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Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology: Patiala

Second Midterm Examination


BTech. Biotechnology
(BTOO1) Biology 24.10.05
Time: 1hour
Max. Marks: 12
Allquestions carry equal marks. Allparts of a question are to be attempted in continuation
1. Distinguish between the following 1.5x2
l j) Parenchyma, collenchyma, scherenchyma
(1\) Squamous, columner and cuboidal epithelial tissue.

2. (i) Identifythe components of the drawing below. Which part(s) of the 1.5X2
drawing represent photosystem I? Which parts represent photosystem
II?

....----
C_. G )
_'!.-_ ---1- ._~- --.---------.

(-- B ")---""
' /' C ---,)-20 + 2E + F

(ii)
Explain why water is needed for photosynthesis. What happens to the
hydrogen and the oxygen?
3. Justify the followingstatements: 1.5x2
r- U) 38 ATP are produced by the complete oxidative breakdown of one
glucose molecule
(ii) Electron transport chain is followed by oxidative phosphorylation
4. Discuss the structure and function of the following(any Two) 1.5x2
(in 150 words)

( i7 Connective Tissues of animals


(ii) Vascular Tissues of plants
(ii9 Primary and secondary meristematic tissues

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Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology
End Semester Examination ( 3rd Semester 2005-06)
BTech. Biotechnology
BT001 Biology 26.5.05
Time: 3hour
Max. Marks: 36
Note: Attempt any SIX questions.
Allquestions carry equal marks. Allparts of a question are to be attempted in continuation

1. (i) Discuss the plant tissue system 6


(ii) Distinguish between monocots and Dicots. 3
(iii) Describe briefly different types of muscular tissues.. 3

2. The equation for photosynthesis given below shows that carbon dioxide and water are used 6
to produce glucose 6C02 + 6H20 + Energy ~ C6H1206+ 602
Describe Light and Dark reactions to justify the above statement.

3. Summarize the steps and discuss the significance of the representation given 6
below
" ' T-
~'-' -
,AO= :=l
~

i _ AS: 2::';"-- 2.N':'.~- Formation of


Krebs Cycle

~
0

Acetyl C oA
::.:~ _. 2.MSri
.
";:;",T= ........-

.~:N':'.C:-

.
4 (i) Explain briefly Mendel's Laws. What were the seven contrasting characters of 6
the pea plant selected by him?
(ii) Deduce the genotypic and phenotypic ratio in Mendel's Law of independent 6
assortment with the help of an example.

5. Discuss Darwin's theory of Natural Selection 6

6. Write Short notes on the following (Any four) 6


(i) Food chain
(ii) Ecological Pyramids
(iii) Primary Productivity
(iv) Energy flow
(v) Ecosystem

7. Explain the structure and functions of Biomolecules. 6


,.

Second House Test


BT-002: Microbiology
Instructor: Akepati S. Reddy
Date: 25-10-05; Time: 10-30-11.30 hours; Max. Marks: 30
Note:-
. Answer all questions

Q.1 Write note on


1. Haustorium
2. Endocytosis
3. Pneumatocyst
4. Coenobia
5. Pellicle
6. Catalase
Marks:6
r' Q.2 Differentiate first term from the second term
1. Sporangiospores- Conidiospores
2. Anaerobicrespiration- Fermentation
3. Pore platetechnique- spread plate technique
4. Nitrification - Denitrification
Marks: 6
Q.3 Write note on any three of the following?
1. Lichens
2. Red tides
3. MPN test
4. Diatoms
Marks:6
QA Answer any two of the following?
1. Write note on the origin of endoplasmic reticulum and cell organelle, like
mitochondria and chloroplasts, in eukaryotic cells?
2. Write note on the forms of food reserves in different phyla of algae?
3. What is differential medium and what is its role in the membrane filtration
technique?
Marks: 6
Q.5 Write note on the classification of microorganisms on the basis of their energy and
carbon source and give examples for each of the categories?
Marks: 6

.. --
-.

End Semester Examination


BT-002: Microbiology
Instructor: Akepati S. Reddy
Date: 20-12-05; Time: 9-00 AM to 12.00 Noon; Max. Marks: 70

Note:-
. Answer all questions
. Write answers for all parts of a question at one place

01 Answer any six (6) of the following?


1.a Write note on Pili?
1.b Write note Lambda phase?
1.c What is an antiseptic and how it differs from a disinfectant?
v 1.d Write note on Lichens?
1.e Write note on the photosynthetic pigments of Rhodophyta members?
1.f Write note on Enrichment Culture Media?
1.g Write note on Lyophilization?
Marks: 6x2=12
02. Answer any five (5) of the following?
2.a Indicate the contributions made by Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Paul Ehrlich and
Alexander Flemming?
2.b Describe how DNA or nucleic acid hybridization technique is used for establishing
genetic homology between any two microorganisms?
2.c Write note on the desirable features of an ideal antibiotic?
2.d 10 divisions of an Ocular Micrometer are found equivalent to 100 and 10 divisions
of a Stage Micrometer at 10X and 100X magnifications respectively. If one division
-.. on the Stage Micrometer is equal to 0.005 mm, find actual size (in micrometers) of
a microorganism, which is measuring 3.5 divisions of the Ocular Micrometer at
100X magnification?
2.e Write note on the types of inhibitions of enzyme activity?
2.f Write note on the portals of entry for disease causing microorganisms?
Marks: 5x3=15
Q3 Answer any four (4) of the following?
3.a Write note on Bergey's Manual?
3.b Write note on the classification of viruses and indicate how it is different from that
of cellular microorganisms?
3.c Write note on alternation of generations, and differentiate carposprophyte from
tetrasporophyte?
3.d Describe how Multiple Tube Fermentation Technique can be used for the
enumeration of microorganisms present in a given liquid sample?
3.e Describe bacterial photosynthesis and explain how it differs from that of higher
plants?
Marks: 4x4=16

Q4 Answer any three (3) of the following?


4.a List the four major classes of protozoa, and indicate anyone key identifying
feature and one example for each of these classes?
4.b Write note on the techniques that can be employed for microbial growth
measurement?
4.c Describe Acid-fast staining and Gram staining techniques of bacteria?
4.d Write note on food poisoning and describe remedial measures for food poisoning?
Marks: 3x5=15
Q5 Answer any two (2) of the following?
5.a Write note on how prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes?
5.b Indicate the key identification and differentiation features of Zygomycetes,
Ascomycetes, Basidiomycetes, Chytridiomycetes, Dueteromycetes and
Mixomycetes?
5.c Write note on different types of phosphorylations that occur in microorganisms?
Marks: 2x6=12
1

J
Department of Biotechnology
II-Mid Semester& Environmental
Exam 12.4.05 Sciences, TIET ~
~
BT-003; Principles of Food Processing
Max marks: 12, Time: 1hr
Course instructor: Dr Abhijit Ganguli

- Attempt all questions


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Q1. Explain the mechanism of microbial inactivation by High-


Hydrostatic pressure (HPP) briefly discuss why newer processing techniques
for foods are phasing out the existing, economical thermal based processing
techniques. (Not more than 200 words)
(2+2)

Q2. Expand Csp and Cst. Write about Low temperature preservation,
with emphasis on low temperature tolerant food borne pathogens .
(Do not exceed 200 words)
(0.5+3)

Q3. Write short notes on (a) MAP and (b) Blanching (0.5+0.5)

Q4. List the essential attributes of food packages. What are intelligent packages?
Explain why Labeling is an essential part of food packages. (2+0.5 +1)

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97
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology: Patiala
Second Midterm Examination
BTech. Biotechnology

(BT005) Bioanalytical Techniques


21.10.05
Time: 1hour
Max. Marks: 12

All questions carry equal marks. All parts of a question are to be attempted in continuation

1. i Discuss the role of HAT medium in generation of monoclonal antibodies 1.5x2


by hybridoma Technology.
ii What are the characteristics of antibodies also discuss its response
kinetics in vivo.
r
2. Explain schematically the electron microscope. State different types of 1.5x2
electron microscope.

