Chairman
Yasuo Omori, Research Institute of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy,
Tohoku University
ViceChairman
Yasuhito Shimomura, R&D LaboratoriesI, Nippon Steel Corporation
Secretarial Members
lunichiro Vagi, Research Institute of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy,
Tohoku University
Masakazu Nakamura, R&D LaboratoriesI, Nippon Steel Corporation
Tsutomu Fukushima, Technical Research Center, Nippon Kokan KK
Members
Masayoshi Amatatsu, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
Kuninobu Ishii, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University
Shinichi Inaba, Central Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel, Ltd.
Takeo Usui, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University
Masaya Ozawa, National Research Institute for Metals
Katsuya Ono, R&D LaboratoriesIII, Nippon Steel Corporation
Hoichi Kuwano, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo
Mamoru Kuwabara, Faculty of Engineering, Nagaya University
Saburo Kobayashi, Research Institute of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy,
Tohoku University
Nobuo Sano, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
Teruhisa Shimoda, Hasaki Research Center, Central Research Laboratories,
Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.
Nobuo Tsuchiya, Technical Research Laboratories, Kawasaki Steel Corporation
Masanori Tokuda, Research Institute of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy,
Tohoku University
Hiroaki Nishio, Technical Research Center, Nippon Kokan KK
Michiharu Hatano, Hasaki Research Center, Central Research Laboratories,
Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.
Tsuyoshi Fukutake, Mizushima Works, Kawasaki Steel Corporation
Masahiro Maekawa, Central Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel, Ltd.
Akinobu Yoshizawa, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
Advisory Members
Tasuku Fuwa, Tohoku University (Prof. Emeritus)
Mayasu Ohtani, Tohoku University
Yasuji Kawai, Kyushu University
Shinichi Kondo, Hokkaido University
Mitsuru Tate, The University of Tokyo (Prof. Emeritus)
Wataru Muchi, Nagoya University
Gyoichi Suzuki, Nippon Kokan KK
Masaaki Higuchi, Nippon Kokan KK
Tanekazu Soma, University of Tokyo
Secretariat
Kunihiro Yoshioka
Tadatoshi Koga
Kenzo Kato
Shigenobu Shimazaki
Kenichi Sato
BLAST FURNACE
PHENOMENA AND
MODELLING
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo
copying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
As ironmakers are well aware, it was only a few decades ago that the
blast furnace was viewed as a strange 'black box'. Recently, however,
various infurnace phenomena have become the subject of serious
scientific study, largely as the result of the 'dissection' of dead furnaces,
together with the development of advanced monitoring and control
techniques. In this way, a new frontier has been opened within the
venerable domain of metallurgy. In the light of these new developments,
the Committee on Reaction within Blast Furnaces was set up in March
1977 by the Joint Society ofIron and Steel Basic Research  a cooperative
research organization of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ), the
Japan Institute of Metals (JIM) and the Japan Society for the Promotion
of Science (JSPS). Consisting of twentysix members and advisors
drawn from the fields of academia and industry, this committee
collected, discussed, and evaluated numerous papers during its five
year commission. Particular attention was paid to the interpretation of
findings drawn from the autopsy of dead furnaces, in the context of the
live furnace state, and the correlation of data regarding cohesive zone
configuration, level, and furnace performance. The results of this
intense research activity are presented here in the hope that they will
serve not only as a source of enrichment to the professional knowledge
of researchers and operators, but also as textual material for graduate
students in the field of metallurgy. The thirtyone papers are included
within eight chapters as outlined in the following.
