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Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

Road map for Chap. 4

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -1-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.1 Introduction >


 Incompressible flow over airfoils
Prandtl (20C 초)  Airfoil (2D)
 Wind (3D)
 Body

Airfoil : any section of the wing cut by a plane normal to y-axis

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -2-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.2 Airfoil Nomenclature >


 NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) series

Thickness Mean camber line

Camber Upper surface


Chord line

Lower
Leading Trailing
surface
edge edge

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -3-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.2 Airfoil Nomenclature >


 NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) series
NACA 4-digit series
* NACA2412
2 : max. camber = 2% of the chord
4 : the location of max. camber = 40% of the chord
12 : max. thickness = 12% of the chord
If the airfoil is symmetric, it becomes NACA00XX

NACA 5-digit series


* NACA23012
2 : 2*0.3/2 = 0.3 design CL
30 : 30/2 % = the location of max. camber
12 : max. thickness = 12% of the chord

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -4-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.2 Airfoil Nomenclature >


 NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics) series
6-digit series laminar flow airfoil
* NACA65-218
6 : series designation
5 : min. pressure location = 50% of the chord
2 : design CL= 0.2
18 : max. thickness = 18% of the chord

Other notations
* SC0195
* VR12

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -5-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.3 Airfoil Characteristics >


* 1930~40 NASA carried numerous experiments on NACA airfoil characteristics
(Measured Cl, Cd, Cm  2-D data)
* In the future, new airfoils should be designed and tested
(consideration of aerodynamic, dynamic & acoustic limitation)
* Typical lift characteristics of an airfoil
Stall  Sepatation
Dynamic stall

How to measure

Cl, Cd, Cm?


Maximum lift
coefficient

a0 =

Zero lift angle Stall angle : angle of attack


(12~18deg)
Aerodynamics 2015 fall -6-
Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.3 Airfoil Characteristics >

[Def.]
a, angle of attack : the angle between the freestream velocity and the chord

[Note]
1. a0 is not usually a function of Re.
2. Cl,max is dependent on Re.

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -7-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.3 Airfoil Characteristics >


Typical drag & pitching moment characteristics

* Aerodynamic drag = Pressure + Skin friction


drag drag

Sensitive to Re. (form drag)

Profile drag

* AC (Aerodynamic Center)
[Def.] The point about which the moment is independent of AOA
Subsonic : AC=c/4

Supersonic : AC=c/2

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -8-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.4 Vortex Sheet >


Kutta-Joukowski Theorem
* Kutta (German), Joukowski(Russia)
* Incompressible, inviscid flow

L = rvG

* G : positive clockwise

Lift
G

G
Vortex filament of strength G

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -9-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.4 Vortex Sheet >


* g(s) = the strength of vortex sheet
per unit length along s

* From Biot-Savart Law

* Velocity potential for vortex flow

* Velocity potential at P

Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 10 -


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.4 Vortex Sheet >


* Circulation around the dashed path

* If 

(Note)
The local strength of the vortex sheet is equal to the difference ( jump) in
tangential velocity across the vortex sheet

Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 11 -


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.4 Vortex Sheet >


* “Vortex Sheet” - Application for inviscid, incompressible flow

* Calculate g(s) to form the streamlines with a give airfoil shape

(Note)
“Vortex sheet method” is more than just a mathematical device; it also has
a physical meaning
ex. : Replacing the boundary layer ( ) with a vortex sheet
Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 12 -
Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.5 The Kutta Condition >


* For a circular cylinder,

* For a given a,  should have only one solution

Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 13 -


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.5 The Kutta Condition >


* From the experiments, we know that the velocity at the trailing-edge in
finite.  Kutta Condition

g(TE)=V1-V2=0
V(TE)=finite

* The circulation around the airfoil is the value to ensure that the flow
smoothly leaves the trailing edge.

Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 14 -


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.6 Kelvin’s Circulation Theorem >


* Assume) 1. Inviscid
2. Incompressible
3. No body forces

 The time rate of change of circulation around a closed curve


consisting of the same fluid elements is zero

Ex) Starting vortex

[ at rest ]  [ after the start ]


Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 15 -
Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.7 Classical Thin Airfoil Theory >


 The Symmetric Airfoil
* Assumptions

i) The camber line is one of the streamlines


ii) Small maximum camber and thickness relative to the chord
iii) Small angle of attack

* Purposes

i) Find g(s)
ii) Use Kutta-Joukowski theorem, L’=rVG

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -1-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.7 Classical Thin Airfoil Theory >


 The Symmetric Airfoil

* The component of free-stream velocity


normal to the mean camber line at P

From small angle assumption

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -2-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.7 Classical Thin Airfoil Theory >


 The Symmetric Airfoil
* If the airfoil is thin,
: velocity normal to the camber line
induced by the vortex sheet
: velocity normal to the chord line
induced by the vortex sheet

* The velocity at point x by the elemental


vortex at point x

* The velocity at point x by all the


elemental vortices along the chord line

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -3-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.7 Classical Thin Airfoil Theory >


 The Symmetric Airfoil
* The sum of the velocity components
normal to the surface at all point along
the vortex sheet is zero

The fundamental equation of thin airfoil theory

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -4-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.7 Classical Thin Airfoil Theory >


 The Symmetric Airfoil
* Sysmmetric airfoil  no camber,

* Transform variable x into q

, ,

 

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -5-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.7 Classical Thin Airfoil Theory >


 The Symmetric Airfoil

* Check Kutta condition

 Indeterminant form

By L’Hospital’s rule

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -6-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.7 Classical Thin Airfoil Theory >


 The Symmetric Airfoil
* Since we get g(q), now calculate G, L

 

* Lift :

* Lift coefficient :

* Lift slope :

 Lift coefficient is linearly proportional to angle of attack.

