 4,000’
Casing
Seat
9,500’

10,000’
25
Driller’s Method - kick at csg. seat

Again,
BHP = P4,000 + ∆ PK_4,000 + ∆ PMA

weight 1,141 lbs


∆PK_4,000 = =
area π
4
( )
10.5 − 4.5 in
2 2

∆P K_4,000 = 16.1 psi


26
Driller’s Method - kick at csg. seat

BHP = P4,000 + ∆ PK_4,000 + ∆ PMA

∴ 5,400 = P4,000 + 16 + 0.52 * (6,000 − h4,000 )

5,384 = P4,000 + 3,120 − 0.52 * h 4,000

 1,098,444 
2,264 = P4,000 − (0.52) *  

 P4,000 
27
Driller’s Method - kick at csg. seat

This results in the quadratic Eqn:


∴P 2
4,000 − 2,264 P4,000 − 571,191 = 0

With the solutions:

∴ P4,000 =
(
2,264 ± 2,264 + 4 * 571,191
2
) 0.5

2
P4,000 = 2,493 psi => 0.6233 psi/ft < 0.7
28
Driller’s Method - Top of Kick at Casing Seat

P0,ann = ?

P4,000 = 2,493 psi

4,000’
h4,000 = 441 ft
∆P = 16 psi
9,500’
 1,098,444 
10,000’ h4,000 = 
 P4,000 
BHP = 5,400 psi
29
Driller’s Method - kick at surface

When the bubble rises, it expands. The


volume of the bubble at the surface is given by:

 P10,000  T0 
V0 = V10,000    (Z = const.)
P T 
 0  10,000 

 5400   70 + 460 
∴ (0.13006 ) h0 = 20    
 P0   70 + 120 + 460 
677,084
∴ h0 = - - - (1)
Po
30
Driller’s
Method

Top of
Kick at 4,000’
Surface

9,500’

10,000’
31
Driller’s Method - kick at surface

weight 1,141 lb
∴∆ PK,0 = =
area π
4
( )
12.415 2 − 4.5 2 in2

∆ PK0 = 10.85 ≅ 11 psi

32
Driller’s Method - kick at surface

From Eq. (2), BHP = P0 + ∆ PK0 + ∆ PMA

5,400 = P0 + 11 + 0.52 * (10,000 − h0 )

677,084
But, from Eq. (1), h0 =
P0

33
Driller’s Method - kick at surface

So,
 677,084 
∴ 5,400 = P0 + 11 + 0.52 10,000 − 
 P0 
∴ (5,400 − 5,200 − 11) P0 = P0 − 352,084
2

2
∴ P0 − 189 P0 − 352 ,084 = 0
Quadratic equation . . .
34
Driller’s Method - kick at surface

[ ]
1
189 ± 189 + ( 4 )( 352 ,084 )
2 2
∴ P0 =
2
∴ P0 = 695 . 34 psi ≅ 695 psi

677 ,084
∴ h0 = = 973 . 74
695 . 34

h 0 ≈ 974 ft
35
Driller’s Method - kick at surface

∴ P4,000 = P0 + 0.52 * (4,000 − 974) + ∆ PKO


= 695 + 1,574 + 11
= 2,280 psi ( = 0.57 psi/ft )

Alternativ ely,
P4,000 = P10,000 − (0.52) * (10,000 − 4,000 )
= 5,400 - 3,120
= 2,280 psi
36
Driller’s Method. Top of Kick at Surface
P0,ann = 695 psi

h0 = 974 ft
∆PK,0 = 11 psi
4,000’ P 4,000 = 2,280 psi

9,500’

10,000’ P10,000 = ?
37
Wait and
Weight
Method

Top of 4,000’

Kick at
Casing
9,500’
Seat
Old Mud 10,000’
Kill Mud BHP = 5,400 psi
38
Wait and Weight Method
- Density of Kill Mud

SIDPP
Kill mud weight = + Old Mud Wt.
0.052 *10,000

#
= 0.38 + 10.00 = 10.38
gal

39
Wait and Weight Method
- Capacity of Drillstring

Capacity inside drill string = DP_cap. + DC_cap.

 bbl   bbl 
=  0.01422 * 9,500 ft  +  0.0119 * 500 ft 
 ft   ft 
= 141 bbl
#
= Quantity of 10.0 mud below the bubble.
gal
40
Wait and Weight Method
- kick at casing seat

Calculate the pressure at 4,000 ft when the


top of the bubble reaches this point.

