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RATIFICATION PAGE

Complete report of Human Anatomy and physiology practicum with title


“Measuring Volume and Capacity of the Lung” that arranged by:
Name : Jeny Ayu Hardiah Ningrum
ID : 1114040162
Group : III (Three)
Class : ICP A
After checked by assistant and assistant coordinator so this report was
accepted.

th
Makassar, July 2014
Assistant Coordinator, Assistant,

( Firdaus S.Pd ) ( Firdaus S.Pd )


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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background
Inspired and expired lung volumes measured by spirometers are
useful for detecting, characterizing and quantifying the severity of lung
disease. Measurements of absolute lung volumes, residual volume (RV),
functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity (TLC) are
technically more challenging, which limits their use in clinical practice.
The role of lung volume measurements in the assessment of disease
severity, functional disability, course of disease and response to treatment
remains to be determined in infants, as well as in children and adults.
Nevertheless, in particular circumstances, measurements of lung volume
are strictly necessary for a correct physiological diagnosis.
Every action that increases the volume of the chest cavity also
increases the lung volume, because adhesion on the cavity walls.
Extensional ribs in the process occurs as in reptilian and in birds, but in
mammals (including humans) the action is heightened by the contraction
of the diaphragm. Contraction of the diaphragm makes a flat diaphragm,
resulting in an increase in the volume of the chest cavity which further
stretched lungs and air flow into. When the diaphragm is loose, return to
the previous position of the lungs back to the original size, and the village
chest out. Lung function is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide
gas. On breathing through the lungs or respiratory externa, free of oxygen
through the nose and mouth, the breathing time; oxygen entering through
the trachea and bronchial pipes into the alveoli, and may close relationship
ith blood in pulmonary capillaries.
After see the based theory, we think can not understand if only read
the theory so we can do experiment with the title is “Measuring Volume
and Capacity of the Lung”
B. Purpose
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The purpose of this experiment is collegian to find out respiration


volume on man and woman based on their activity
C. Benefit
The Benefit of this experiment is collegian can find out respiration
volume on man and woman based on their activity

CHAPTER II
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PREVIEW OF LITERATURE

Inspiration (or inhalation) and expiration (or exhalation) are dependent on


the differences in pressure between the atmosphere and the lungs. In a gas,
pressure is a force created by the movement of gas molecules that are confined.
For example, a certain number of gas molecules in a two-liter container has more
room than the same number of gas molecules in a one-liter container (Figure
22.15). In this case, the force exerted by the movement of the gas molecules
against the walls of the two-liter container is lower than the force exerted by the
gas molecules in the one-liter container. Therefore, the pressure is lower in the
two-liter container and higher in the one-liter container. At a constant temperature,
changing the volume occupied by the gas changes the pressure, as does changing
the number of gas molecules. Boyle’s law describes the relationship between
volume and pressure in a gas at a constant temperature. Boyle discovered that the
pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume: If volume increases,
pressure decreases. Likewise, if volume decreases, pressure increases. Pressure
and volume are inversely related (P = k/V). (Bill, 2003: 988).
Pulmonary ventilation comprises two major steps: inspiration and
expiration. Inspiration is the process that causes air to enter the lungs, and
expiration is the process that causes air to leave the lungs. A respiratory cycle is
one sequence of inspiration and expiration. In general, two muscle groups are
used during normal inspiration: the diaphragm and the external intercostal
muscles. Additional muscles can be used if a bigger breath is required. When the
diaphragm contracts, it moves inferiorly toward the abdominal cavity, creating a
larger thoracic cavity and more space for the lungs. Contraction of the external
intercostal muscles moves the ribs upward and outward, causing the rib cage to
expand, which increases the volume of the thoracic cavity. Due to the adhesive
force of the pleural fluid, the expansion of the thoracic cavity forces the lungs to
stretch and expand as well. This increase in volume leads to a decrease in intra-
alveolar pressure, creating a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure. As a result,
a pressure gradient is created that drives air into the lungs (Bill, 2003: 991).
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The term ‘‘lung volume’’ usually refers to the volume of gas within the
lungs, as measured by body plethysmography, gas dilution or washout. In contrast,
lung volumes derived from conventional chest radiographs are usually based on
thevolumes within the outlines of the thoracic cage, and include the volume of
tissue (normal and abnormal), as well as the lung gas volume. Lung volumes
derived from computed tomography (CT) scans can include estimates of abnormal
lung tissue volumes, in addition to normal lung tissue volumes and the volume of
gas within the lungs. In this statement, previously accepted definitions will be
used (fig. 1) [14–18]. The FRC is the volume of gas present in the lung at
endexpiration during tidal breathing. The expiratory reserve volume (ERV) is the
volume of gas that can be maximally exhaled from the end-expiratory level during
tidal breathing (i.e. from the FRC). The maximum volume of gas that can be
inspired from FRC is referred to as the inspiratory capacity (IC). The inspiratory
reserve volume is the maximum volume of gas that can be inhaled from the end-
inspiratory level during tidal breathing. RV refers to the volume of gas remaining
in the lung after maximal exhalation (regardless of the lung volume at which
exhalation was started) (Wanger, 2005: 512).

