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Effects of Out-of-Field Teaching of Science Subjects in the Learning Process of

Selected Grade 10 Students of Malabon National High School

Cruz, Prince Ian

Salavaria, Henry

Camiling, Moriah

Francisco, Maria Sophia

Livioco, Antoniette

Santos, Laarnie Christian

2017
Abstract

Title of the Research: Effects of Out-of-Field Teaching of Science

Subjects in the Learning Process of Selected

Grade 10 Students of Malabon National High

School, S.Y. 2016-2017

Researchers:

Cruz, Prince Ian

Salavaria, Henry

Camiling, Moriah

Francisco, Maria Sophia

Livioco, Antoniette

Santos, Laarnie Christian

Adviser: Mr. Jester G. de Leon

Strand/Grade/Section: STEM 11-A

Year: 2017
This study aims to determine the effectiveness of out-of-field teaching,

particularly in science subjects, on grade 10 students in Malabon National

High School.

Assumption & Hypothesis

The null hypothesis that will be tested in this study is:

-There is no effect on the learning process of the students even though

they have a teacher teaching out of his/her field of specialization.

The researchers used the descriptive research approach. The researchers

have chosen one hundred (100) respondents from Grade -10 students from

Malabon National High School. These respondents were limited to the following:

Grade 10 SSC Students 20

Grade 10 Regular Section Students 80

Total 100
Summary of Findings

1. The possible effects of out-of-field teaching to students.

The respondents were not aware of the term “out-of-field teaching.” However,

most of the students were satisfied with the teaching strategies and lectures that

their science teachers shared with them. Even though the given field was not in the

teachers’ expertise, the teachers still managed to share enough knowledge to the

students.

2. The causes of the situation to be a problem.

Having a teacher that is out-of-field is not really a problem. The difference

between out-of-field teachers and not out-of-field teachers is not that broad. It’s the

teaching skill that will make a difference between the two. Luckily, grade 10 science

teachers in Malabon National High School have unique and effective teaching skills

so that they can deliver and elaborate their thoughts even though it is out of their

specialization. This is one of the factor why students are satisfied with the school

even it has insufficient facilities.

3. The possible ways to overcome this problem.

As much as possible, the Department of Education must prevent assigning

teachers to teach fields that are not in their specialization. In accordance with that,

teachers must do their full effort to find and have enough ideas to teach the lesson

very well if the case can’t be prevented.


Conclusion

The following conclusions were drawn from the significant findings of the

study:

• Out-of-field teaching don’t have a big impact on the selected grade 10

students of Malabon National High School.

• Grade 10 students really don’t aware of the term “out-of-field.”

• These students became intelligent because of their knowledgeable and

responsible teachers who are able to teach even though it is out of their

specialization.

• Even though there are a lot of out-of-field teachers, they still able to provide

intellectual students who are competent when it comes to brainpower.

• Students still prefer to have teachers who are not out-of-field because they

assume that they have better skills when it comes to teaching.

• The students don’t consider out-of-field teaching as a problem.

• As long as they are learning, they are careless what type of teacher they

have.
Recommendations for Research

The following recommendations are offered for related research in the effects

of out-of-field teaching.

• Given the changing nature of curriculum in terms of education system, a

series of innovative studies, based on this research, would document

trends and thereby increase the awareness and consideration regarding

out-of-field teachers.

• While the current issues facing by the society nowadays on out-of-field

teaching and the unprepared approval of K-12 curriculum on schools, it

may be best to conduct research that consider the contribution of the

curriculum on the percentage of out of field teaching on the society.

• Given that this research gives basis for making a conclusion that out-of-

field teaching affects the learning of students on the specific topic. Such

an effort would enable other researchers to make a study about how out-

of-field teaching affects the learning of students.

• There are other methods can be used aside from surveying in terms of

gathering data.
Acknowledgement

The researchers would like to express their deepest gratitude and

appreciation to their Practical Research teacher and to their Research adviser, Mr.

Jester G. de Leon and Mr. Maro Peña, for guiding and sharing their immense

knowledges, and for giving their time and effort in assisting the researchers to

accomplish this study. The researchers are enormously pleased and satisfied for

their support and implications throughout the study. Without their guidance and

tenacity, this study will not succeed improvements and accomplishments. In

addition, the researchers would also like to thank their respondents, who helped

them to achieve results and finish the research paper, for giving their time and effort

in answering the survey questionnaires confidently. This study will not succeed

progression without their collaboration and participation. Lastly, to the school

principal, Dr. Ma. Victoria de Gulan, for supporting the researchers’ needs inside the

school premises allowing them to conduct the study to gain new learnings and to

satisfy their curiosity.


Dedication

This study is dedicated to:

The out-of-field teachers who are the main topic of this research. Their

curiosity about their students’ response and attitude towards them will be satisfied

by this study.

Students who don’t understand their teacher’s lectures. Their teachers may

be one of what we called “out-of-field.” Their awareness and interest will be gratified

by this study.

To other researchers who have plans in improving, continuing or using this

study as basis for their own study.

P. I. C.

H. S.

M. C.

M. S. F.

A. L.

L. C. S.
Chapter 1

The Problem and Its Background

Introduction

Science is defined as an organized knowledge, sometimes denoted as a

factual knowledge that agrees with the study of many things around us. It is a

systematic innovativeness that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of

testable explanations and predictions about the universe. The principles and laws

in science, when applied, enable us to come up with new and improved products.

These knowledges and procedures that were obtained from science make us

competent.

Science teaching keeps us well-informed with discoveries and inventions that

are connected to global trends and modernization. Teaching any branch of science

is very difficult on any individual without a deep knowledge or background about the

field. Teachers may provide instructions in many ways such as formal teaching

tasks, giving or preparing lessons according to agreed curriculum, and assessing

pupil’s progress. Moreover, teachers outside the classroom may accompany

students on the field trips, help with the organization of school functions, and serve

as supervisors for extracurricular activities.


Many teachers teach science even though it is out-of-their field; resulting to

misgiving of information to students. In some education system, teachers may have

responsibility for student’s discipline but they can’t teach without any background on

the specific field. Out-of-field teaching appeared as an important issue that can

impact the teachers' sense of effectiveness. When teachers are not responsible on

a certain field, it is suggested that schools should provide structures to assist

teachers to develop their competence and to reduce the negative impact on the

learners.

Science subjects for grade 10 students focuses on Integrated Science,

Biology, Chemistry and Physics. As learning progresses, more and more details are

introduced while at the same time they are related to the basics which are

discovered many times for mastery. Out-of-field teaching is an international

phenomenon that can impact on the educational experiences of students, especially

the public schools. Teachers in rural and difficult to staff schools are frequently

appointed out-of-field due to teachers’ shortages. Their lack of qualifications and

experience relevant to their appointments can present significant challenges to their

induction within the profession. If a teacher with the proper certification is not

available, a school district tries to fill the position with teachers certified to teach in

other areas. If those teachers are not available, administrators usually employ long-

term substitutes rather than to enlarge or to cancel classes. There’s no way we can

ensure that every child has a caring, competent and qualified teacher. Furthermore,
3

because of uncertainties about enrollment, school districts frequently delay hiring

decisions until just before school starts, leaving those teaching out of their discipline

virtually no time to prepare. People who teach subjects in which they have little or

no background usually loathe it. It does not sound like a proper educational practice.

Under-prepared teachers who rely heavily on the textbook severely inhibit student

learning.
Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework below will show what was needed for the study,

what should be done and what will be obtained from the study. The framework

shows the cycle of steps on how the research will proceed.

Figure 1: Data Gathering Process


Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine the effectiveness of out-of-field teaching,

particularly in science subjects, on grade 10 students in Malabon National High

School.

Specifically, this study aims to provide the answers to the following questions.

1. What are possible effects of out-field-teaching to students?

2. What causes this situation to be a problem?

3. What are the possible ways to overcome this problem of students and

teachers?

Hypotheses & Assumptions

By the process of determining the problem and the background of this study,

there are some hypotheses and assumptions that are formulated as results. The

following hypotheses are needed to be tested and proven through this study.

1. The effects of out-of-field teaching to students are not that broad enough to

bear out the students’ needs as learners since they have already experienced

this problem.
2. According to some related literatures and studies, out-of-field teaching has a

big impact on imparting teachers’ knowledge because they have insufficient

background on a certain field.

3. Schools facilities and administrators must provide improved seminars until

the teachers are completely ready to teach where students will gain

satisfactory intellections.

Significance of the study

The Effects of Out-of-Field Teaching of Science Subjects in the Learning

Process of Selected Grade 10 Students of Malabon National High School, S.Y.