Volume of bubble at 4,000 ft

 P10,000   T4,000 
V4,000 = V10,000    
P  T 
 4,000   10,000 
41
W&W - Pressure at top of kick at 4,000 ft

 5,400   578 
(0.08743)h4,000 = 20  
  
P
 4,000   650 

1,098,444
∴ h 4,000 = - - - (6)
P4,000
But,
BHP = P4,000 + ∆PK_4,000 + ∆PM + ∆PM1 - - - (7)
42
W&W - Pressure at top of kick
- kick at 4,000 ft

 141 
∆PM1 = 0.052 *10.38*  6,000 − h 4,000 − 
 0.08743 

BHP = P4,000 + ∆PK_4,000 + ∆PM + ∆PM1 - - - (7)

5,400 = P4,000 + 16 + 839 + 2,368 − (0.5398) h 4,000

43
W&W - Pressure at top of kick
- kick at 4,000 ft

As before, ∆ PK_4,000 = 16 psi

141 bbl
∆ PM = 0 . 052 * 10 *
0.08743 bbl/ft

= 839 psi

44
W&W - Pressure at top of kick
- kick at 4,000 ft

 1,098,444 
∴ 2,177 = P4 000 − (0.5398)  

 P4,000 

∴P 2
4,000 − 2,177 P4,000 − 592,940 = 0

45
W&W - Pressure at top of kick
- kick at 4,000 ft

∴ P4,000 =
[
2,177 ± 2,177 + 4 * 592,940
2
] 0 ,5

= 2,422 psi => 0.61 psi/ft

46
Wait and
Weight
Method

Top of 4,000’
Kick at
Surface
9,500’
Old Mud

Kill Mud 10,000’


47
Wait and Weight Method
- kick at surface

Volume of gas bubble at surface:

 P10,000  T0 
V0 = V10,000   
T 
 P0  10,000 
 5,400  530 
∴ 0.13006 * h 0 = 20   
 P0  650 
677,084
∴ h0 = - - - (4)
P0
48
Wait and Weight Method
(Engineer’s Method) - kick at surface

P10,000 = P0 + ∆ PK0 + ∆ PM + ∆ PM1 - - - (5)

As before, ∆ PK,0 = 11 psi

Assume all 10 lb mud is inside 13 3/8” csg.


Then the height of 10 lb mud
141.0 bbl
hM = = 1,084 ft
0.13006 bbl/ft
49
Wait and Weight Method
(Engineer’s Method) - kick at surface

Hydrostatic head across the mud columns:

∴ ∆PM = 0.52 *1,084 = 564 psi (old mud)

∆PM1 = 0.052 *10.38 * (10,000 − h 0 − 1,084)


(kill mud)
50
Hydrostatics in Annulus
W&W Method - kick at surface

P10,000 = P0 + ∆P K0 + ∆P M + ∆P M1

5,400 = P0 + 11 + 564 + 0.5398 * (8,916 − h 0 )

12.14 = P0 − (0.5398)h 0

51
Wait and Weight Method
kick at surface
From Eq. 4, substituting for h0
 677,084 
∴ 12 = P0 − (0.5398)  
 P0 
∴ P02 − 12P 0 − 365,490 = 0

( )
1
12 ± 12 + 4 * 365,490
2 2
∴ P0 =
2

P0 = 610.59 ≅ 611 psi


52
Wait and Weight Method
- kick at surface

Height of Bubble at Surface

677,084 677,084
h0 = =
P0 610.59

= 1,109 ft

53
Check Pressure at 4,000 ft
- kick at surface

∴ P4,000 = P0 + ∆PK0 + ∆PM + ∆PM1

= 611 + 11 + 569 +
+ 0.052 *10.38 * (4,000 - 1,109 - 1,093)

= 2,161 psi => 0.54 psi/ft

Looks OK
54
Wait and Weight Method
Top of Kick at Surface
Old Mud P0,ann = 611 psi
Kill Mud
h0 = 1,109 ft
∆PK,0 = 11 psi
4,000’ ∆POld Mud = 569 psi

P 4,000 = 2,161 psi


9,500’

10,000’ P10,000 = ?
55
Summary Bubble at 10,000 ft

Driller’s Engineer’s
Method Method

P4,000 2,480 2,480

P0 400 400

56
Summary Top of Bubble at 4,000 ft

Driller’s Engineer’s
Method Method

P4,000 2,493 2,422

P0 413 342

57
Summary Top of Bubble at surface

Driller’s Engineer’s
Method Method

P4,000 2,280 2,161

P0 695 611

58
59
Why the difference?

60
Maximum Casing Pressure, psi

Wait and Weight Method

Kick Intensity, ppg 61


Casing Pressure, psi Kick Intensity, ppg

Pump Strokes 62
1,998 psi
CASING PRESSURE, psi

50 bbl kick 1,266 psi


20 bbl kick
989 psi

10 bbl kick

BARRELS OF KILL MUD PUMPED

63
Well is Shut In

Gas
Bubble
Will Bubble
Rise Rise
! Velocity
?

64
400 psi 200 psi

Variable
Geometry
4,000’
Kick On Bottom
- Well Shut In
9,500’
hB = 445’
10,000’
PB = 5,700 psi
65
Variable Geometry

1. Calculate new BHP:


PB = (0.052 * ρ old * depth) + SIDPP
2. Calculate height of kick
(check geometry).
3. Calculate density of kill mud:
PB SIDPP
ρ kill = ∆ρ =
0 .052 * depth 0.052 * depth
66
Variable Geometry

4. Calculate the density of kick fluid:

 SICP − SIDPP 
ρKICK = ρOLD 
MUD − 
ρKICK = ρOLD MUD −  
 SICP − SIDPP 

 0.052 * Kick Height B 

 0.052 * Kick Height B 

How would you derive this equation?


