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(Instructor: Vinay Singh, Email: , Mo: 08108304735)


 Introduction.
→DME is a secondary radar system. As the name suggest, it measures slant range from ground
→Although DME only provides distance directly, it can also derive Ground speed & Time to
reach the station. DME computes Ground speed by timing the interval between distance
changes. Time to station is calculated from Ground speed & distance. Ground speed & Time
is accurate only when A/C is travelling directly towards or away from station.

 Frequency Range.
→It operates in UHF Band and the 252 available channels (126X & 126Y) are contained in
960 MHZ -1215 MHZ with 1 MHZ spacing.
→Transmitter : 1025-1150 MHZ.
Receiver : 962 –1213 MHZ.

 Principle :- Random PRF/Pulse Technique.

 Diagram.
 Operation.
→The interrogator in the A/C transmits a stream of pulses on the carrier frequency of ground
Transponder in jittered form.
→At the instant of transmission, the receiver of interrogator sets up gates to match the random
PRF of transmitted twin pulses. Also it starts a range search.
→The DME Transponder on ground re-transmits the interrogation pulses after a delay of 50μs
(processing time) at a frequency +/- 63 MHZ from the interrogation frequency on same carrier
→The receiving equipment of an A/C is designed so that the responses which match its
randomized PRF are allowed through the gates. The pulses are now locked on. The DME is in
Tracking mode.
→As the A/C range from station increases or decreases, the gate moves to accommodate the
corresponding increase or decrease in time between transmission & reception of pulses. This
Lock & Follow Technique ensures the returning twin pulses are continuosly tracked.
→To achieve a rapid “Lock-on”, the DME interrogator transmits 150 pulses /sec for 100 sec.
→These reply pulses are now sensed by Timing circuits in A/C receiver that measures the
elapsed time between transmission & reception. Electronic Circuits within the receiver then
substracts 50μs from this time, multiplies the obtained value with speed of Light & divides by
2 to obtain the Slant Range.

 VOR/DME Frequency Pairing.

DME facilities can exist alone but they are usually co-located with VOR. Although VOR (VHF)
& DME (UHF) operate on different frequencies, the two are integrated through paired
frequencies. Only one frequency must be selected (VOR) & the other (DME) is automatically
 ILS/DME Pairing.
Most Localizers (Track guidance component of ILS System) are paired with DME located
very close to landing threshold of Runway. This provides accurate & continuous distance
information during an instrument approach to land. Many ILS instrument approach
procedures commence with flying a constant distance arc based on DME.

 DME Controls & Indicators.

 Station Identification.
A 3-Letter call sign is transmitted every 30 sec usually in conjunction of VOR. There is no
range information present at the time of identification. A/C equipment have a 10 sec
memory circuit to display the range during time identification.

 Operational Uses.
→Two position Fixes are obtained when DME is used in conjunction with VOR/ILS.
→It provides a basis for more accurate holding patterns on DME arc.
→Apart from slant range , Ground Speed & Time to reach the station can also be derived.
→It facilitates the accurate separation between two or more A/C based on VOR/DME fix
reported by individual A/C.
→It helps in radar identification when an A/C reports its position in terms of distance &
bearing from a VOR/DME station. E.g. BBB160020.
→Accurate range to touchdown are available to pilot when the transponder is operating in
conjunction with glidepath.

 Accuracy : ICAO Specification for DME is 0.5NM or 3% of Distance.

 Other Useful Information.

→To reduce the effect of reflections, ground station will not reply to another interrogation
for about 60μs.
→The pulse separation spacing is same for all X-channels i.e.12μs for both Interrogator &
Transponder. In case of Y-channels, pulse spacing is 36μs for interrogator & 30μs for
→ DME is subject to Line of Sight reception. An A/C below horizon (out of LOS) will not receive
any signal from ground station. Whenever the A/C DME is not receiving ground signals, it
enters into standby mode & stops transmitting to save electricity and wear & tear on unit.
As soon as an A/C is in range of ground facilities signal, it returns to normal operation and
begins to transmit once again.
(Instructor: Vinay Singh, Email: , Mo: 08108304735


 Instrument Landing System is a ground-air based instrument approach system that
assist pilots to fly along a precise path, defined in three dimensions, during approach to
land on a specific runway using radio guidance signals transmitted by ground
 ILS is very useful when visibility is limited & the pilot cannot see airport & runway.
 It was introduced in 40’s. Though it has been in existence for over 70 years , it is still
most accurate approach & landing aid that is used by airliners.

Basic Principle: Bearing by Lobe comparison.

ILS Installations & Equipments.

 ILS consists of Ground Installations & Airborne Equipments.

 There are 3 equipments for Ground Installations.
→Ground Localizer(LLZ) Antenna − To provide azimuth guidance.
→Ground Glidepath (GP) Antenna – To provide vertical guidance.
→Marker Beacons – To enable the pilot cross check the aircraft’s height.
 There are 2 equipments for Airborne equipments.
→ LLZ & GP antenna located on aircraft nose(Radom).
→ILS indicator inside the cockpit.

Ground Installations.

 Localizer :
→Localizer is the horizontal antenna array located at opposite end of runway.
→Localizer operates in VHF band between 108.1-111.975 Mhz. There are 40 channels
available for localizer.
→Localizer is located typically 1000ft (300m) beyond the stopping end of runway.
→Localizer transmits two lobes(signals) which overlap at the centre. The left side has
90Hz amplitude modulation & right side has 150Hz amplitude modulation on one of
the carrier frequency between 108-111.975 Mhz.
→The overlap area provides on track signal. For e.g- If an aircraft is approaching the
runway centre line from the right, it will receive more of 150Hz modulation than
90Hz modulation. Difference in depth of modulation will energise the vertical needle
of ILS indicator i.e CDI.
→The CDI deflection of the airborne indicator is controlled by difference in depth of
modulation between two lobes at the position of receiver. When aircraft is off the
centerline, the CDI deflects to show the sector pilot should turn to be on centerline.

Amplitude Modulated Localizer Lobes Course Deviation Indicator.

 Glideslope.
→ Glideslope is a vertical antenna located on one side of the runway.
→ It operates in UHF band between 329.15-335Mhz. It has 40 channels.
→Glideslope produces two lobes (signals) in vertical plane. The upper has a 90Hz
modulation & lower has a 150Hz modulation. The radiation arranged is such that
a plane of eqi-signal is formed which normally defines a slope of 3⁰ to the horizontal.
For e.g- If an aircraft approaching the runway is too high, it will receive more of 90Hz
modulation than 150Hz modulation. Difference in depth of modulation will energize
the horizontal needle of ILS indicator. Thus aircraft will be given direction to go
→With standard pairing of glideslope & localizer frequencies, pilots need to select only
VHF Localizer frequency,paired UHF glideslope frequency is automatically tuned at
→A slope of approximately 3⁰ intersects the runway at approximately 300m from its
beginning & provides a descent of 300 ft for every 1nm of forward travel.
 Marker Beacons.
→Marker Beacons are VHF radio beacons (carrier frequency-75Mhz) having directional
transmission in the form of inverted cone to confirm exact range from runway when
A/C is crossing over them.
→Visual & Audio indications are there in the cockpit to confirm this.
→Locator Beacons (Low powered NDB’S) may be co-located with outer or middle
marker to provide local navigation for landing A/C tracking towards runway.
→Outer Marker (OM): It is located at 3.9NM(7.2Km) from runway threshold to provide
height, distance & adequate time for functional check of equipment & to commence
final descent on the approach. Visual indication in cockpit is Blue lamp that flashes in
accordance with received signal.
→Middle Marker (MM):It is ideally located at a distance of approximately 3500ft from
runway threshold where visual reference should be available to runway to continue
with instrument approach.Visual indication in the cockpit is amber lamb that flashes
in accordingly with received audio code.
→Inner Marker (IM):It is optional & shall be located to indicate position in low visibility
conditions. It is located at a distance of 1000ft from threshold. Visual indication in the
cockpit is White lamp that flashes in accordance with received audio signal.
Indication which a Pilot gets when passing over a Marker beacon
Outer Marker Blue Two dashes/sec 400Hz
Middle Marker Amber Alternate Dot & 1300Hz
Inner Marker White 6 Dots / sec 3000Hz

How does ILS work?

 Ground localizer antenna transmits VHF signal in direction opposite of runway to
horizontally guide aircraft to the runway centre line.
 Ground glidepath antenna transmit UHF signal in vertical direction to vertically guide
aircraft to touchdown point.
 Localizer & Glidepath antenna located at aircraft nose receives both signal & send it to
ILS indicator (CDI) in cockpit. These signals activate the vertical & horizontal needles
inside the ILS indicator to tell the pilot to either go left/right or go up/down.
 By keeping both needles centred ,the pilot can guide his aircraft down to end of the
landing runway aligned with runway centerline and aiming the touchdown.

ILS Approach categories.


I 60m Not ≺ 800m Not ≺550m
II 60 to 30m − Not ≺350m
IIIA 30m or less − Not≺200m
IIIB 15m or less − Between 200&50m
IIIC No cloud or visibility restrictions
Uses of ILS.
 To guide the pilot during approach & landing. It is very useful when visibility is limited
and the pilot cannot see the airport & runway.
 To provide an aircraft with precision final approach.
 To help the aircraft to a runway touchdown point.
 To provide an aircraft guidance to the runway in the horizontal & vertical planes.
 To increase safety & situational awareness.
 Scheduled service would have been impossible without ILS.

 Interference due to large reflecting objects, other objects or moving vehicles. These
interference can reduce the strength of directional signals.
 Susceptible to noise.
 It has unique approach path unlike MLS which has several approach path.
 channel limitations - 40 channels only
(Email: , Mo: 08108304735