3. Write brief account of following (100 words) 1x 3


i ELISA
ii XRD
iiii Fluorescent Microscopy

4, I Why spectroscopy is an important tool in biological sciences, give 1.5x2


relevant examples.
ii. Explain Lambert Beers Law
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology 91
End semester Examination (Sibsemester 200S-06)
BTech. BiotechnologyIIIrd Year
Bioanalytical Techniques BTOOS 14.12.0S
Course Instructor: Dr. Moushumi Ghosh
Time: 3 hours
Max. Marks: 36
Note: Attempt any SIX questions.
All questions carry equal marks. All parts of a question are to be attempted in continuation

(i) Justify centrifugation as 'an essential bioseparation technique. 2


(ii) List different types of centrifuges. 2
(iii) Give the essential characteristics of media used for density gradient centrifugation. 2

2. A. Discuss applications of radioisotopic technique in biotechnology. 3


2. B. 1
(i) What are the methods for preparation of sample in electron microscope?
(ii) What is the limit of resolution of a system using an objective having NA=I.28 and using light of
wavelength 453.7nm.
(iii) It is usually possible to vary the intensity of the illuminating source for all the microscopes for ease
of viewing and to prevent eye strain. The intensity is kept relatively low. For what type of
microscopy would the maximum illuminating intensity be desirable?

3. Discuss briefly advantages and disadvantages of different methods that are used for electrophoresis of 6
proteins.
4. A. Discuss the steps of the following techniques with specific examples only 4
(i) Ouchterlony double diffusion immunoassay.
(ii) Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
(iii) Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
(iv) Biotin avidin binding immunoassay.
B. Define the following terms any four (50words) 2
(i). Antigen
(ii) Monoclonal Antibody
(iii) Adjuvent
(iv) Hapten
(v) Epitope

5. Explain showing schematic diagrams the principle and working of Infra Red spectroscopy (IR) and 6
Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Highlight the importance of both of these in biotechnology.

6. (i) Define Rr ,RMand Rx . If chromatographed on the paper, the substances AB and C have following 2
Rf values in the two solvent systems as indicated.
Substance Ethanol Acetic acid
( " A 0.51 0.62
B 0.4 0.64
C 0.53 0.1
Which type of paper chromatography would be the best way to separate A, Band C.
(ii) An enzyme is known to require high concentration of Mgz+for activity. If the Mgz+is removed, the 2
protein is irreversibly denatured. Suppose that ,in establishing a purification scheme, you try both
ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography and that in both the cases the enzyme loses
activity. Explain why this might happen. In view of your explanation, what modifications would
you make to improve the situation?
(iii) Write a brief account on affinity chromatography or ion exchange chromatography. (100 words) 2
7. (i) Why electrophoresis is done in solutions having low salt concentrations. 2
(ii) In determining the conditions for maximum separation of two components by electrophoresis what 4
parameters should be varied? What effect might the variation of each have on resolution?
8. A bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa A2Chr is resistant to KZCrZ07'lt can also reduce Cr+6to Cr+3 6
states. Explain the bioanalytical techniques required to prove the following (show the experimental steps
schematically only)
(i) Resistance to KZCrZ07
(ii) Identification of whether reduction from Cr Cr 3+has actually taken place by the
cells.

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~s- (j)
Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences
lOr
THAP AR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (Deemed University), Patiala
End Semester Examination

Course Name: Biochemistry Course Number: BT-006


Date of Examination: 15.12.2005 Time: 9.00 am-12.00 pm
Maximum marks: 36
Instructions:
Attempt ANY FOUR questions
All parts of a question should be attempted together
Draw Diagrams &Chemical structures wherever necessary
Please read the questions carefully and write legibly

Q.1 (a) Comment upon "ATP synthesis is coupled to H+ transport across a membrane". (approx (3.50)
250 words & diagram ifnecessary)
(b) Which enzyme is responsible for the inward movement of ADP and outward movement (0.50)
of ATP in mitochondrion?

-~ (c) What properties of enzymes make it useful for industrial processes? Give relevant (2.50)
examples of each.

(d) Km and Vmax for two substrates A and Bare 4.0 M, 25 ~mol/sec and 0.5 mM, (2.50)
15~mol I sec, respectively. At low concen~ration « I mM) which substrate will react
most rapidly?

Q.2 (a) What is electron transport chain? Why is it important? How many complexes participate (3.50)
in the electron transport chain at a given time?

(b) Write the name of the two mobile electron carriers in the electron transport chain. (1.00)

(c) What chemical properties of phospholipids give them the ability to form membranes? (2.50)

(d) If the standard free energy for an uncatalyzed reaction is 2500 kJ/mol, then what can you (2.00)
say about the standard free energy for the enzyme-catalyzed reaction?

r' Q.3 (a) Light provides the energy requirement for the synthesis of both NADPH and ATP during (2.00)
r photosynthetic electron transport. Explain manner in which light meets this requirement.

(b) How do allosteric enzymes control feedback regulation in metabolic pathways? (2.50)
Highlight giving suitable examples.
.
(c) Define RCF. You have to sediment labile sub cellular peroxisome organelles that require (4.50)
significantly more centrifugal force than nuclei or' mitochondria. A fixed amount of time
is available. Will you get a better sedimentation in a rotor with a 10 cm radius that can
be spun at an rpm of 40,000 or in a rotor with a radius of 20cm that can be spun at a
maximum of 20,000 rpm? Explain briefly.

Q.4 (a) How are radioisotopic techniques important in life sciences or medicine? (350 words approx.) (4.50)

Please turn over "'


(b) Figure below shows the UV absorption spectra ofpoly-L-Iysine hydrochloride in three (4.50)
different secondary structural forms: a-helix, random coil and ~-sheet.

(, ,.

1
S 4"
X
~

2 ..

o .~ ~ J.'N'

tOO 1'10 2CO ;!HI no 2;llt 141' 1S0


W ,lenglb(nn.)

UV absorption spectra ofpoly-L-Iysine hydrochloride in aqueous solution.