67
ho Gas Bubble
Engineer’s
D* 10.0 lb/gal
Method -
10.38 lb/gal
Gas Kick
at surface

PB = (0.052 * ρ old * depth) + SIDPP


PB = const = 0.052 * ρ kill * depth
68
1. Calculate expansion
of gas bubble

 PB  Tx  Z x 
Vx = VB    
 Px  TB  Z B 

. BHP == Press
2.2BHP Pressatat
toptop of kick
of kick + ∆P HYD,Annulus
+ ∆PHYD, Annulus

BHP = Px + ∆PKICK + ∆Pm,old + ∆Pm,kill


3. Solve the resulting quadratic equation to get
the pressure
69
Drilling

Lesson 11
Cementing

1
Cementing

◆ Cementing Processes
• Casing
• Liner
• Squeeze
• Plug
◆ Density of Mixtures
◆ Cementing Equipment

2
Cementing cont’d

◆ Large-Hole Cementing
■ Through Casing
■ Through Drill Pipe
■ Through Grout Pipe
◆ Cementing from Floater
◆ Multistage Cementing
◆ Cement Bond Log
3
Cement is used in Drilling
Operations to...

◆ Support and protect the casing


◆ Prevent the movement of fluid through the
annular space outside the casing
◆ Stop the movement of fluid into vugular or
fractured formations
◆ Close an abandoned well or a portion of a
well
◆ Sidetracking
4
Types of Cementing Processes

I. Primary Cementing

1. Full String
2. Liners
3. Large Pipe
4. Stage
A. Survey and perforate
B. Stage collars
5
Primary Cementing

Steel
Casing

Borehole

Cement

Steel Liner

Full String Cementing Liner Cementing


6
Types of Cementing Processes

II. Squeeze Cementing

1. Shoe
2. Casing (up-hole)
3. Open-hole (lost-circulation)

7
NEW SLURRY

8
Types of Cementing Processes

III. Plugging

1. Open-hole plug back


A. Fishing Operations
B. Abandonment
2. Casing

9
10
Types of Cementing Processes

IV. Special Techniques

1. On Land
2. Off-shore

11
Mixing Cement
(basis is 1 sk. of cmt.)

◆ The density-volume formula:


W w + Wc + Wb + ... + Wn = Wmix
ρ w v w + ρ c v w + ρ n v b + ... + ρ n v n = ρ mix v mix

◆ Slurry Yield (volume of mixture/sk):

 gal  vmix  cu.ft.


vw + vc + vb + ... + vn = vmix  =  
 sk  7.48  sk 
12
Rotary Drilling Cementing
(basis is 1 sk. of cmt.)

◆ Density of Each Component in Slurry:

e.g. Density of Barite =


Specific Gravity of Barite * Density of Water

ρ b = 4 .23 * 8 .33 lb/gal

ρ b = 35.2 lb/gal
13
From Halliburton Cementing Tables, p.14, Grey Pages 14
Rotary Drilling Cementing
(basis is 1 sk. of cmt.)

◆ Density of Cement Slurry:

∑ρ ν i i
ρmix ν mix  mass 
ρmix = i
=  
∑ν i
i ν mix  volume 

15
16
17
18
Wiper Plugs

Wiper plugs are equipped with rubber-cupped


fins which wipe mud from the walls of the
casing ahead of the cement and clean the
walls of casing behind the slurry.

Examples of wiper plugs are shown in the next


slide. The top plug also serves as a means of
determining when the cement is in place.
19
Diaphragm

Moulded
Rubber

Bottom Cementing Plug Top Cementing Plug

20
Mud film thickness Feet of fill per 1000’
5 1/2” 7”
1/16” 1.6mm 50.6 40

1/32” 0.8mm 25.5 20

1/64” 0.4mm 12.6 10

21
22
23
24
25
Float Valve

26
Cementing

After
Cementing
(check valve)
27
28
Large-Hole
Cementing

Normal
Displacement
Method

• Down the inside of the Csg.


• Use two wiper plugs
• Takes a long time . . .
• Large surface area exposed
to the cmt.
29
Large-Hole
Cementing

Inner
String
Cementing

• Down the inside of the DP


• Use top wiper plug
• Stab-in adapter
• Much shorter displ. time
30
Large-Hole
Cementing
Outside
Cementing

1. Down the inside


2. Small-dia. pipe outside
• Cmt and gradually
remove the pipes Alternative:
Pipes attached
(for large pipes) 31
Drilling Liners

Liners are commonly used to seal the openhole


below a long intermediate casing string to:
1. Case off the open hole to enable deeper
drilling.
2. Control water or gas production
3. Hold back unconsolidated or sloughing
formations.
4. Case off zones of lost circulation and/or
zones of high pressure encountered
during drilling operations.
32
Drill
Pipe

