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# Lecture 3– Hooke’s law

For an object under loading, there is a relation between stress and strain. If there is stress, there is
always strain, and vice versa.

## 𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 𝑓𝑓6 �𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 , 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 , 𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 , 𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 , 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 , 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 �

Assume the object deformation is small, and therefore the strains are small. Take the Taylor
series of 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 for example.

## 𝜕𝜕𝑓𝑓1 𝜕𝜕𝑓𝑓1 𝜕𝜕𝑓𝑓1 𝜕𝜕𝑓𝑓1 𝜕𝜕𝑓𝑓1 𝜕𝜕𝑓𝑓1

𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 = (𝑓𝑓1 )0 + � � 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 + � � 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 + � � 𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 + � � 𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 + � � 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 + � � 𝛾𝛾
𝜕𝜕𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 0 𝜕𝜕𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 0 𝜕𝜕𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 0 𝜕𝜕𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 0 𝜕𝜕𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 0 𝜕𝜕𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 0 𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥

where (𝑓𝑓1 )0 = 𝑓𝑓1 (0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0) = 0 when all the strains are equal to zero.

## Follow the same idea, we can get:

𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 = 𝐶𝐶11 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 + 𝐶𝐶12 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 + 𝐶𝐶13 𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 + 𝐶𝐶14 𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 + 𝐶𝐶15 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 + 𝐶𝐶16 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥

𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 = 𝐶𝐶21 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 + 𝐶𝐶22 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 + 𝐶𝐶23 𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 + 𝐶𝐶24 𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 + 𝐶𝐶25 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 + 𝐶𝐶26 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥

𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 = 𝐶𝐶31 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 + 𝐶𝐶32 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 + 𝐶𝐶33 𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 + 𝐶𝐶34 𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 + 𝐶𝐶35 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 + 𝐶𝐶36 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥

𝜏𝜏𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 = 𝐶𝐶41 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 + 𝐶𝐶42 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 + 𝐶𝐶43 𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 + 𝐶𝐶44 𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 + 𝐶𝐶45 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 + 𝐶𝐶46 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥

𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 𝐶𝐶51 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 + 𝐶𝐶52 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 + 𝐶𝐶53 𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 + 𝐶𝐶54 𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 + 𝐶𝐶55 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 + 𝐶𝐶56 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥

𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 𝐶𝐶61 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 + 𝐶𝐶62 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 + 𝐶𝐶63 𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 + 𝐶𝐶64 𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 + 𝐶𝐶65 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 + 𝐶𝐶66 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥

These equations are established on small deformation, and are called generalized Hooke’s law.
The Cmn in the equations are called elastic constants.

1
In the matrix form:

## 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 𝐶𝐶11 𝐶𝐶12 𝐶𝐶13 𝐶𝐶14 𝐶𝐶15 𝐶𝐶16 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥

𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 𝐶𝐶21 𝐶𝐶22 𝐶𝐶23 𝐶𝐶24 𝐶𝐶25 𝐶𝐶26 𝜀𝜀
⎛ 𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 ⎞ ⎛𝐶𝐶 ⎞ ⎛ 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 ⎞
𝐶𝐶32 𝐶𝐶33 𝐶𝐶34 𝐶𝐶35 𝐶𝐶36
= ⎜ 31 ⎟ 𝛾𝛾 𝑧𝑧 ⎟

⎜𝜏𝜏𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 ⎟⎟ ⎜𝐶𝐶41 𝐶𝐶42 𝐶𝐶43 𝐶𝐶44 𝐶𝐶45 𝐶𝐶46 ⎟ ⎜
⎜ 𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 ⎟
𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 𝐶𝐶51 𝐶𝐶52 𝐶𝐶53 𝐶𝐶54 𝐶𝐶55 𝐶𝐶56 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
𝜏𝜏
⎝ 𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 ⎠ ⎝𝐶𝐶61 𝐶𝐶62 𝐶𝐶63 𝐶𝐶64 𝐶𝐶65 𝐶𝐶66 ⎠ ⎝𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 ⎠

In the mechanics of material, if we do the tension testing, for an isotropic material, we can get
the relation as below:
𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥
𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 = 𝐸𝐸

𝜈𝜈
𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 = 𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 = − 𝐸𝐸 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥

## 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 = 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 = 𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 = 𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 = 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 0

𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 𝐺𝐺

What is G called?