(i) Identify the chromophore that gives rise to the absorption band at about
195nm in the spectra of poly-L-Iysine hydrochloride.
(ii) Explain why the UV spectrum of a protein depends on the secondary
structure. Indicate which spectrum in Figure above corresponds to each
structural form.

Q.5 (a) Discuss the unusual temperature and cohesive properties of water, including (2.50)
explanations of these properties at the molecular level and discussion of their importance
for living organisms

(b) Describe the general structure of amino acids and list 3 ways in which amino acids differ (2.50)
from each other

(c) What is meant by the transition state of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction? How does it (2.00)
influence the rate of reaction?

(d) How are glycolysis and the TCA cycle feedback regulated? ---
(2.00)

Q.6 (a) Give the major differences between cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation? In (3.00)
which part of the chloroplast does cyclic photophosphorylation occur?

(b) How is C3 photosy~thesis-different from C4 photosynthesis? (2.00)

(c) Explain the regulation of synthesis and breakdown of Glycogen in animal system. (3.00)

(d) Where do you find the Q cycle? (1.00)

******************************************GoodLuck *******************************************

'.'
J THAPAR LNSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, PATIALA
UEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
. End Semester Examination, 12thDecember 2005
B.Tech (Biotechnology) IIlrd y~~...,
BT-007, Bioprocess Engineering
Time: 3 Hrs. M.M. 72

Instructions:
(i) Question 1 is compulsory .

(ii) As:mme any missing or wrong data by stating a suitable reason


(iii) Attempt all parts of the question at one place.
(iv) Evaluated answer sheets can be seen on 16.12.05 in lab II in the department.

f 1. (a) For the competitive inhibition:

E+S ES -+ E + P
+
I

EI

Develop the following equation for the calculation of reaction rate:

r = rmaxCs

(6)

. (b) Discuss various models for studying cell kinetics and why we require them? (2)

(c) Describe how microorganisms can be used for the effluent treatnient? (2)

(d) Dilution rate may be used as a controlling factor for growth. Comment? (2)

2. (a) Discuss various hypothesis proposed to explain the Enzyme specificity? (3)

(b) Derive an expression that shows how the mass transfer resistance affects the
effectiveness of an immobi!ized enzyme? Take the case for internal mass transfer
resistance with zero order reaction kinetics. (3) .
'"
)
(c) Discuss about scale up of the fermenter? (2)

(d) Show diagrammatically the concentrations profiles of the substrate in a spherical


catalyst pellet. (2)

3. (a) What are the different methods of air sterilization and how can you classify the
filters? (3)

(b) Give various methods for batch sterilization and which method is usually preferred
and why? (2)

(c) A 20m3 fermenter, provided with air at a rate of 10 m3Ihr for a fermentation lasting
for 100 hrs. From investigation of the filter medium, the optimum 'linear air velocity was
shown to be 0.15m/sec., at which k (filter constant) was 1.535 cm-I. Air contains 200
, microorganisms per m3.Find out the dimensions of the filter. (5)

4. (a) In an aerobic fermentation process, the typical average bubble diameter is 3 mm,
with' an average raise velocity of 18 em/sec. The stagnant liquid film thickness was
calculated to be 6 microns. If the diffusivity coefficient is 8 x 10-10m"/s, find the mass
, transfer coefficient on the basis of
(i) film theory
(ii) penetration theory (3)

(b) Compare and contrast the static' aild dynamic method for measui'ement of kLa. and
what are the various drawbacks associated with each of them? (3)

(c) Show with an example to control the valve sequence during:


(i) Sampling
(ii) Sterilization (4)

5. (a) Define L f~ctorand g- numberof a centrifugeand also discuss the working of


. tubularcentrifugein downstreamprocessing? (3) ..

(b) In a fermentation process producing baker's yeast, the biomass is separated using a
continuouscentrifuge, operating at 4000 rpm, with' a feed rate 80 Vmin.The solid
particles may be assumed to have an average diameter of 0.05 mm. The density of the
biomass is 1010 kg! m3 . The fluid may be assumed to have properties of water. Find the
sigma factor for the centrifuge. (4)

(c) V/hat are the' criteria for choosing a particular product recovery step and also discuss
various unit operations for the separation of suspended solids? (3)
6. (a) Reduce the following block diagram into:

G2
I .

R + I I C
OJ I ( ) I 03

. . ~

(I). a formhavinga one blockin the forwardpath andone in the feedbackpath


I (II) single block representation form. (6)

(b) The effect of interaction has been to change the effective time constants of the
inter~cting system. Justify the statement by proving an example. (4)
-.
1. (a) Discuss about various types of controllers being used in the industry and also
calculate their transfer functions? Show th~ response graphically. (4)

(b) Is batch fermentation a steady state process or unsteady.state process? Justify your
answer by deriving an expression for batch fp,rmentation? (3)

(c) What are the various methods of fed batch/semi batch fermentation process? Explain
them with their feeding methods. (3)

OR

(a) In a CSTR (Chemostat), show how recycling improves the production rate? (3)

(b) Define space time and space velocity? (2)

(c) A certain fermentation .medium was sterilized in a fermenter. The heating up took 30
min from 100 to 121 0 C and the cooling took 15 min ITom 121 to 1000 C. The Del factor
value for heating period is 12.55. The thermal death constant kl2I os = 2.54 min-I. The
Del for the steri~ization is 43.5 at 121 () C. Find the Del holding at 121 ()C and holding
period. . . (3)

(d) Give the neat flow diagram for a continuous heat sterilization process? (2)

J
THAPAR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, PATIALA
(Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences)
II mid term Examination of B.Tech. Biotechnology
BT-008: Cell and Molecular Biology (October 2005)

Time 1 hour Max Marks: 12

Answer all questions

1. Explain how cyclin B is degraded to exit mitosis. 2.0

2. How cytokinesis is blocked in early mitosis? 1.0

3. Explain briefly the role of Rb protein in cell cycle control. 2.0

4. Explain briefly the structure of DNA proposed by Watson and Crick. 2.0

5. What are telomeres? How RNA primers at the ends of linear eukaryotic
chromosome replace by DNA? 2.0

6. How does homologous recombination take place in prokaryotes? 3.0


--':'..;.....' '1"" ',,":>.
THAPAR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY: PATIALA
(Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences)
First Mid-Semester Examination (2004-2005), M.Sc. Biotechnology (I)
Genetic and Metabolic Engineering (BT-551)
Maximum Marks: 15 Time: 1 hour
18-02-05

Attempt all the Questions

1. a) What are the distinguishing features of the following vectors? Agt10, AEMBL3 1.5
b) Briefly comment on the following genetic markers as used in A vectors:
imm21, Dam, Sam7 and chi 2.0
c) What are the steps involved in various enzyme-mediated interconversions of
plasmid DNA? 1.5

2. a) What are the characteristic features of T7 and SP6 promoters? Briefly mention
their applications. 1.5
b) Priorto infectionwith bacteriophageA, E.co!i host is usually grown in a medium
cotaining maltose and Mg2+.Explainwhy? 1.5
c) What do you mean by host restriction & modification? How was this pheno-
menon established experimentally? 2.0

