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# 1.

A numerical value used as a summary measure for a sample, such as sample mean, is known as
a
a. population parameter
b. sample parameter
c. sample statistic
d. population mean
e. None of the above answers is correct.
2. Since the population size is always larger than the sample size, then the sample statistic
a. can never be larger than the population parameter
b. can never be equal to the population parameter
c. can never be zero
d. can never be smaller than the population parameter
e. None of the above answers is correct.
3. Mu is an example of a
a. population parameter
b. sample statistic
c. population variance
d. mode
e. None of the above answers is correct.
4. The mean of a sample is
a. always equal to the mean of the population
b. always smaller than the mean of the population
c. computed by summing the data values and dividing the sum by (n - 1)
d. computed by summing all the data values and dividing the sum by the number of items
e. None of the above answers is correct.

5. The sum of the percent frequencies for all classes will always equal
a. one
b. the number of classes
c. the number of items in the study
d. 100
e. None of the above answers is correct.
6. In a five number summary, which of the following is not used for data summarization?
a. the smallest value
b. the largest value
c. the median
d. the 25th percentile
e. the mean
7. Since the mode is the most frequently occurring data value, it
a. can never be larger than the mean
b. is always larger than the median
c. is always larger than the mean
d. must have a value of at least two
e. None of the above answers is correct.
Exhibit 3-1
The following data show the number of hours worked by 200 statistics students.
Number of Hours Frequency
0 - 9 40
10 - 19 50
20 - 29 70
30 - 39 40
8. Refer to Exhibit 3-1. The class width for this distribution
a. is 9
b. is 10
c. is 11
d. varies from class to class
e. None of the above answers is correct.
9. Refer to Exhibit 3-1. The number of students working 19 hours or less
a. is 40
b. is 50
c. is 90
d. can not be determined without the original data
e. None of the above answers is correct.
10. Refer to Exhibit 3-1. The relative frequency of students working 9 hours or less
a. is .2
b. is .45
c. is 40
d. can not be determined from the information given
e. None of the above answers is correct.

11. Refer to Exhibit 3-1. The cumulative relative frequency for the class of 10 - 19
a. is 90
b. is .25
c. is .45
d. can not be determined from the information given
e. None of the above answers is correct.
12. The difference between the largest and the smallest data values is the
a. variance
b. interquartile range
c. range
d. coefficient of variation
e. None of the above answers is correct.
13. Which of the following is not a measure of central location?
a. mean
b. median
c. variance
d. mode
e. None of the above answers is correct.
14. If a data set has an even number of observations, the median
a. can not be determined
b. is the average value of the two middle items
c. must be equal to the mean
d. is the average value of the two middle items when all items are arranged in ascending order
e. None of the above answers is correct.
15. The sum of deviations of the individual data elements from their mean is
a. always greater than zero
b. always less than zero
c. sometimes greater than and sometimes less than zero, depending on the data elements
d. always equal to zero
e. None of the above answers is correct.
16. The value that has half of the observations above it and half the observations below it is called
the
a. range
b. median
c. mean
d. mode
e. None of the above answers is correct.
17. The most frequently occurring value of a data set is called the
a. range
b. mode
c. mean
d. median
e. None of the above answers is correct.

18.. In a sample of 800 students in a university, 160, or 20%, are Business majors. Based on the
above information, the school's paper reported that "20% of all the students at the university are
Business majors." This report is an example of
a. a sample
b. a population
c. statistical inference
d. descriptive statistics
e. None of the above answers is correct.
19.. A statistics professor asked students in a class their ages. On the basis of this information, the
professor states that the average age of all the students in the university is 21 years. This is an
example of
a. a census
b. descriptive statistics
c. an experiment
d. statistical inference
e. None of the above answers is correct.
20. A tabular summary of a set of data showing the fraction of the total number of items in several
classes is a
a. frequency distribution
b. relative frequency distribution
c. frequency
d. cumulative frequency distribution
e. None of the above answers is correct.