2016-2017 can be a guide in the learning accomplishments of secondary students

and teachers to enhance the teacher’s knowledge and skills that can have various

effects on the learners’ wisdom. This will have a big distribution to the educational

system not just in Malabon National High School but also in our country because

the project’s goal is to give us ideas that will enlighten every individual and enhance

the learning and teaching skills that will provide strategic management and

competitive advantage to improve academic competence of the students.


The results of the study will be beneficial to the following:

The School Administrators. This includes the higher positions in terms of

school premises, especially the department heads and the school principal. This will

make them realize the effect of putting science teachers out of their field in educating

their learners and this can help them improve their own strategies for the school’s

excellence in terms of teaching and giving the exact knowledge which every

student’s needs.

The Teachers. Also, the teachers (also known as the mentors; especially in

the field of science) are also the main beneficiary. This project will serves as their

guide and will give them more power to make plans and ideas on how are they going

to enhance their teaching skills to obtain the goals and objectives given to them as

science educators.

The Students. The students are one of the main beneficiaries of the project

because this will help to improve the quality of the learning and teaching process

given by their mentors. The improvement of the academic competence will also be

one of objectives.

Other/Future Researchers. For the upcoming researchers who want to

continue our study, this serves as a plan and ideas for them to realize how important

education is. By that time comes, this project will improve more so that the education

system not just in our country but globally, will also enhance the mentors’ abilities
to teach their learners based on their exact knowledge and skills, to build up

academic competence and strategic management in terms of learning.

Scope

The main focus of the study is to know if Grade 10 High School students learn

when teachers provide lectures or teach that is out of his/her expertise particularly

in Science subjects. Data will be gathered by providing surveys and questionnaires

to selected Grade 10 Junior High School students at Malabon National High School

that will be conducted on 2017. This study will only determine the effects of out-of-

field teaching. The research data was based on answers of the students which are

based on their perspective and interaction with inadequate teaching. It focused on

how they understand the lessons and how the teachers provide knowledge that is

not his/her profession.


Definition of Terms

The following terms are words from the research paper that needs enough

background about the subject matter to be understood by the readers of the study.

These terms will help the readers of the study to understand the research

thoroughly.

Allegiance. It is the act of binding yourself (intellectually or emotionally) to a

course of action.

Retrieved from: https://www.Vocabulary.Com/Dictionary/Allegiance

Aptitude. It is the capability; ability; innate or acquired capacity for something;

talent.

Retrieved from: http://www.Dictionary.Com/Browse/Aptitude

Ascertain. It means to find out or learn with certainty.

Retrieved from: https://www.Merriam-Webster.Com/Dictionary/Ascertain

Credibility. It is the quality of being believable or worthy of trust.

Retrieved from: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/credibility

Divulge. It means to disclose or reveal (something private, secret, or previously

unknown).
http://www.dictionary.com/browse/divulge

Educationalist. It is a specialist in the theory of education.

Retrieved from: http://www.Thefreedictionary.Com/Educationalist

Erudition. It is the depth, polish and breadth that education confers.

Retrieved from: https://en.wikipedia.org/Wiki/Erudition

Impart. It means to give; bestow; communicate.

Retrieved from: http://www.Dictionary.Com/Browse/Impart

Ineffectual. It means not effectual; not producing or not able to produce the

desired effect.

Retrieved from: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/ineffectual

Ingenuity. It is the skill of thinking, performing, or using things in new ways, esp.

to solve problems:

Retrieved from: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/us/dictionary/english/ingenuity

Inharmonious. It is not in harmony; discordant; and not in accord or agreement.

Retrieved from: https://www.wordnik.com/words/inharmonious

Instill. It means to infuse slowly or gradually into the mind or feelings; insinuate;

inject.
Retrieved from: http://www.Dictionary.Com/Browse/Instill

Intellection. It is the act or process of using the intellect; thinking or reasoning.

Retrieved from: http://www.Thefreedictionary.Com/Intellection

Intellectual. It means appealing to or engaging the intellect; of or relating to the

intellect or its use; and guided or developed by or relying on the intellect rather

than upon emotions or feelings; rational.

Retrieved from: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/intellectual

Savoir-faire. It is the ability to do the right thing in any situation; knowledge of just

what to do in any situation; and tact.

Retrieved from: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/savoir-faire

Travail. It is a physical or mental exertion or piece of work.

Retrieved from: https://www.Merriam-Webster.Com/Dictionary/Travail


Chapter 2

Review of Related Literature and Studies

Over the past decade, teacher quality has become one of the most widely

discussed topics in the world of education. The aim of this Review of Related

Literature and Studies is to have some background about the problem involved.

Foreign Literature

Education is the most powerful weapon which we can use to change the

world. But the power of teaching the right knowledge and right teaching field for the

teachers is one of the ways on how we can achieve change. According to Ingersoll

(2004), “The phenomenon of out-of-field teaching -- teachers assigned to teach

subjects for which they have inadequate training and qualifications -- is a crucial,

but long unrecognized, problem in schools.” This statement made our eyes open

about the specific problem which analyze that we can conclude that this is one of

the major problem that education system is facing of. We considered this as a crucial

one that needs an accurate solution because it involves every learner’s knowledge

and competencies. The problem about the teachers who are teaching out of their

fields must need an action due to an absence of accurate and comprehensive data.

“However, years of teaching experience in science did not directly influence

student science achievement. A significant interaction was detected between


teachers possessing an advanced degree in science or education and years of

teaching science, which was inversely associated to student science achievement.”

Cited by Zhang, means that the teachers possessed by an advance degree in the

field of science doesn’t able to use their own skills to gain and share enough

knowledge for their learners. Better teaching method of every science teachers

includes the mastery of academic competence in the field of science to achieve

better performance for both teachers and students.

Since this study are intended to provide insights into the importance of hiring

and developing qualified teachers who are better able to help students achieve in

science, as well as to direct the emphases of ongoing teacher in service training.

Educators have, of course, long been aware of the existence of out-of-field teaching.

High levels of out-of-field teaching are a leading source of under qualified teaching

in American schools. As a result, over the past several years the problem of out-of-

field teaching has become a major concern in the realm of educational policy and

its elimination a target of reform legislation. Teaching ‘out-of-field’ occurs when

teachers teach a subject for which they are not qualified. What teachers know and

can do is the most important influence on what students learn. School reform cannot

succeed unless it focuses on creating the conditions under which teachers can

teach and teach well.

According to Ingersoll (2004) in his book ‘Measuring out-of-field teaching’ the

phenomenon of out-of-field teaching- teachers assigned to teach subjects for which


they have inadequate training and qualifications- is a crucial, but long unrecognized,

problem in schools. It is a crucial issue because highly qualified teachers, may

actually become highly unqualified if they are assigned to teach subjects for which

they have little training or education. However, until recently there has been little

recognition of this problem – a situation at least partly due to an absence of accurate

and comprehensive data. This lack of data was remedied with the release,

beginning in the early 1990s, of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) a major

new survey of the nation’s elementary and secondary schools and teachers

conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), the statistical

arm of the U.S. Department of Education. Shortly after its release analysts began

initiating research projects using this survey to closely examine the levels and

variations of out-of-field teaching in the U.S. (e.g., Bobbitt and McMillen 1995;

Ingersoll 1995a, 1996). These analyses documented that out-of-field teaching is an

ongoing and serious problem in a wide range of schools across the nation. The

findings of this, and other research, have generated widespread interest, been

featured in numerous high profile education policy reports and have been widely

reported in the national media. As a result, the problem of out-of-field teaching has

become a major concern in the realm of education policy. Both Presidents Clinton

and Bush, for example, have made solving the problem of out-of-field and

underqualified teaching a key part of their education agendas. It has now become

standard practice for major education reports, forums, documents and studies
concerned with teacher quality, in particular, and educational resources, in general,

to include measures and indicators of out-of-field teaching in their assessments of

educational systems. Moreover, numerous new efforts have been initiated to collect

and analyze data on out-of-field teaching at local, state, national and international

levels. Indeed, comprehensive universal collection of data on the extent of out-of-

field teaching became federal law with the reauthorization of the Elementary and

Secondary Education Act in January 2002; the ESEA now requires school districts

and states to annually assess and make public the numbers of classes in their

schools taught by out-of-field teachers.

Science teachers possessing of advanced degrees in science or education

significantly and positively influenced student science achievement. However, years

of teaching experience in science did not directly influence student science

achievement. A significant interaction was detected between teachers possessing

an advanced degree in science or education and years of teaching science, which

was inversely associated to student science achievement. Better teaching

behaviors were also positively related to student achievement in science directly, as

well as mediated the relationship between student science achievement and both

teacher education and experience. Additionally, when examined separately, each

teaching behavior variable (teacher engagement, classroom management, and

teaching strategies) served as a significant intermediary between both teacher

education and experience and student science achievement. The findings of this
study are intended to provide insights into the importance of hiring and developing

qualified teachers who are better able to help students achieve in science, as well

as to direct the emphases of ongoing teacher in service training.