3. a) Why is ligation carried out at low temperature? 1.0


b) What are the major differences between terminal transferase and klenow
fraament of DNA Polymerase I ? 1.5
c) Commercial M-MuLV Reverse Transcriptase usually lacks RNaseH function.
/"' What is its implication? 1.0
d) Schematically show any example of unique site cloning and discuss its
disadvantages. 1.5

""'lII $__...........
['i(t/'
)69
THAPAR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, PATIALA
(Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences)
End Semester Examination ofB.Tech. Biotechnology
BT-008: Cell and Molecular Biolol!V (December 2005)

Time 3 hours Max Marks: 36

Note: Answer any four questions from Section A. Section B is compulsory

Section A

1. What is an operon? Explain in detail about the lactose (lac) operon in E. coli. (7.0)

2. a) How introns are splicee.? (3.0)


b) How do amino acids become activated and tRNAs become loaded? (4.0)

3. Explain initiation, elongation and termination of protein synthesis. (7.0)

4. a) What are frameshift mutations? (2.0)


b) What is genetic complementation? Explain the genetic basis of
complementation by cis-trans test. (4.0)
c) What are aneuploid mutants? (1.0)

5. a) What are the steps involved in the life cycle of the lysogenic phage
lambda (A.). (4.0)
b) Write briefly about transduction. (3.0)

6. a) Write briefly about site specific recombination. (3.0)


b) Explain the role of different antibiotics which inhibit protein synthesis. (2.0)
c) Explain how 5'cap and 3' poly (A) tail is added to eukaryotic mRNA. (2.0)

Section B

7. Write short notes of the following. (2.0 x 4.0=8.0)

a) Distinctive features of eukaryotic chromosome


b) Wobble hypothesis
c) Auxotrophic mutants
d) Lytic cycle of bacteriophage
***********
THAPAR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY: PATIALA
(Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences)
Second Mid-Semes,ter Examination (2004-2005), M.Sc. Biotechnology (I)
Genetic and Metabolic Engineering (BT- 551)
Maximum Marks: 15 Time: 1 hour
09-04-05

Attempt all the auestions


(Note:Answers should be precise and to the point)

r 1. a) Give any two examples of DNA-proteininteractions. How do you establish the 0.5+
specificityof the above interaction experimentally? 1.5
b) Howdo you carry out nick-translation reaction? 1.0
c) What do you mean by gene-specific probes? Howdo you design such probes? 1.0
d) Brieflyoutline anyone approach to assess the quality of a gene library. 1.0

2. a) What is the purpose of tetrad dissection analysis in the yeast? 1.5

b) A pUC19 DNA sample somehow gets mixed with bacterial DNA. How do you 1.0
purify this plasmid DNA?
c) What should be the strategy to establish a valid ORF within a DNA fragment? 1.0
d) Outline only the steps involved in the in situ hybridization. What is the relevance 1.5
of this molecular technique?

r 3. a) If you want to clone a DNA fragment of 123 kb which vector you would use and 1.0
why?
b) Why is Sanger's method of DNA sequencing called as chain terminator 1.0
sequencing method?
c) How will you clone a gene of 45 nucleotides length with a methionine codon at 2.0
N-terminus of the polypeptide?
d) What are R plasmids? Explain with examples. 1.0

$--......-
Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences
THAPAR iNSTirUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (Deemed University), Patiala

Second Mid-Term Examination

Subject: Environment & Sustainability Course No. BT-552


Date: 9.04.2005 Session: 1300-1400hrs
Maximum Marks: 15
Instructions -
. Write legibly
. Give examples and diagrams wherever necessary.
Attemot anv three auestions in a seauence

Q.1 (a) What do ecological pyramids represent in a community?


Giving suitable examples write briefly about different
types of ecological pyramids (150 words approx.) (0.5 +3.0)
(b) Define Biogeochemical Cycles. What are their basic
types? (0.75+ 0.75)
Q.2 (a) Schematically represent Nitrogen Cycle. Nitrogen Cycle
is a dual cycle- ~xplain briefly (125 words approx.)
(1.5+ 2.0)
(b) What is Law of Tolerance? How is it different from Law
of Minimum? Define Ecotypes. (0.5+0.5+0.5)
Q.3. (a) Define the following terms.
(i) Age Pyramids (ii) Demography (iii) Ecological Density
(iv)Survivorship curves (0.5x4 =2.0)
(b)Briefly comment on following age pyramids with respect
to their growth rates. Give example of populations
showing similar trends. (0.5x3= 1.5)
Aga Yaar 01 blr1I
A9a
80+ Ba'ora '9\1 80.
75-7V 1916-1919 7S-79
78-14 1920-1924 78-74
66-69 1926-1929 86-19
80-84 1U30-1934 60-84
SS-li9 1935-1939 SS-li9
50-64 1940-1944 50-64
46 9 1946-1949 45 9
40 4 1050-1964 40......
3!h19 1955-1959 35-39
30-34 1geO-I964 30-:14
2S~9 1986-1969 2~0
20~4 1970-1974 20-24
16-19 1976-1979 15-19
1980-1984 10-14
1985-1989 S-g
11t:4 1990-1994 0.....
I 88420248 8420246
Par..'" 01population Parcenl0'populaUon
(i) (11) (iii)
p ~ease turn over......
/

THAPAR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, PATIALA


(Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences)
Ii Mid SemesterExamination M.Sc.Biotechnology (I) Session: 2004-05
BT -553: Biostatistics & Bioinformatics

Time I hour$ Max Marks: 15

Answer All Questions.

l. An experiment was carried out to test the effect of 4 different training methods
" on increasing mental ability of children. Each training method was given to one
'--- group of 5 children. The four groups of children were matched for age and Sex.
Test whether the four methods of training differ significantly with each other.
Use any multiple comparison tests if the F value is significant. (4.0)
Scoreof mental ability by methodsoftraininp
A B C D
15 12 10 14
20 17 15 20
16 II 12 16
19 18 14 18
19 16 14 13

2. What are the basic principles of experimental design? Explain briefly


randomized block design and factorial design. (3.0)

3. Explain briefly about the PIR and SWISS-PROT databases (2.0)

4. Explain briefly about the Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) and Entrez. (2.0)

5. Write'short ...notes oTthe following. (4.0)

a) Profiles and Pfam


b) Gen Bank
c) BLOCKS
d) Any four web addresses used in hioinformatics.

***************

J
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala
First Mid Semester Examination, 19th Feb., 2005
M.Sc (Biotechnology) 1 Year

Time: 1 Hr BT-554 M.M15


Bioprocess En~ineerin~

Answers must be bricf and to the point.

