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# Announcements

Announcements

## Quiz # 3 will be on 03 November 2011.

Coverage:
exponential & logarithmic functions
how to determine odd/even functions
how to determine one-to-one functions (without using
horizontal line test)
how to find inverse of a function (e.g. exponential/logarithmic
function)

Announcements

## Quiz # 3 will be on 03 November 2011.

Coverage:
exponential & logarithmic functions
how to determine odd/even functions
how to determine one-to-one functions (without using
horizontal line test)
how to find inverse of a function (e.g. exponential/logarithmic
function)
Exam types: True/false, Solving (no calc), Word problems
(with calc)

Announcements

## Quiz # 3 will be on 03 November 2011.

Coverage:
exponential & logarithmic functions
how to determine odd/even functions
how to determine one-to-one functions (without using
horizontal line test)
how to find inverse of a function (e.g. exponential/logarithmic
function)
Exam types: True/false, Solving (no calc), Word problems
(with calc)
Bring: 1 graphing paper, 1 small test booklet and a scientific
calculator (to be used in Part 3 only)

Announcements

## Quiz # 3 will be on 03 November 2011.

Coverage:
exponential & logarithmic functions
how to determine odd/even functions
how to determine one-to-one functions (without using
horizontal line test)
how to find inverse of a function (e.g. exponential/logarithmic
function)
Exam types: True/false, Solving (no calc), Word problems
(with calc)
Bring: 1 graphing paper, 1 small test booklet and a scientific
calculator (to be used in Part 3 only)
31 Oct & 07 Nov are declared holidays. We need a 3-hour
extra class, either Tues or Fri afternoon. Send me your class
schedule via jrrlapus24@yahoo.co.nz.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Applications of Exponential and
Logarithmic Functions

Raymond Lapus
De La Salle University, Manila

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Contents

Exponential growth
Exponential decay
Bounded growth / Learning curve

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exponential growth

Definition
A function defined by the equation of the form

## where B and t are positive constants, is said to describe

exponential growth.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exponential growth

Definition
A function defined by the equation of the form

## where B and t are positive constants, is said to describe

exponential growth.

## What does the variables B, k and t mean?

t is expressed in time (e.g. in seconds, hours, days, years, etc.)

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exponential growth

Definition
A function defined by the equation of the form

## where B and t are positive constants, is said to describe

exponential growth.

## What does the variables B, k and t mean?

t is expressed in time (e.g. in seconds, hours, days, years, etc.)
B is the initial quantity or the quantity present at t = 0

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exponential growth

Definition
A function defined by the equation of the form

## where B and t are positive constants, is said to describe

exponential growth.

## What does the variables B, k and t mean?

t is expressed in time (e.g. in seconds, hours, days, years, etc.)
B is the initial quantity or the quantity present at t = 0
k is the growth constant or the frequency of growing by a
factor e.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exponential growth

Definition
A function defined by the equation of the form

## where B and t are positive constants, is said to describe

exponential growth.

## What does the variables B, k and t mean?

t is expressed in time (e.g. in seconds, hours, days, years, etc.)
B is the initial quantity or the quantity present at t = 0
k is the growth constant or the frequency of growing by a
factor e.
In finance, k is called logarithmic return, continuously
compounded return or force of interest.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exponential growth vs Linear growth vs Quadratic growth

y
80
70
60
Illustration:
50
f (x) = 20e 0.029x
40
g (x) = (2/3)x + 20
30
h(x) = (2/115)x 2 + 20
20
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50
x
Remark: In reality, exponential growth does not continue
indefinitely. There would, eventually, come a time when there
would no longer be any room for the bacteria, or nutrients to
sustain them. Exponential growth actually refers to only the early
stages of the process and to the manner and speed of the growth.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 1.
Victor wants to buy a new car that costs \$90,000. He has saved
\$20,000. Determine how many years it will take his \$20,000 to
grow to \$90,000 at 6.25% interest compounded continuously.

