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Choose the word whose underlined part is pronounced differently from that of the others in each line.
A. permanent B. reelection C. development D. research
A. sustainable B. population C. stimulate D. regularity
A. eliminate B. president C. medical D. recognition
A. regulate B. originate C immediate D. integrate
A. announce B. delegation C. respiratory D. approach
Choose the word whose stress pattern is different from the others in each line.
A. maintaining B. rescuing C. exchanging D. nutrition
A vaccination B. sustainable C. provisional D. immediately
A. battling B. mandate (n) C. safety D. research (v)
A. receded B. UNICEF C. ravaging D. sanitary
A. unattended B. unsupported C. advantageous D. educated
Choose the word or phrase which best fits each gap in the following sentences.
11. I have never imagine working for the World Bank………..
A. on a long run B. permanently C. for long time D. for permanent
12. The organization was set up with a clear……….to tackle violent crimes.
A. mandate B. voice C. manner D. control
13. When I said I liked my mother's new hat, it was a……….. I didn't want to upset her.
A. good lie B. kind lie C. white lie D. black lie
14. ……….you have known all the rules, you can start playing the game.
A. Then B. Once C. Therefore D. Until
15. During disasters, emergency……….are provided in time by many international organization.
A. aids B. efforts C. supports D. sufferings
16. The Red Cross all over the world has carried out a lot of……………..
A. jobs B. missions C. work D. responsibilities
17. The clerk was………….dispute………….the boss again.
A. on; with B. in; over C. at; by D. in; with
18. ………….the two climbers continued their trek up the mountain.
A. Because of an approaching storm B. In spite of an approaching storm
C. Although an approaching storm D. Despite a storm was approaching
19. The building work is still on schedule……a problem in digging the foundation.
A. due to B. despite C. so as D. only if
20. Our country is aiming to………….the Asian Sports Games in ten years' time.
A. boss B. manage C. host D. control
21. - “Do you think the book is expensive?
- “Yes, it’s not………….what we paid for it"
A. worthy B. worth of C. worth D. valuable
22. Since Le was so shocked by the sad news, she found herself………….with tears.
A. trembled B. to tremble C. be trembling D. trembling
23. Expressing one’s………….is one skill that the school can realty teach.
A. think B. thoughts C. thoughtfulness D. thoughtlessness
24. During the time I started to get chest pains, I………….tennis a lot.
A. had played B. have played C. would play D. was playing
25. ………..your job application, we regret that the position has been filled.
A. in spite of B. Instead of C. In addition to D. With regard to
Choose the underlined word or phrase in each sentence that needs correcting.
26. That the trees lose their leaves are a sign of winter.
27. When we eventually arrived almost three hours late, the platform was in completely darkness
28. The vacuum tube did an important contribution to the early growth of radio and television.
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29. My computer has an internet connect which gives me access to all sorts of information.
30. Despite the appearance of the Mayan empire, there are still Mayans in the region
that they once inhabited.
V. Read the following text and choose the best answer to each question.
What is meant by the term economic resources? In general, these are all the natural, man-made, and human
resources that go into the production of loads and services. This obviously covers a lot of ground: factories and
farms, tools and machines, transportation and communication facilities, all types of natural resources, and labor.
Economic resources can be broken down into two general categories: property resources - land and capital - and
human resources - labor and entrepreneurial skills.
What do economists mean by land? Much more than the non-economist. Land refers to all natural resources that
are usable in the production process: arable land, forests, mineral and oil deposits, and so on. What about
capital? Capital goods are all the man-made aids to producing, storing, transporting, and distributing goods and
services. Capital goods differ from consumer goods in that the latter satisfy wants directly, while the former do
so directly by facilitating the production of consumer goods. It should be noted that capital as defined here does
not refer to money. Money, as such, produces nothing.
The term labor refers to the physical and mental talents of humans used produce goods or services (with the
exception of a certain set of human talents, entrepreneurial skills, which will be considered separately because
of their special significance). Thus the services of a factory worker or an office worker, a ballet dancer or an
astronaut all fall under the general heading of labor.
