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Jan 09, 2019

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Expo Log Functions Applications

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Expo Log Functions Applications

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Announcements

Coverage:

exponential & logarithmic functions

how to determine odd/even functions

how to determine one-to-one functions (without using

horizontal line test)

how to find inverse of a function (e.g. exponential/logarithmic

function)

Announcements

Coverage:

exponential & logarithmic functions

how to determine odd/even functions

how to determine one-to-one functions (without using

horizontal line test)

how to find inverse of a function (e.g. exponential/logarithmic

function)

Exam types: True/false, Solving (no calc), Word problems

(with calc)

Announcements

Coverage:

exponential & logarithmic functions

how to determine odd/even functions

how to determine one-to-one functions (without using

horizontal line test)

how to find inverse of a function (e.g. exponential/logarithmic

function)

Exam types: True/false, Solving (no calc), Word problems

(with calc)

Bring: 1 graphing paper, 1 small test booklet and a scientific

calculator (to be used in Part 3 only)

Announcements

Coverage:

exponential & logarithmic functions

how to determine odd/even functions

how to determine one-to-one functions (without using

horizontal line test)

how to find inverse of a function (e.g. exponential/logarithmic

function)

Exam types: True/false, Solving (no calc), Word problems

(with calc)

Bring: 1 graphing paper, 1 small test booklet and a scientific

calculator (to be used in Part 3 only)

31 Oct & 07 Nov are declared holidays. We need a 3-hour

extra class, either Tues or Fri afternoon. Send me your class

schedule via jrrlapus24@yahoo.co.nz.

Applications of Exponential and

Logarithmic Functions

Raymond Lapus

De La Salle University, Manila

Contents

Exponential growth

Exponential decay

Bounded growth / Learning curve

Exponential growth

Definition

A function defined by the equation of the form

exponential growth.

Exponential growth

Definition

A function defined by the equation of the form

exponential growth.

t is expressed in time (e.g. in seconds, hours, days, years, etc.)

Exponential growth

Definition

A function defined by the equation of the form

exponential growth.

t is expressed in time (e.g. in seconds, hours, days, years, etc.)

B is the initial quantity or the quantity present at t = 0

Exponential growth

Definition

A function defined by the equation of the form

exponential growth.

t is expressed in time (e.g. in seconds, hours, days, years, etc.)

B is the initial quantity or the quantity present at t = 0

k is the growth constant or the frequency of growing by a

factor e.

Exponential growth

Definition

A function defined by the equation of the form

exponential growth.

t is expressed in time (e.g. in seconds, hours, days, years, etc.)

B is the initial quantity or the quantity present at t = 0

k is the growth constant or the frequency of growing by a

factor e.

In finance, k is called logarithmic return, continuously

compounded return or force of interest.

Exponential growth vs Linear growth vs Quadratic growth

y

80

70

60

Illustration:

50

f (x) = 20e 0.029x

40

g (x) = (2/3)x + 20

30

h(x) = (2/115)x 2 + 20

20

10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50

x

Remark: In reality, exponential growth does not continue

indefinitely. There would, eventually, come a time when there

would no longer be any room for the bacteria, or nutrients to

sustain them. Exponential growth actually refers to only the early

stages of the process and to the manner and speed of the growth.

Examples

Problem 1.

Victor wants to buy a new car that costs $90,000. He has saved

$20,000. Determine how many years it will take his $20,000 to

grow to $90,000 at 6.25% interest compounded continuously.

Solution.

Given: B = $20, 000, k = 0.0625

Examples

Problem 1.

Victor wants to buy a new car that costs $90,000. He has saved

$20,000. Determine how many years it will take his $20,000 to

grow to $90,000 at 6.25% interest compounded continuously.

Solution.

Given: B = $20, 000, k = 0.0625

Working equation: f (t) = B ekt = 20, 000 e0.0625t

Examples

Problem 1.

Victor wants to buy a new car that costs $90,000. He has saved

$20,000. Determine how many years it will take his $20,000 to

grow to $90,000 at 6.25% interest compounded continuously.

Solution.

Given: B = $20, 000, k = 0.0625

Working equation: f (t) = B ekt = 20, 000 e0.0625t

Compute t such that f (t) = 90, 000.

Examples

Victor wants to buy a new car that costs $90,000. He has saved

$20,000. Determine how many years it will take his $20,000 to

grow to $90,000 at 6.25% interest compounded continuously.

Solution.

Given: B = $20, 000, k = 0.0625

Working equation: f (t) = B ekt = 20, 000 e0.0625t

Compute t such that f (t) = 90, 000.