According to Ingersoll (2004), Elementary and secondary schooling are

mandatory in the U.S., and it is into the custody of teachers that children are legally

placed for a significant portion of their lives. The quality of teachers and teaching

are undoubtedly among the most important factors shaping the learning and growth

of students. Moreover, the largest single component of the cost of education in any

country is teacher compensation. However, although ensuring that our nation’s

classrooms are all staffed with qualified teachers is a perennially important issue in

our schools, it is also among the least understood, especially in regard to the

sources of the problem. One of the least recognized of these sources is the

phenomenon known as out-of-field teaching teachers assigned to teach subjects

which do not match their training or education. This is a crucial factor because highly

qualified teachers may actually become highly unqualified if they are assigned to

teach subjects for which they have little background.

Ingersoll pointed out in his book ‘Why Some Schools Have More

Underqualified Teachers than Others’ that educators have, of course, long been

aware of the existence of out-of-field teaching. James Conant, former President of

Harvard University and father of the SAT, called attention to the widespread “misuse

of teachers” through out-of-field assignments in his landmark 1963 study The


Education of American Teachers. Albert Shanker, the former head of the American

Federation of Teachers, condemned out-of-field teaching as education’s “dirty little

secret” in a 1985 opinion piece in the New York Times. But, an absence of accurate

statistics on out-of-field teaching has kept this problem largely unrecognized—a

situation remedied with the release, beginning in the late 1980s, of the Schools and

Staffing Survey (SASS) a major new survey of the nation’s elementary and

secondary teachers conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics

(NCES) of the U.S. Department of Education. In previous research using the SASS

data, I have shown that out-of-field teaching is a serious problem across the nation.

These findings on out-of-field teaching have been replicated. Several other

researchers have calculated levels of out-of-field teaching using the same, or

similar, data sources and, although different analysts have focused on a wide range

of different measures of out-of-field teaching, all have reached the same

conclusion—that high levels of out-of-field teaching are a leading source of

underqualified teaching in American schools.

The findings of this research have captured widespread interest, been

featured in a number of major education reports and been widely reported in the

national media. As a result, over the past several years the problem of out-of-field

teaching has become a major concern in the realm of educational policy and its

elimination a target of reform legislation. The analysis in this report seeks to build

on, and update with more recent data, this earlier work. It specifically examines the
past decade’s trends in out-of-field teaching for both the nation and the 50 states.

The first section of this report begins by summarizing the kinds of teacher quality

reforms that have been implemented since the mid 1990’s, both at the federal and

state levels.

After describing the SASS database and measures of out-of-field teaching in

more detail, I then present data 6 7 from the period 1987 to 2000 showing how much

out-of-field teaching has existed, to what extent it varies across different subjects,

and across different kinds of schools, and, most important, to what extent levels of

out-of-field teaching have, or have not, decreased during these years. The data

show that while almost all teachers hold at least basic qualifications (i.e. a bachelor’s

degree and a full teaching certificate); there are large numbers of classes staffed by

out-of-field teachers. Moreover, perhaps surprisingly, the data show that there was

little decrease in the amount of out-of-field teaching during this period, despite the

implementation of numerous policy reform efforts. The following section turns to a

discussion of possible reasons for the failure of teacher quality reform. The thesis is

that, despite the unprecedented interest in, and awareness of this problem, there

remains little understanding of a key issue the reasons for the prevalence of out-of-

field teaching in American schools and that this lack of understanding has

undermined recent reform efforts. The researcher conclude by drawing out the

lessons and implications of these failures for the prospects of current and future
legislation, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, to successfully address the

problem of underqualified teachers in classrooms in the coming years.

One of the key areas of difference concerns the relative value for teachers of

subject-matter knowledge and pedagogical knowledge. On one end of this

continuum, are those who argue that the content or subject knowledge knowing

what to teach is of primary importance for a qualified teacher. At its extreme this

viewpoint assumes that training in teaching methods is unnecessary and that having

an academic degree in a subject is sufficient to be a qualified teacher in that subject.

On the other end of this continuum are those who argue pedagogical or

methodological knowledge, knowing how to teach is of primary importance to be

qualified. In this view, in depth knowledge of a subject is less important than in-depth

skill at teaching. At its extreme, this viewpoint holds that “a good teacher can teach

anything.” Teaching does have an extensive body of empirical research, going back

decades, devoted to assessing the effects of various teacher qualifications on

teacher and student performance.

For measures of qualifications, researchers typically examine teachers’ test

scores or teacher credentials, such as a degree or a teaching certificate, reflecting

a variety of types of teacher education and training. And there are a number of

studies that have found teacher education or training, of one sort or another, to be

significantly related to increases in student achievement


Science is often subject students either love or hate. As a science teacher,

you must be able to teach both types of students and help make science come alive.

The education and training required to become a science teacher will help you

develop the skills you need to transfer your love of science to the students in your

classroom, perhaps inspiring some to become future scientists themselves.

Contemporary educational theory holds that one of the pivotal causes of

inadequate student achievement, especially in disadvantaged schools, is the

inability of schools to adequately staff classrooms with qualified teachers. Deficits in

the quantity of teachers produced and in the quality of preparation prospective

teachers receive have long been singled out as primary explanations for

underqualified teaching.

Teaching ‘out-of-field’ occurs when teachers teach a subject for which they

are not qualified. What teachers know and can do is the most important influence

on what students learn. School reform cannot succeed unless it focuses on creating

the conditions under which teachers can teach and teach well. The most compelling

evidence for the importance of teaching came initially from economists who adapted

value-added models from business to measure the effect of teachers on student

learning. A highly effective teacher, therefore, is one whose students show the most

gains from one year to the next. Since 1984, student enrollments have increased,

most schools have had job openings for teachers, and the size of the teacher

workforce (K-12) has increased, although the rate of these increases began to
decline slightly in the late 1990s. Most important, substantial numbers of schools

with teaching openings have experienced difficulties with recruitment. Out-of-field

teaching, it is instructive to look at the proportions of teachers who indicated that

they have specialized in a subject but are not currently teaching it.

Media/Technology

Education encounters, in modern times, challenges in all aspects of social,

economic &cultural life; the most important of which are over-population, over-

knowledge, education philosophy development & the change of teacher ‘s role, the

spread of illiteracy, lack of the staff& the technological development & mass media.

This drove the teaching staff to use the modern teaching technologies to face some

of the main problems, which education & its productivity encounter, by increasing

the learning level which may be achieved through providing equivalent opportunities

for all people whenever & wherever they are, while taking into account the

individual differences between learners.

Aloraini (2012) stated that to improve the educational productivity, some of

the teaching staff sought to mainstream technology within education, developing

traditional techniques & using new educational methods. Mainstreaming the

technological media within what is called “Multimedia” is the pattern which led to

infinite applications of computer technologies. The concept of this technology came

into being with the appearance of soundcards, then compact disks, then came the
use of digital camera, then the video which made computer an essential educational

tool. Nowadays, multimedia expanded to become a field on its own. The concept of

multimedia technology is broad & it has infinite usage fields; it is a profound element

as an educational technology in addition to its use in medical & statistical domains

& in establishing databases. Moreover, the entertainment sector is one of the

sectors that had the lion ‘s share in using this technology.

Interaction is the main element in multimedia technology as most of its

applications are characterized by interaction. Consequently, multimedia programs

may provide a more effective & more influential experiment than using each

technology separately. The researcher thinks that multimedia is one of the best

educational techniques because it addresses more than one sense simultaneously,

as it addresses the senses of sight & hearing. Multimedia programs provide different

stimuli in their presentations which include a number of elements some of which are

texts, spoken words, sound & music, graphics, animations and still pictures. These

elements were mainstreamed in a comprehensive presentation so as to provide

effective education, which in turn will support the participation of the different senses

of the learners’ syllabi.

Local Literature

Few issues in our elementary and secondary schools are subject to more

debate and discussion than the quality of teachers. Over the past decade, dozens
of studies, commissions, and national reports have bemoaned our failure to ensure

that all our nation's classrooms are staffed with qualified teachers. In turn, reformers

in many states have pushed tougher licensing standards for teachers and more

rigorous academic requirements for teaching candidates. Moreover, a whole host of

initiatives and programs have sprung up for the purpose of recruiting new

candidates into teaching. Among these are programs designed to entice midcareer

professionals from other fields to become teachers; alternative certification

programs, whereby college graduates can postpone formal education training,

obtain an emergency teaching certificate, and begin teaching immediately; and

Peace Corps-like programs, such as Teach For America, that are designed to lure

the "best and brightest" into understaffed schools. There is much controversy over

how much and what kinds of training and education teachers ought to have to be

considered "qualified." Out-of-field teaching varies greatly across schools, teachers,

and classrooms. For instance, recently hired teachers are more often assigned to

teach subjects out of their field of training than are more experienced teachers. Low-

income public schools have higher levels of out-of-field teaching than do schools in

more affluent communities. Particularly notable, however, is the effect of school

size: small schools have higher levels of out-of-field teaching. There are also

differences within schools. Lower-achieving classes are more often taught by

teachers without a major or minor in the field than are higher-achieving classes.

