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Summary of Revision, IEEE

C37.119-2016, Guide for


Breaker Failure Protection
of Power Circuit Breakers
Kevin Donahoe – GE Grid Solutions

2018 Texas A&M Protective Relaying Conference


Agenda

• Introduction
• Breaker Failure Minimal Current Scheme
• Current Differential Breaker Failure Protection
• Column Ground Protection
• Breaker Failure Protection for Generator Applications
• Redundant Control Circuits
• Conclusions
• Questions
Introduction
• Replaced C37.119-2005
• PSRC Working Group followed up with the paper “Summary
of Revision, IEEE C37.119-2016, Guide for Breaker Failure
Protection of Power Circuit Breakers
• Definition of breaker failure protection (BFP)
• 2005: This protection is specifically relied upon to take
appropriate action to clear a fault when the breaker that is
normally expected to clear the fault fails to do so for any
reason.
• 2016: A form of protection that is designed to detect the
failure of a circuit breaker to operate or to interrupt a fault.
Upon detection of a breaker failure during a fault condition
the scheme is designed to take appropriate action to clear
the fault. Upon detection of a breaker failure during a non-
fault condition, the scheme may take other appropriate
action.
Introduction

• Covered in C37.102, IEEE Guide for AC Generator Protection


• BFP can fall in overlap between generation and transmission
• Added clause increase familiarity with the unique
requirements for generator BFP
• IEEE-Standards Association asked to expand the scope of
the C37-119
• Now includes performance failures of breakers other than
fault clearing failures
• Failure to close during synchronizing is now covered
BF Minimal Current Scheme

• Breaker failure applications associated with high-


impedance power system apparatus, such as generators,
transformers, static var compensators (SVC), and harmonic
filters, may have such low currents associated with internal
faults that current detectors are not reliable.

• BF logic can also be achieved using breaker auxiliary


switches
BF Minimal Current Scheme
Considerations
BF Minimal Current Scheme
BF Minimal Current Scheme
BF Minimal Current Scheme
• False BFI – one cause, accidental battery ground
• Measures to reduce possibility of false BFI
• BFI input that responds only above half of the
maximum battery voltage
• Binary inputs are compliant with IEC 60255-26,
Measuring relays and protection equipment –
Electromagnetic compatibility requirements with
specific reference to Clause 7.2.7, Power frequency
immunity on DC binary inputs
• Minimize cable run length and capacitance
• Data communication-based means for conveying the BFI
between buildings
Current Differential BFP

• Accurate fault diagnosis


• Extra installation and maintenance cost
• Logical condition of adjacent operation of protection zones
Column Ground Protection
• CT column
changes BFP
• No overlap
• Most likely:
column to
ground flashover
• CTs around the
base of each
column
• Direct trip of 86
• IEEE Std.
C37.234: Buses
BFP for Generator Applications

• Mechanical Indication of Breaker Status


• CT Locations
• Open Generator Breaker Flashover Protection
• Breaker Arrangement: High-Side Breakers
• Breaker Arrangement: Low-Side Breaker
• Generator Breaker Failure to Close Protection
Mechanical Indication of Breaker Status

• Consider, in a motoring event, failure to separate from the


power system can damage the prime mover
• A steam turbine has a typical motoring power range .5-3%
• CTs sized for 5A at generator rating – current in milliamps
• CTs on dual breakers, CTR may be based on bus rating
• Current measurement is not reliable for all conditions
requiring BFP
CT Locations

• Even after the breakers open, the generator will feed a in-
zone fault until stored energy in the field dissapates
• Never use generator neutral CTs
• For low-side breaker location, not appropriate to use
generator terminals
• CTs that measure the current flowing directly into the
breaker
Open Generator Breaker Flashover Protection
• Flashover most likely to occur just
prior to synchronizing or just after
the generator separates
Open Generator Breaker Flashover Protection
Breaker Arrangement: High-Side Breakers
Breaker Arrangement: High-Side Breakers
Breaker Arrangement: High-Side Breakers
Breaker Arrangement: Low-Side Breaker

• For Faults
• Trip the generator CB G
• Open the generator field breaker
• Isolate the energy source that drives the prime mover
Generator BF to Close Protection

• Synchronizing systems minimize:


• Speed difference or slip rate
• Voltage difference
• Angle difference
• Main contacts make at the instant when the angle
difference is as near to zero as possible
• If breaker mechanism is slow then the generator rotor
angle will pass zero and start increasing
• BFP could isolate the synchronizing breaker so that the
generator closes into a dead bus
Generator BF to Close Protection
BFP on Redundant Control Circuits
Conclusions
• “Summary of Revision, IEEE C37.119-2016, Guide for Breaker
Failure Protection of Power Circuit Breakers” is available at
http://www.pes-
psrc.org/kb/published/reports/Paper_SummaryofRevC37-
119.pdf
• Go to pes-psrc.org
• Go to Knowledge Base
• Go to Reports
• D subcommittee or search for 119
Thank You

Questions?