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Omicron Workshop – Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

Definitions

Dielectric Losses are caused by:


• Conductive losses 2.50E-03
Serial
2.00E-03 Parallel
• Polarization losses Sum
1.50E-03
• Partial discharges
1.00E-03

5.00E-04

0.00E+00
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Assessment of the Condition of Parallel circuit Serial circuit

High Voltage Bushings |I | 1 UR


DF : tan δ = RP = DF : tan δ = = RS ⋅ ω ⋅ C S
| I CP | R P ⋅ ω ⋅ C P UC RS
CP RP
| I RP |
PF : cos ϕ = PF : cos ϕ =
UR
| I tot | U tot CS

PAGE 4

Capacitance Values Power (Dissipation) Factor


• Bushings:
•Bushings:
• Partial breakdowns between layers
• Incoming oil into cracks of solid insulation (RBP) • Aging and decomposition of insulation

• Between transformer windings: • Water content

• Change of the geometry between winding • Bad contacted electrodes or capacitive layers
• Between windings and tank • Cracks in the insulation
• Displacement of the active part within the tank • (Partial) discharges
• Between windings and core
• Displacement of the winding or the core (if the core • Transformers:
ground can be disconnected) • Aging
• Core to tank • Water content in the oil and in the paper
• Movement of the core (if the core ground can be • Contamination by particles
disconnected)

PAGE 5 PAGE 6

Condenser Type Bushings Limits


Typ RIP OIP RBP Gas
Resin Oil
Resin bonded SF6 or other
Insulation impregnated impregnated
paper gases
paper paper
DF tan δ (RT)
< 0,7%
< 0.7%* < 0,7%
< 0.7%* <<1.5%
1,5% * -
(IEC 60137)
PF cos ϕ (RT) -
< 0,85% * < 0,5% * < 2% *
IEEE C57.19.01
Typical new values <0.3-0.4%
0.3-0.4%* 0.2-0.4% *
<0.2-0.4% 0.5-0.6%
<0.5-0.6%* -
RBP Resin Bonded Paper Partial discharges
(IEC 60137) < 10pC < 10pC < 10pC
Um < 5cC < 5pC < 5pC
1.5 Um/√3 < 5pC < 5pC < 300pC < 5pC
1.05 Um/ √3

* at 1.05 Um/√3 and 20°C


OIP
RIP Resin Impregnated Paper Oil Impregnated Paper

PAGE 7 PAGE 8

© OMICRON electronics GmbH 1/42


Omicron Workshop – Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

Capacitive Bushings (1) Bushing Measuring Tap

Emax= high

without
A capacitive
layers

Emax=
with
smaller
capacitive
A layers
Earthing Cap

PAGE 9 PAGE 11

Measuring Taps Measuring Taps

ABB

MICAFIL
HSP

PAGE 12 PAGE 13

Measuring Taps C-Tan Delta Progression of a Bushing


C Tan-Delta Progression of a 220 kV RBP (Hard Paper) Bushing
Year of Manufacturimg 1961, horizontal mounted, oil filled
Tan Delta Change of Capacitance

30

25

GE
20
Change of Capacitance %
-3
Tan Delta x 10

15

10

0
75 77 79 81 83 85 87 89

-5
Date of Measurement Source: RWE

PAGE 14 PAGE 15

© OMICRON electronics GmbH 2/42


Omicron Workshop – Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

Bushing Fault RBP - Bushings


• Not free of cavities – Partial Discharges
possible also at rated voltage

• Higher dielectric losses can feed to thermal


instability

• RPB has cavities and cracks in the


paper which are normally filled
with the surrounding oil

• Increase of capacitance

• After a longer storage period this oil is running


Source: RWE
out. The PD level is increasing and the
capacitance is getting smaller

PAGE 16 PAGE 18

RBP 220kV Bushing (1971) RBP Bushing 220kV (1971)

Guard

PAGE 19 PAGE 20

RBP Bushing Oil-filled Cracks Micafil RBP Bushing 123kV

PAGE 21 PAGE 23

© OMICRON electronics GmbH 3/42


Omicron Workshop – Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

Micafil RBP Bushing 123kV Micafil RBP Bushing 123kV

PF (f) A, B, C
PF (V) A, B, C

1.1% 2.5%

1.0% 2.0%

0.9%
A 1.5% A
0.8% B B
C 1.0% C
0.7%

0.6% 0.5%

0.5% 0.0%
10000.0V

14000.0V
4000.0V

6000.0V

8000.0V

12000.0V
2000.0V
0.0V

150.0Hz

200.0Hz

250.0Hz

300.0Hz

350.0Hz

450.0Hz
100.0Hz

400.0Hz
50.0Hz
0.0Hz
PAGE 24 PAGE 25

Micafil RBP Bushing 123kV Measurement Tap O.K.