I. (a) Give various methods for sterilization and whcre are they preferred? (1.5)
(b) I-low can you classify Microbial products? (1.5)

2. Give reasons for choosing a batch or a continuous sterilization and give advantages
and disadvantages for both? (3)

3. (a) Give methods for calculating cell no. density and cell mass density? (1.5)
(b) I-low Log penetration theory can be used to design a filter? (1.5)

4. (a) In a Fermenter of 201113,air is provided at a rate of 10 m3/min. for a fermentation


lasting for 100 hrs. Optimum linear air velocity was 0.I5m/sec, at which' value of
K was 1.535 em-I. The air contained 200 microorganisms/m3. Calculate the
dimensions of the filter? (2)
(b) Give different types ofContinliolis sterilii'.ation? (I)

5. Give answers in brief (Do any three) (1*3=3)


(i) Sterilization Chart
(ii) Chel110statand Turbidostat
(iii) Difference bctween Bioproccss Engg. and Biochemical Engg.
(iv) Del factor and Richard's method.
-_ r

..
Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala
Second Mid Semester Examination, 11thApr. 2005 .
M.Sc (Biotechnogy)
81'-554, Bioprocess Engineering

Time: 1 hour Full Marks: 15

1. Explain necessary and sufficient condition for operating Continuous Culture? (2)

2. How do enzymes work? How can you study and measure enzyme kinetics? (1.5)

3. What basic steps do you consider while designing the fermenter? (1.5)

4. A counter-flow concentric tube heat exchanger is used to cool the lubricating oil of a
large industrial gas turbine engine. The oil flows through the tube at 0.19 kg/s (Cp=2.18
kJ/kg K), and the coolant water flows in the annulus in the opposite direction at a rate of
0.15 kg/s (Cp=4.18 kJ/kg K). The oil enters the cooler at 425 K and leaves at 345 K while
the coolant enters at 285 K. I-low long must the tube be made to perform this duty if the
heat transfer coefficient from oil to tube surface is 2250 W1m2K and from tube surface to
water is 5650 W/m2 K? The tube has a mean diameter of 12.5 nun and its wall presents
negligible resistance to heat transfer. (5)
OR
An existing heat exchanger of 20-m2 surface area is 'to be used to condense low pressure
steam. The cooling medium will be feed water available at 40° C; its flow rate being 0.9
kg/s from previous experience, the overall heat transfer coefficient is estimated at 120
W/m2 K. Calculate the quantity of steam condensed and the exit temperature of the feed
water. At the condensing pressure, steam has saturation temperature t = 100 C and latent
- heat of vaporization hfg=2257kJ/kg.
How would be the performance of the exchanger be affected if the overall heat transfer
coefficient can be doubled? (5)

5. Explain the following: (Do any Three) (1*3=3)


a. Damkohler No.
b. Factorsllffecting selection of suitable support material
c. 1-2 & 2-4 type shall & tube type heat exchanger
d. Classification of heat exchanger based upon mechanical design and
physical state of heat exchanging fluids

6. Results of the Chemostat experiment may differ from those predicted by theory.
Comment? (2)
Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences, TIET
lI-Mid Semester Exam 11.4.05
_J' BT-555; Principles of Food Processing .
Max marks: 15 Time: Ihr
Course instructor: Dr Abhijit Ganguli
Attempt all questions
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Qt. What are alternative or novel processing techniques?


Write brieflyon their advantages and disadvadantages (2+3)
(Do not exceed 200words)

02. Explain the concept of Pulsed Electric Field or PEF.


What changes are brought about by this technique in food borne
microorganisms. State how vitamins and simple carbohydrates are
affected by High Hydrostatic Pressure or HPP in foods (1+1+1)

03. Write a short note on Low temperature as preservation technique.


(Not more than 200 words) (2)

04. Explain why packaging has evolved as one of the most important
and challenging area in food science. 'In today's world of convenience
foods, we need to reuse Packaging material'. Justify this statement
(Do not exceed 200words) (2+3)
...
--- ---
-- - - - -- -- -
- -----
Dcpartmcnt of Biotcchnology & F,nvironmcntal Scicnces, TIEl'
I-Mid Semester Examination (2004-2005)
BT-556 Principlcs of Food Proccssing 21.2.05
Max marks: 12
Time lhr
Course instructor: Dr Ahhijit Ganguli
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Attempt all questions
Q I. State the major types of foods consumed. What is spoilage?
How are spoilage microorganisms different from pathogenic
microorganisms. (I + 1+ 1)

Q2. State the intrinsic and extrinsic factors responsible for entry,
survival and growth of microorganisms on food conditions, justi fy why
an interplay of these factors are important to obtain spoil free
and safe foods. (1+ 1)

Q3. Write a short note on UV as a preservation technique.


(Not more than ISOwords) (2)
J
Q4. What is predictive microbiology? Write about the advantages and disadvantages
of this emerging disciplinc in lood safety. (Do not exceed 200words) (I t4)
THAPAR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY: PATIALA
(Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences)
Second Mid-Semester Examination (2005-2006), M.Sc. Biotechnology (II)
Plant Biotechnology (BT603)
MaximumMarks:12 Time: 1 hour
21-10-2005

AttemDt all the auestions


(Answers should be precise and to the point)

1. a) What are the common genetic approaches for altering chloroplast 1.5
function?
b) How do you correlate cytoplasmic male sterility with mitochondria? 1.0
r-- OR
'"' What are the major advantages of transplastomic plants?
c) "Transposon-mediated chromosome breakage may be studied 1.5
phenotypically." Justify the statement giving example.

2. Answer any four of the following questions: 4x1.0


a) Write pre'ciselythe characteristic features of crown-gall tumor.
b) Briefly mention the function of following gen~s:
VirA, virG, virO- ..~ yjrE
i. .< 'wtI

c) Binary vector system can be developed Without T-DNA borders. What is


your opinion in support of this statement?
d) Write a short note on bar gene function.
r.
e) What are the commonly used methods for direct gene transfer to plants?
Briefly discuss any one of them.

3.
" a) Briefly describe the major applications (any four) of Plant Tissue Culture.
b) Diagrammatically represent the role of auxin and cytokinin as plant
1.0
1.0
growth regulator.
c) Describe indirect morphogenesis. Explain the role of indirect morpho- 1.0
genesis for maintenance of clonal fidelity and crop improvement.
d) Fill in the blanks: 4xO.25
i) Mercuric chloride is used for sterilisation of explants.
ii) Activated charcoal phenolic substances.
iii) Virus elimination can be done through culture.

.. iv) Cocopeat is used to increase in potting mixture.