21. The standard deviation of a sample of 100 observations equals 64. The variance of the sample
equals
a. 8
b. 10
c. 6,400
d. 4,096
e. None of the above answers is correct.
22. The variance of a sample of 81 observations equals 64. The standard deviation of the sample
equals
a. 0
b. 4096
c. 8
d. 6,561
e. None of the above answers is correct.
Exhibit 3-2
A researcher has collected the following sample data.
5 12 6 8 5
6 7 5 12 4
23. Refer to Exhibit 3-2. The median is
a. 5
b. 6
c. 7
d. 8
e. None of the above answers is correct.
24. Refer to Exhibit 3-2. The mode is
a. 5
b. 6
c. 7
d. 8
e. None of the above answers is correct.
25. Refer to Exhibit 3-2. The mean is
a. 5
b. 6
c. 7
d. 8
e. None of the above answers is correct.
Exhibit 3-3
A researcher has collected the following sample data. The mean of the sample is 5.
3 5 12 3 2
26. Refer to Exhibit 3-3. The variance is
a. 80
b. 4.062
c. 13.2
d. 16.5
e. None of the above answers is correct.
27. Refer to Exhibit 3-3. The standard deviation is
a. 8.944
b. 4.062
c. 13.2
d. 16.5
e. None of the above answers is correct.
28. Refer to Exhibit 3-3. The coefficient of variation is
a. 72.66%
b. 81.24%
c. 264%
d. 330%
e. None of the above answers is correct.
29. Refer to Exhibit 3-3. The range is
a. 1
b. 2
c. 10
d. 12
e. None of the above answers is correct.
30. Refer to Exhibit 3-3. The interquartile range is
a. 1
b. 2
c. 10
d. 12
e. None of the above answers is correct.

Exhibit 3-4
The following is the frequency distribution for the speeds of a sample of automobiles traveling on an
interstate highway.
Speed
Miles per Hour Frequency
50 - 54 2
55 - 59 4
60 - 64 5
65 - 69 10
70 - 74 9
75 - 79 5
35
31. Refer to Exhibit 3-4. The mean is
a. 35
b. 670
c. 10
d. 67
e. None of the above answers is correct.
32. Refer to Exhibit 3-4. The variance is
a. 6.969
b. 7.071
c. 48.570
d. 50.000
e. None of the above answers is correct.
33. Refer to Exhibit 3-4. The standard deviation is
a. 6.969
b. 7.071
c. 48.570
d. 50.000
e. None of the above answers is correct.
34. Which of the following is not a measure of dispersion?
a. the range
b. the 50th percentile
c. the standard deviation
d. the interquartile range
e. the variance
35. If the variance of a data set is correctly computed with the formula using n - 1 in the
denominator, which of the following is true?
a. the data set is a sample
b. the data set is a population
c. the data set could be either a sample or a population
d. the data set is from a census
e. None of the above answers is correct.
36. In computing descriptive statistics from grouped data,
a. data values are treated as if they occur at the midpoint of a class
b. the grouped data result is more accurate than the ungrouped result
c. the grouped data computations are used only when a population is being analyzed
d. All of the above answers are correct.
e. None of the above answers is correct.
37. The measure of dispersion that is influenced most by extreme values is
a. the variance
b. the standard deviation
c. the range
d. the interquartile range
e. None of the above answers is correct.
38. When should measures of location and dispersion be computed from grouped data rather than
from individual data values?
a. as much as possible since computations are easier
b. only when individual data values are unavailable
c. whenever computer packages for descriptive statistics are unavailable
d. only when the data are from a population
e. None of the above answers is correct.

39. The descriptive measure of dispersion that is based on the concept of a deviation about the
mean is
a. the range
b. the interquartile range
c. both a and b
d. the standard deviation
e. None of the above answers is correct.
40. For Z =5, state the Chebychev's inequality.
1. A numerical value used as a summary measure for a sample, such as sample mean, is known as
a
a. population parameter
b. sample parameter
c. sample statistic
d. population mean
e. None of the above answers is correct.
If it pertains to sample it is called a statistic, if it pertains to population it is called a parameter.
