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Annotated Bibliography

"Communism." Wikipedia. Last modified December 13, 2018. Accessed December 18, 2018.
A website of the basic background information of communism, including the history, its
development, and its effect. It provides a simple description of this political structure.

"Cultural Revolution." Wikipedia. Last modified December 16, 2018. Accessed December 19,
Basic information of the Cultural Revolution other than the information provided by my

Fengyuan, Ji. "Language and Violence during the Chinese Cultural Revolution." ​American
Journal of Chinese Studies​ 11, no. 2 (2004): 93-117.
This document provides some basic information on why the cultural revolution started. it
includes some political reasons and some cultural reasons.

"Great Leap Forward." Wikipedia. Last modified December 14, 2018. Accessed December 19,
Basic information on Great Leap Forward which is the main part of my second section of the

Kucha, G., and J. Llewellyn. "DOWN TO THE COUNTRYSIDE." Alpha Hiatory. Last
modified October 12, 2015. Accessed December 6, 2018.
Provide basic information about the Down to Countryside Movement.

Peng, Xizhe. "Demographic Consequences of the Great Leap Forward in China's Provinces."
Population and Development Review​ 13, no. 4 (December 1987): 639-70.

Powell, Patricia, and Joseph Wong. "Propaganda Posters from the Chinese Cultural Revolution."
The Historian​ 59, no. 4 (1997): 777-93.
This provides some background information on why the cultural revolution started and some
poster which were used to spread the act of violence. The posters in this document are
primary sources which is used in the essay.

Smil, Vaclav. ​China's Food: Availability, Requirements, Composition, Prospects.​ Food Policy 6
2. N.p., 1981.
Primary source for my second section

Yang, Guowei. Interview by the author. Hamden; Shanghai, Connecticut; China. December 1,
An interview conducted by the author. The subject is the author's grandfather who had personal
experience in the cultural revolution. The interview is about the basic background
information of cultural revolution, the Great Leap and his experience of studying abroad
in Germany. It is used to prove one of the arguments: it is a devastating punishment for
educated people.

———. Interview by the author. Shanghai, China.

This interview is conducted by the author and the subject is the author's grandfather. This is the
follow-up interview of the first one. This interview is basically about the Down to
Countryside Movement which is a policy forced uneducated people to gain more
experience in the countryside so that they wouldn't lose income or starve themselves. The
content of this interview is used to prove one of the arguments: the cultural revolution
brought economic defects to individuals.