G is shear modulus.
𝐸𝐸
G can be expressed by E and υ as: 𝐺𝐺 = 2(1+𝜈𝜈)

Combine the tension testing and direct shear testing, we can get the generalized Hooke’s law as:
1 2(1+𝜈𝜈)
𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 = 𝐸𝐸 �𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 − 𝜈𝜈�𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 + 𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 ��, 𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 = 𝐸𝐸
𝜏𝜏𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦

1 2(1+𝜈𝜈)
𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 = 𝐸𝐸 �𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 − 𝜈𝜈(𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 + 𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 )�, 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 𝐸𝐸
𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥

1 2(1+𝜈𝜈)
𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 = 𝐸𝐸 �𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 − 𝜈𝜈�𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 + 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 ��, 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 = 𝐸𝐸
𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥

2
If we convert it into the matrix form, we get stiffness form:

1 − 𝜈𝜈 𝜈𝜈 𝜈𝜈 0 0 0
𝜈𝜈 1 − 𝜈𝜈 𝜈𝜈 0 0 0
𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 ⎛ ⎞ 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥
𝜈𝜈 𝜈𝜈 1 − 𝜈𝜈 0 0 0
𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 ⎜ 1 − 2𝜈𝜈 ⎟ 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦
⎛ 𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧 ⎞ 𝐸𝐸 ⎜ 0 0 ⎟ ⎛ 𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 ⎞
= 2 ⎟⎜
⎜ 𝜏𝜏 ⎟
⎜ 𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 ⎟ (1 + 𝜈𝜈)(1 − 2𝜈𝜈) ⎜ 0 0 0 1 − 2𝜈𝜈 ⎜𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 ⎟

𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 ⎜ 0 0 0 0 0 ⎟ 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
⎝𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 ⎠ ⎜ 0 0 0 2 ⎟ ⎝𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 ⎠
1 − 2𝜈𝜈
⎝ 0 0
2 ⎠

## For the flexibility form:

𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥 1 −𝜈𝜈 −𝜈𝜈 0 0 0 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥
𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 −𝜈𝜈 1 −𝜈𝜈 0 0 0 𝜎𝜎 𝑦𝑦
⎛ 𝜀𝜀𝑧𝑧 ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎛ ⎞
= ⎜−𝜈𝜈 −𝜈𝜈 1 0 0 0 ⎞ 𝜎𝜎𝑧𝑧

⎜𝛾𝛾𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 ⎟⎟ 𝐸𝐸 ⎜ 0 0 0 1 + 𝜈𝜈 0 0 ⎟ ⎟⎜⎜𝜏𝜏𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦 ⎟⎟
𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 0 0 0 0 1 + 𝜈𝜈 0 𝜏𝜏 𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
⎝𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 ⎠ ⎝0 0 0 0 0 1 + 𝜈𝜈 ⎠ ⎝𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 ⎠

In the COMSOL, for the structural mechanics module, the governing equation of solid
mechanics model is:

0 = ∇ ∙ 𝒔𝒔 + 𝑭𝑭𝑣𝑣

## 𝒔𝒔 = 𝑺𝑺0 + 𝑪𝑪: (𝝐𝝐 − 𝝐𝝐0 − 𝝐𝝐𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 )

1
𝝐𝝐 = 2 (∇𝒖𝒖 + (∇𝒖𝒖)T )

3
2D Problem

## Plane Strain form:

𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 1 − 𝜈𝜈 𝜈𝜈 0 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥
𝐸𝐸 𝜈𝜈 1 − 𝜈𝜈 0
� 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 � = � 𝜀𝜀
1 − 2𝜈𝜈 � � 𝑦𝑦 �
𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 (1 + 𝜈𝜈)(1 − 2𝜈𝜈) 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
0 0
2
εz , γxz, γyz are zeros.

## Plane Stress form:

𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 1 𝜈𝜈 0 𝜀𝜀𝑥𝑥
𝐸𝐸 𝜈𝜈 1 0
� 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 � = 2
� 𝜀𝜀
1 − 2𝜈𝜈 � � 𝑦𝑦 �
𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 1 − 𝜈𝜈 𝛾𝛾𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥
0 0
2
σz , τxz, τyz are zeros.

4
Example:

We have a rectangle 6 m×2 m with parameters below. The rectangle is bounded horizontally at
left and right sides, and fixed at bottom sides.

## Top boundary load: fy = -7000 Pa

If we don’t consider the gravity and assume εz = 0, please calculate σx, σy, εy.

## 𝑓𝑓𝑥𝑥 𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 𝜏𝜏𝑥𝑥𝑥𝑥 0

� � = �𝜏𝜏 𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 � �1�
𝑓𝑓𝑦𝑦 𝑦𝑦𝑦𝑦

## 𝐸𝐸(1−𝜈𝜈)𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 50×106 ×(1−0.3)𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦

𝜎𝜎𝑦𝑦 = (1+𝜈𝜈)(1−2𝜈𝜈) = = −7000 Pa => 𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 = −1.04 × 10−4
(1+0.3)(1−2×0.3)

## 𝐸𝐸𝐸𝐸𝜀𝜀𝑦𝑦 50×106 ×(1−0.3)×(−1.04×10−4 )

𝜎𝜎𝑥𝑥 = (1+𝜈𝜈)(1−2𝜈𝜈) = (1+0.3)(1−2×0.3)
= −3000 Pa