Solution.
Given: B = \$20, 000, k = 0.0625

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 1.
Victor wants to buy a new car that costs \$90,000. He has saved
\$20,000. Determine how many years it will take his \$20,000 to
grow to \$90,000 at 6.25% interest compounded continuously.

Solution.
Given: B = \$20, 000, k = 0.0625
Working equation: f (t) = B ekt = 20, 000 e0.0625t

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 1.
Victor wants to buy a new car that costs \$90,000. He has saved
\$20,000. Determine how many years it will take his \$20,000 to
grow to \$90,000 at 6.25% interest compounded continuously.

Solution.
Given: B = \$20, 000, k = 0.0625
Working equation: f (t) = B ekt = 20, 000 e0.0625t
Compute t such that f (t) = 90, 000.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 1.
Victor wants to buy a new car that costs \$90,000. He has saved
\$20,000. Determine how many years it will take his \$20,000 to
grow to \$90,000 at 6.25% interest compounded continuously.

Solution.
Given: B = \$20, 000, k = 0.0625
Working equation: f (t) = B ekt = 20, 000 e0.0625t
Compute t such that f (t) = 90, 000.
Divide both sides by 20,000, then take ln both sides.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 1.
Victor wants to buy a new car that costs \$90,000. He has saved
\$20,000. Determine how many years it will take his \$20,000 to
grow to \$90,000 at 6.25% interest compounded continuously.

Solution.
Given: B = \$20, 000, k = 0.0625
Working equation: f (t) = B ekt = 20, 000 e0.0625t
Compute t such that f (t) = 90, 000.
Divide both sides by 20,000, then take ln both sides.
ln 4.5
One finds t = ≈ 24.07 years.
0.0625

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples
Problem 2.
Growth of bacteria in food products causes a need to ”time-date”
some products (like milk) so that shoppers will buy the product
and consume it before the number of bacteria grows too large and
the product goes bad. Suppose that the formula

f (t) = 5e0.1t

## represents the growth of bacteria in a food product. The variable t

represents time in days and f (t) represents the number of bacteria
in millions. If the product cannot be eaten after the bacteria count
reaches 20, 000, 000, how long will it take?

Solution.
Given: f (t) = 5 e0.1t

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples
Problem 2.
Growth of bacteria in food products causes a need to ”time-date”
some products (like milk) so that shoppers will buy the product
and consume it before the number of bacteria grows too large and
the product goes bad. Suppose that the formula

f (t) = 5e0.1t

## represents the growth of bacteria in a food product. The variable t

represents time in days and f (t) represents the number of bacteria
in millions. If the product cannot be eaten after the bacteria count
reaches 20, 000, 000, how long will it take?

Solution.
Given: f (t) = 5 e0.1t
Compute t such that f (t) = 20.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples
Problem 2.
Growth of bacteria in food products causes a need to ”time-date”
some products (like milk) so that shoppers will buy the product
and consume it before the number of bacteria grows too large and
the product goes bad. Suppose that the formula

f (t) = 5e0.1t

## represents the growth of bacteria in a food product. The variable t

represents time in days and f (t) represents the number of bacteria
in millions. If the product cannot be eaten after the bacteria count
reaches 20, 000, 000, how long will it take?

Solution.
Given: f (t) = 5 e0.1t
Compute t such that f (t) = 20.
ln 4
One finds t = ≈ 13.86 days.
0.1
R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
Examples

Problem 2 (continued).
Estimate the number of bacteria are present in a food product 10
days after the said product has been purchased. How about after
15 days?

Solution.
We have f (10) = 5 e1 ≈ 13.59 million bacteria.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 2 (continued).
Estimate the number of bacteria are present in a food product 10
days after the said product has been purchased. How about after
15 days?