$-------
II

THAPAR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY: PATIALA


(Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences)
End Semester Examination (2005-2006), M.Sc. Biotechnology(II)
Plant Biotechnology (BT603)
Maximum Marks: 36 Time: 3 hours
08-12-2005
Attempt all the Questions
(Answers should be precise and to the point)
1. a) How is L-glycerol-3-phosphate synthesized in plant cells? 1.0
b) What is the role of oleosin in 'molecular pharming'? 1.5
c) Briefly mention the function of various compartments involved in vegetable
oil biosynthesis. 1.5
d) What are the common antioxidants found in plants? Briefly discuss the
biochemical role of ascorbate peroxidase & superoxide dismutase. 2.0

2. a) Elucidate the molecular mechanism of posttranscriptional gene silencing? 2.0


b) What is insecticidal crystal protein (ICP)? Briefly mention its mode of 1.0
action.
c) What is the purpose of 'Copy Nature' approach in plant biotechnology?
Explain why protein(s) serves as a target for screening rather than
metabolites for the above approach? 2.0
d) Outline a transgenic approach for resistance towards fungal pathogens. 1.0

3. a) Distinguish between cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors with


examples. You are given a piece of plant DNA. How do you establish the
presence of promoter in it? 1.0+1.0
b) Write a precise note on cyanogenic glycosides. 1.5
c) Outline the importance of shikimic acid pathway. 1.0
d) Differentiate critically between primary & secondary metabolites in plants. 1.5

"
4. a) What are the structural attributes of secondary cell wall?' 1.0
b) Outline the transgenic approach for production of lysine in plants. 2.0
c) What is the crucial enzyme involved in starch biosynthesis? Explain why? 1.0
d) Discuss briefly the 'Monarch Butterfly Controversy'. 2.0
OR

a) What are the advantages of 'particle bombardment system'? 1.0


b) What are microcarriers? How do you prepare the same? 1.5
c) Briefly outline the steps involved in Agrobacterium-mediated protoplast
transformation. 2.0
d) Give your opinion at least on three points in support of transgenic
approach in crop improvement program. 1.5
W

. See the overleaf

& 10
5. Attempt any four of the following questions: 1.0x4
a) Ribonuclease gene could be employed to produce male infertile plants.
Justify the statement.
b) Briefly mention the role of monuron in weed control.
c) What are terpenoids? Name any four members of this family.
d) Write a brief note on PDR.
e) How do you produce medium chain fatty acids in Brassica?
f) How do you convert octopine strain of Agrobacterium to nopaline strain?

6. Attempt any four of the following questions: 2.0x4


a) Explain immobilisation techniques for secondary metabolite production in
vitro. Give examples.
b) Briefly explain the differences of IEDC and PEDCs during somatic
embryogenesis. What are the characteristics of somatic embryos?
c) Malviya 12 is a agronomically desirable (higher yielding) wheat variety that
becomes susceptible to wheat rust due to recessive gene. Sparrow (low
yielding variety) contains a dominant gene for wheat rust resistance. How
will you produce (through conventional plant breeding approach) an elite
variety showing rust resistance using Sparrow as a non-recurrent parent
with the agronomical plant type of Malviya 12 and explain.
d) What are the cryo preservation methods for long-term storage for
germplasm preservation?
e) Briefly explain a method to produce double cross hybrid seed using male
sterility system in crop plants.
f) Briefly explain the physico-chemicalfactors affecting secondary metabolite
production in vitro.
#-----
Department of Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences, TIET
End Semester Exam
BT-604; Principles of Food processing 10. 12.05
Maxmarks: 36, Time allotted: 3hr
Course instructor: Dr Abhijit Ganguli
Attempt any five questions; all questions carry equal marks.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

01. Discuss the unorganized sector in Indian food industry,


giving relevant examples. (6 +1.2)

02. Describewithschemes the complete setup of a modern


food processing plant you have visited.Listthe products
manufactured by this plant. (6+1.2)
03. Explain the importance of fermentation in food preservation
Discuss schematicallythe productionof vinegar. (3+4.2)

04. Explain the fermentation of "sauerkraut". Discuss how


Beer is spoilt. . (4+3.2)

05. Discuss with examples how food wastes can be converted


into value added products.
(7.2)
06. Write short notes on: (a) S.aureus (b) E.coIi0157:H7
and (c) Salmonella sp (2.4x3)

07. Discuss the spoilage of stored cereals and fruits/fruit products


by microorganisms. (4+3.2)

r
I
M.Sc Biotechnology (II-Year)
Second Mid Term
BT-60S (Agricultural Microbiology)
r 24.10.2005
Time 1 hr
MM 12

1. Write short notes on


a) Assimilatory sulphate reduction
b) Denitrifiers
c) Corrosion of iron structures 1.Ox3=3
2. Among soil A and soil B, soil B has higher rate of C02 evolution. Which soil is
good for use as organic manure and which soil has high C: N ratio and why? 2
3. Differentiate between selectable and non-selectable markers with examples. Write
about lux genes and its application in ecological monitoring of bacteria. 3
4. Give any two examples of cellulolytic microorganisms. What are the enzymes
involved in the degradation of cellulose? 3
5. Give two examples each of chemical nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers used
in agriculture. 1
M.Sc Biotechnology (II-Year)
End Semester Examination
BT-605 (Agricultural Microbiology)
14.12.2005
Time 3 hr MM36

I. a) Explain briefly the classification of plant diseases?


b) Write the characteristic features of arbuscular mycorrhiza including their
classification?
c) Explain briefly about defense mechanisms in plants? 3x4=12

2. Write short note on any three of the following.


a) Glomalin
b) Phytoalexins
c) Fungal phytotoxins
d) Role of Group 11enzymes in exopolysaccharidesynthesis 3x2=6

3. Attempt any three of the following


a) What are pesticides and what are non-target organisms? What are various
approaches for clean up of pesticides?
b) What do you understand by the persistence of pesticides? Explain with
examples.
c) How pesticides are metabolised by microorganisms? Give steps involved in the
metabolism of phenoxyalkanoate herbicides?
d) Write short note on transformation ofDDT by bacteria. 3x3=9

4. Discuss (any two)


a) Desulfuration
b) Denitrification
c) Biomining 2x2.5=5

5. Describe in detail any two of the following enzymes by giving suitable examples.
a) Lignin peroxidase and its role
b) Nitrogenase and its function
c) Phosphatases and their role 2x2=4

..
THAPAR INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, PATIALA
DEPARTMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
End Semester Examination, 13thDecember 2005
M.Sc (Biotechnology) IInd Year,
BT-606, Bioreactors and Instrumentation
Time: 3 Hrs. M.M. 45

Instructions:
(i) Question 7 is compulsory and do any four from the remaining
(ii) Assume any missing or wrong data by stating a suitable reason
(iii) Attempt all parts of the qu~stion at one place.
(iv) Evaluated answer sheets can be seen on 15.12.05 in lab I in the department.