Junior high classes are also more likely to be taught by out-of-field teachers than
are senior high classes. No doubt some out of field teachers may actually be well

qualified, despite their lack of a minor or major in the subject. Some may be qualified

by virtue of knowledge gained through previous jobs, through life experiences, or

through informal training. Others may have completed substantial college

coursework in a field but not have gotten a major or minor.

Many people immediately assume that out-of-field teaching is a problem of

poorly educated teachers and can be remedied by more rigorous standards for

teacher education and training. The source of out of field teaching lies not in the

amount of education teachers have, but in the lack of fit between teachers' fields of

training and their teaching assignments. Many teachers are assigned by their

principals to teach classes that do not match their training or education. The

implications of this distinction for reform are important. There is no question that the

teaching force could benefit from upgraded education and training and those

education degrees should include substantial coursework in an academic discipline.

This is the value of the ongoing efforts by many states to toughen entry criteria,

enact more stringent certification standards, and increase the use of testing for

teachers. However, though very worthwhile, none of these kinds of reforms will

eliminate out-of-field teaching assignments. Hence, they alone will not solve the

problem of underqualified teachers in our nation's classrooms.

Similar logic applies to two other related popular initiatives- curricular revision

and professional development for teachers. Hundreds of new curricular packages,


products, and techniques are produced every year by educational organizations and

publishers and are widely disseminated to teachers through in service training and

other programs. Familiarity with the most up to-date materials in one's field of

expertise is no doubt a good idea, but it provides little help if one is then assigned

to teach a different subject. Beginning teachers are more prone than experienced

teachers to be not assigned on a specific field, and both public and private schools

with unions usually have less, not more, out-of-field teaching. Union work roles

certainly have an impact on the management and administration of schools, and,

depending on one's viewpoint, this impact may be positive or negative. But

eliminating teacher unions will not eliminate out-of-field teaching. The most popular

explanation of the problem of out-of-field teaching blames teacher shortages. This

view holds that shortfalls in the number of available teachers, caused by a

combination of increased student enrollments and a "graying" teaching force, have

led many school systems to resort to lowering standards to fill teaching openings,

the net effect of which is out-of-field teaching.

Filipinos treats education important to all people. The phenomenon of out-of-

field teaching - teachers assigned to teach subjects for which they have little

education or training - is an important, but long unrecognized, problem in schools

and in education in general. Few educational problems have received more

attention in recent times than the failure to ensure that our nation's elementary and

secondary classrooms are all staffed with qualified teachers. Over the past decade,
dozens of studies, commissions, and national reports have bemoaned the

qualifications and quality of our teachers.

The term ‘non-specialist’ is used for teachers without qualifications and

training in the subject. This is sometimes referred as out-of-field teaching or

teachers being assigned to teach subjects that do not match their training or

education.

This issue is one of the least recognized problems in education. One of the

reasons for the lack of awareness of this problem has been the absence of accurate

data on the subject. The absence of accurate statistics on out-of-field teaching has

kept this problem largely unrecognized.

The issue of non-specialist teaching not only in the country but to foreign

extent is for a long time has been the problem in the education system. But it is

speculating to learn that there were few studies and research regarding the

statistical data of this issue. The level of under qualified teachers in most of the

countries was alarming.

According to Pangalangan (2008) in her article entitled “Teaching Strategies

and Techniques: Philippine Experience,” teachers should exhibit the intersection of

art and cognitive science in a corresponding approach of mutual support when they

are teaching. It is also mentioned in the article “They also should describe the

technique of using short stories and plays in teaching social work to expand and
complement familiar didactic methods using creative literature.” The article simply

states different strategies in teaching. Of course, for us to find these strategies,

teachers should have their specific expertise in different fields.

Foreign Studies

Zuzovsky (2003) stated in her book ‘Teachers’ qualifications and their impact

on student achievement’ that International comparative studies of educational

achievement have become an important source of information for those involved in

educational policymaking. Although many commentators view these studies as

“horse races” that focus mainly on the relative position of one country’s attainment

to that of others, there are those who appreciate their educational role (Bryk &

Hermanson, 1993; Darling-Hammond, 1992, 1994; Kellaghan, 1996) and the

opportunity these studies provide to clarify and reassess local policy assumptions.

Diane Shorrocks-Taylor (2000, p. 18) sees the benefit of participating in international

comparative studies as the challenge these present to existing local policies: “The

process of participation requires self-evaluation which in turn may lead to

assumptions being questioned and what previously understood only implicitly now

being made explicit and so examined in a more critical way.” This article illustrates

the relevance of data obtained as part of the Trends in International Mathematics

and Science Study 2003 (TIMSS 2003) for local policymaking in Israel.
Hattie (2009) claims that teachers remain the main and most influential

resource in education. Previous research in this field focused on the occurrence and

implications of out-of-field teaching as a “whole” on school management and

professional development but overlooked the lived experiences of those involved in

out-of-field teaching practices. The purpose of the thesis is to address the need to

understand the out-of-field experience. The research question, how fundamental,

for out-of-field teachers in their everyday concerns and practices, are their lived

experiences and the meaning of out-of-field teaching, focuses on what really

happens when teachers are assigned to out-of-field positions. Majority of teacher

competency models focus on an overall and broader framework that contains the

elements pertaining to standards that teachers should attain in their teaching. There

is a growing concern in studying more in-depth the specific components of teaching

standards such as teachers’ competency to assess student learning. A great

teacher will keep the students wanting to come to school just to see what interesting

things they will explore and discover each day. We call this inquiry.

The philosophy that supports such a great teacher is simple. Students learn

best when they are in control of their learning. Students must do the heavy lifting of

learning and nothing the teacher can say or do will change that. Real learning

requires doing, not listening, or observing only. Yet what do we find in every public

school and university? Teachers talking, talking and talking while students listen,

daydream and doze. We call this lecture.


The word "teacher" implies the flow of knowledge and skills from one person

to another. Whether it is a lecture, or a power point, it involves talking at the students.

While that is commonly viewed as the quickest and easiest way to impart knowledge

and skills, we all realize that it is not the most effective. Socrates had it right when

he only answered a question with more questions and look what he produced --

some of the greatest minds that ever lived. We call this the Socratic Method.

Discussions can play a valuable role in lecture courses, seminars, quiz sections,

labs, studios and a variety of other settings. A well-planned discussion can

encourage and stimulate student learning and add variety to your class. While

“good” discussions can be a powerful tool for encouraging student learning,

successful discussions rarely happen spontaneously. Preparing ahead of time will

help you define a clear focus by establishing goals and student expectations for the

discussion. Since discussions depend upon students’ willingness to talk to each

other, it’s important to create a classroom atmosphere in which students feel secure

in offering their opinions for public scrutiny.

Having a set of assessment standards for teachers sets better practice of

proper classroom assessment. Teachers then develop the consciousness of

knowing students’ progress and improvement of their teaching. A more specific

framework describing in detail the assessment competencies of teachers should be

drawn which eventually will serve as a benchmark to monitor whether or not

teachers are able to deliver quality assessment of student learning. The idea of
classroom activities linked meaningfully to the experiences and aspirations of the

learners in their homes and communities. Thus, this domain focuses on teachers’

efforts directed at strengthening the links between schools and communities to help

in the attainment of the curricular goals. There is only one subdomain, that is, the

teacher establishing learning environments that respond to the aspirations of the

community.

Out-of-field teachers are those who possess neither certification in the

subject they have been assigned to teach nor an academic major in that subject.

Research has shown out-of-field teachers can be concerned about the negative

impact their teaching might have on student learning, such as lower achievement

scores. They have also shown concern that they are unable to demonstrate content

is relevant to everyday life.

Teachers might rely on teaching methods that are traditional and ineffective,

such as solely using the textbook in mathematics. They might be less able to help

students in their learning. It can be devastating for a confident and competent

teacher to be suddenly incompetent because they have to teach unfamiliar content.

Out-of-field teachings face considerable challenges in lesson preparation

and its impact to every learner. Lack of background knowledge to the subject that

they are going to teach seems the main factor that contributes to such problems in
teaching and it will have an impact to the students learning outcomes as well as the

development of the teachers’ pedagogical knowledge.

Having depth knowledge to the subject that they are going to teach helps the

teacher provide alternative and definite explanations or in using different

approaches and strategies will help the students understand the lesson very well.