Divide both sides by 20,000, then take ln both sides.

Examples

Victor wants to buy a new car that costs $90,000. He has saved

$20,000. Determine how many years it will take his $20,000 to

grow to $90,000 at 6.25% interest compounded continuously.

Solution.

Given: B = $20, 000, k = 0.0625

Working equation: f (t) = B ekt = 20, 000 e0.0625t

Compute t such that f (t) = 90, 000.

Divide both sides by 20,000, then take ln both sides.

ln 4.5

One finds t = ≈ 24.07 years.

0.0625

Examples

Problem 2.

Growth of bacteria in food products causes a need to ”time-date”

some products (like milk) so that shoppers will buy the product

and consume it before the number of bacteria grows too large and

the product goes bad. Suppose that the formula

f (t) = 5e0.1t

represents time in days and f (t) represents the number of bacteria

in millions. If the product cannot be eaten after the bacteria count

reaches 20, 000, 000, how long will it take?

Solution.

Given: f (t) = 5 e0.1t

Examples

Problem 2.

Growth of bacteria in food products causes a need to ”time-date”

some products (like milk) so that shoppers will buy the product

and consume it before the number of bacteria grows too large and

the product goes bad. Suppose that the formula

f (t) = 5e0.1t

represents time in days and f (t) represents the number of bacteria

in millions. If the product cannot be eaten after the bacteria count

reaches 20, 000, 000, how long will it take?

Solution.

Given: f (t) = 5 e0.1t

Compute t such that f (t) = 20.

Examples

Problem 2.

Growth of bacteria in food products causes a need to ”time-date”

some products (like milk) so that shoppers will buy the product

and consume it before the number of bacteria grows too large and

the product goes bad. Suppose that the formula

f (t) = 5e0.1t

represents time in days and f (t) represents the number of bacteria

in millions. If the product cannot be eaten after the bacteria count

reaches 20, 000, 000, how long will it take?

Solution.

Given: f (t) = 5 e0.1t

Compute t such that f (t) = 20.

ln 4

One finds t = ≈ 13.86 days.

0.1

R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 2 (continued).

Estimate the number of bacteria are present in a food product 10

days after the said product has been purchased. How about after

15 days?

Solution.

We have f (10) = 5 e1 ≈ 13.59 million bacteria.

Examples

Problem 2 (continued).

Estimate the number of bacteria are present in a food product 10

days after the said product has been purchased. How about after

15 days?

Solution.

We have f (10) = 5 e1 ≈ 13.59 million bacteria.

After 15 days, there are f (15) = 5 e1.5 ≈ 22.41 million

bacteria.

Exercises

1 In a given year, the minimum wage was only $1.60 per hour.

Use the formula f (t) = 1.6ert to predict that minimum wage

will reach $8.50 per hour provided that the rate of growth in

the minimum wage is 3.9%.

2 Scientific research has shown that the risk of having a car

accident increases exponentially as the concentration of

alcohol in the blood increases. A formula that models the risk

of an accident is

R = 6e12.8a .

In the formula, R represents the chance of risk in percent.

Find the blood alcohol concentration (a) that corresponds to

a 25% risk of a car accident.

Exponential decay

Definition

A function defined by the equation of the form

exponential decay.

Exponential decay

Definition

A function defined by the equation of the form

exponential decay.

y 50

Illustration: 35

B = 50, k = 1% 20

f (x) = 50e−0.01x 5

0 50 100

x

What does B, k and f (t) means?

(measured in grams, moles, number of atoms, etc.),

What does B, k and f (t) means?

(measured in grams, moles, number of atoms, etc.),

f (t) is the quantity that still remains and has not yet decayed

after time t,

What does B, k and f (t) means?

(measured in grams, moles, number of atoms, etc.),

f (t) is the quantity that still remains and has not yet decayed

after time t,

k is the decay constant

Examples

Problem 3.

Nuclear energy derived from radioactive isotopes can be used to

supply power to space vehicles. Suppose that the output of the

radioactive power supply for a certain satellite is given by the

function: g (t) = 30e−0.003t . In the function, g (t) is measured in

watts and t is time in days. After how many days will the output

be reduced to 25 watts?

Examples

Problem 3.

Nuclear energy derived from radioactive isotopes can be used to

supply power to space vehicles. Suppose that the output of the

radioactive power supply for a certain satellite is given by the

function: g (t) = 30e−0.003t . In the function, g (t) is measured in

watts and t is time in days. After how many days will the output

be reduced to 25 watts?