31. What is the author's main purpose in writing this passage?
A. To explain the concept of labor.
B. To criticize certain uses of capital.
C. To contrast capital goods and consumer goods.
D. To define economic resources.
32. In the second sentence of paragraph 1, the author uses the expression "This obviously covers a lot of
ground...” to indicate that………….. .
A. the factories and farms discussed in the passage are very large
B. economic resources will be discussed in great depth
C. the topic of economic resources is a broad one
D. land is an important concept in economics
33. When non-economists use the term "land", its definition…………….
A. is much more general than when economists use it
B. is much more restrictive than when economists use it
C. changes from place to place
D. includes all types of natural resources
34. Which of the following could be considered a capital good as defined in the passage?
A railroad B. Money C. Coal deposit D. Human skills
35. The skills of the following could be considered examples of labor, as defined in the passage EXCEPT
A. artists and scientists
B. workers who produce services, not goods
C. office workers
D. entrepreneurs
VI. Choose the correct form of the words in brackets to complete the passage.
The United Nation Volunteers (UNV) programme is the UN organization that contributes to peace and
development through volunteerism worldwide. Volunteerism is a powerful means of 36 (ENGAGE)
………...people in tackling development challenges, and it can transform the pace and nature of 37
(DEVELOP)………...Volunteerism benefits both society at large and the individual volunteer by strengthening

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trust, solidarity and reciprocity among citizens, and by 38 (PURPOSE) ………...creating opportunities for
UNV contributes to peace and development by advocating for 39 (RECOGNIZE) ………...of volunteers,
working with partners to integrate volunteerism into development programming, and 40 (MOBILE)
……… increasing number and diversity of volunteers, including 41 (EXPERIENCE) ………...UN
volunteers throughout the world. UNV embraces volunteerism as 42 (UNIVERSE) ………...and inclusive, and
recognizes engagement and solidarity.
43 (BASE)……… Bonn, Germany, UNV is active in around 130 countries every year. UNV, with Field
Units in 86 countries, is 44 (REPRESENT) ………... worldwide through the offices of the United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) and 45 (REPORT) ……… the UNDP Executive Board.
VII. Choose the best word or phrase to fill in each blank to complete the following passage.
The World Wild Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international (46)…......governmental organization for the (47)
…......research, and restoration of the environment. The organization was (48) … a charitable trust on
September 11, 1961, in Merges, Switzerland, under the name World Wildlife Fund. It was an initiative of Julian
Huxley and Max Nicholson. It is the world’s largest independent conservation organization with over five
million (49) …...... worldwide, working in more (50) ….......90 countries, supporting 100 conservation and
environmental projects around the world. It is a charity, with (51) …......9% of its funding coming from
voluntary (52)… private individuals and businesses.
The group says its mission is “to halt and reverse the (53) …......of our environment". Currently, much of its
work focuses on the conservation of three biomes that contain most of the world’s biodiversity: forests,
freshwater ecosystems, oceans and coasts. Among other issues, it is also concerned (54) …......endangered
species, pollution, and climate changes. The organization (55)…….more than 20 field projects worldwide. In
the last few years, the organization sets up offices and operations around the world.
46. A. non B. not C. no D. nor
47. A. challenge B. keeping C. conservation D. awareness
48. A. produced B. discovered C. used D. formed
49. A. supporters B. residents C. inhabitants D. citizens
50. A. as B. than C. to D. as to
51. A. generally B. individually C. commercially D. approximately
52. A. deposits B. donations C. refunds D. loans
53. A. destroy B. destructive C. destruction D. destroyed
54. A. on B. by C. with D. upon
55. A. goes B. walks C. reaches D. runs
VIII. Choose the correct answer to complete each of the following sentences.
56. When I started work, I was so inexperienced that I couldn't send a fax.
A. I didn’t catch a clue how to send a fax when I started work.
B I didn’t have a clue how to send a fax when I started work.
C. I didn’t catch any clue how to send a fax when I started work.
D. I didn’t see a clue how to send a fax when I started work.
57. You, must never take your helmet off while you are riding a motorcycle.
A. Helmets must be worn the whole times when riding a motorcycle.
B. Helmets must be worn at all time when riding a motorcycle.
C. Helmets must be worn all the times when riding a motorcycle.
D. Helmets must be worn any time at all when riding a motorcycle.
58. Luckily, Peter wasn't charged with an offence when the police caught him stealing the first time.
A. Peter was very lucky because he was let of.
B. Peter was very lucky because he was let across.
C. Peter was very lucky because he was let off.
D. Peter was very lucky because he was free.
59. His daughter continued to cry until he could not be seen any longer.
A. His daughter continued to cry until he was out of sight.
B. His daughter continued to cry until he was out sighted.
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C. His daughter continued to cry until he was out of visibility.
D. His daughter continued to cry until he was out of vision.
60. I'm afraid that car is just too expensive for me.
A That car is out of my ability.
B. That car is beyond my capacity.
C. That car is beyond my means.
D. That car is beyond my expectation.
Fill the gaps with the correct words.
1. Women don't like to be taken for .............................. by their husbands no matter how busy the men are.
2.I think it goes without .............................. that you must love animals if you hope to make a good veterinary
3. Ever since Paula started earning her own money, she's called herself a woman of independent
4. Unfortunately, we have been at the .............................. of the weather. We can't go on climbing until the
heavy snowfall subsides.
5. The doctors didn't make any special selection. They chose a few patients at .............................. for their
experimental treatment.
6. It's much better for the children that we have bought a house in the .......................... of their school. Now,
they won't have to waste time waiting for their schoolbus.
7. Don't worry, everybody will get a free ticket for the concert. They are in .............................. in our studio.
8. The defence minister lost .............................. with the public after his controversial past was revealed.
9. My sister won't go out after dark. She is so timid that she’s afraid of her own
10. It's pointless to declare war on a country which has many thousands of skilled soldiers
11. Tommy, stop being so impatient. You'll be allowed to drive your own car in due
12. We all lauged like a .............................. when Simon told us about his adventures in the amusement park.
13. I'm curious whether the desserts that the chief has prepared will be to our guests'
14. There's only one fault in my husband's character. He is so overcome with his job that he keeps talking
.............................. even on Sundays.
15. Ronald has been trying to learn to operate the conveyor belt, but he hasn't got the .............................. of it
Fill in the gap with prepositions given
1. Please, take this money as a token of my great gratitude .............................. saving my life.
2. The mechanic was most kind and repaired my carburettor .............................. no time at all.
3. We don't need any extra supplies, we can do with those we have .............................. store.
4. The court has sentenced the two men .............................. exile for spying .............................. the military
bases in the country.
5. The farmers* hopes .............................. any better weather faded away after they had heard the forecast for
the weeks to come.
6. Their political opinions have always been .............................. harmony with ours and therefore we have been
getting on so well.
7. The Greenpeace movement is going to launch another campaign .............................. whaling.
8. She is too weak .............................. mathematics to ever pass the exam. She won't succeed
even.............................. her hundredth attempt.
9. Are you still ............................ an illusion that Mr Spike will agree to your conditions?

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10. He said he wouldn't be able to turn up .............................. person, and so he would have to send his deputy
to the conference.
11. We can safely trust Iris. She is .............................. the know about everything that happens on the Stock
12. Andrew is a draftsman .............................. profession, but he works as a clerk at the post office.
13. You cannot expect absolute obedience .............................. Tommy. He's still a teenager full of wild ideas.
14. The code says people under eighteen aren't eligible .............................. membership in the party.
15. Bob, don't be cruel and stop mocking .............................. the way Lucy pronounces French words.
Choose the best answer whose meaning is closest to the one in bold
1. British mystery writer Phyllis James White never received a rejection slip from any publishers for any
of her novels.
A. Publishers never turned down the manuscripts of Phyllis James White, a British mystery writer.
B. The publishers were eagerly awaiting the manuscripts of Phyllis James White, a British mystery writer.
C. Phyllis James White, a British mystery writer, refused to send her manuscripts to a publisher who had even
one rejected her.
D. The British mystery writer Phyllis James White wrote so well that hardly any publishers turned her
manuscripts down.
2. While recycling has caught the public imagination, reducing waste has attracted much less attention.
A. Using things again is the best way to reduce the amount of rubbish.
B. People are more interested in recovery and reuse than in creating less rubbish.
C. It is not generally known that reducing waste is more effective than recycling.
D. Recycling is not necessarily the best way of reducing waste, according to the public.
3. She seems pleased with her results, but I'm not so happy with mine,
A. I expected higher results than her, but unfortunately, I was disappointed.
B. Although she was more pleased with her results than I was with mine, her£ weren’t actually any better.
C. She is quite happy about her results, but I wouldn’t be if I were her.
D. I’m less pleased with my results than she is with hers, with which she appears to be happy.
4. Most of the public believes that cancer is caused by toxic substances,
A. Most of the population thinks that poisonous substances play a role in the increase in cancer cases.
B. It is generally believed that poisonous chemicals are the main factor in the development of cancer.
C. The majority of the population is of the opinion that poisonous substances are the reason behind the
development of cancer.
D. The fact that toxic chemicals cause cancerous tumours in the human body is well-known among the public.
5. The project required for graduation will take up most of our time in our final year.
A. We will have plenty of time in our final year because we only have to do our graduation project.
B. If we didn’t have to do a compulsory project, we would have plenty of time to do other things before
C. We have to do a project in order to graduate, and it is keeping us very busy.
D. The project that we must do in order to graduate will leave us with little time in our final year.
6. Since the match on Sunday is so popular, it was wise of you to buy our tickets in advance.
A. There are not many matches as popular as this one, so it will be very crowded on Sunday, thus I’m glad
you've already bought our tickets.
B. Due to the popularity of the game, we bought our tickets for Sunday in advance, which was clever of us.
C. You acted intelligently by buying our tickets for Sunday’s game beforehand, as there is such a great demand
for it.
D. It would be intelligent to buy our tickets before Sunday, as it is a very popular match and we may not be able
to find tickets then.
7. You ought to think harder about what you want to study before you make your choice, so that you can
make the most of your future.
A. In order to have the best chance for your future, you shouldn’t decide until you’ve thought about what you
want to study more.

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B. You should think about what you want to study, but don t choose anything until you have also thought about
its relevance to your future.
C. So as not to regret your choice in the future, don’t make a hasty decision about what you want to study.
D. If what you want to study does not provide a good future for you, then you should think harder about the
relevance of your choice.
8. In spite of the positive reviews in the newspapers, sales of the novel were disappointing,
A. If the novel hadn’t been so positively reviewed, the people buying it wouldn’t have been as dissatisfied.
B. While the novel had been given good reviews, those who bought it were disappointed.
C. Fewer novels than anticipated were sold, although it had been well-praised in the newspapers.
D. Because the novel received such good reviews, it sold out quickly and many people were unable to buy it.
9. They have to postpone the search until the weather improves
A. As the weather was bad, they couldn’t go on with the search, and had to wait until it improved.
B. They can’t continue with the search before the weather gets better.
C. They don’t think it’s a good idea to continue with the search before there's an improvement in the weather.
D. They are planning to go on with the search if the weather becomes good enough.
10. Her paintings are quite lovely, but still, she hasn't sold a lot of them.
A. Since her paintings are so beautiful, she ought to manage to sell a lot of them.
B. She would surely sell more of her paintings if only they were a bit more lovely.
C. Although her paintings are rather lovely, she has decided to sell only a few of them.
D.Not a lot other paintings have been bought, despite the fact that they are rather beautiful.
Choose the best answer
1. The prisoners were prevented from speaking to reporters because_______
A. not wanting the story in the papers B. the story in the papers the superintendent did not want
C. the public to hear the story D. the superintendent did not want the story in the papers
2. _______ off the Hawaiian coastline are living, others are dead.
A. Some types of coral reefs B. There are many types of coral reefs
C. Coral reefs D. While some types of coral reefs
3. Elephants scratch themselves with sticks _________
A. holding in their trunks B. in their trunks holding
C. held in their trunks D. hold in their trunks
4. Having been asked to speak at the convention, _________.
A. some notes were prepared for Dr. Casagrande
B. Dr. Casagrande prepared some notes
C. the convention members were pleased to hear Dr. Casagrande
D. some notes were prepared by Dr. Casagrande
5. The artist was asked to show some paintings at the contest because_________
A. he painted very good B. they be1ieved he painted well
C. of their belief that he was an good artist D. the judges had been told his talents
Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following
6. Management _____________ as the organization and coordination of an enterprise.
A. to be defined B. it is defined C. definable D. can be defined
7. I’m afraid a rise in salary is _____________ just now.
A. out of sight B. out of control C. out of the question D. out of date
8. The overall efficiency of a system can be _____________ that of its weakest element.
A. no greater than B. less greater C. nothing as great as D. not the greater
9. Deserts produce less than 0, 5 grams of plant growth _________ from every square yard.
A. the day B. some day C. one day D. a day
10. At an experimental agricultural station, many types of grass are grown _____________ various condition.

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A. under B. underneath C. below D. beneath
11. The saturated fat in daily foods is thought _____________ a factor in heart disease.
A. it is B. to be C. they are D. as being
12. The more distant a star happens to be, the dimmer_____________.
A. that seems to us B. seems to us C. seeming to us D. it seems to us
13. _____________ the sense of smell can provide us with important signals; it is not nearly as useful as
A. Although B. However C. Still D. Despite
14. Although Yosemite National Park is open all the year, ______ come during the summer.
A. For the largest crowds B. and the largest crowds
C. the largest crowds D. but the largest crowds
15. _____________ glaciers of the world occupy about 10 percent of the total land area.
A. As the B. The C. It is the D. There are
16. _____________, Elias Howe of Massachusetts constructed a sewing machine, upon which improvements
shortly were made by Isaac Singer.
A. It was in 1864 B. In 1864 he was C. In 1864 D. In 1864 was
17. - A. Could I have an early morning call, at 6.30? - B. ____________________
A. No. thanks B. I will C. Yes, certainly D. No, that’s all
18. It’s difficult to pay one’s bill when prices keep _____________.
A. rising B. growing C. gaining D. raising
19. Fog was caused by the cooling of air until its water vapor condenses _____________ microscopic waste
droplets or ice crystals.
A. forms B. to be formed C. to form D. forming
20. Hydrocarbons, _____________ by engine exhausts, react with nitrogen oxides in the presence of sunlight to
form complex toxic gases.
A. are given off B. given off C. give off D. they are given off
21. “My daughter, Mary, tries to _____________ to see me at least once a week,” Mrs. Jones told the social
A. call up B. go up C. come on D. drop in
22. _____________ its outstanding hardness, the less valuable forms of the diamond are used by industry in the
manufacture of cutting tools.
A. Because of B. Beyond C. Such as D. In spite of
23. - “Do you mind if I ask you one or two questions?” - “ .”
A. Not at all. Fire away. B. Why not?
C. That’s quite all right. D. I’m sorry. I have no idea.
24. Noise is known _____________ constriction of the smaller arteries.
A. causing B. cause C. causes D. to cause
25. Christopher Sholes, a printer, developed a typewriter _____________ first sold by the Remington Arms
Company in 1875.
A. it was B. that it was C. that has been D. that was
26. Calcium is not only found in dairy produce ___________ found in many dark green vegetables.
A. that is also B. and is also C. but is also D. also it is
27. __________ gold, silver, copper, and platinum, nuggets of pure iron are rarely found in nature.