Liner

33
34
Displ.
Mud

dart

cmt

ball

mud

35
Multi-Stage
Cementing

• Pump first stage


• Displace cmt.
• Open stage tool
• Pump second stage

• Displace cmt
• Last plug closes tool

36
Opening
Bomb Closing
Plug
Stage
Collar

Cementing
Basket

37
Cmt

Mud

Cmt

38
BAD

GOOD

39
Before After
Squeeze Squeeze
40
41
Tieback liner showing sealing nipple 42
Liner and sealing nipple

1. Reinforcing the intermediate casing


worn by drilling.
2. Providing greater resistance to
collapse stress from abnormal
pressures.
3. Providing corrosion protection.
4. Sealing an existing liner which may
be leaking gas.
43
Delayed
Set
Cementing

44
Reverse
Circulating
Cementing

45
Scratchers and Wall Cleaners
for Removal of Filter Cake
46
Centralizers to keep Pipe away from Wall
47
Drilling

Kick Detection and Control


Kick Detection and Control

¾ Primary and Secondary Well Control

¾ What Constitutes a Kick

¾ Why Kicks Occur

¾ Kick Detection Methods

¾ Kicks while Tripping


Kick Detection and Control

¾ Shut-in Procedures

¾ Soft Shut-in

¾ Hard Shut-in

¾ Water Hammer
Kick Detection and Control
¾ The focus of well control theory is to
contain and manage formation
pressure.
¾ Primary well control involves efforts at
preventing formation fluid influx into
the wellbore.
¾ Secondary well control involves
detecting an influx and bringing it to
the surface safely.
Kicks

¾ A kick may be defined as an unscheduled


influx of formation fluids.

¾ Fluids produced during underbalanced


drilling are not considered kicks

¾ Fluids produced during a DST are not


considered kicks
Kicks

¾ For a kick to occur, we need:


¾ Wellbore pressure < pore pressure

¾ A reasonable level of permeability

¾ A fluid that can flow


Kicks
¾ Kicks may occur while:
¾ Drilling
¾ Tripping
¾ Making a connection
¾ Logging
¾ Running Casing
¾ Cementing
¾ N/U or N/D BOP, etc.
Causes of Kicks
¾ Insufficient wellbore fluid density
¾ Low drilling or completion fluid density
¾ Reducing MW too much
¾ Drilling into abnormally pressured
formations
¾ Temperature expansion of fluid
¾ Excessive gas cutting
Causes of Kicks - cont’d

¾ Reduction of height of mud column


¾ Lost circulation because of excess
static or dynamic wellbore pressure

¾ Fluid removal because of swabbing

¾ Tripping pipe without filling the hole


Causes of Kicks - cont’d

¾ Excessive swab friction pressure


while moving pipe

¾ Wellbore collision between a


drilling and producing well

¾ Cement hydration
Kick indicators
¾ Indicator ¾ Significance

¾ Drilling break ¾ Medium


¾ Increase in mud ¾ High
return rate
¾ Pit gain ¾ High

¾ Flow w/ pumps off ¾ Definitive


Kick indicators
¾ Indicator ¾ Significance
¾ Pump pressure
¾ Low
decrease
/ rate increase
¾ Increase in ¾ Low
drillstring weight
¾ Gas cutting or ¾ Low
salinity change
Kick Influx Rate
kh( pe − pw )
q=
µ ln(re rw ) ¾ This equation would
where rarely be strictly
q = influx flow rate, applicable in the
k = formation permeability event of a kick since
h = formation thickness, fluid compressibility
p e = pore pressure at the drainage radius is not considered
p w = pore pressure at the wellbore and transient
µ = influx viscosity
relationships better
describe influx flow
re = drainage radius
behavior.
rw = wellbore radius
Kick Influx Rate

¾ Extremely important to detect a


kick early, to minimize its size.

¾ If a kick is suspected,

run a flow check!!!


Circulation
path for
Drilling
Fluid

What goes
in Must As drilling
come out proceeds, mud
level in pit drops
slowly.
unless a Why?
kick
occurs…or…
Mud Return Rate

Set alarm for high


or low flow rate

If a kick occurs, flow


rate from the well
increases - an early
indicator
Pit Volume
Totalizer, PVT
shows pit gain
or loss.
Pit level is a
good kick
indicator

System should detect a 10 bbl kick


under most conditions onshore
Kick size
¾ Under most conditions a 10 bbl kick
can be handled safely.
¾ An exception is slimhole drilling, where
even a small kick occupies a large
height in the annulus.
¾ In floating drilling, where the vessel
moves, small kicks are more difficult to
detect
Mud pulse telemetry - pressure pulses
detected at the surface
High
amplitude
positive pulse

Compare
signals
from
drillpipe
and
annulus

Low amplitude
negative pulse
Acoustic kick detection

Gas in the annulus will attenuate a pressure signal,


and will reduce the velocity of sound in the mud
Minimum kick size that can be
detected by an acoustic system
Temperature = 212 degrees F.
Mud density = 16.7 lbm/gal
Kick volume, bbl

Influx rate = 32 gal/min


Pump rate = 317 gal/min
Collar diameter = 6 inches
Hole diameter = 8-1/2 inches

Pressure, psi
Delta
flow
indicator
Delta flow indicator
Delta flow = qout - qin
Delta Flow Indicator