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -7-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.7 Classical Thin Airfoil Theory >


 The Symmetric Airfoil
* The moment about the leading edge

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -8-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.7 Classical Thin Airfoil Theory >


 The Symmetric Airfoil
* The moment coefficient

* Aerodynamic center is located at c/4 for incompressible, inviscid and


symmetric airfoil (true in real world)

* Center of pressure : the point at which the moment is zero


Aerodynamic center : the point at which the moment is independent of aoa

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -9-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.8 The Cambered Airfoil >


* From thin airfoil theory,

 …… (a)

* For cambered airfoil,

Transform …… (b)
x into q

* The solution becomes

…… (c)

Leading term for Fourier series term


symmetric airfoil due to camber
Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 10 -
Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.8 The Cambered Airfoil >


* Substitute (c) into (b)

By using the integral standard form

Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 11 -


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.8 The Cambered Airfoil >


For Fourier cosine series,

[Note] given  Determine g(q) to make the camber line a streamline


with A0, An
+ Kutta condition, g(p)=0

Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 12 -


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.8 The Cambered Airfoil >


* The total circulation due to the entire vortex sheet

By using ,

Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 13 -


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.8 The Cambered Airfoil >


* Lift coefficient for a cambered thin airfoil

 Lift slope,
Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 14 -
Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.8 The Cambered Airfoil >


* Lift coefficient for a cambered thin airfoil

[Note]
* Lift slope is 2p for any shape airfoil

* Zero lift angle :


Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 15 -
Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.8 The Cambered Airfoil >


* The total moment about the leading edge

* Moment coefficient

 A1 & A2 both are independent of aoa



 The quarter-chord is the aerodynamic center
for a cambered airfoil
Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 16 -
Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.8 The Cambered Airfoil >


* The center of pressure

  Not a convenient point

Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 17 -


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.8 The Cambered Airfoil >


The influence of camber on the thin airfoil

* The cambered airfoil * The symmetric airfoil

Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 18 -


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.10 The Vortex Panel Method >

* Thin airfoil theory


- Closed form
- Limited to thin airfoil,

* Panel method
- Vortex panel
- Source panel  non-lifting cases

* Exactly same idea of thin airfoil theory, but no closed form g(s)
 solve numerically

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -1-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.10 The Vortex Panel Method >


y
Boundary
point qj P(x,y)
x
J-1 j

(xj,yj)
J+1
Control
point

* The velocity potential at P due to j-th panel

* Let’s put point P at the control point of i-th panel

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -2-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.10 The Vortex Panel Method >


* At the control points, the normal component of velocity is zero.

- The component of V normal to i-th panel

- The normal component of induced velocity at (xi, yi)

 

= : f (panel geometry)

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -3-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.10 The Vortex Panel Method >


* Boundary condition :
+ Kutta condition :

i+1

* Now, we have (n+1) eq. with n unknowns  ignore one of control points

* The flow velocity tangent to the surface = g


ui,1
 Inside the solid surface
ui,2

* Total circulation :

* Lift :

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -4-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.12 The Flow over an Airfoil – the Real Case >
Stall
 Leading-edge stall

Flow separation takes place


over the entire top surface
of the airfoil after occurring
at the leading edge

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -5-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.12 The Flow over an Airfoil – the Real Case >
Stall
 Trailing-edge stall

α = 5° α = 10° α = 15° α =22.5°

Flow separation takes place from the trailing edge at


thicker airfoils than leading-edge stall

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -6-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.12 The Flow over an Airfoil – the Real Case >
Stall
 Thin airfoil stall

Leading-edge stall
Flow separation takes place
over the entire surface of
the airfoil after occurring at
the leading edge

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -7-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.12 The Flow over an Airfoil – the Real Case >
Stall
 Lift-coefficient curves

Leading-edge stall
1.5
Lift coefficient

1.0 Trailing-edge stall

0.5 Thin airfoil stall

10 20

α, degrees

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -8-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.12 The Flow over an Airfoil – the Real Case >
High-lift devices

Leading edge slat

Trailing edge flap

Aerodynamics 2015 fall -9-


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.12 The Flow over an Airfoil – the Real Case >
High-lift devices
 Trailing-edge flap (plain type)

More camber → Higher lift

Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 10 -


Incompressible Flow over Airfoils

< 4.12 The Flow over an Airfoil – the Real Case >
High-lift devices
 Effect of slats and flaps

Aerodynamics 2015 fall - 11 -