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Health Behaviors of Primigravida Teenagers

Background of the study

Adolescent is often used synonymously with teenager. In this sense, Primigravida

teenagers pertains to the first time pregnancy of a woman aged 10–19 years. In many countries,

large numbers of adolescent pregnancies and births are reported. Adolescent pregnancy itself may

be considered a result of risk behavior (WHO, 2004).

The highest adolescent birth rates occur in sub-Saharan Africa, and in some countries in

Southeast Asia and Latin America. In Southeast Asia the early marriage of adolescents is common;

and 25–35% of adolescent girls begin childbearing as early as 17 years (UNFPA, 2001).

Moreover, in the Philippines, 9% of teenage women age 15-19 have begun childbearing.

Teenage childbearing is more common in Davao (18%), Northern Mindanao (15%), and

SOCCSKSARGEN (15%) than in other regions (Philippines National Demographic and Health

Survey, 2017).

Hodgkinson (2013), stated that adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse

outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance

abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Undesirable circumstances can adversely affect maternal

mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children.

Primigravida teenagers face unique challenges. Understanding the experiences,

knowledge, and behaviors of adolescents during the pregnancy and postpartum periods may

contribute to improvement of their maternity care (Kingston, 2012). Thus, the purpose of this study

is to determine the health behaviors of Primigravida teenagers in Davao City.


The purpose of this study was to investigate predictive factors of the self-care behaviors

among primigravida teenagers in Davao City.

1. To identify the relationship between personal factors and health behavior among

Primigravida Teenagers.

2. To determine the perceived barriers of health behavior among Primigravida Teenagers.

3. To determine the relationship between the support satisfaction and health behavior among

Primigravida Teenagers.

4. To analyze the significant factors predicting health behavior among Primigravida


Research Design

The present study will utilize both quantitative and descriptive research method. This

allows the researchers to gather data by using a standard questionnaire which served as the primary

instrument to determine the health behaviors of Primigravida teenagers in Davao City. The

standard questionnaire was designed to accumulate enough information pertaining to the

objectives of the study.


Comparison of Adolescent, Young Adult, and Adult Women’s Maternity Experiences and


Dawn Kingston, RN, BSc, MSc, PhD, Maureen Heaman, RN, PhD, Deshayne Fell, MS and

Beverley Chalmers, DSc(Med), PhD, on behalf of the Maternity Experiences Study Group of the

Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System, Public Health Agency of Canada (2012)

The purpose of the study was to compare the maternity experiences, knowledge, and

behaviors of adolescent, young adult, and adult women by using a nationally representative

sample. The study used data from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey (N = 6421). The

weighted proportions of each variable were calculated by using survey sample weights. Logistic

regression was used to estimate odds ratios. Bootstrapping techniques were used to calculate

variance estimates for prevalence and 95% confidence intervals. It has been found out that

adolescents and young adults were more likely to experience physical abuse in the previous 2

years, initiate prenatal care late, not take folic acid before or during pregnancy, have poor prenatal

health behaviors, have a lower cesarean delivery rate, have lower breastfeeding initiation and

duration rates, experience more stressful life events, experience postpartum depression symptoms,

and rate their infant’s health as suboptimal than adult women. Adolescents were more likely to

rate their own health as suboptimal. Thus, adolescents have unique needs during pregnancy and

postpartum. Health care professionals should seek to provide care in a manner that acknowledges

these needs.

Self-care Behaviors Among Thai Primigravida Teenagers

Panthumas S, Kittipichai W, Pitikultang S, Chamroonsawasdi K. (2012)

The purpose of the study was to investigate predictive factors of the self-care behaviors

among Thai teenagers with primigravida. The samples of 206 primigravida teenagers attending

ANC clinics of six hospitals in the North-Eastern region of Thailand were included. Data collection

was done through self-administered-questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability

coefficients ranging from 0.72 - 0.92. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential

statistics. The results revealed that the percentage-mean score of overall self-care behavior was
76.91. The percentage-mean scores of self-care behaviors in specific trimester were found that the

score in the second trimester was lower than the scores in the first and third trimesters (57.58,

60.45, and 64.65, respectively). Factors associated with overall self-care behavior were perceived

self-efficacy, perceived social support from family, knowledge on self-care during pregnancy,

accessibility to health services, self-esteem and age (r = 0.47, 0.34, 0.28, 0.24, 0.19, and 0.15,

respectively). Perceived self-efficacy and knowledge on self-care during pregnancy were the two

considerable predictors accounted for 25% of the variance in the self-care behaviors of Thai

teenagers with primigravida.