Upper Alarm Kick


Threshold detected

Lower Alarm
Threshold

Time
Delta flow indicator
Field Examples of Kick Detection and Final
Containment Volumes using the Delta
Flow Method

Hole Depth Influx Volume Volume


Size ft. Rate Detected Contained
in. gal/min bbl bbl

5 7/8 15,770 35 0.72 2.0


5 7/8 14,005 7 0.70 1.5
5 7/8 17,152 60 1.00 5.0
BOP
stack
BOP
Control
Panel
Choke
Manifold
Choke
panel
If a kick is suspected

¾ Lift the drillstring until a tool joint is


just above the rotary table

¾ Shut down the mud pumps

¾ Check for flow


If a kick is suspected
¾ If flowing - shut the annular, open the
HCR valve, and close the choke

¾ Record SIDPP and SICP

¾ Record pit gain and depth


(MD and TVD)

¾ Note the time


Hard Shut-In
¾ Assure beforehand the choke manifold
line is open to preferred choke and
choke is in closed position.
¾ After a kick is indicated, hoist the
string and position tool joint above
rotary table.
¾ Shut off pump
¾ Observe flowline for flow.
Hard Shut-In
5. If flow is verified, shut the well in by
using annular preventer and open the
remote-actuated valve to the choke
manifold.
6. Notify supervisor (company drilling
supervisor, toolpusher or rig manager).
7. Read and record shut-in drillpipe
pressure (SIDPP).
Hard Shut-In
8. Read and record shut-in casing
pressure (SICP).
9. Rotate the drillstring though the
closed annular preventer if feasible.
10. Measure and record pit gain.
Hard Shut-In

Water hammer ?
Soft Shut-In

¾ Assure beforehand choke manifold


line is open to preferred choke and
choke in in open position.
¾ After kick is indicated, hoist string &
position tool joint above rotary table.
¾ Shut off pump.
Soft Shut-In

¾ Observe flowline for flow.


¾ If flow is verified, open remote-
actuated valve to choke manifold and
close annular preventer.
¾ Shut well in by closing choke.
¾ Notify supervisor (company drilling
supervisor, toolpusher, rig manager).
Soft Shut-In

¾ Read and record SIDPP.


¾ Read and record SICP.
¾ Rotate drillstring through closed
annular preventer if feasible.
¾ Measure and record pit gain.
Soft Shut-In

Larger Kick !
Example 5.1
¾A kick is detected while drilling at 13,000 ft.
¾The well is shut-in by the ram preventer in
5 seconds.

1. Determine water hammer load at surface if


¾ influx flow rate is 3.0 bbl/min,
¾ the mud’s acoustic velocity is 4,800 ft/s and
¾ mud density is 10.5 lbm/gal
Example 5.1, continued

¾For the same conditions:

2. Compute velocity assuming the annulus flow


area corresponds to 5.0 in. drillpipe inside
8.921 in. inner diameter casing.
Ignore effect of influx properties on wave travel
time and amplitude.
Example 5.1, continued
ρ v a ∆v
∆pc = ……………………. (5.2)
gc
Example 5.1, continued
¾The relationship is only valid if valve is fully
closed before the shock wave has time to
make the round trip from surface to total
depth. If this condition is not met, closure is
defined as “slow” as opposed to “rapid” and
resultant pressure surge will be lower.
¾Regardless of method, some pressure
increase, however minor, cannot be avoided
and the soft shut-in procedure may in fact
be considered rapid in some cases.
ρ v a ∆v
∆pc =
gc
Example 5.1, cont’d

Solution: The time for the pressure wave to


traverse the system is

∆t = dist/vel = (2)(13,000)/4,800 = 5.4 sec

Hence this would be characterized as a


rapid shut-in and Equation 5.2 is
appropriate.
ρ v a ∆v
∆pc =
gc
Example 5.1 cont’d

2. The velocity change in the annulus is


computed as:
∆q (3.0 bbl/min)(5 .615 ft /bbl)(144 in /ft )
3 2 2
∆ν = =
Α [
(60 s/min) π/4(8.921 - 5 ) in
2 2 2
]

∆v = 0.94 ft/s
ρ v a ∆v
∆pc =
gc
Example 5.1 cont’d
The surface pressure increase is given by
equation 5.2

(10.5 lbm/gal)(7.48 gal/ft 3 )(4,800 ft/s)(0.94 ft/s)


∆Ρc =
32.17 lbm - ft / lbf - s2

∆Ρc = 11,015 lbf/ft = 76 psi.


2
Off Bottom Kicks
¾ Slugging of drillpipe
¾ Hole fill during trips
¾ Surge and Swab pressures
¾ Kick detection during trips
¾ Shut-In Procedures
¾ Blowout Case History
Pbh = g1h1 + g2h2
Off Bottom
= g2h3 Kicks
When stopping
circulation, ECD is
Hydrostatic
lost. Always check for
Balance
flow.