Solution.
We have f (10) = 5 e1 ≈ 13.59 million bacteria.
After 15 days, there are f (15) = 5 e1.5 ≈ 22.41 million
bacteria.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exercises

1 In a given year, the minimum wage was only \$1.60 per hour.
Use the formula f (t) = 1.6ert to predict that minimum wage
will reach \$8.50 per hour provided that the rate of growth in
the minimum wage is 3.9%.
2 Scientific research has shown that the risk of having a car
accident increases exponentially as the concentration of
alcohol in the blood increases. A formula that models the risk
of an accident is
R = 6e12.8a .
In the formula, R represents the chance of risk in percent.
Find the blood alcohol concentration (a) that corresponds to
a 25% risk of a car accident.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exponential decay

Definition
A function defined by the equation of the form

## where B and t are positive constants, is said to describe

exponential decay.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Exponential decay

Definition
A function defined by the equation of the form

## where B and t are positive constants, is said to describe

exponential decay.

y 50
Illustration: 35
B = 50, k = 1% 20
f (x) = 50e−0.01x 5
0 50 100
x

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

What does B, k and f (t) means?

## B is the initial quantity of the substance that will decay

(measured in grams, moles, number of atoms, etc.),

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

What does B, k and f (t) means?

## B is the initial quantity of the substance that will decay

(measured in grams, moles, number of atoms, etc.),
f (t) is the quantity that still remains and has not yet decayed
after time t,

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

What does B, k and f (t) means?

## B is the initial quantity of the substance that will decay

(measured in grams, moles, number of atoms, etc.),
f (t) is the quantity that still remains and has not yet decayed
after time t,
k is the decay constant

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 3.
Nuclear energy derived from radioactive isotopes can be used to
supply power to space vehicles. Suppose that the output of the
radioactive power supply for a certain satellite is given by the
function: g (t) = 30e−0.003t . In the function, g (t) is measured in
watts and t is time in days. After how many days will the output
be reduced to 25 watts?

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 3.
Nuclear energy derived from radioactive isotopes can be used to
supply power to space vehicles. Suppose that the output of the
radioactive power supply for a certain satellite is given by the
function: g (t) = 30e−0.003t . In the function, g (t) is measured in
watts and t is time in days. After how many days will the output
be reduced to 25 watts?
Solution:
Given: g (t) = 30e−0.003t

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 3.
Nuclear energy derived from radioactive isotopes can be used to
supply power to space vehicles. Suppose that the output of the
radioactive power supply for a certain satellite is given by the
function: g (t) = 30e−0.003t . In the function, g (t) is measured in
watts and t is time in days. After how many days will the output
be reduced to 25 watts?
Solution:
Given: g (t) = 30e−0.003t
Find t such that g (t) = 25.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 3.
Nuclear energy derived from radioactive isotopes can be used to
supply power to space vehicles. Suppose that the output of the
radioactive power supply for a certain satellite is given by the
function: g (t) = 30e−0.003t . In the function, g (t) is measured in
watts and t is time in days. After how many days will the output
be reduced to 25 watts?
Solution:
Given: g (t) = 30e−0.003t
Find t such that g (t) = 25.
ln(5/6)
We obtain t = ≈ 60.77 days.
−0.003

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 3 (cont’d).
How much radioactive power supply left at day 40? day 80?

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples

Problem 3 (cont’d).
How much radioactive power supply left at day 40? day 80?

Solution:
We compute g (40) and g (80).
The amount of remaining radioactive power supply at day 40
is g (40) ≈ 26.61 watts.
The amount of remaining radioactive power supply at day 80
is g (80) ≈ 23.60 watts.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Half-life

Definition
Half-life, denoted by t1/2 is the period of time it takes for the
amount of a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Half-life

Definition
Half-life, denoted by t1/2 is the period of time it takes for the
amount of a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.

Remarks:
The name was originally used to describe a characteristic of

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Half-life

Definition
Half-life, denoted by t1/2 is the period of time it takes for the
amount of a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.