FIGURE 1.Static lung volumes and capacities based on a volume–time spirogram


of an inspiratory vital capacity (IVC). IRV: inspiratory reserve volume; VT: tidal
volume (TV); ERV: expiratory reserve volume; RV: residual volume; IC:
inspiratory capacity; FRC: functional residual capacity; TLC: total lung capacity
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The volume of gas inhaled or exhaled during the respiratory cycle is called
the tidal volume (TV or VT). The thoracic gas volume (TGV orVTG) is the
absolute volume of gas in the thorax at any point in time and any level of alveolar
pressure. Since this term is too nonspecific, it is recommended that its use should
be discontinued and replaced with more specific terminology, for example,
plethysmographic lung volume (abbreviated atVL,pleth), and FRC by body
plethysmography or TGV at FRC (FRCpleth). TLC refers to the volume of gas in
the lungs after maximal inspiration, or the sum of all volume compartments
(Wanger, 2005: 512).
Lung volume (LV) measurements provide useful information about the
overall lung function that can be fundamental in categorizing and staging
pulmonary diseases (1). Although vital capacity (VC; the amount of air expired or
inspired between maximum inspiration and expiration) and its subdivisions can be
readily measured with simple spirometry, residual volume (RV; the volume of air
remaining in the lungs after maximal expiration), by definition, cannot.
Measurement of RV allows functional residual capacity (FRC; the amount of air
in the lungs at the end-tidal position) and total lung capacity (TLC; the amount of
air in the chest after a maximum inspiration) to be derived by combination with
the appropriate subdivisions of VC (Neder, 1999, 703).
Reference values for pulmonary function tests are rather complex: there
are several potential sources of variability ranging from individual characteristics
(gender, age, body size, race, level of regular physical activity, circadian rhythms)
to environmental (socioeconomical status, exposures, altitude, smoking history)
and technical aspects (posture, instrumentation, technique). Although it seems that
much of this variability can be explained by the high degree of multi-colinearity
among those factors, it is noteworthy that up to 20% of the total variability among
populations cannot be explained at all (Neder, 1999, 704).

CHAPTER III
PRACTICUM METHOD
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A. Time and Place


Day / Date : Tuesday /June 27th 2014
Time : at 11.20 A.M until 01.00 P.M
Place : Biology laboratory of the 3th floor at FMIPA UNM
B. Tools and Material
1. Tools
a. Spirometers
2. Materials
a. Water
b. Probandus
c. Cotton
d. Tissue
e. Alcohol
C. Work procedure
1. Filled with water the spirometer until specified limits
2. Cleaned the brass nozzle by alcohol
3. Controlled whole of spirometer, especially air shelter
4. Measured tidal volume by usually breathing
5. Measured Inspiration reserve volume (IRV), done a powerful inspiration
and normal expiration which measured reserves of inspiration and tidal
volume
6. Measured Expiratory reserve volume (ERV), done the normal expiration
and strong expiration
7. Measured Inspiration capacity, done strongest inspiration and normal
expiration
8. Measured vital capacity, done strongest and expiration