McConney, A. & Price, A. (2009) cites that there is continued debate to the extent

to which out-of-field teaching is averse to student outcomes depending on

pedagogical beliefs. Perhaps, the most surprisingly found that a large proportion of

teachers teaching out of their field in Western Australia have at least 20 years

teaching experience all through out. Kind (2009) contends that high academic

performance in a specialist subject is not an automatic precursor to a good teaching.

Hence, subject-specific knowledge includes general strategies to teach

science, while content-specific knowledge include strategies in experiment,

analogy, models, and illustrations are required when teaching particular topics

within a science field. In some cases, teachers will not meet the new standards for

a highly qualified teacher because of the deficiency of preparation and lack of

background information of the subject that they bring to the job (Ingersoll & Curran,

2004).

In addition, Zhou (2012) cite that as of 2002, 22 states developed a law to

penalize schools and districts for implementing the out-of-field teaching. In the same
report, eight years later, Education Week pointed out again that 32 states had at

least one policy to limit the out-of-field teaching (Education Week, 2008). The

knowledge of a teacher is strongly influences all aspects of teaching regarding to

the choice of the content to be learnt (De Jong, Veal & Van Drivel, 2002).

Local Studies

According to out-of-field teachers in secondary schools at Naga City (2014-

2015), over the past decade, dozens of studies, commissions, and national reports

have bemoaned the qualifications and quality of our teachers. As a result, reformers

in many states have pushed tougher teacher education and certification standards

in an attempt to ensure that our nation’s elementary and secondary classrooms are

all staffed with qualified teachers. Moreover, a whole host of initiatives and programs

have sprung up which are designed to recruit new and talented candidates into

teaching. Concern with the quality and qualifications of teachers is neither unique

nor surprising.

The teachers, being the focal figure in education, must be competent and

knowledgeable in order to impart the knowledge they could give to their students.

Good teaching is a very personal manner. Effective teaching is concerned with the

student as a person and with his general development. The teacher must recognize

individual differences among his/her students and adjust instructions that best suit

to the learners. It is always a fact that as educators, we play varied and vital roles in
the classroom. Teachers are considered the light in the classroom. We are entrusted

with so many responsibilities that range from the very simple to most complex and

very challenging jobs. Every day we encounter them as part of the work or mission

that we are in. It is very necessary that we need to understand the need to be

motivated in doing our work well, so as to have motivated learners in the classroom.

When students are motivated, then learning will easily take place. However,

motivating students to learn requires a very challenging role on the part of the

teacher. It requires a variety of teaching styles or techniques just to capture students'

interests. Above all, the teacher must himself come into possession of adequate

knowledge of the objectives and standards of the curriculum, skills in teaching,

interests, appreciation and ideals. He needs to exert effort to lead children or

students into a life that is large, full, stimulating and satisfying. Some students seem

naturally enthusiastic about learning, but many need or expect their instructors or

teachers to inspire, challenge or stimulate them. Not all students are motivated by

the same values, needs, desires and wants. Some students are motivated by the

approval of others or by overcoming challenges. Since 2003, many foreign

professional teachers, particularly from the Philippines, came to New York City to

teach with little knowledge of American school settings. Filipino teachers have

distinct styles and expressions of teaching. They expect that: education is interactive

and spontaneous; teachers and students work together in the teaching-learning

process; students learn through participation and interaction; homework is only part
of the process; teaching is an active process; students are not passive learners;

factual information is readily available; problem solving, creativity and critical

thinking are more important; teachers should facilitate and model problem solving;

students learn by being actively engaged in the process; and teachers need to be

questioned and challenged. However, many Filipino teachers encountered many

difficulties in teaching in NYC public schools. Some of these problems may be

attributed to: students' behavior such as attention deficiency, hyperactivity disorder,

and disrespect among others; and language barriers such as accent and poor

understanding of languages other than English (e.g. Spanish).

Helping students understand better in the classroom is one of the primary

concerns of every teacher. Teachers need to motivate students how to learn. It

appears that many teachers apparently still need to accept this fundamental

principle. Teachers should mind the chief component of interest in the classroom. It

is a means of forming lasting effort in attaining the skills needed for life. Furthermore

teachers need to vary teaching styles and techniques so as not to cause boredom

to the students in the classroom. Seeking greater insight into how children learn

from the way teachers discuss and handle the lesson in the classroom and teach

students the life skills they need, could be one of the greatest achievements in the

teaching process. According to Bawden and Robinson, between the different

traditional learning tools, the rapid rise of technology, and the ease of access to it,

students are presented with a multitude of avenues for learning. With so many
resources available to them, disorientation is natural. Information overload is a “state

of affairs where an individual’s efficiency in using information in their work is

hampered by the amount of relevant, and potentially useful, information available to

them”.

The quality of teachers and teaching is undoubtedly one of the most

important factors in shaping the learning and growth of students. Generally, the

quality of non-specialists’ teaching is lower than that of subject specialist’s due to

lack of skills, knowledge and experience. Even the most effective non-specialists

who undergone a lot of observations and training identify weak subject as the

greatest challenge to their teaching.

Nowadays, many of the students failed to see the relevance of Science to

their lives. One of its reasons is because of the teacher’s insufficient skills in

deploying it. Even if these teachers were given training programs, it wouldn’t be

enough to make their teaching strategy effective. The numbers of non-specialist

teacher in our teaching field have been increasing due to the shortage of teachers

here in the Philippines. There should be adequate training or course for the non-

specialist teachers for them to gain enough knowledge about the subject and

strategies to assess learning.

Educators should consider their profession in which it is expected of them

to impart or teach the right information. Even though it is not their specialized
subject they should prioritize the sake of the students’ future which lies in the

education or knowledge that will gain from them. Non-specialist teacher should do

their best to teach the subject that they did not specialized in because no matter

how low or high the quality of education that they give, even if it’s their specialized

subject or not, in the end it’s the students who will benefit or suffer with the kind of

education that their teachers are giving them.

Synthesis

Previous literature leaves us unanswered questions about whether teaching

behaviors mediate the relationship between teacher education level and experience

with student science achievement. This study examined this question with 655

students from sixth to eighth grade and their 12 science teachers. Student science

achievements were measured at the beginning and end of 2006-2007 school years.

Given the cluster sampling of students nested in classrooms, which are nested in

teachers, a two-level multilevel model was employed to disentangle the effects from

teacher-level and student-level factors. Several findings were discovered in this

study. Science teachers possessing of advanced degrees in science or education

significantly and positively influenced student science achievement. However, years

of teaching experience in science did not directly influence student science

achievement. A significant interaction was detected between teachers possessing

an advanced degree in science or education and years of teaching science, which

was inversely associated to student science achievement. Better teaching


behaviors were also positively related to student achievement in science directly, as

well as mediated the relationship between student science achievement and both

teacher education and experience. Additionally, when examined separately, each

teaching behavior variable (teacher engagement, classroom management, and

teaching strategies) served as a significant intermediary between both teacher

education and experience and student science achievement. The findings of this

study are intended to provide insights into the importance of hiring and developing

qualified teachers who are better able to help students achieve in science, as well

as to direct the emphases of ongoing teacher in-service training.


Chapter 3

Research Methodology

This represents the methods, procedures and data that will be used by the

researchers for the specific study. To be more precise, it contains methods that will

be used, the respondents for the study, the techniques and instruments that will be

used for the data gathering, the gathering procedure to be followed and the

statistical treatment of the data to be used.

Research Design

The researchers used the descriptive method of gathering the data due to

large sample size and the use of probability based methods. According to Manuel

and Medel, Descriptive Research involves the description, recording, analysis, and

interpretation of the present nature, composition or processes of phenomena

(Cynthia, 2014). This method is needed for us to determine the effect of out-of-field

teaching science subjects in the learning competency of grade 10 students in

Malabon National High School.


Population and Sampling

The entire population of the respondents in this study is the grade 10 students

of Malabon National High School. The population consist a total of 945 students.

They are the ones who have the capability and knowledgeable enough to answer

the questions proposed by this study.

Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study are randomly selected one-hundred (100)

grade 10 students of Malabon National High School. The process of getting the

sample is presented below.

Population (N) Sample (n) True Sample (T)

Special

Science 71 61 20

Class

Non-SSC 874 275 80

Total 945 336 100

𝑁
Sample (n) was solved using the Slovin’s formula (n =1+𝑁𝑒 2 ) where e = 0.05

since the level of significance is 5%. Subsequently, the result was too big, therefore
𝑛
we use the equation (T =∑𝑛 ×𝑅) for SSC and Regular Class, where R is the desired

number of respondents which is one-hundred (100). As a result, we come up with


the final number of respondents that is stated under the True Sample (T) where we

have nineteen (19) Grade 10 Special Science Class students and eighty-one (81)

Grade 10 Regular Class students, a total of one-hundred (100) respondents.