“Slugging” of Drillpipe
to prevent “Wet Trip”
… AFTER Flow Check
Failure to keep
the hole full

When pipe if removed


from the wellbore the
fluid level drops
resulting in loss of
HSP.
To prevent kicks the
hole must be re-filled
with mud.
Nominal Dimensions-Displacement
Factors for API Drillpipe
Outside Nominal Nominal Average Displacement
Diameter Inside Weight Approximate Factor
in. Diameter, in. lbm/ft Weight bbl/ft

2-3/8 1.995 4.85 5.02 0.00182


1.815 6.65 6.80 0.00247

2-7/8 2.441 6.85 7.09 0.00258


2.151 10.40 10.53 0.00383

3-1/2 2.992 9.50 10.15 0.00369


2.764 13.30 13.86 0.00504
2.602 15.50 16.39 0.00596
Nominal Dimensions-
Displacement factors for API
Drillpipe
Outside Nominal Nominal Average Displacement
Diameter Inside Weight Approximate Factor
in. Diameter, in. lbm/ft Weight bbl/ft

4 3.476 11.85 12.90 0.00469


3.340 14.00 15.14 0.00551
3.240 15.70 17.13 0.00623

4-1/2 3.958 13.75 14.75 0.00537


3.826 16.60 17.70 0.00644
3.640 20.00 21.74 0.00791
3.500 22.82 24.33 0.00885
Nominal Dimensions-
Displacement factors for API
Drillpipe
Outside Nominal Nominal Average Displacement
Diameter Inside Weight Approximate Factor
in. Diameter, in. lbm/ft Weight bbl/ft

5 4.276 19.50 21.58 0.00785


4.000 25.60 27.58 0.01003

5-1/2 4.778 21.90 23.77 0.00865


4.670 24.70 26.33 0.00958

6-6/8 5.965 25.20 27.15 0.00988


5.901 27.70 29.06 0.01057
Displacement Factors for
High Strength Drillpipe
Outside Nominal Average Displacement
Diameter Weight Approximate Factor
in. lbm/ft Weight, lbm/ft. bbl/ft
2-3/8 6.65 6.95 0.00253
2-7/8 10.40 11.01 0.00400
3-1/2 13.30 14.51 0.00528
15.50 17.02 0.00619
4 14.00 15.85 0.00577
15.70 17.50 0.00637
4-1/2 16.60 18.65 0.00678
20.00 22.40 0.00815
22.82 25.21 0.00917
Displacement Factors for High
Strength Drillpipe
Outside Nominal Average Displacement
Diameter Weight Approximate Factor
in. lbm/ft Weight, lbm/ft. bbl/ft

5 19.50 22.34 0.00813


25.60 28.60 0.01040
5-1/2 21.90 25.14 0.00914
24.70 28.13 0.01023
6-5/8 25.20 28.33 0.01031
27.70 30.58 0.01112
Displacement Factors for
Heavy-Wall Drillpipe
Outside Nominal Connection Approx. Displacement
Diameter Inside Weight Factor
in. Diameter, in. lbm/ft bbl/ft

3-1/2 2.063 NC38 23.20 0.00844


2.250 NC38 25.30 0.00920

4 2.563 NC40 29.70 0.01080

4-1/2 2.750 NC46 41.00 0.01491

5 3.00 NC50 49.30 0.01793


Example 5.2
¾Drill a well to 9,500 total depth with a 10.0
lbm/gal mud. 8.097 in. ID casing has been set
at 1,500 ft.

¾Determine the hydrostatic pressure loss if ten


90 ft stands of 4 1/2 in., 16.60 lbm/ft Grade E
drillpipe are pulled without filling the hole.

¾Also determine the losses after pulling ten


stands of drillpipe if the bit is plugged and after
pulling one stand of 6 1/4 x 2 1/2 in drill collars.
Example 5.2

¾Solution
The displacement factor for open
drillpipe is obtained from Table 5.5 and
the displacement volume is computed
as:

Vd = (0.00644) (10) (90) = 5.80 bbl


Example 5.2
¾To determine the drop in fluid level, we must
have capacity factors for the drillpipe and
annulus. These can be obtained directly from
a published table or by calculation.

Inside Drillpipe:
Ci = 3.8262/1,029.4 = 0.1422 bbl/ft. and

Inside Annulus:
Cc = (8.0972 - 4.52)/1,029.4 = 0.04402 bbl/ft.
Example 5.2
¾These values are only approximate since
the effect of the pipe upsets and tool joints are
not considered. The mud level will fall by

∆h = 5.80/(0.01422 + 0.04402) = 99.6 ft.


and the corresponding hydrostatic pressure
loss is
∆p = 99.6(10.0/19.25) = 52 psi.
Example 5.2
¾Tripping out with a plugged bit implies the
string is pulled wet and, if no mud falls back in
the hole, the drillstring inner capacity is being
evacuated along with the steel. The volume
removed after pulling ten stands wet is
V = Vi + Vd = (0.00644 + 0.01422)(10)(90)
= 18.59 bbl
(inside drillpipe + steel in drillpipe)
Example 5.2
¾The mud level drop in the annulus and
pressure loss are thus

∆h = 18.59/0.04402 = 422.3 ft.


and
∆p = (422.3)(0.519) = 219 psi.
Example 5.2
For drill collars, we compute the displacement
factor and displacement volume as

Cd = (6.252 - 2.52)/1,029.4 = 0.03188 bbl/ft.


and
Vd = (0.0318) (1)(90) = 2.87 bbl.
Example 5.2
The pressure loss is determined in the same
manner as the open drillpipe case.

Ci = 2.52/1,029.4 = 0.00607 bbl/ft


Ca = (8.0972- 6.252)/1,029.4 = 0.02574 bbl/ft
∆h = 2.87/(0.00607 + 0.02574) = 90.2 ft
and
∆p = (0.519) (90.2) = 47 psi
Lesson 22

Introduction to
Underbalanced
Drilling Technology
UB DRILLING - JOBS

1997 Underbalanced Drilling Jobs


Geographic Distribution

Canad a

M id d le Eas t
US Euro p e
So uth America

Far Eas t

©1998 Spears & Assoc.


Underbalanced
Underbalanced Drilling
Drilling in
in the
the United
United States
States
16,000
LOW
14,000
HIGH
TOTAL UNBDERBALANCED WELLS

12,000

10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

2,000

0
95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05
YEAR
Underbalanced Drilling
Wells by Region
2 ,0 0 0

Intl
1 ,8 0 0
US
1 ,6 0 0 Canada

1 ,4 0 0

1 ,2 0 0

1 ,0 0 0

800

600

400

200

-
©1998 Spears & Assoc.
UBD Definition

Formation Pressure is
equal to or greater than
Circulating Pressure
UBD - Types
• Normally Pressured Reservoirs
Applications for normal to above normal
pressured reservoirs utilizing fluid systems in a
controlled flow (mudcap) drilling technique.
• Depleted Reservoirs
Where a multi-phase circulating fluid is
necessary to achieve required Bottom Hole
Circulating Pressure (BHCP) - underbalanced or
with minimal overbalance.
REGULATORY BARRIERS
to
UnderBalance Drilling
◆ The regulators
need assurance
and details
BARRIERS TO UB D&C

◆ Regulatory
◆ Lack of Standards
◆ Lack of knowledge
◆ Little statistical history
◆ Concern about well control
◆ Environmental questions
OPERATORS BARRIERS

◆ The Operator
needs
experience and
confidence.
OPERATORS PROBLEMS

◆ Unfamiliar with the system


◆ risk of the new
◆ Lackof experienced people
◆ Economics - Too expensive
◆ Concern- liability
◆ Concern- well bore stability
REASONS FOR UB GROWTH

◆ There are
driving
economic
reasons
UBD Forecast by Region
US
UBD Forecast by Region Can
Eur
1,200
SoAm
ME/Afr
1,000
FE

800
Wells

600

400

200

-
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

©1998 Spears & Assoc.


REASONS FOR UB GROWTH

◆ Depleted reservoirs
◆ Awareness of skin damage
◆ Limits of lost circulation matl.
◆ Cost of differential sticking
REASONS FOR UB GROWTH

◆ Service co. competition


◆ Trade journal publications
◆ Horizontal drilling
◆ Consultants available
TECHNICAL IMPROVEMENTS

◆ We were not
ready to put all
of this together
until the 1990’s
TECHNICAL IMPROVEMENTS

◆ Compressor Evolution
◆ Hammer drills
◆ Nitrogen
◆ Increased availability
◆ Reduced cost
◆ On site generation
TECHNICAL IMPROVEMENTS

◆ Recyclable foam systems


◆ Better gas separators
◆ Closed loop circulation
◆ Hydraulics models
◆ Improved rotating heads
◆ Wire line wet connect
TECHNICAL IMPROVEMENTS

◆ Improved MWD
◆ Rig assist snubbing units
◆ Coiled tubing equipment
◆ Non-damaging drilling fluids
◆ Top drive
WORKING ON

◆ Well Control Concepts


◆ Deployment valves
◆ Casing Drilling
◆ Expandable casing
◆ Expandable sand screens
◆ Retractable bit
COMPLETION TECHNIQUES

◆ Improved gravel packing fluids


◆ Improved completion fluids
◆ General technique
improvement
Reasons for UB drilling

◆ Lost circulation
Reasons for UB drilling

◆ Lost circulation
◆ Faster Drilling
Reasons for UB drilling

◆ Lost circulation
◆ Faster Drilling
◆ No Differential
Sticking
Reasons for UB drilling

◆ ...
◆ Reduce
Reservoir
Damage
Reasons for UB drilling

◆ ...
◆ Reduce
Reservoir
Damage
◆ Improve Prod.
Evaluation
Effect of Skin on Production Rates
BOPD

1,000

800

600

400

200

0
-3 -2 -1 0 5 10 15
SKIN
Physical Limits to UB Drilling

◆ Borehole
Instability
◆ Poor Casing
Point
Physical Limitation to UBD
• Borehole Instability
• Unconsolidated Sands
• Weak Formations
• Geopressured Shales
• Salt Beds
• Inadequate Casing

UBD is another tool in the toolbox,


not a Panacea.
Production Limits to UBD

◆ Permeability is
so low the zone
needs to be
fraced.
◆ Zones must be
isolated
Types of Flow Regimes