2. Since the population size is always larger than the sample size, then the sample statistic
a. can never be larger than the population parameter
b. can never be equal to the population parameter
c. can never be zero
d. can never be smaller than the population parameter
e. None of the above answers is correct.
Sample statistic will depend upon the sample chosen. It can be less than, greater than, equal to
population parameter. It can assume the value of zero.
3. &#61549; is an example of a
a. population parameter
b. sample statistic
c. population variance
d. mode
e. None of the above answers is correct.
M is a standard representation for population parameter.
4. The mean of a sample is
a. always equal to the mean of the population
b. always smaller than the mean of the population
c. computed by summing the data values and dividing the sum by (n - 1)
d. computed by summing all the data values and dividing the sum by the number of items
e. None of the above answers is correct.
Mean= Total of sample values/ sample size
5. The sum of the percent frequencies for all classes will always equal
a. one
b. the number of classes
c. the number of items in the study
d. 100
e. None of the above answers is correct.
If we count the total frequency it is equal to the sample size n. n/n *100= 100
6. In a five number summary, which of the following is not used for data summarization?
a. the smallest value
b. the largest value
c. the median
d. the 25th percentile
e. the mean
7. Since the mode is the most frequently occurring data value, it
a. can never be larger than the mean
b. is always larger than the median
c. is always larger than the mean
d. must have a value of at least two
e. None of the above answers is correct.
The mean, median and mode values will be distributed according to the skewness of the distribution.
Accordingly mode can be greater than or less than mean or mode.
1. Question 1. What Is Bayesian?
Bayesians condition on the data actually observed and consider the probability distribution on
the hypotheses.
2. Question 2. What Is Frequentist?
Frequentists condition on a hypothesis of choice and consider the probability distribution on
the data, whether observed or not.
3. Question 3. What Is Likelihood?
The probability of some observed outcomes given a set of parameter values is regarded as the
likelihood of the set of parameter values given the observed outcomes.
4. Question 4. What Is P-value?
In statistical significance testing, the p-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at
least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is
true. If the p-value is less than 0.05 or 0.01, corresponding respectively to a 5% or 1% chance
of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true.
5. Question 5. Give An Example Of P-value?
Suppose that the experimental results show the coin turning up heads 14 times out of 20 total
flips
o null hypothesis (H0): fair coin;
o observation O: 14 heads out of 20 flips; and
o p-value of observation O given H0 = Prob(≥ 14 heads or ≥ 14 tails) = 0.115.
The calculated p-value exceeds 0.05, so the observation is consistent with the null hypothesis
- that the observed result of 14 heads out of 20 flips can be ascribed to chance alone - as it
falls within the range of what would happen 95% of the time were this in fact the case. In our
example, we fail to reject the null hypothesis at the 5% level. Although the coin did not fall
evenly, the deviation from expected outcome is small enough to be reported as being "not
statistically significant at the 5% level".
6. Question 6. What Is Sampling?
Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of an unbiased or
random subset of individual observations within a population of individuals intended to yield
some knowledge about the population of concern.
7. Question 7. What Are Sampling Methods?
There are four sampling methods:
o Simple Random (purely random),
o Systematic( every kth member of population),
o Cluster (population divided into groups or clusters)
o Stratified (divided by exclusive groups or strata, sample from each group)
samplings.
8. Question 8. What Is Mode?
The mode of a data sample is the element that occurs most often in the collection.
x=[1 2 3 3 3 4 4]
mode(x) % return 3, happen most.
9. Question 9. What Is Median?
Median is described as the numeric value separating the higher half of a sample, a population,
or a probability distribution, from the lower half. The median of a finite list of numbers can be
found by arranging all the observations from lowest value to highest value and picking the
middle one
median(x) % return 3.
10. Question 10. What Is Quartile?
o second quartile (50th percentile) .
o third quartile (75th percentile) .
o kth percentile.
o prctile(x, 25) % 25th percentile, return 2.25.
o prctile(x, 50) % 50th percentile, return 3, i.e. median.