Research Instrument Used

The main instrument of this study is questionnaire. It was divided into three

parts: the profile of the respondent, evaluation of students’ learning from teachers,

and analysis of teaching strategies. The first part, which is the profile, consists of

socio-demographic characteristics of respondents such as gender, section, and

grade(s) in science. The second part contains their evaluation on how they learned

from their teachers; this includes checking of their appropriate level of agreement in

every statement situated in the table. The last part consists of their analysis on the

way their teachers teach; this includes questions and multiple answers where they

indicate the appropriate one to describe each teacher’s effectiveness in teaching.

This questionnaire will test their exploration and their ability to identify if their

teachers have an effective teaching strategy.

Since the two parts of the questionnaire are all about the teachers’

effectiveness and their teaching strategies, answers will verify the effect of out-of-

field science teachers which will satisfy its validation. We provided questions about

the teachers’ techniques and students’ understandings so that consistency,

accuracy, and predictability of research findings are concluded in the questionnaires

which will also satisfy its reliability.


Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers follow some procedures in order to accomplish the aim of

the work. First, the researchers presented their questionnaire to their adviser for his

approval. Then, the researchers, with the help of some colleagues and friends from

different sections who is briefed thoroughly, distributed the survey questionnaires to

the respondents. They chose a specific section in every teacher in science. The

respondents answer the questionnaire during their break time. The researches

checked if the respondents answered all the information and answers needed.

Follow-ups and retrieval of questionnaires was done by the researchers.

Finally, the results of the questionnaire were recorded to have valid and

reliable information. The information will be tallied, analyzed, and interpreted

according to its specific problems.


Statistical Treatment of Data

The data that were gathered were subjected to statistical treatment and

analysis. The following are the statistical formulas that were adopted:

1. Slovin’s Formula. This treatment will be used to determine the number of

respondents out of a given population.

𝑵
𝒏=
𝟏 + 𝑵𝒆𝟐

where: n is the sample size

N is the population size

e is the margin of error (0.05)

2. Percentage. This treatment will be used to determine the percentage of

respondents in a group.

𝒇
%= ×𝟏𝟎𝟎
𝒏

where: % is the percentage

f is the frequency

n is the total respondents

3. Weighted Mean. This treatment will be used to determine the problems

encountered, proposed recommendations and the mean.

∑𝑥
𝑥̅ =
𝑛

where: 𝑥̅ is the weighted mean

∑𝑥 is the summation of scores


n is the total number of elements

4. Concept of Ranking. This treatment will be used in making conclusion for

the gathered and computed data of the study. Fractional ranking was use

in the study and the principle is as follows:

Items that compare equal receive the same ranking number, which is

the mean of what they would have under ordinal rankings. Equivalently, the

ranking number of 1 plus the number of items ranked above it plus half the

number of items equal to it. This strategy has the property that the sum of the

ranking numbers is the same as under ordinal ranking. For this reason, it is

used in computing Borda counts and in statistical tests.

Thus, if A ranks ahead of B and C (which compare equal) which are

both ranked ahead of D, then A gets ranking number 1 ("first"), B and C each

get ranking number 2.5 (average of "joint second/third") and D gets ranking

number 4 ("fourth").
Chapter 4

Analysis & Interpretation of Data

Table 1:

Legends:

A - Always
VO – Very Often
S – Sometimes
R – Rarely
N – Never

Einstein Weighted Mean Interpretation

1 3 S

2 4.7 VO

3 4.6 VO

4 3.5 S

5 4 VO

6 4 VO

7 3.8 S

8 4.7 VO
48

9 3.9 S

10 3.5 S

Total 3.97 VO

Table 1. Evaluated survey questionnaire of GRADE 10-EINSTEIN.

As presented by the table, students SOMETIMES experience difficulty in

studying science with a weighted mean of 3; students find their teacher effective

VERY OFTEN with a weighted mean of 4.7; students VERY OFTEN thinks that their

teacher strategy helps them in learning with a weighted mean of 4.6; students

SOMETIMES think that science is a difficult subject with a weighted mean of 3.5;

students VERY OFTEN easily cope up with a new lesson their teacher is teaching

with a weighted mean of 4; students VERY OFTEN think that they performed well

to their teachers’ activities with a weighted mean of 4; students SOMETIMES think

they are capable to share ideas from their teacher with a weighted mean of 3.8;

students VERY OFTEN think that their teacher has mastery of skills in teaching their

subject with a weighted mean of 4.7; students gets high scores SOMETIMES during

quizzes/seatwork in their subject with a weighted mean of 3.9; students

SOMETIMES think that all of their classmates can easily pick up a new lesson with

a weighted mean of 3.5.


To sum up, the overall weighted mean of GRADE 10-EINSTEIN is 3.97

interpreted as VERY OFTEN.

Table 2:
Galileo Weighted Mean Interpretation

1 2.7 R

2 4.7 VO

3 4.7 VO

4 3 S

5 4.5 VO

6 4.5 VO

7 4.2 VO

8 4.5 VO

9 4.3 VO

10 3.7 S

Total 4.08 VO

Table 2. Evaluated survey questionnaire of GRADE 10-GALILEO.

As presented by the table, students RARELY experience difficulty in studying

science with a weighted mean of 2.7; students find their teacher effective VERY

OFTEN with a weighted mean of 4.7; students VERY OFTEN thinks that their

teacher strategy helps them in learning with a weighted mean of 4.7; students

SOMETIMES think that science is a difficult subject with a weighted mean of 3;

students VERY OFTEN easily cope up with a new lesson their teacher is teaching
with a weighted mean of 4.5; students VERY OFTEN think that they performed well

to their teachers’ activities with a weighted mean of 4.5; students VERY OFTEN

think they are capable to share ideas from their teacher with a weighted mean of

4.2; students VERY OFTEN think that their teacher has mastery of skills in teaching

their subject with a weighted mean of 4.5; students gets high scores VERY OFTEN

during quizzes/seatwork in their subject with a weighted mean of 4.3; students

SOMETIMES think that all of their classmates can easily pick up a new lesson with

a weighted mean of 3.

To sum up, the overall weighted mean of GRADE 10-GALILEO is 4.08

interpreted as VERY OFTEN.

Table 3:

SPA Weighted Mean Interpretation

1 3.1 S

2 4.8 VO

3 4.6 VO

4 3.2 S

5 4 VO

6 3.9 S
7 4 VO

8 4.7 VO

9 3.3 S

10 3.2 S

Total 3.88 VO

Table 3. Evaluated survey questionnaire of GRADE 10-SPA.

As presented by the table, students SOMETIMES experience difficulty in

studying science with a weighted mean of 3.1; students find their teacher effective

VERY OFTEN with a weighted mean of 4.8; students VERY OFTEN thinks that

their teacher strategy helps them in learning with a weighted mean of 4.6; students

SOMETIMES think that science is a difficult subject with a weighted mean of 3.2;

students VERY OFTEN easily cope up with a new lesson their teacher is teaching

with a weighted mean of 4; students SOMETIMES think that they performed well

to their teachers’ activities with a weighted mean of 3.9; students VERY OFTEN

think they are capable to share ideas from their teacher with a weighted mean of

4; students VERY OFTEN think that their teacher has mastery of skills in teaching

their subject with a weighted mean of 4.7; students gets high scores SOMETIMES

during quizzes/seatwork in their subject with a weighted mean of 3.3; students


SOMETIMES think that all of their classmates can easily pick up a new lesson with

a weighted mean of 3.2.

To sum up, the overall weighted mean of GRADE 10-INDIGO is 3.88

interpreted as VERY OFTEN.

Table 4:

Burgundy Weighted Mean Interpretation

1 3.1 S

2 4.5 VO

3 4.15 VO

4 3 S

5 3.6 S

6 3.7 S

7 3.2 S

8 4 VO

9 3.5 S

10 3.1 S

Total 3.54 VO
Table 4. Evaluated survey questionnaire of GRADE 10-BURGUNDY.

As presented by the table, students SOMETIMES experience difficulty in

studying science with a weighted mean of 3.1; students find their teacher effective

VERY OFTEN with a weighted mean of 4.5; students VERY OFTEN thinks that their

teacher strategy helps them in learning with a weighted mean of 4.15; students

SOMETIMES think that science is a difficult subject with a weighted mean of 3;

students SOMETIMES easily cope up with a new lesson their teacher is teaching

with a weighted mean of 3.6; students SOMETIMES think that they performed well

to their teachers’ activities with a weighted mean of 3.7; students SOMETIMES think

they are capable to share ideas from their teacher with a weighted mean of 3.2;

students VERY OFTEN think that their teacher has mastery of skills in teaching their

subject with a weighted mean of 4; students gets high scores SOMETIMES during

quizzes/seatwork in their subject with a weighted mean of 3.5; students

SOMETIMES think that all of their classmates can easily pick up a new lesson with

a weighted mean of 3.1.