CHAPTER IV
OBSERVATION RESULT

A. Observation result
Group of data
Nu. Probandus M/F Age Body Volume (L)
position TV IRV ERV IC VC
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1 Jeny F 20 Stand 0,5 1,0 1,0 2,3 2,0


2 Ayu F 21 Stand 0,5 0,5 2,0 1,3 1,0
3 Dian F 20 Stand 0,5 0,6 1,5 1,5 2,0
4 Ninda F 20 Stand 0,5 1,5 2,0 2,0 1,8
Notes:
TV : Tidal Volume
IRV : Inspiratory reserve volume
ERV : Expiratory reserve volume
IC : Inspiration Capacity
VC : Vital capacity
B. Data Analysis
Total Lung capacity = VC + RV (1,0 L)
1. Jeny
TLC = VC + RV (1,0 L)
TLC = 2,0 + 1,0
TLC = 3,0 L
2. Ayu
TLC = VC + RV (1,0 L)
TLC = 1,0 + 1,0
TLC = 2,0 L
3. Dian
TLC = VC + RV (1,0 L)
TLC = 2,0 + 1,0
TLC = 3,0 L
4. Ninda
TLC = VC + RV (1,0 L)
TLC = 1,8 + 1,0
TLC = 2,8 L
C. Discussion
Based on observation we using spirometer to find the respiratory volume
of probandus, in my group we using four female probandus with same position
and we using 5 treatment are:
1. Tidal volume (normal breathing). The data showed all probandus have
tidal volume 0,5 L, its same with the theory Guyton (1991) that the tidal
volume is the volume of air inspired and expiration, every done normal
breathing, and the number is approximately 500 ml
2. Inspiration reserve volume (IRV), done a powerful inspiration and normal
expiration which measured reserves of inspiration and tidal volume, the
highest data is 1,5 and the lowest data is 0,5, very different, but according
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to the theory Inspiration reserve volume as 1500 ml, The data same with
theory although many probandus have the data below that, maybe it
caused by different age and sex of probandus, based on Kimball (1999)
the breathing is affected by the sex, man has a high respiratory volume
than women because men make the activity more than women so much air
that inspired and that expiratory.
3. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV), done the normal expiration and strong
expiration, the volume as 1500ml, based on the data the highest 2,0 and
lowest 1,0, although highest data through the limits maybe it caused by the
tool not good so the data wrong
4. Inspiration capacity, done strongest inspiration and normal expiration, the
volume as 3500ml, the highest is 2,3 L and its different if IRV+ TV, the
result as 1,5 L, and the lowest as 1,3, but if using formula we get 3,1L
different with the observation, maybe caused the tools not good so the data
wrong,
5. Vital capacity, done strongest and expiration, based on the data the highest
as 2,0 and based on the theory to get it we added IRV+TV+ERV and
suppose that found as 2,5 and the lowest is 1,0 , using formula we get
3,0L, different with the observation, maybe caused the tools not good so
the data wrong,
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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion
After doing in this experiment, we can know the volume of man and
woman influenced by the activity, like sit, stand, and not only that, body
shape, age, sex and the body position also influence the volume and capacity
of the lung.
B. Suggestion
1. Suggestion for Assistant
I hope assistant can give information and directive about experiment
2. Suggestion for the all friends
I hope all friend can hear and seriously if doing experiment
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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bill, 2003.An Introduction to the Human Body. Texas: Openstax Collage

Neder, J.A. et all. 1999. Reference values for lung function tests. Brazilian Journal
of Medical and Biological Research

Wanger, J. et all. 2005. Standardization of the measurement of lung volumes.


Europa: European Respiratory Journal