1. (a)The growth of S.cerevisiae on glucose under anaerobic conditions can be described by


following overall equation:
CJf1206+/3NH3 ~ O.59CH174NO.200.45(biomass)+O.43
C3lIg~+1.54C~+ 1.3C2H50H+O.036H20

i) Determine the biomass yield coefficient Y xis.


ii) Determine the product yield coefficient YetOH/S,YCOl/S.
iii) Determine the coefficient /3 & degree of reduction of biomass. (6)

(b) Describe different methods of batch sterilization? Which one is preferred and why? (3)

2. (a) How microbial characteristics influence the bioreactor system selection? (3)
(b) Discuss various key elements for bioreactor system design? (3)
(c) What are the major advantages of a batch bioreactor system? List the factors, which you will
consider before selection of a batch or a continuos batch reactor system for a Bioprocess? (~)
~\
'.,

\
, \'~ -t \

3. (a) What are the requirements of a medium in bioprocessing operations? "', . '(2)
(b) How specific growth rate is related to division rate in growth in growth kineti~s? (2)
(c) Discuss various steps invo~vedin tht!'transport of a gas fronl'bubble to the active site of the
rr,~ cell? ,. , (2)
(d) Derive the relationship giving the change with respect to time of cell concentration in a plug
flow reactor? (3)

4. (a) Define the terms Space time and space velocity? Give their important applications? (2)

(b) How substrate, cell concentration vary in fed batch, batch and continuous fermentation? (2)

(c) Write down the basic design equations used for the kinetic studies in continuous and fed batch
systems? (3)
(d) How can you classify the fed batch operations? Give their applications? (2)
5.(a) Discuss various theories related to mass transfer in bioprocess engineering? (3)
(b) How KLais related to reaction rate constant k? (2)
(c) Discuss static and dynamic methods for determination of KLavalue in aeration and agitation.
Discuss their drawbacks also? (4)

6. Define the following:- (1.5 x 6 = 9)


(i) Specific oxygen demand
(ii) Design, formulation and optimization of media
(iii) Critical degree of reduction
(iv) Product inhibition
(v) Importance of macro and micro nutrients in system design
(vi) Difference between batch and CSTR system

7. Consider a stirred - tank reactor shown in figure. The reaction occurring is:

A-.B -
And it proceeds at a rate of r=kCo
Where r=moles of A reacting /(volume) (time)
k is reaction velocity constant.

Ci,F .~

Volume V
Co,F

Assuming constant density and constant volume V, drive the transfer function relating the
concentration in the reactor to the feed stream concentration. Prepare a block diagram for the
reactor. (6)

(b) Derive the transfer functions for Proportional, PD andPID controllers used in~ntrol theory?
(3)

y
Second House Test
BT-607: Waste Management
Instructor: Akepati S. Reddy
Date: 24-10-05; Time: 10-30-11.30 hours; Max. Marks: 30

Note:-
· Answer all questions
· If any data, you feel needed, is not given please assume appropriately

Q.l Draw a schematic diagram of a typical sewage treatment plant depicting all the
secondary wastes generated?
Marks: 5
Q.2 For an ASP treating 100m3/hourflow of wastewater with 150 mg/L of BOD with
90% efficiency find out the oxygen requirement rate?
Assume SRT, Y and Kd for the ASP as 5 days, 0.4 and 0.14/day respectively.
Marks: 5
Q.3 Write note on any two of the following:
1. Break point chlorination
2. Contact stabilization process
3. Recycling in ASP and trickling filters
Marks: 5
QA Discuss the procedure followed for finding out optimum pH and optimum
coagulant dose for the coagulation-flocculation-settling treatment of water?
Marks: 5
Q.5 Write note on the handling and management of primary and secondary sludges?
Marks: 5
Q.6 Write note on anyone of the following:
1. UASB
2. Constructed wetland system
Marks: 5

.
I
End Semester Examination
BT-607: Waste Management
Instructor: Akepati S. Reddy
Date: 14-12-05; Time: 9-00 to 12.00 hours; Max. Marks: 100

Note:-
.. Answer all questions
If any data, you feel needed, is not given, please assume appropriately.

0.1 Answer any eight (8) of the following?


1.a Write note on an equalization tank?
1.b Write note on USEPA's waste management hierarchy?
1.c Write note on the objectives of pre-treatment and primary treatment of wastewater?
1.d Discuss how nitrogen can be removed from wastewater through biological treatment
process?
1.e List the key activities or steps involved in the culturing of mushrooms from
r'" agricultural residues?
1.f Indicate any three drinking water quality attributes and at least one indicator for each
,.... of the attributes?
1.g Write note on eutrophication?
1.h Write note on the role of poly-electrolyte in the effluent treatment plants of an
integrated pulp and paper mill?
1.i Differentiate integrated approach to waste management from multi-media approach
to waste management?
1.J Write note on land farming?
Marks: 8x2=16
02. Answer any five (5) of the following?
2.a Discuss how a primary clarifier differs from a clariflocculator and indicate the
purposes served by these in the water and wastewater treatment?
2.b Write note on the regeneration of ion-exchange resin beds of a DM water plant and
discuss the approach that can be followed for the management of the wastewaters
generated from such regeneration?
r. 2.c Discuss the conditions that favour the use of submerged aerobic filters and
'"' anaerobic filters?
2.d Propose a scheme for the treatment of the following wastewaters generated by a
milk plant?
High strength wastewater, Medium strength wastewater and Foul condensate.
2.e Write note on the confirmed phase of multiple tube fermentation technique?
2.f Write note on what should be done for the management of natural resources for
sustainability?

.. Marks: 5x4=20
03. Answer any four (4) of the following?
3.a Discuss how one can estimate the amount of secondary sludge to be wasted from
an activated sludge treatment plant at the secondary settling tank as underflow
sludge? .
3.b What pollut~nts are removed in a constructed wetland system when it is used for the
treatment of municipal sewage and discuss the mechanisms involved in the removal
of these pollutants?
3.c Write note on the black liquor and discuss the strategies that can be employed for
the management of this liquor from an integrated pulp and paper mill?
3.d Schematically show fate of the organic matter in the BOD test by BOD bottle
method, and give reasons for why BOD is usually lower than COD and also state
when BOD can be higher than COD?
3.e List any four environmental legislations/acts and state the objectives to be served by
any three of these acts?
Marks: 4x5=20
04. Answer any three (3) of the following?
4.a Discuss the technologies that can be employed for the removal of dissolved, colloidal
and suspended solids from water and wastewater? I
'"',
4.b Write note on lactose mother liquor and discuss the strategies that can be employed
for the lactose mother liquor management?
i
4.c Write note on Water Quality Index and describe the procedure for estimating the
Water Quality Index?
4.d Write note on ecological approach for waste management?
Marks: 3x8=24
05. Answer any two (2) of the following?
5.a A 5-day serial BOD test conducted at 20°C on a wastewater sample gave the
following results. Using these results find out 6 day BOD of the sample at 25°C.
Day 1 2 3 4 5
BOD (in mg/l) 50 77 94 106 113
Note:- use the Moore's diagram supplied to you if needed
5.b A stream is monitored over 24 hours at 4 hours interval and obtained the following
results:
Time 8 AM 12 Noon 4 PM 8 PM 12 Midnight 4 AM
COD (mg/I) 500 800 750 1100 720 650
Flow rate (m3/hr) 100 75 120 90 50 80
Find COD of the composite sample when the compositing is in proportion to flow and
when the compositing is done through mixing equal volumes?
5.c 11% consistency pulp with 5% soluble impurities is cleaned in a 2-stage counter-
current washing process with fresh water for reducing the impurities level to 0.01%.
Each stage of washing involves suspending the pulp in water, mixing and then
dewatering to 11% consistency level. The impurities concentration in the washwater
and in the water of the pulp is same. Find out amount of fresh water required for
washing 10 tons per hour of pulp and find out concentration of impurities in the
washwater?
Marks: 7x2=14
(DO

Q6. Answer any two (2) of the following?