Remarks:
The name was originally used to describe a characteristic of
It may apply to any quantity which follows a set-rate decay.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Half-life

Definition
Half-life, denoted by t1/2 is the period of time it takes for the
amount of a substance undergoing decay to decrease by half.

Remarks:
The name was originally used to describe a characteristic of
It may apply to any quantity which follows a set-rate decay.
The original term, dating to 1907, was ”half-life period”,
which was later shortened to ”half-life” in the early 1950s.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Carbon-14 (C-14) dating

## Exponential decay is used in determining the age of artifacts. The

process involves calculating the percentage of carbon-14 that
remains in the artifact.
C-14 decays exponentially with t1/2 ≈ 5715 years.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Carbon-14 (C-14) dating

## Exponential decay is used in determining the age of artifacts. The

process involves calculating the percentage of carbon-14 that
remains in the artifact.
C-14 decays exponentially with t1/2 ≈ 5715 years.
After 5715 years, a given amount of C-14 will have decayed to
half the original amount.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Carbon-14 (C-14) dating

## Exponential decay is used in determining the age of artifacts. The

process involves calculating the percentage of carbon-14 that
remains in the artifact.
C-14 decays exponentially with t1/2 ≈ 5715 years.
After 5715 years, a given amount of C-14 will have decayed to
half the original amount.
Applicable to artifacts whose age is at most 80,000 years old.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Carbon-14 (C-14) dating

## Exponential decay is used in determining the age of artifacts. The

process involves calculating the percentage of carbon-14 that
remains in the artifact.
C-14 decays exponentially with t1/2 ≈ 5715 years.
After 5715 years, a given amount of C-14 will have decayed to
half the original amount.
Applicable to artifacts whose age is at most 80,000 years old.
Artifacts older than 80,000 years do not have enough C-14 to
date age accurately.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Example

Problem 5.
Pre-historic cave paintings were discovered in a cave in France.
The paint contained 12% of the original carbon-14. Estimate the
age of the paintings given that the constant k = 0.000121 for this
half-life.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Example

Problem 5.
Pre-historic cave paintings were discovered in a cave in France.
The paint contained 12% of the original carbon-14. Estimate the
age of the paintings given that the constant k = 0.000121 for this
half-life.
Solution:
Given: k = 0.000121, g (tc ) = 0.12B, tc is present year

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Example

Problem 5.
Pre-historic cave paintings were discovered in a cave in France.
The paint contained 12% of the original carbon-14. Estimate the
age of the paintings given that the constant k = 0.000121 for this
half-life.
Solution:
Given: k = 0.000121, g (tc ) = 0.12B, tc is present year
Find t such that g (t) = g (tc ).

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Example

Problem 5.
Pre-historic cave paintings were discovered in a cave in France.
The paint contained 12% of the original carbon-14. Estimate the
age of the paintings given that the constant k = 0.000121 for this
half-life.
Solution:
Given: k = 0.000121, g (tc ) = 0.12B, tc is present year
Find t such that g (t) = g (tc ).
ln(0.12)
We obtain t = ≈ 17, 523 years.
−k

Exercise

## 1 A city finds its residents moving to the suburbs. Its population

is declining according to this relationship: P = P0 e−0.04t
where P and P0 are expressed in millions. Given that the
original population for the city was 1, 000, 000, how long will
it take for the population to decline to half its initial number?
2 In 1947, earthenware jars containing what are known as the
Dead Sea Scrolls were found. In 2011, analysis showed that
the scroll wrappings contained 76% of their original
carbon-14. Estimate the age of the Dead Sea Scrolls using the
formula A = A0 e−kt , where the decay constant k = 0.000121
for this particular half-life of 5715.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Bounded growth / learning curve
Definition
A function defined by the equation of the form

growth.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Bounded growth / learning curve
Definition
A function defined by the equation of the form

## where A and t are positive constants, is said to describe bounded

growth.