To sum up, the overall weighted mean of GRADE 10-BURGUNDY is 3.54

interpreted as VERY OFTEN.


Table 5:

Indigo Weighted Mean Interpretation

1 3 S

2 4.1 VO

3 4.3 VO

4 3 S

5 3.7 S

6 4.3 VO

7 3.4 S

8 2.1 R

9 4 VO

10 3.8 S

Total 3.57 VO

Table 5. Evaluated survey questionnaire of GRADE 10-INDIGO.

As presented by the table, students SOMETIMES experience difficulty in

studying science with a weighted mean of 3; students find their teacher effective

VERY OFTEN with a weighted mean of 4.1; students VERY OFTEN thinks that their
teacher strategy helps them in learning with a weighted mean of 4.3; students

SOMETIMES think that science is a difficult subject with a weighted mean of 3;

students SOMETIMES easily cope up with a new lesson their teacher is teaching

with a weighted mean of 3.7; students VERY OFTEN think that they performed well

to their teachers’ activities with a weighted mean of 4.3; students SOMETIMES think

they are capable to share ideas from their teacher with a weighted mean of 3.4;

students RARELY think that their teacher has mastery of skills in teaching their

subject with a weighted mean of 2.1; students gets high scores VERY OFTEN

during quizzes/seatwork in their subject with a weighted mean of 4; students

SOMETIMES think that all of their classmates can easily pick up a new lesson with

a weighted mean of 3.8.

To sum up, the overall weighted mean of GRADE 10-INDIGO is 3.57

interpreted as VERY OFTEN.

Table 6:

Chestnut Weighted Mean Interpretation

1 3.58 VO

2 4.63 A

3 4.89 A
4 2.74 S

5 4.26 A

6 4.37 A

7 3.84 VO

8 4.74 A

9 3.95 VO

10 3.95 VO

Total 4.10 VO

Table 6. Evaluated survey questionnaire of GRADE 10-CHESTNUT.

As presented by the table, students VERY OFTEN experience difficulty in

studying science with a weighted mean of 3.58; students find their teacher effective

ALWAYS with a weighted mean of 4.63; students ALWAYS thinks that their teacher

strategy helps them in learning with a weighted mean of 4.89; students

SOMETIMES think that science is a difficult subject with a weighted mean of 2.74;

students ALWAYS easily cope up with a new lesson their teacher is teaching with

a weighted mean of 4.26; students ALWAYS think that they performed well to their

teachers’ activities with a weighted mean of 4.37; students VERY OFTEN think they
are capable to share ideas from their teacher with a weighted mean of 3.84; students

ALWAYS think that their teacher has mastery of skills in teaching their subject with

a weighted mean of 4.74; students gets high scores VERY OFTEN during

quizzes/seatwork in their subject with a weighted mean of 3.95; students VERY

OFTEN think that all of their classmates can easily pick up a new lesson with a

weighted mean of 3.95.

To sum up, the overall weighted mean of GRADE 10-CHESTNUT is 4.10

interpreted as VERY OFTEN.

Table 7:

Aquamarine Weighted Mean Interpretation

1 3 S

2 4.67 A

3 4.62 A

4 2.86 S

5 4.05 VO

6 3.81 VO

7 3.86 VO

8 4.52 A
9 3.76 VO

10 3.71 VO

Total 3.87 VO

Table 7. Evaluated survey questionnaire of GRADE 10-AQUAMARINE.

As presented by the table, students SOMETIMES experience difficulty in

studying science with a weighted mean of 3; students find their teacher effective

ALWAYS with a weighted mean of 4.67; students ALWAYS thinks that their teacher

strategy helps them in learning with a weighted mean of 4.62; students

SOMETIMES think that science is a difficult subject with a weighted mean of 2.86;

students VERY OFTEN easily cope up with a new lesson their teacher is teaching

with a weighted mean of 4.05; students VERY OFTEN think that they performed

well to their teachers’ activities with a weighted mean of 3.81; students VERY

OFTEN think they are capable to share ideas from their teacher with a weighted

mean of 3.86; students ALWAYS think that their teacher has mastery of skills in

teaching their subject with a weighted mean of 4.52; students gets high scores

VERY OFTEN during quizzes/seatwork in their subject with a weighted mean of


3.76; students VERY OFTEN think that all of their classmates can easily pick up a

new lesson with a weighted mean of 3.71.

To sum up, the overall weighted mean of GRADE 10-AQUAMARINE is 3.87

interpreted as VERY OFTEN.

Table 8:

Section Weighted Mean Interpretation

Einstein 3.97 VO

Galileo 4.08 VO

SPA 3.88 VO

Burgundy 3.54 VO

Indigo 3.57 VO

Chestnut 4.10 VO

Aquamarine 3.87 VO

Total 3.86 VO

Table 8. Evaluated survey questionnaire of all selected GRADE 10 students.

As presented by the table, the overall weighted mean of GRADE 10 students


of Einstein is 3.7 interpreted as VERY OFTEN; the overall weighted mean of

GRADE 10 students of Galileo is 4.08 interpreted as VERY OFTEN; the overall

weighted mean of GRADE 10 students of SPA is 3.88 interpreted as VERY OFTEN;

the overall weighted mean of GRADE 10 students of Burgundy is 3.54 interpreted

as VERY OFTEN; the overall weighted mean of GRADE 10 students of Indigo is

3.57 interpreted as VERY OFTEN; the overall weighted mean of GRADE 10

students of Chestnut is 4.10 interpreted as VERY OFTEN; the overall weighted

mean of GRADE 10 students of Aquamarine is 3.87 interpreted as VERY OFTEN.

To sum up, the overall weighted mean of GRADE 10 students is 4.08

interpreted as VERY OFTEN.


4.2
4.1 Overall Weighted Mean
4
3.9
3.8
3.7
3.6
3.5
3.4
3.3
3.2
Einstein Galileo SPA Burgundy Indigo Chestnut Aquamarine

Figure 2. Weighted Mean of every section in Grade 10.

The graph presents the overall weighted mean of every section in Grade 10

of Malabon National High School. This shows that GRADE 10 - CHESTNUT has

the HIGHEST OVERALL WEIGHTED MEAN while the GRADE 10 - BURGUNDRY

has the LOWEST OVERALL WEIGHTED MEAN.

Table 9:

Frequency Percentage (%)

Question 11 S1 29 29%

(Yes) S2 10 10%
S3 3 3%

S4 2 2%

Others 0 0%

Question 11 S1 28 28%

(No) S2 14 14%

S3 8 8%

S4 5 5%

S5 1 1%

Others 0 0%

Total 100 100%

Table 9. Overall Responses in Question 11

As the table presented, 44% of the population said yes and 29% of it chooses

statement number one (1); which states that the teacher was having difficulties in

teaching and proved with the statement that the teacher mainly focuses on giving

written outputs. And the remaining 56% said no and 28% of it believed that the

teacher was effective at all times.


Table 10:

Frequency Percentage (%)

Question S1 65 65%

12 S2 25 25%

S3 10 10%

Others 0 0%

Total 100 100%

Table 10. Overall Responses in Question 12

As showed by the table, 65% of the population of the respondents assumed

that they would rather have teachers who have specialize the subject that they are

teaching because they believe that they could learn more from them.
Table 11:

Frequency Percentage (%)

Question Yes 24 24%

13 No 76 76%

Total 100 100%

Table 11. Overall Responses to question 13

The table shows that 76% of the respondents said that they No; in other

words, they don’t consider the situation as a problem. And the remaining 24%

agreed and said they consider it as a problem.


Table 12:

Frequency Percentage

Question S1 12 50%

14 S2 4 17%

S3 5 21%

S4 3 12%

Others 0 0%

Total 24 100%

Table 12. Overall Responses in Question 14

Among the students who said Yes in Question 13, the 12% of it agreed that

it is considered as a problem and said that the teacher must teach something that

he/she has mastered or specialized.


Table 13:

Frequency Percentage (%)

Question 15 S1 53 53%

S2 21 21%

S3 18 18%

S4 8 8%

Others 0 0%

Total 100 100%

Table 13. Overall Responses in Question 15

As presented by the table, half of the population the respondents suggested

that as much as possible, the Department of Education should prevent assigning

teachers to teach fields that are not in their specialization. With accordance in that,

they also recommend that the teacher must do his/her full effort to teach very well

if ever the case can’t be prevented.


Chapter 5

Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Summary of Findings

This study was conducted for the purpose of determining the effects of out-

of-field teaching to students’ learning. The descriptive method of research was

utilized. The normative survey technique was used for gathering data. The survey

questionnaire served as the instrument for collecting data. The responds of the

whole population of the students were represented by the randomly selected Grade

10 Junior High School Students. The inquiry was conducted during the month of

February, school year 2016-2017.

What are the possible effects of out-of-field teaching to students?