Solution:

Given: g (t) = 30e−0.003t

Examples

Problem 3.

Nuclear energy derived from radioactive isotopes can be used to

supply power to space vehicles. Suppose that the output of the

radioactive power supply for a certain satellite is given by the

function: g (t) = 30e−0.003t . In the function, g (t) is measured in

watts and t is time in days. After how many days will the output

be reduced to 25 watts?

Solution:

Given: g (t) = 30e−0.003t

Find t such that g (t) = 25.

Examples

Problem 3.

Nuclear energy derived from radioactive isotopes can be used to

supply power to space vehicles. Suppose that the output of the

radioactive power supply for a certain satellite is given by the

function: g (t) = 30e−0.003t . In the function, g (t) is measured in

watts and t is time in days. After how many days will the output

be reduced to 25 watts?

Solution:

Given: g (t) = 30e−0.003t

Find t such that g (t) = 25.

ln(5/6)

We obtain t = ≈ 60.77 days.

−0.003

Examples

Problem 3 (cont’d).

How much radioactive power supply left at day 40? day 80?

Examples

Problem 3 (cont’d).

How much radioactive power supply left at day 40? day 80?

Solution:

We compute g (40) and g (80).

The amount of remaining radioactive power supply at day 40

is g (40) ≈ 26.61 watts.

The amount of remaining radioactive power supply at day 80

is g (80) ≈ 23.60 watts.

Half-life

Definition

Half-life, denoted by t1/2 is the period of time it takes for the

amount of a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.

Half-life

Definition

Half-life, denoted by t1/2 is the period of time it takes for the

amount of a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.

Remarks:

The name was originally used to describe a characteristic of

unstable atoms (radioactive decay).

Half-life

Definition

Half-life, denoted by t1/2 is the period of time it takes for the

amount of a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.

Remarks:

The name was originally used to describe a characteristic of

unstable atoms (radioactive decay).

It may apply to any quantity which follows a set-rate decay.

Half-life

Half-life, denoted by t1/2 is the period of time it takes for the

amount of a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.

Remarks:

The name was originally used to describe a characteristic of

unstable atoms (radioactive decay).

It may apply to any quantity which follows a set-rate decay.

The original term, dating to 1907, was ”half-life period”,

which was later shortened to ”half-life” in the early 1950s.

Carbon-14 (C-14) dating

process involves calculating the percentage of carbon-14 that

remains in the artifact.

C-14 decays exponentially with t1/2 ≈ 5715 years.

Carbon-14 (C-14) dating

process involves calculating the percentage of carbon-14 that

remains in the artifact.

C-14 decays exponentially with t1/2 ≈ 5715 years.

After 5715 years, a given amount of C-14 will have decayed to

half the original amount.

Carbon-14 (C-14) dating

process involves calculating the percentage of carbon-14 that

remains in the artifact.

C-14 decays exponentially with t1/2 ≈ 5715 years.

After 5715 years, a given amount of C-14 will have decayed to

half the original amount.

Applicable to artifacts whose age is at most 80,000 years old.

Carbon-14 (C-14) dating

process involves calculating the percentage of carbon-14 that

remains in the artifact.

C-14 decays exponentially with t1/2 ≈ 5715 years.

After 5715 years, a given amount of C-14 will have decayed to

half the original amount.

Applicable to artifacts whose age is at most 80,000 years old.

Artifacts older than 80,000 years do not have enough C-14 to

date age accurately.

Example

Problem 5.

Pre-historic cave paintings were discovered in a cave in France.

The paint contained 12% of the original carbon-14. Estimate the

age of the paintings given that the constant k = 0.000121 for this

half-life.

Example

Problem 5.

Pre-historic cave paintings were discovered in a cave in France.

The paint contained 12% of the original carbon-14. Estimate the

age of the paintings given that the constant k = 0.000121 for this

half-life.

Solution:

Given: k = 0.000121, g (tc ) = 0.12B, tc is present year

Example

Problem 5.

Pre-historic cave paintings were discovered in a cave in France.

The paint contained 12% of the original carbon-14. Estimate the

age of the paintings given that the constant k = 0.000121 for this

half-life.

Solution:

Given: k = 0.000121, g (tc ) = 0.12B, tc is present year

Find t such that g (t) = g (tc ).

Example

Problem 5.

Pre-historic cave paintings were discovered in a cave in France.

The paint contained 12% of the original carbon-14. Estimate the

age of the paintings given that the constant k = 0.000121 for this

half-life.