6.a Aqueous solution of a chemical is flowing through a pipeline of 10 cm diameter.
Venturi meter with 4cm throat diameter, provided on this pipeline, is showing a
mercury level difference of 4.5 cm in the differential manometer. Find flow rate of the
chemical solution through the pipeline? Assume discharge coefficient of the venturi
meter as 0.74.

6.b bCOD and TSS of wastewater being clarified in a primary settling tank are 350 mg/l
and 400 mg/l respectively. If the primary settling tank removes of TSS and bCOD
with 70% and 40% efficiency find out biodegradable fraction of the primary sludge
generated?
6.c A milk plant is pasteurizing 300 m3/day of milk. Temperatures of the milk going into
and getting out of the pasteurizer are 2°C and 12°C respectively. If steam of 110°C is
used for pasteurization and if the pasteurizer's energy efficiency is 60% what will be
the steam condensate generation rate? (assume steam condensate temperature as
70°C).
Marks: 3x2=6

r Moore's Diagram for n = 5 days

4.5 - 0.315
4 - 0.31

0.305
j~ 3.5
3 0.3
,~$
6 ~
.:; 2.5 0.295
'J) IV 2- 0.29

'W ] 1.5 0.285

0.28
0.5 0.275

r o 0.27
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
r 'k'value
Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences
BT -608 - Industrial Microbiology
Second Mid Semester Examination - October 2005 Instructor - Dr.N.TejoPrakash
>I<

Duration1Hr >I< Max.Marks.12

(a) Write briefly on the commercial applications of amino acids with suitable examples (2)
(b) Define two processes suitable for production of amino acids with examples (I)
2 (a) Write a brief note on Xanthan and its properties of commercial value. (2)
(b) Define the need for removal of unwanted byproducts associated with EPS production (1)
with an example.
3 (a) Explain the presumed endogenous roles of secondary metabolites. (2)
(b) What is the characteristic nature of secondary metabolism of oligopeptides? (1)
4 (a) Write short notes on anyone Group A and one Group B_Lantibiotics. (2)
(b) Define mechanism of action of Dalbaheptides.
(1) \f
- -
)
I
Department of Biotechnology,and ~nvir?nmental Sciences
BT-608 - IndustnalMIcrobiology
End Semester Examination -December 2005 * Instructor - Dr. I~!
Duration 3 Hrs * Max. Marks. 35
C-:J
\.L/I
N.Tejo(~!bJ
Prakash e;~
Roo-d1

(;
READ INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY AND FOLLOW COMPULSORILY
.
ANSWER ANY 4 QUESTIONS OUT OF FIRST 5 QUESTIONS GIVEN BELOW
. ANSWER ANY ONE IN QUESTION 6 AND QUESTION 7.
. FOLLOW SERIAL ORDER WITHIN EACH QUESTION

1. (a) Write in Detail on (2.5x2=5)


I. Substrate and nutrient requirements for producing single cell proteins
II. Secondary processing in SCP production.
(b) Briefly explain why the reduction of nucleic acid is important in microbial (2)
biomass production.

2. (a) I.
Write briefly on the starch extraction processes using Corn, Wheat and (2.5x2=5)
Tapioca as raw materials.
II. Draw the general scheme of production of glucose syrups; and maltodextrin
and mention their uses.
~ (b) Explain briefly the treatment process and the disadvantages of trickling Filters. (2)

3. (a) I. Write briefly about the microorganisms used in production of (2.5x2=5)


acetone/butanol/isopropanol and their utilization mechanisms.
II. Write briefly on calcium lactate process for production of lactic acid.
(b) Write briefly on protol process for glycerol production and mention uses of (2)
g,cerol.
4. (a) I. Explain anyone process for production of citric acid. (2.5x2=5)
II. Write briefly on single-spore and passage techniques used for identifying
citric acid producing organisms.
(b) Write briefly on various uses of amino acids. (2)

5. (a) 1. Write briefly on mechanism of action of lantibiotics and Dalbaheptides. (2.5x2=5)


II. What ~the major advantages of that biological transformations offer for
industrial applications?
(b) Write a short note on Cyclodextrins and Curdlan (2)

6. (a) With suitable examples, detail various metal detoxification mechanisms of (5)
biosorption and precipitation exhibited by bacteria ; and explain how these
mechanisms can be exploited for metal bioremediation.
(b) Write briefly on the bioremediation protocols applicable for cleaning (2)
hydrocarbon-contaminated environments.
7. (a) Write in detail on the solid substrate cultivation and submerged cultivation (5)
techniques for microbial enzyme production
(b) Briefly explain various methods used for separation of enzymes from biomass (2)

Instructor (Dr. NTP) in Room No. - F- 10S ~


ENTREPRENEURSHIP & BIOSAFETY

BT -609
Max.Marks: 20
Time: 1 Hrs.

Note: All questions are compulsory.

Q. 1 Discuss the technical feasibility of the project (3)

Q. 2 Which production factors can lead to sickness of Industries. (3)

Q. 3 Explain the following.

(i) Factors affecting Demand. (1)


(ii) Contribution Analysis. (1)
(Hi) Break Even Analysis for non-linear curves. (2)
(iv) Discuss the Indirect & Special Assistance functions of IDBI (2)

Q.4 What are biological goods? Explain their need for transportation. (4)

Q. 5 Discuss the problems related to transportation of biological goods. (4)


(not more than 250 words)

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fT Entrepreneurship and Bio safety
BT-609
End Semester Exam, Dec.2005

Max. Marks: 60 Time: 3 Hrs

Note: Attempt only five questions in all selecting two questions from Section A and
three questions from Section B
Section A

Q1. Discuss the rules and precautions for handling and use of 12
genetically modified microorganisms/ pathogenies in
industries and laboratories.

Q2. (a) Define toxics 1


(b) Why biological toxics have gained prominence in recent 5
times
(c) Describe the guidelines to be implemented for working with 6
biological /other toxics.
r' 3+3+3+3
Q3. Explain pathogenicity, risk and 'virulence'. Give relevant
examples.

Section B

Q4. (a) What is SWOT analysis? Discuss opportunities and threats. 5


(b) Discuss the factors affecting supply? 3
«;) Discuss product planning and development. 4

Q5. (a) What is intellectual property? Discuss copyrights and trade 7


marks.
(b) What is CPM? Discuss its advantages. 5

Q6. (a) From the following information relating to ABC limited,


firm you are required to find out:
(i) Contribution per unit 1
(ii) Break even points in units 1
(iii) Margin of safety 2
(iv) Volume of sales to earn profit of Rs. 6000 2
Total fixed cost- Rs 4500
Total variable cost- Rs 7500
Total sales - Rs 15000
Units sold - 5000
(b) Write short notes on: (i) IDBI (ii) intrapreneurship (iii) ISO 6

Q7. (a) What problems do women entrepreneurs face? 6


(b) What is sinking fund method? A new generator costs Rs. 6
W 4,00,000. Its estimated life is 15 years and scrap value is Rs.
1,50,000. If the rate of interest is 5%, calculate by sinking
fund method, the annual depreciation cost. What amount of
annual depreciation cost would be charged if the rate of
interest is increased to 15%.

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