Bushing has to be
exchanged
• defective contact on the
measuring tap or
• defective connection between
the innermost layer and the
HV conductor or
• partial breakdown between
layers

PAGE 26 PAGE 27

Innermost Layer Was Not Properly 123kV RBP Bushing


Connected to the HV Conductor.

PAGE 28 Page: 29

© OMICRON electronics GmbH 4/42


Omicron Workshop – Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

Dissipation Factor Measurement Measurement of the Removed Bushing


DF (f) A, B, C

8,0%

7,0%
A

6,0%

5,0%

4,0% B

3,0%

2,0%

C
1,0%

0,0%
0,0Hz

50,0Hz

100,0Hz

150,0Hz

200,0Hz

250,0Hz

300,0Hz

350,0Hz

400,0Hz

450,0Hz

Page: 30 Page: 31

Measurement of the Removed Bushing Active Part of the Bushing


DF (f)

16,0%

14,0%

12,0%

10,0%

8,0% C1

6,0%

4,0%

2,0%

0,0%
50,0Hz
0,0Hz

100,0Hz

150,0Hz

200,0Hz

250,0Hz

300,0Hz

350,0Hz

400,0Hz

450,0Hz

Page: 32 Page: 33

OIP Bushings 420kV OIP Bushings

• Paper of the OIP bushings ages particularly


at high temperatures
• Through aging the dielectric losses will
increase
-> this increases the power factor
• Temperature dependent aging decomposes
the Paper and produces additional water
-> this accellerates the aging

PAGE 34 PAGE 35

© OMICRON electronics GmbH 5/42


Omicron Workshop – Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

33kV OIP Bushings Tan Delta (T) at 50Hz (OIP Bushings)

10.00
0.1-0.3% Water in paper
[%]
0.4-0.6% Water in paper

Removed 1% Water in paper

bushings 1.00

New bushings

0.10
°C
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
C-Tan-Delta Meas.
Source: ABB, Bushing diagnostics and conditioning

PAGE 38 PAGE 39

Tan Delta (f) at 30°C (33kV OIP Bushings) 123kV OIP Bushings
Tan Delta (f) A, B, C
%

1.8
A
1.6
B
1.4 C
A Removed
1.2 B Removed
1.0 C Removed

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Hz
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

450

0.0

PAGE 40 PAGE 41

123kV OIP Bushings 123kV OIP Bushings


PF (V) A, B, C PF (f) A, B, C

1.3% 2.0%
1.2% 1.8%
1.1% 1.6%
1.0% 1.4%
A 1.2% A
0.9%
B 1.0% B
0.8%
C 0.8% C
0.7%
0.6%
0.6%
0.4%
0.5%
0.2%
0.4%
0.0%
0.0V

10000.0V

14000.0V
2000.0V

4000.0V

6000.0V

8000.0V

12000.0V

50.0Hz

100.0Hz

150.0Hz

200.0Hz

250.0Hz

300.0Hz

350.0Hz

400.0Hz

450.0Hz
0.0Hz

PAGE 42 PAGE 43

© OMICRON electronics GmbH 6/42


Omicron Workshop – Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

123kV OIP Bushings 123kV OIP Bushings

Bushing has
to be
exchanged

PAGE 44 PAGE 45

Aging of RIP Bushings 220kV RIP Bushing Stored Outside


• Partial breakdowns between capacitive layers are rather
seldom
• Decrease of the power factor with increasing test voltage
can be an indicator for partial breakdowns
• Also defective connections of the measurement layer to
the test tap or of the innermost layer to the high voltage
conductor may be the reason for a decrease of the power
factor with increasing test voltage
• Increase of the capacitance after a partial breakdown
between two layers:

Cnew = Cold x n / (n-1)


n= number of layers approx. 4-7 kV per layer

PAGE 46 PAGE 47

220kV RIP Bushing Stored Outside Moisture in RBP and RIP Bushings

0.85 %
31.03.2004 • The oil side of RBP and RIP bushings
0.75 % 15.07.2004 doesn't need a housing
Minimum 08.10.2004
0.65 %
• Cellulose near to the surface can absorb
Tan Delta