Outcome of Teenage Pregnancy

Tripathi M., Sherchan A. (2014)

A comparative study was done to compare obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage and

non-teenage pregnancies. The study duration was from 10th January 2010 to 9th January 2012.

All teenage mothers (aged 13-19 completed years at delivery) delivering in the Gandaki Medical

College(GMC) hospital, Pokhara were taken as cases (study group). Next 2 consecutive deliveries

in the age group of 20-30 year were selected as control for each case The incidence of

complications in teenage primigravida (study group) compared with non-teenage (control group)

deliveries were anemia (20% vs 6%), preterm labour (20 % vs 7%), Urinary tract infection (UTI)

(8 % vs 4%), preeclampsia (4 % vs 2%) and Prelabour Rupture of Membrane(PROM) (10% vs

4%). Similarly, abnormal presentation (6% vs 2%), placenta praevia (4% vs 1%), Fetal distress

(FD) (8% vs 3%), Cephalo Pelvic Disproportion (CPD) (6 % vs 2%) and Low Birth Weight (LBW)

(24 % vs 9 %) were recorded respectively. In study group, 58% of the patients were delivered

vaginally & 24% were delivered by caesarean section, 6% delivered by breech and 12% of patients

had instrumental delivery. In non-teenage group, 74% of the patients delivered vaginally & 14%
were delivered by caesarean section, 4% delivered by breech and 8% of patient had instrumental

delivery. Teenage pregnant mothers had high rate of inadequate prenatal care, suffered more from

anemia, UTI, & were more likely to deliver preterm and had low birth weight babies. They had

high rates of operative and instrumental delivery.

Frequency of Anemia and Obstetric Outcome in Young Primigravida

Abida Sajid and Aqsam Sajid (2017)

A cross sectional study was conducted in the department of Gynae & Obstetric unit 5 King

Edward Medical University Lahore during a period of one year from May 2013 April 2014. All

primigravida young 15-24years with anemia enrolled for the study. Patients fulfilling the selection

criteria as per operational definition were included in the study after taking informed consent using

non probability consecutive sampling technique. Data was collected on a pre-designed

questionnaire. A total of 3855 deliveries during study period in which 1318 were primigravida.

Mean age in study group was 15 to 24 years. Mild anemia was observed in 46% of woman,

moderate anemia in 41% and severe anemia in 13% in young primigravida. Preterm delivery was

noted in 25% of the females and low birth weight babies were noted by 33% in teenage and young

primigravida. Statistically, significant relationship was found between maternal age, education and

socio economic status. Anemia in pregnancy nowadays is still a common problem in adolescent

and young primigravida and associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Prompt measure should

be taken by the stake holders at local and national level to prevent and treat this problem in order

to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with it.

Maternal and Perinatal Outcome of Teenage Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Centre

Junu Shrestha, Aashika Shrestha, Sangeeta Gurung (2018)

The study aims to evaluate the maternal and perinatal outcome in adolescent pregnancy. A

cross-sectional study conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Manipal Teaching

Hospital, Pokhara from October 2017 to March 2018 for duration of 6 months. There were total

82 cases of teenage pregnancy in the study duration with incidence of 6% among total deliveries.

Majority of cases were of age 19 and were primigravida. Fifty five percent of the cases had normal

vaginal delivery and cesarean section accounted for 39% of cases. The major indication for

cesarean section was meconium stained liquor (52%) followed by oligohydraminos (15%) and

cephalopelvic disproportion (11%). The maternal complication accounted for 59% of total cases.

Among them, anaemia was highly prevalent comprising 11% of cases followed by PPROM (9.8%)

and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (8.5%). In perinatal outcome, the incidence of preterm

birth was 15.9% and low birth weight was 13.4%. The rate of NICU admission was 2.4% and there

was one case of still birth. The study showed that teenage pregnancy is at increased risk of adverse

maternal and perinatal outcome. So if we lay an effort for reducing the incidence of teenage

pregnancy, we can bring in positive changes in the indicators of maternal and perinatal morbidities.