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BRIEF HISTORY OF

BUILDING MATERIALS

AR. RINO D.A. FERNANDEZ


PALEOLITHIC (Old Stone Age)
32,000 BC – 12,000 BC

NOMADIC HUNTER

CAVE
MESOLITHIC (Middle Stone Age)
12,000 BC – 8,000 BC

FOOD GATHERER

TEMPORARY
SHELTER FROM
PERISHABLE
MATERIALS
NEOLITHIC (New Stone Age)
8,000 BC – 3,000 BC

FARMING

PERMANENT SETTLEMENT

VILLAGES OF CIRCULAR &


LATER RECTANGULAR
HUTS

COMMUNAL HOUSE
CONSTRUCTION & MATERIALS

TENT
- wooden poles/animal bones as
framework
- leaves to form the tent

HUT
- broad leaves intertwined as covering
- composite building materials were
used (clay & wood)
- reeds padded with clay for walls
CONSTRUCTION & MATERIALS

COMMUNAL HOUSE
- wooden post & lintel to
support the ridge pole &
rafters
- thatch for the roof structure
- walls were made of various
materials, such as clay, wattle
& daub, tree bark & thatch

STONE STRUCTURES
- dolmen
- granaries
- temples
-cromlech

Construction Method was post & lintel


CROMLECH

A circular arrangement
of megaliths enclosing
a dolmen or burial
mound

STONEHENGE
STONEHENGE
SALISBURY PLAIN, SOUTHERN ENGLAND

- The most imposing megalithic


monument in existence

- Known in the 12th cent. as “Dance


of the Giants”

- Known today as the


“sarcen circle”
STONEHENGE
SALISBURY PLAIN, SOUTHERN ENGLAND
MESOPOTAMIAN PERIOD

Chaldea – man-made clay,


plain & glazed bricks,
bitumen & pitch (for
cementing), calcerous earth
(mortar)

Assyria – stone, brick


(extensively used),
alabaster & limestone (for
facing)

Persia – hard & colored


limestone, timber
MESOPOTAMIAN PERIOD

ZIGGURATS

Ziggurat at Ur
Ziggurat at Bursippa
Tower of Babel
MESOPOTAMIAN PERIOD

BABYLON

CITY OF BABYLON
- with 100 towers and 100
bronze doors
MESOPOTAMIAN PERIOD
ASSYRIA

PALACE OF SARGON
- entrance portals flanked with
statues of headed winged
bulls & lions
- contains 700 rooms
EGYPTIAN PERIOD

Natural products – timber,


stone, brick, clay

Masonry materials – limestone,


sandstone, alabaster, basalt,
porphyry, granite

Timber used – Acacia (boats)


Date Palm (roofing)
Sycamore (mummy case)
EGYPTIAN PERIOD
EGYPTIAN PERIOD
EGYPTIAN PERIOD
GREEK PERIOD

Chief building materials:

- Marble
- other stones
GREEK PERIOD
ROMAN PERIOD

Chief building material:

- Concrete
ROMAN PERIOD
ROMAN PERIOD
ROMAN PERIOD
ROMAN PERIOD
ROMAN PERIOD
EARLY CHRISTIAN PERIOD

The ruins of the Roman


buildings provided quarry
where materials were
obtained. This influence the
style of construction,
decoration for columns, &
other architectural features
as well as fine sculpture &
mosaic from older bldg w/c
were turn into basilican
churches of the new faith
EARLY CHRISTIAN PERIOD
A - Atrium
B - Narthex
C - Nave
D - Transept
E - Apse
GOTHIC PERIOD
GOTHIC PERIOD
GOTHIC PERIOD
GOTHIC PERIOD
RENAISSANCE PERIOD
RENAISSANCE PERIOD
PERIOD OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Chief building material:

- Concrete
- Steel
- Glass
PERIOD OF INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

CONCRETE DEVELOPMENT:

1756 - British Engineer, John Smeaton


made the first modern concrete
(hydraulic cement) by adding
pebbles as a course aggregate &
mixing powered brick into the
cement

1824 - Joseph Aspdin invented Portland


Cement

1849 - Joseph Monier invented


Reinforced Concrete, and patented
in 1867
MODERN PERIOD
MODERN PERIOD
MODERN PERIOD