0.55 % water, if bushings are not stored properly


0.45 %
Minimum
• Incoming water, also from the ambient air
0.35 % reduces the dielectric strength – this causes
Minimum an increase of the dielectric dissipation factor
0.25 %
0.0 Hz 100.0 Hz 200.0 Hz 300.0 Hz 400.0 Hz 500.0 Hz

PAGE 48 PAGE 55

© OMICRON electronics GmbH 7/42


Omicron Workshop – Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

Water in RBP and RIP Bushings


Micafil UTXF 24 (Drysomic)
RBP Bushings

• A,B,N humid
after storage
Drying of RBP and • C dryed
RIP bushings is
limited

RIP wet RIP dry


PAGE 56 PAGE 57

New Micafil UTXF 24 RBP Bushings A,B,N Drying of a 145kV RBP Bushing
Stored Under Wet Conditions, C Dried PF Measurement

DF (f) A, B, C, N Messung bei 20°C

6.0%

5.0%

4.0% A
humid B
3.0%
C
2.0% N

1.0%
dryed
0.0%
0.0Hz

50.0Hz

100.0Hz

150.0Hz

200.0Hz

250.0Hz

300.0Hz

350.0Hz

400.0Hz

450.0Hz

PAGE 58 PAGE 60

Drying of a 145kV RBP Bushing PD


TanDelta (V) Measurement
2.5%

2.0%
1. Measurement before drying
1.5% Drying:
1.0% 1200h at 90°C / 200°F
2. Measurement after drying
0.5%

0.0%
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
kV
TanDelta (f)

3.5%
3.0%
2.5%
1. Measurement before drying
2.0%
1.5%
1.0%
0.5% 2. Measurement after drying
0.0%
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Hz
PAGE 61 PAGE 62

© OMICRON electronics GmbH 8/42


Omicron Workshop – Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

PD Measurement - Phase Resolved


PD Measurement Pattern @ 157kV

Quadrupole

Measuring
Tap

OMICRON
mtronix
MPD 600

PAGE 63 PAGE 64

Separation of PD Sources in 3CFRD PD Measurement Cluster 1


3CFRD
A(fL)>A(fC)>A(fR)

fL fL

500 kHz

fC

fR
8 MHz
500 kHz

2.8 MHz

8 MHz

fR fC
2.8 MHz
500 kHz

timeframe
2 MHz

8 MHz

1 µs

3CFRD = 3 Center Frequency Relation Diagram


PAGE 66 PAGE 67
5

PD Measurement Cluster 2 PD Measurement Cluster 3

500 kHz 500 kHz

8 MHz 8 MHz
500 kHz

2.8 MHz

500 kHz

2.8 MHz
8 MHz

8 MHz

2.8 MHz 2.8 MHz

PAGE 68 PAGE 69

© OMICRON electronics GmbH 9/42


Omicron Workshop – Diagnosemessungen an Leistungstransformatoren

50 Hz Tan δ dependent on the Temp. Assessment and Interpretation

Indication RBP OIP RIP


increase of oil in cracks
partial breakdowns partial breakdowns
capacitance or partial breakdowns
partial breakdowns; partial breakdowns; partial breakdowns;
insulator surface wet or insulator surface wet or insulator surface wet or
dirty (clean the insulator); dirty (clean the insulator); dirty (clean the insulator);
high dissipation
ageing of the inner ageing of the inner ageing of the inner
factor
insulation; insulation; insulation;
water in the inner water in the inner water in the inner
insulation; insulation; insulation;
dissipation factor is
bad potential connections; bad potential connections; bad potential connections;
decreasing with
partial breakdowns partial breakdowns partial breakdowns
increasing voltage
dissipation factor is
strongly increasing high moisture in the high moisture in the high moisture in the
with insulation; insulation; insulation;
increasing high degree of ageing high degree of ageing high degree of ageing
temperature
Discharges produce partial breakdowns;
gasses; cracks or voids after
partial discharges normal, if constant
Errosion of the cellulose; electrical or mechanical
PAGE 75 PAGE 76
production of x-wax stress;

Conclusions
• Periodical on-site measurements are essential to get a
picture of the aging status.
• With beginning of on-site measurements the fault rate
could be continously reduced.
• A lot of information is necessary to assess the
reliability of bushings. Thank you for your interest !
• The tan delta measurement is an important tool.
Particularly the tan delta sweep over a wide frequency
range give a better indication of many kinds of faults.
• RIP- bushings have become very common due to the
long life time expectation and a minimum of
maintenance.

PAGE 77 PAGE 78

© OMICRON electronics GmbH 10/42