Solution:

Given: k = 0.000121, g (tc ) = 0.12B, tc is present year

Find t such that g (t) = g (tc ).

ln(0.12)

We obtain t = ≈ 17, 523 years.

−k

Exercise

is declining according to this relationship: P = P0 e−0.04t

where P and P0 are expressed in millions. Given that the

original population for the city was 1, 000, 000, how long will

it take for the population to decline to half its initial number?

2 In 1947, earthenware jars containing what are known as the

Dead Sea Scrolls were found. In 2011, analysis showed that

the scroll wrappings contained 76% of their original

carbon-14. Estimate the age of the Dead Sea Scrolls using the

formula A = A0 e−kt , where the decay constant k = 0.000121

for this particular half-life of 5715.

Bounded growth / learning curve

Definition

A function defined by the equation of the form

growth.

Bounded growth / learning curve

Definition

A function defined by the equation of the form

growth.

y 60

f (t) = 60(1 − e−0.25t )

50

Illustration: 40

A = 60, k = 0.25;

30

f (x) = 60(1 − e −0.25x )

20

10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

x

R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Bounded growth / learning curve

y 60

f (t) = 60(1 − e−0.25t )

50

Illustration: 40

A = 60, k = 0.25;

30

f (x) = 60(1 − e −0.25x )

20

10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

x

Bounded growth / learning curve

y 60

f (t) = 60(1 − e−0.25t )

50

Illustration: 40

A = 60, k = 0.25;

30

f (x) = 60(1 − e −0.25x )

20

10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

x

Remarks:

The graph of the function that describes bounded growth is

sometimes called learning curve.

The function f (x) can represent someone’s competence in

performing a job after x units of time.

Bounded growth / learning curve

y 60

f (t) = 60(1 − e−0.25t )

50

Example: 40

A = 60, k = 0.25;

30

f (x) = 60(1 − e −0.25x )

20

10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

x

Bounded growth / learning curve

y 60

f (t) = 60(1 − e−0.25t )

50

Example: 40

A = 60, k = 0.25;

30

f (x) = 60(1 − e −0.25x )

20

10

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

x

Interpretation:

As his/her experience increases, the competence rapidly increases

and then slows down, since additional experience has little effect

on the skill with which the task is performed.

Examples

Problem 6.

A typical worker at a certain factory can produce f (t) units of a

certain product per day after t days on the job, where

(a) How many units per day can the worker produce after 7 days

on the job?

(b) How many units per day can the worker eventually be

expected to produce?

Examples

Problem 6.

A typical worker at a certain factory can produce f (t) units of a

certain product per day after t days on the job, where

(a) How many units per day can the worker produce after 7 days

on the job?

(b) How many units per day can the worker eventually be

expected to produce?

Solution:

In (a), we compute f (7), that is f (7) ≈ 45.37. Hence, the

worker produces 46 units per day after 7 days.

Examples

Problem 6.

A typical worker at a certain factory can produce f (t) units of a

certain product per day after t days on the job, where

(a) How many units per day can the worker produce after 7 days

on the job?

(b) How many units per day can the worker eventually be

expected to produce?

Solution:

In (a), we compute f (7), that is f (7) ≈ 45.37. Hence, the

worker produces 46 units per day after 7 days.

In (b), f (t) → 50 units/day as t becomes large.

R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exercises

certain person could type f (t) words per minute, where

f (t) = 90(1 − e−0.03t ).

(a) Sketch the graph of f (t).

(b) How many words per minute can the person type after 30

hours of practice?

(c) How many words per minute can the person eventually be

expected to type?

2 The resale value of a certain piece of equipment is f (t)

hundred dollars t years after its purchase, where

f (t) = 12 + 80e−0.25t .

(a) Sketch the graph of f (t).

(b) What is the value of the equipment when it is purchased?

(c) What is the value of the equipment 10 years after its purchase?

(d) What is the anticipated scrap value of the equipment after a

long period of time?

Depreciation

Solution:

y 90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10 f (t) = 12 + 80e−0.25t

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Graph: x

Depreciation

Solution:

y 90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10 f (t) = 12 + 80e−0.25t

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Graph: x

Depreciation

Solution:

y 90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10 f (t) = 12 + 80e−0.25t

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Graph: x

After 10 years, its value is 100 × f (10) ≈ 1, 856.68 dollars.

Depreciation

Solution:

y 90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10 f (t) = 12 + 80e−0.25t

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Graph: x

After 10 years, its value is 100 × f (10) ≈ 1, 856.68 dollars.

Its anticipated scrap value is $ 1,200.00.

R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

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