AERATED
LIQUID FOAM MIST GAS
LIQUID
Fluid
Fluid Phase
Phase Continuity
Continuity

AIR/GAS

WATER

FOAM MIST
(0-97% AIR) (97-100% AIR)
Generalized
“Fluid” Systems
Equipment - Rotating Head

• Shaffer Rotating Blow-Out Preventor


• 2,500 psi rotating - 5,000 psi static
Closed
Closed Loop
Loop Circulation
Circulation
System
System
FLARESTACK

SEPARATOR

SAMPLE
CATCHERS
OIL TOP
TANKS DRIVE
NITROGEN SYSTEM
PUMPERS CHOKE
MANIFOLD
R-BOP
WATER
TANKS

RIG RETURN
CUTTING
MUD
TANKS RIG
PUMPS
N2 / FLUID
MIX
Choke
Choke Manifold
Manifold
Equipment - Separators
Equipment - Chokes
Equipment - Gas Source

Stainless Steel
Carbon Steel

Vaporizer
Liquid Nitrogen Pump
(-320OF) Gaseous nitrogen
to well
80OF, 0-10,000
psi

6.11.3
Equipment - Lots More

To shale shaker

ESD Manifold
Sample
catchers
Willis choke
Flare

Separator
Rig Manifold 200 psi vessel
Choke

HCR Oil storage/transport

Water returned to tanks

Choke Flare pit


AIR DRILLING
A brief summary
Air Drilling

• Air/Gas drilling (“dust”) is a technique used in


areas where the formations are “Dry” i.e., there
is no influx of water or liquid hydrocarbons.
• This medium requires significant compressed
gas volumes to clean the well with average
velocities of over 3,000 ft per minute.
Air Drilling Benefits

•Increased Rate of Penetration


•Reduced Formation Damage
•Improves Bit Performance
•Lost Circulation Control
•Continuous Drill Stem Test
Air/Dust Drilling Layout
Air
Air Drilling
Drilling Waited
Waited upon
upon
Large
Large Portable
Portable Compression
Compression

Simple and convenient to drill with air inexpensively and anywhere.


Misting

◆ Addition of 6 to 30 bbl/hr of
fluid to the air stream.
◆ Clean and lubricates the bit
◆ Carries the cuttings to the
surface as a mist or more
normally in a modified two
phase flow.
FOAM
FOAM DRILLING
DRILLING

Basic Comments

TT96-86 46
Foam Drilling
• The most versatile of the gas-generated
systems.
• Effective operating range from 0.2 to 0.6 s.g.
• Mixture of gas phase and foaming solution.
• Foam flow varies with depth in the hole.
• Adjustable effective BHP.
• Enhanced lifting and well bore cleaning.
• A “displacing medium”, not a propelling
medium.
Foam (Heading)
Improved Hole Cleaning
Foam Drilling Benefits

• Faster Penetration rate


• Low Air requirements
• Low fluid requirements
• Low Hydrostatic head
• No damage to formation
• Continuous Drill Stem test
• Best for large holes
Mist or Foam Drilling Layout
GASEATED
OR
AERATED
DRILLING
Mist

Water Transition

Gas Gaseated
Aerated Fluid

• Gasification of Primary Drilling Fluid.


• Initially designed as a technique to lighten
mud to reduce lost circulation.
• Methods
• Standpipe injection
• Jet Sub
• Parasite String
• Dual Casing String
• As an UB fluid, it is easiest to control in small
holes.
Parasite String

• Small injection string run simultaneously


with intermediate casing.
• Injected gas does not affect
bit hydraulics.
• Injected gas does not effect
MWD
Jet Sub

• Similar to Parasite String


• Gas induced thru drill pipe
• Selective jet sizing dictates
amount of air to be injected
• Jets are Similar to Bit Jets
Parallel
Parallel Casing
Casing String
String
(Teichrob)
(Teichrob)
N2 /air
N2 /water
N2 /air/water/oil
150 m TVD, 150 m MD
89-mm (3-1/2 in.) Drill Pipe
244.5-mm (9-5/8 in.) Intermidiate Casing

177.8-mm (7 in.) Tie Back Liner


724 m MD at
64 o inclination
159-mm (6-1/4 in.)
12 m Slotted 892 m MD Hole Diameter
Joint at 90 o Inclination
694 m TVD

Foam Cement
o
TD = 1,440 m MD at 90 o
Inclination, 696 m TVD
Aerated Fluid Layout
Aerated Drilling Problems

Compressor/N2 Rotating BOP’s


Cost Solid/Liquid/Gas
Separation

Corrosion
Hydraulic Calculations
Vibration
Cuttings Lifting
Fluid Influx
Fire/ Underbalanced
High Torque/ Explosions Completion
Drag
Borehole Stability
MWD Transmission
UB Drilling & Completions Manual
◆ Candidate Selection
◆ Air/Gas/N2/Mist Drilling
◆ Foam Drilling
◆ Aerated Fluid Drilling
◆ Flow “Live” Drilling
◆ Surface Equipment
◆ Downhole Equipment
◆ Field Operations
◆ Downhole Problems
◆ Environment, Safety, Reg.