11. Question 11. What Is Skewness?
Skewness is a measure of the asymmetry of the data around the sample mean. If skewness is
negative, the data are spread out more to the left of the mean than to the right. If skewness is
positive, the data are spread out more to the right.
Skewness(x) % return-0.5954
12. Question 12. What Is Variance?
variance describes how far values lie from the mean.
var(x) %return 1.1429
13. Question 13. What Is Kurtosis?
Kurtosis is a measure of how outlier-prone a distribution is.
kurtosis(x) % return2.3594
14. Question 14. What Is Moment?
Quantitative measure of the shape of a set of points.
moment(x, 2); %return second moment
15. Question 15. What Is Covariance?
Measure of how much two variables change together.
y2=[1 3 4 5 6 7 8]
cov(x,y2) %return 2*2 matrix, diagonal represents variance.
16. Question 16. What Is One Sample T-test?
T-test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic follows a Student's t
distribution if the null hypothesis is supported.
[h,p,ci] = ttest(y2,0)% return 1 0.0018 ci =2.6280 7.0863
17. Question 17. What Is Alternative Hypothesis?
The Alternative hypothesis (denoted by H1 ) is the statement that must be true if the null
hypothesis is false.
18. Question 18. What Is Significance Level?
The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is called the significance level α , and
very common choices are α = 0.05 and α = 0.01.
19. Question 19. Give Example Of Central Limit Theorem?
Given that the population of men has normally distributed weights, with a mean of 173 lb and
a standard deviation of 30 lb, find the probability that
a. if 1 man is randomly selected, his weight is greater than 180 lb.
b. if 36 different men are randomly selected, their mean weight is greater that 180 lb.
Solution: a) z = (x - μ)/ σ = (180-173)/30 = 0.23
For normal distribution P(Z>0.23) = 0.4090
b) σ x̄ = σ/√n = 20/√ 36 = 5
z= (180-173)/5 = 1.40
P(Z>1.4) = 0.0808
20. Question 20. What Is Binomial Probability Formula?
P(x)= p x q n-x n!/[(n-x)!x!]
where n = number of trials.
x = number of successes among n trials.
p = probability of success in any one trial.
q = 1 -p.
21. Question 21. Do You Know What Is Binary Search?
For binary search, the array should be arranged in ascending or descending order. In each
step, the algorithm compares the search key value with the key value of the middle element of
the array. If the keys match, then a matching element has been found and its index, or
position, is returned. Otherwise, if the search key is less than the middle element's key, then
the algorithm repeats its action on the sub-array to the left of the middle element or, if the
search key is greater, on the sub-array to the right.
22. Question 22. Explain Hash Table?
A hash table is a data structure used to implement an associative array, a structure that can
map keys to values. A hash table uses a hash function to compute an index into an array of
buckets or slots, from which the correct value can be found.
23. Question 23. Explain Central Limit Theorem?
As the sample size increases, the sampling distribution of sample means approaches a normal
distribution.
If all possible random samples of size n are selected from a population with mean μ and
standard deviation σ, the mean of the sample means is denoted by μ x̄ , so,
μ x̄ = μ
the standard deviation of the sample means is:
σ x̄ = σ⁄√ n
24. Question 24. What Is Null Hypothesis?
The null hypothesis (denote by H0 ) is a statement about the value of a population parameter
(such as mean), and it must contain the condition of equality and must be written with the
symbol =, ≤, or ≤.
25. Question 25. What Is Linear Regression?
Modeling the relationship between a scalar variable y and one or more variables denoted X.
In linear regression, models of the unknown parameters are estimated from the data using
linear functions.
polyfit( x,y2,1) %return 2.1667 -1.3333, i.e 2.1667x-1.3333
26. Question 26. When You Are Creating A Statistical Model How Do You Prevent Over-
fitting?
Over-fitting can be prevented by cross-validation.
27. Question 27. What Is Descriptive Statistics?
We study in descriptive statistics the methods for organizing, displaying, and describing data.
28. Question 28. What Is A Sample?