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# ME564 Aerodynamics (Handout # 1)

Winter’2019
Instructor: Prof. Fue-Sang Lien
 ERC-2024
 Ext: 36528
 Email: fslien@uwaterloo.ca

## TA: Paul Geiger (paul.geiger.pg@gmail.com, Ext. 38712, ERC-2018)

Text:
 (Main Text) Aircraft Performance and Design, John D. Anderson, McGraw-Hill (ISBN 0-07-001971-1).
 Fundamentals of Aerodynamics, John D. Anderson, McGraw-Hill (ISBN 0-07-001679-8).

References:
 Aerodynamics for Engineers, John J. Bertin & Michael L. Smith, Prentice Hall (ISBN 0-13-576356-8).
 Aerodynamics, Aeronautics and Flight Mechanics, Barnes W. McCormick, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
(ISBN 0-471-57506-2).
 Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, Daniel P. Raymer, AIAA Education Series.
 Fundamental of Flight, Richard S. Shevell, Prentice Hall.
 Introduction to Aircraft Performance, Selection and Design, Francis J. Hale, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 An Introduction to Flight, John D. Anderson, McGraw-Hill.
 Jane's All the World's Aircraft, Mark Lambert (Ed.), Jane's Information Group Inc.
 Theory of Wing Sections, I.H. Abbott and A.E. Von Doenhoff, Dover Publications, Inc.

Topics:
1. Drag/Lift (Introduction)
o Aerodynamic Lift, drag and moments
o Flow similarity and Buckingham Pi theorem (ME 351 review)
o Aerodynamic coefficients: CL, CD, CM
o Center of pressure and aerodynamic center
o NACA airfoil nomenclature
o Wing-geometry parameters (aspect ratio, taper ratio, sweep angle, dihedral angle, geometric twist)
o Lift
 Lift for an infinite-span wing
 Lift for a finite-span wing (high-aspect-ratio, low-aspect ratio, straight wing, swept wing, delta
wing)
 Compressibility correction
o Drag
 Friction drag, pressure drag, interference drag, parasite drag and induced drag
 Subsonic drag, transonic drag and supersonic drag
o Drag polar

## 2. 2-D flows around thin airfoils

o Potential flow theory (ME 362 review)
 Elementary flows
 Circulation and the generation of lift
 Kutta-Joukouski theorem
o Thin-airfoil theory
 Flat-plate (symmetric) airfoil
 Cambered airfoil
 High-lift airfoil

## 3. 3-D flows around finite-span wing

o Vortex system: bound vortex, trailing vortex, starting vortex, horseshoe vortex
o Vortex-induced drag
o Unswept wings
 Elliptic spanwise circulation distribution
 General spanwise circulation distribution and monoplane equation
o Longitudinal and lateral stability

4. Propulsion
o Reciprocating engine/propeller
o Turboprop
o Turbofan
o Turbojet
o Thrust, power, specific fuel consumption and efficiency

5. Aircraft performance
o Fundamental parameters: thrust-to-weight ratio (T/W), wing loading (W/S), drag polar (CL versus CD),
lift-to-drag ratio (L/D)
o Thrust and power required
o Rate of climb and time of climb
o Absolute and service ceilings
o Range
o Endurance
o Takeoff and landing

6. Aircraft design
o Requirement
o Estimation of weight - first estimate
o Critical performance parameters: (CL)max, L/D, W/S, T/W
o Configuration layout
o Better weight estimate
o Performance analysis
o Optimization

Marking scheme:
 Assignments (2)  15%
 Quiz (1)  10%
 Aircraft estimation and design  25%
 Final exam  50%