The respondents were not aware of the term out-of-field teaching. However,

survey results show that most of the students were satisfied with the teaching

strategies and lectures that their science teachers share with them. Even though the

given field is not in the teachers’ expertise, the teachers still manage to share

enough knowledge to the students.


What causes this situation to be a problem?

According to the respondents, having a teacher that is out-of-field is not really

a problem. They are assuming that the difference between the out-of-field teachers

and not out-of-field teachers is not that broad. Their teaching skills will make a

difference between the two. Luckily, grade 10 science teachers in Malabon National

High School have unique and effective teaching skills so that they can deliver and

elaborate their thoughts even though it is out of their specialization.

What are the possible ways to overcome this problem of students and teachers?

Most of the students suggested that as much as possible, the Department of

Education must prevent assigning teachers to teach fields that are not in their

specialization. In accordance with that, the respondents also suggested that if the

case can’t be prevented, teachers must do their full effort to find and have enough

ideas to teach the lesson very well.


Conclusion

Grade 10 Science teachers who teach out of their field don’t have a big

impact on the students. According to the responses, students really don’t aware of

the term “out-of-field.” Since the school was known because of its intelligent and

talented students, we assume that students are naturally born as practical students,

who don’t base on their teachers, which is not true. These students became

intelligent because of their knowledgeable and responsible teachers who are able

to teach even though it is out of their specialization. We can pompously say that

even though there are a lot of out-of-field teachers, they still able to provide

intellectual students who are competent when it comes to brainpower.

When the respondents became aware of their out-of-field teachers, they

prefer to have teachers who are not out-of-field because they assume that they have

better skills when it comes to teaching. Moreover, many teachers focus on providing

written outputs but the students still learn on their techniques. The students don’t

consider out-of-field teaching as a problem. As long as they are learning, they are

careless what type of teacher they have.

Since they are aware of their teachers, they suggested that Department of

Education should prevent assigning teachers to teach fields that are not in their

specialization. This could be difficult but they were hoping that DepEd can solve the
mentioned issue. Malabon National High School was lucky for having such

intelligent and responsible teachers who are able to impart and elaborate their ideas

even they’re teaching out of their specialization.

Recommendations

Recommendation for Research:

The following recommendations are offered for related research in the

effects of out-of-field teaching.

1. Given the changing nature of curriculum in terms of education system, a

series of innovative studies, based on this research, would document trends

and thereby increase the awareness and consideration regarding out-of-

field teachers.

2. While the current issues facing by the society nowadays on out-of-field

teaching and the unprepared approval of K-12 curriculum on schools, it may

be best to conduct research that consider the contribution of the curriculum

on the percentage of out of field teaching on the society.

3. Given that this research gives basis for making a conclusion that out-of-field

teaching affects the learning of students on the specific topic. Such an effort

would enable other researchers to make a study about how out-of-field

teaching affects the learning of students.


Recommendation for Improving the Study:

The following recommendations are offered for the improvement of the

ideas and concepts of the research.

1. Insufficient availability of local studies and literature when using online

sources can be encountered when conducting this study. Visiting library in

different schools and universities to gain enough resources and data is

highly recommended by the researchers

2. Making conceptual framework should be more detailed and precise to show

accurate information about the study.

3. There are other methods can be used aside from surveying in terms of

gathering data.
Bibliography

Books

Aloraini, S. (2013). Journal of King Saud University - Languages and Translation

Volume 25, Issue 1, 1-64. King Saud University.

McConney, A. (2009). Teaching Out-of-Field in Western Australia. Volume 34, Issue

6, Article 6. Australian Journal of Teacher Education.

Hattie, D. P. (2013). Understanding the Out-of-Field Teaching Experience. The

University of Queensland.

Ingersoll, R. M. (2002). MEASURING OUT-OF-FIELD TEACHING. University of

Pennsylvania 3700 Walnut St. Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Ingersoll, R. M. (2004). Why Some Schools Have More Underqualified Teachers

Than Others. University of Pennsylvania.

Zhang, D.(2008). The Effects of Teacher Education Level, Teaching Experience,

And Teaching Behaviors On Student Science Achievement. Utah State

University.
Zuzovsky, R. (2003). Teachers' Qualifications and Their Impact on Student

Achievement Findings from TIMSS-2003 Data in Israel. School of Education,

Science & Technology Education Center, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research methods in education (7th

ed.). London: RoutledgeFalmer.

Glanz, J. (2003). Action research: An educational leader’s guide to school

improvement (2nd ed.). Massachusetts: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc.

Websites

Australian Education Union, AEU. (2009). The state of our schools survey 2009.

Retrieved from http.//www.aeufederal.org.au.

Australian Education Union, AEU. (2010). The state of our schools survey 2010.

Retrieved from http.//www.aeufederal.org.au/Publication/2010/SOSreport.

Newspapers

Cerbone, D. (2006). Understanding phenomenology. Chesham: Acumen Publishing

Limited
Furman, G. (2002b). Postmodernism and community in schools: Unraveling the

paradox. In G. Furman (Ed.), School as community: From promise to practice

(pp. 51–75). Albany, NY: State of New York Press.


Appendices

March __, 2017

Dear Respondent,

We, the students of STEM 11-A, are currently taking up the course Practical
Research I in which we are tasked by our teacher to conduct a study entitled:
“Effects of Out-of-Field Teaching of Science Subjects in the Learning Process of
Selected Junior High School Students of Malabon National High School, S.Y. 2016-
2017.”

In line with this, we would like to ask your permission to be one of our
respondents in the aforementioned research. Rest assured that the data which will
be gathered will be treated confidentially and for academic purposes only. Thank
you!

Sincerely,

The Researchers

EFFECTS OF OUT-OF-FIELD TEACHING OF SCIENCE SUBJECTS IN THE


LEARNING PROCESS OF SELECTED GRADE 10 STUDENTS OF MALABON
NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL,

S.Y. 2016-2017
I. Profile of the Respondent

Direction: Fill the blanks and put a check (✓) on the appropriate answer.

Name (optional): _____________________________

Gender: Female Male

Section: _________________________________ Grade(s) in Science: _______

II. Evaluation of Students’ Learning from Teachers


Direction: Put a check (✓) to indicate your level of agreement based on the
statements listed below.

Always Very Some- Rarely Never


(5) Often times (2) (1)
Questions (4) (3)

1. Do you experience difficulty in


studying science?

2. Do you find your teacher


effective in his/her own way?
3. Do you think that your teacher’s
strategy helps you in learning?
4. Do you think that science is a
difficult subject?
5. Do you easily cope up with a
new lesson your teacher is
teaching?
6. Do you think you performed
well to the activities during
his/her subject?
7. Do you think you are capable to
share your ideas and learnings
to others from your teacher?
8. Do you think that your teacher
in science has mastery of skills
in teaching his/her subject?
9. Do you get high scores during
your quizzes/seatwork in your
science subject?
10. Do you think that all of your
classmates can easily pick up
the lessons?

III. Analysis of Teaching Strategies


Direction: Put a check (✓) on the correct answer based on your own
perspective and experience.

11. Do your teacher experience having difficulty in teaching?


If yes, how can you say so?
____ He/she mainly focuses on giving written outputs.
____ He/she just provides visual aids for us to copy.
____ He/she is boring and not interesting.
____ He/she have no idea on his/her daily lecture.
____ Others (Please specify): ___________________________________
If no, how can you say so?
____ He/she is effective at all times.
____ He/she just not only provide visual aids but also explain each.
____ He/she has unique and great teaching skills.
____ He/she always make sure that we understand each topic.
____ He/she fits on his/her field.
____ Others (Please specify): ____________________________________

12. If possible, would you rather have teachers who have specialized the
subject that they are teaching?
____ Yes, because I believe that I can learn more from them.
____ Yes, because I want to see how specialized teachers teach their
subject.
____ No, because I can still learn from them even though they’re teaching
out of their field.
____ Others (Please specify):____________________________________

13. Do you consider no. 12 as a problem?


____ Yes ____ No

14. If yes, why do you consider this as a problem? If no, skip this question.
____ A teacher must teach something that he/she has mastered.
____ Students, like me, can't understand the studies and lectures very well.
____ Learning competencies of students were affected.
____ Understanding between teachers and students decreases.
____ Others (Please Specify) ____________________________________
15. What can you suggest in order to prevent the problem from happening on
other students?
____ As much as possible, the Department of Education should prevent
assigning teachers to teach fields that are not in their specialization.
____ If the case can't be prevented, the teachers should give their full effort
to find and have enough ideas to teach the lesson very well.
____ The student, itself, must still do an advance reading to prevent the
lack of knowledge.
____ The Department of Education must improve their seminars and
programs to teachers.
____Others (Please specify): ____________________________________

Thank you for your time and effort! God bless!

-The Researchers