y 60
f (t) = 60(1 − e−0.25t )
50
Illustration: 40
A = 60, k = 0.25;
30
f (x) = 60(1 − e −0.25x )
20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
x
R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
Bounded growth / learning curve

y 60
f (t) = 60(1 − e−0.25t )
50
Illustration: 40
A = 60, k = 0.25;
30
f (x) = 60(1 − e −0.25x )
20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
x

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Bounded growth / learning curve

y 60
f (t) = 60(1 − e−0.25t )
50
Illustration: 40
A = 60, k = 0.25;
30
f (x) = 60(1 − e −0.25x )
20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
x
Remarks:
The graph of the function that describes bounded growth is
sometimes called learning curve.
The function f (x) can represent someone’s competence in
performing a job after x units of time.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Bounded growth / learning curve

y 60
f (t) = 60(1 − e−0.25t )
50
Example: 40
A = 60, k = 0.25;
30
f (x) = 60(1 − e −0.25x )
20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
x

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Bounded growth / learning curve

y 60
f (t) = 60(1 − e−0.25t )
50
Example: 40
A = 60, k = 0.25;
30
f (x) = 60(1 − e −0.25x )
20

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
x
Interpretation:
As his/her experience increases, the competence rapidly increases
and then slows down, since additional experience has little effect
on the skill with which the task is performed.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples
Problem 6.
A typical worker at a certain factory can produce f (t) units of a
certain product per day after t days on the job, where

## f (t) = 50(1 − e−0.34t ).

(a) How many units per day can the worker produce after 7 days
on the job?
(b) How many units per day can the worker eventually be
expected to produce?

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples
Problem 6.
A typical worker at a certain factory can produce f (t) units of a
certain product per day after t days on the job, where

## f (t) = 50(1 − e−0.34t ).

(a) How many units per day can the worker produce after 7 days
on the job?
(b) How many units per day can the worker eventually be
expected to produce?

Solution:
In (a), we compute f (7), that is f (7) ≈ 45.37. Hence, the
worker produces 46 units per day after 7 days.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Examples
Problem 6.
A typical worker at a certain factory can produce f (t) units of a
certain product per day after t days on the job, where

## f (t) = 50(1 − e−0.34t ).

(a) How many units per day can the worker produce after 7 days
on the job?
(b) How many units per day can the worker eventually be
expected to produce?

Solution:
In (a), we compute f (7), that is f (7) ≈ 45.37. Hence, the
worker produces 46 units per day after 7 days.
In (b), f (t) → 50 units/day as t becomes large.
R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
Exercises

## 1 After t hours of practice typing, it was determined that a

certain person could type f (t) words per minute, where
f (t) = 90(1 − e−0.03t ).
(a) Sketch the graph of f (t).
(b) How many words per minute can the person type after 30
hours of practice?
(c) How many words per minute can the person eventually be
expected to type?
2 The resale value of a certain piece of equipment is f (t)
hundred dollars t years after its purchase, where
f (t) = 12 + 80e−0.25t .
(a) Sketch the graph of f (t).
(b) What is the value of the equipment when it is purchased?
(c) What is the value of the equipment 10 years after its purchase?
(d) What is the anticipated scrap value of the equipment after a
long period of time?

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Depreciation
Solution:
y 90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10 f (t) = 12 + 80e−0.25t

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Graph: x

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Depreciation
Solution:
y 90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10 f (t) = 12 + 80e−0.25t

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Graph: x

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Depreciation
Solution:
y 90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10 f (t) = 12 + 80e−0.25t

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Graph: x

## The value of the equipment is 100 × f (0) = 9, 200 dollars.

After 10 years, its value is 100 × f (10) ≈ 1, 856.68 dollars.

## R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

Depreciation
Solution:
y 90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10 f (t) = 12 + 80e−0.25t

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
Graph: x

## The value of the equipment is 100 × f (0) = 9, 200 dollars.

After 10 years, its value is 100 × f (10) ≈ 1, 856.68 dollars.
Its anticipated scrap value is \$ 1,200.00.
R. Lapus Applications of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions