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Doppler ultrasonography has proven to be an invaluable obstetric tool for over 30 years.

1 It can be used
to assess both the fetal and placental circulation, with the aim of facilitating the diagnosis and
monitoring of important conditions, such as fetal
growth restriction (FGR), fetal
anaemia and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS).
More recently, Doppler has been applied to the screening for conditions such as
aneuploidy and pre-eclampsia.3 Commonly used Doppler assessment in
obstetrics encompasses that of the umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery
(MCA), uterine artery and ductus venosus (DV). More specialised and uncommonly
performed Dopplers include that of the umbilical vein (UV), aortic isthmus and atrioventricular valve

Doppler ultrasonography has proven to be an invaluable obstetric tool for over 30 years.1 It can be used
to assess both the fetal and placental circulation, with the aim of facilitating the diagnosis and
monitoring of important conditions, such as fetal
growth restriction (FGR), fetal
anaemia and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS).
More recently, Doppler has been applied to the screening for conditions such as
aneuploidy and pre-eclampsia.3 Commonly used Doppler assessment in
obstetrics encompasses that of the umbilical artery (UA), middle cerebral artery
(MCA), uterine artery and ductus venosus (DV). More specialised and uncommonly
performed Dopplers include that of the umbilical vein (UV), aortic isthmus and atrioventricular valve

Embryoscopy and fetoscopy are techniques that render the developing embryo/fetus and its
environment accessible to the “outside” world, which includes diagnosis and, potentially,
therapy. Embryocopy and fetoscopy, sometimes referred to as embryofetoscopy, uses high-
resolution fiber optic equipment for direct visualization of the embryo/fetus. This has been used
to identify developmental milestones from weeks 4 to 8 after conception. With this technique, it
has been possible to identify anomalies and confirm those previously diagnosed by ultrasound.
Its application has generally included the first and early second trimester of pregnancy for
prenatal diagnosis in continuing pregnancies. In addition, fetal blood sampling has also been
successfully performed experimentaly with this technology, extending its potential applications
into the realm of fetal therapy. Futute applications for embryofetoscopy include therapeutic
interventions such as gene or cell therapy

Embryoscopy and fetoscopy are techniques that render the


developing embryo/fetus and its environment accessible to
the “outside” world, which includes diagnosis and,
potentially, therapy. Embryocopy and fetoscopy, sometimes
referred to as embryofetoscopy, uses high-resolution fiber
optic equipment for direct visualization of the embryo/fetus

INDICATIONS
1 ) to identify developmental milestones from weeks 4 to 8 after conception
2) to identify anomalies and confirm those previously diagnosed by
ultrasound
3 ) fetal blood sampling has also been successfully performed
experimentaly with this technology, extending its potential
applications into the realm of fetal therapy.\

Folic acid is a pregnancy superhero! Taking


a prenatal vitamin with
the recommended 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic
acid before and during pregnancy can help prevent
birth defects including serious neural tube defects
such as spinal bifida, encephalocele (rarely),
and anencephaly
Is Excess Folic Acid During
Pregnancy Harmful For The Baby?

Excess folic acid may harm your baby by causing


nervous damage (leading to autism), insulin
resistance, obesity, or cognitive impairment. It
may also increase risks of mammary tumors in the
to-be mom. Daily recommended supplement
intake of folic acid for pregnant women is 400–
800 mcg. Folic acid available in natural form in
dark green leafy veggies, fruits, nuts, and beans is
not harmful.
The HbA1c is independent of accurate glucose
detection, the acute change in blood glucose and
the interval between prior meal and HbA1c
detection. In addition, HbA1c detection has good
repeatability, and is stable and not influenced by
the time of blood collection, fasting status and use
of insulin.
Healthy pregnant women have lower HbA1c concentrations
than nonpregnant women and the internationally accepted
levels of good control for diabetic pregnant women (< 7%
(53.0 mmol/mol)) may be too high.
In women with pre-existing diabetes before conception are
attempted, HbA1c target below 6.1% is recommended by National
Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) [8], < 7% by
American Diabetes Association (ADA) [9]. Women with diabetes
whose HbA1c is above 10% should be strongly advised to avoid
pregnancy

HAPO study showed that associations with adverse


outcomes were significantly stronger with glucose
measures than with HbA1c and the findings suggest that
Hba1c measurement is not a useful alternative to an
OGTT in pregnant women
The sensitivity of HbA1c in the diagnosis of DM is relatively low when
compared with OGTT, and thus normal HbA1c may not be used to
exclude DM or pre-DM. Thus, OGTT is still a golden standard in the
diagnosis of GDM.
Pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction, placental abruption,
and recurrent miscarriage are common placenta-mediated
pregnancy complications. They have overlapping pathological
features including deficient placentation, microvascular
thrombosis, placental infarction, and an association with
thrombophilia,1–3 implicating coagulation activation as a
disease mechanism. Low molecular weight heparin
appears to be as safe as unfractionated heparin in
pregnancy, with longer-lasting effects and reduced
need for monitoring. LMWH does not cross the
placenta—a major advantage over warfarin
for anticoagulation during pregnancy. 5

Using oral misoprostol to induce labour is


effective at achieving vaginal birth. It is more
effective than placebo, as effective as vaginal
misoprostol and vaginal dinoprostone, and
results in fewer caesarean sections than using
oxytocin alone.
Human Wharton's Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Human wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells are isolated from a single donor
umbilical cord. The cord is dissected to remove blood vessels and preserve the
substance between the vessels, which is the wharton's jelly. The wharton's jelly is then
digested enzymatically, plated and passed thrice to yield a homogenous population.
Unlike other MSC populations, these cells are slower growing and cannot be grown to
extremely high densities. These cells are well suited to differentiate into hepatocyte like
cells.
\

Babies do not get enough vitamin K from their


mothers during pregnancy, or when they are
breast feeding. Without vitamin K, they are at
risk of getting a rare disorder called
'vitamin K deficiency bleeding' (VKDB).
The quad screen test is a maternal blood screening test that
looks for four specific substances: AFP, hCG, Estriol, and
Inhibin-A.
AFP: alpha-fetoprotein is a protein that is produced by the
fetus
hCG: human chorionic gonadotropin is a hormone produced
within the placenta
Estriol: estriol is an estrogen produced by both the fetus and
the placenta
Inhibin-A: inhibin-A is a protein produced by the placenta and
ovaries
Stem cells are cells from which other types of cells can develop. These can potentially be used to
replenish supplies of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and possibly many other different types
of cells in the body. The blood flowing from the placenta through a baby’s umbilical cord contains a large

amount of stem cells

3D ultrasound refers specifically to the volume rendering of ultrasound data and is also referred to as
4D (3-spatial dimensions plus 1-time dimension) when it involves a series of 3D volumes collected
over time.

A new angiographic approach for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage

Emerged over the last 30 years.

Uterine arterial embolization is done under fluoroscopicguidance

It isis effective but requires experienced personnel and facilities.

It can be used as an elective, prophylactic measure in a known or suspected case

of placenta accreta

Ventouse, also known as vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery or vacuum extraction (VE), is a


method to assist delivery of a baby ... When the baby's head is delivered, the device is
detached
Water birth is childbirth that occurs in water. Proponents believe water birth results in a more
relaxed, less painful experience

Diagnostic X-rays, such as dental X-rays and chest X-rays, are now
considered safe for pregnant women. .

.. The amount of radiation that reaches the baby during a typical X-ray is very low.
Even a diagnostic X-ray abdomen is unlikely to expose
the baby to enough radiation to be harmful.
Avoid forward bending asanas (strong back bends, such as the boat pose), inverted poses and
exercises that might put pressure on the abdomen. Asanas that require lying down on the
weight of your stomach should be strictly avoided