A. As unlike B. Unlike the C. Unlike D. Unlikely
28. - A. Thank you for a lovely evening. - B. ______________
A. Don’t mention it B. I’m glad you enjoyed it
C. Yes, I’d like that D. Yes, that would be very nice
29. Beef cattle ________ of all livestock for economic growth in certain geographic regions.

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A. the most are important B. are the most important
C. the most important are D. that are the most important
30. Computers that once took up entire rooms are now __________ to put on desktops and into wristwatches.
A. small enough B. smaller than C. so small D. as small as
31. _____________ the wet weather, the football match went ahead.
A. Although B. Owing to C. However D. In spite of
32. _____________ what did you say this new development project was all about?
A. By surprise B. By all means C. By yourself D. By the way
33. Hardly ever _____________ get a good job these days without a good education.
A. people might B. do people C. people can D. have people
34. It takes a great deal of _____________ for the class to make a trip abroad.
A. arrangement B. organization C. expense D. business
35. - A. Hello, John. Welcome to London! It’s good to meet you. - B. ___________
A. Me, too. B. It’s good to be here at last.
C. Thank you D. Same to you.
Read the passage and answer the following questions
The sculptural legacy that the new United States inherited from its colonial predecessors was far from a rich
one, and in fact, in 1776 sculpture as an art form was still in the hands of artisans and craftspeople. Stone
carvers engraved their motifs of skulls and crossbones and other religious icons of death into the gray slabs that
we still see standing today in old burial grounds. Some skilled craftspeople made intricately carved wooden
ornamentations for furniture or architectural decorations, while others caved wooden shop signs and ships'
figureheads. Although they often achieved expression and formal excellence in their generally primitive style,
they remained artisans skilled in the craft of carving and constituted a group distinct from what we
normally think of as "sculptors" in today's use of the word.
On the rare occasion when a fine piece of sculpture was desired, Americans turned to foreign sculptors, as in
the 1770's when the cities of New York and Charleston, South Carolina, commissioned the Englishman Joseph
Wilton to make marble statues of William Pitt. Wilton also made a lead equestrian image of King George III
that was created in New York in 1770 and torn down by zealous patriots six years later. A few marble
memorials with carved busts, urns, or other decorations were produced in England and brought to the colonies
to be set in the walls of churches-as in King's Chapel in Boston. But sculpture as a high art, practiced by artists
who knew both the artistic theory of their Renaissance-Baroque-Rococo predecessors and the various technical
procedures of modeling, casting, and carving rich three-dimensional forms, was not known among Americans
in 1776. Indeed, for many years thereafter, the United States had two groups from which to choose - either the
local craftspeople or the imported talent of European sculptors.
The eighteenth century was not one in which powered sculptural conceptions were developed. Add to this the
timidity with which unschooled artisans - originally trained as stonemasons, carpenters, or cabinetmakers -
attacked the medium from which they sculpture made in the United States in the late eighteenth century.
1. What is the main idea of the passage?
(A) There was great demand for the work of eighteenth-century artisans.
(B) Skilled sculptors did not exist in the United States in the 1770's.
(C) Many foreign sculptors worked in the United States after 1776.
(D) American sculptors were hampered by a lack of tools and materials.
2. The word "motifs" in line 3 is closest in meaning to
(A) tools (B) prints (C) signatures (D) designs
3. The work of which of the following could be seen in burial grounds?
(A) European sculptors (B) Carpenters (C) Stone carves (D) Cabinetmakers
4. The word "other" in line 6 refers to
(A) craftspeople (B) decorations (C) ornamentations (D) shop signs
5. The word "distinct" in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) separate (B) assembled (C) notable (D) inferior

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6. The word "rare" in line 11 is closest in meaning to
(A) festive (B) infrequent (C) delightful (D) unexpected
7. Why does the author mention Joseph Wilton in line 13?
(A) He was an English sculptor who did work in the United States.
(B) He was well known for his wood carvings
(C) He produced sculpture for churches.
(D) He settled in the United States in 1776.
8. What can be inferred about the importation of marble memorials from England?
(A) Such sculpture was less expensive to produce locally than to import
(B) Such sculpture was not available in the United States.
(C) Such sculpture was as prestigious as those made locally.
(D) The materials found abroad were superior.
9. How did the work of American carvers in 1776 differ from that of contemporary sculptors?
(A) It was less time-consuming (B) It was more dangerous.
(C) It was more expensive. (D) It was less refined.
Large animals that inhabit the desert have evolved a number of adaptations for reducing the effects of extreme
heat. One adaptation is to be light in color, and to reflect rather than absorb the Sun's rays. Desert mammals also
depart from the normal mammalian practice of maintaining a constant body temperature. Instead of trying to
keep down the body temperature deep inside the body, which would involve the expenditure of water and
energy, desert mammals allow their temperatures to rise to what would normally be fever height, and
temperatures as high as 46 degrees Celsius have been measured in Grant's gazelles. The overheated body then
cools down during the cold desert night, and indeed the temperature may fall unusually low by dawn, as low as
34 degrees Celsius in the camel. This is an advantage since the heat of the first few hours of daylight is
absorbed in warming up the body, and an excessive buildup of heat does not begin until well into the day.
Another strategy of large desert animals is to tolerate the loss of body water to a
point that would be fatal for non-adapted animals. The camel can lose up to 30 percent of its body weight as
water without harm to itself, whereas human beings die after losing only 12 to 13 percent of their body weight.
An equally important adaptation is the ability to replenish this water loss at one drink. Desert animals can drink
prodigious volumes in a short time, and camels have been known to imbibe over 100 liters in a few minutes. A
very dehydrated person, on the other hand, cannot drink enough water to rehydrate at one session, because the
human stomach is not sufficiently big and because a too rapid dilution of the body fluids causes death from
water intoxication.
The tolerance of water loss is of obvious advantage in the desert, as animals do not have to remain near a water
hole but can obtain food from grazing sparse and far-flung pastures. Desert-adapted mammals have the further
ability to feed normally when extremely dehydrated, it is a common experience in people that appetite is lost
even under conditions of moderate thirst.
1. What is the main topic of the passage?
(A) Weather variations in the desert (B) Adaptations of desert animals
(C) Diseased of desert animals (D) Human use of desert animals.
2. According to the passage, why is light coloring an advantage to large desert animals?
(A) It helps them hide from predators.
(B) It does not absorb sunlight as much as dark colors.
(C) It helps them see their young at night
(D) It keeps them cool at night.
3. The word "maintaining" in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A) measuring (B) inheriting (C) preserving (D) delaying
4. The author uses of Grant's gazelle as an example of
(A) an animal with a low average temperature
(B) an animal that is not as well adapted as the camel
(C) a desert animal that can withstand high body temperatures
(D) a desert animal with a constant body temperature
5. When is the internal temperature of a large desert mammal lower?
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(A) Just before sunrise (B) In the middle of the day
(C) Just after sunset (D) Just after drinking
6. The word "tolerate" in line 13 is closest in meaning to
(A) endure (B) replace (C) compensate (D) reduce
7. What causes water intoxication?
(A) Drinking too much water very quickly (B) Drinking polluted water
(C) Bacteria in water (D) Lack of water.
8. What does the author imply about desert-adapted mammals?
(A) They do not need to eat much food. (B) They can eat large quantities quickly
(C) They easily lose their appetites. (D) They can travel long distances looking for food.
9. Why does the author mention humans in the second paragraph?
(A) To show how they use camels. (B) To contrast them to desert mammals.
(C) To give instructions about desert survival. (D) To show how they have adapted to desert life.
10. The word "obtain" in line 23 is closest in meaning to
(A) digest (B) carry (C) save (D) get
11. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an adaptation of large desert animals?
(A) Variation in body temperatures (B) Eating while dehydrated
(C) Drinking water quickly (D) Being active at night.


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