Chapter 1 is devoted to the detailed survey of dissected blast furnaces,
focusing on their spatial analysis: namely, their cohesive zone and its
v
vi PREFACE
Preface v
vii
viii CONTENTS
Index 621
Part I
1.1. INTRODUCTION
3
4 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
rSl 
• ... _
Whe"
blowout
o
Descent
aftel walel
Quenching
16 hrs
6 hrs aller
blowolt
When
______ dissected
5
~ I~
~t
i________ ~ ! 10
I ~ g
r j ~ 15
o'"
20
"
~__ _ __ Tuyere
had been inserted into the shaft after blowout and before water
quenching. It will be seen that the descent is 0·81'2 m at the stock line
on blowout, while that due to water spraying is about 1 m at the stock
line, getting smaller as one goes downwards and becoming almost nil in
the lower part of the shaft. Also, judging from the bend of the pipes, this
descent was almost flat in the radial directions. In addition to the above,
substances that melted and dripped through have to be taken into
consideration. However, as the locations and times at which these
composition changes take place remain unclear, no quantitative
examination is yet possible.
During quenching the temperature rise in the shaft due to water
spraying was examined, and a 150200 °C rise was observed depending
on the details of the spray used. I. 8 Although no actual measurements are
available for the lower part of the furnace, it is estimated that the
temperature would be lower than in the shaft.
It has been shown that the property and composition changes are
subject to a considerable extent to the influence of the water spray.
However, not all the effects are known today, so results of dissection
studies should be considered in relation to individual requirements.
.)
00
5,
Om ttl
s:
~
5 21
Reduchon ~
Role 10,01 Scaffold
CJ 10 f;
~ 10 20 E I. tT1
= 20 30 '" ;0 '"tI
_
= 30 50
50 70 .E ::r::
tT1
""0v Sofle .. ng loy .. ' Z
;;;
15
o
gE I· a:::
~Holl:molten laye',;
v
'"
c ~
~
gr 20 o
8o
 25 Carbon bnck tT1
Slog b
Z
Q
30
Fig. 1.2.contd.
1.0
o

0 : Ore
~ : CoSl:e
: Ore Qnd Col.e
t:;:I
1___ : Dense loyer
..,z:;r (Mixture of Lime,
Coke and Fine Particles) §
21
Bu,dol'l :
~
Pellel 700" 1!S
l Ole!' 30"'<'1 tTl
Cole 515 ."
~Clle Ic.~ I
:I:
~
Ir"'t"r Vol
~
1 1501' )
H~(lIrit D.n ~
76.,
~
t:l
IH
S ~
o
t:l
tTl
E~ Charging S~u"nc",
N 0102+ C1 C2+ E
C2 ' lorm"d cok"
z
Cl
Idl Tsurumi 1BF lei Kawasaki 3BF
Fig. 1.2.collld.
w
Fig, 1.2,contd.
......
tv

20
m. Sl
I::(l
eb"c< ~ Qrelo..,.e'
5
~
;..
~
o
~
o
T.H. U
o tr1
r
4m 3 2 I 0
t:
Z
o
Ih) Ch ibo I BF 1,1 Amogosoki I BF
Fig. 1.2.contd.
DISSECTION OF QUENCHED BLAST FURNACES 13
While furnaces other than those mentioned above were typical of the
medium to small blast furnaces that work on sinter, the states of their
melting zones were considerably different due to differences in the
charge distribution, top design, and at the tuyere.
Generally, the ore layers and the coke layers keep their ascharged
stratification well in descending to the melting zone in the lower part of
the furnace, where three or four ore layers are softened and fused
together before melting. This formation of the fusion, or the cohesion,
zone is again considerably different from one furnace to another, but
the inverse V axisymmetrical shape, seen in the cases of Kukioka 4 BF,I
Hirohata I BF,t Kokura 2 BF,4 and Tsurumi I BF,s appears to be typical.
When considered together with the behaviour clarified by means of
marker materials,6s. 16 the descent and structuring behaviour of burden
in the furnace may be functionally classified as shown in Fig. 1.3.
"='~+Coheslon
zone
Combustion
zone
(1) The top part, where the layering is determined by the charging
method, burden materials, and size distribution
(2) The lumpy zone, where the individual particles of ore do not as
yet get fused together, and the coke and ore layers make an
orderly descent as stratified
14 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
(3) The cohesion zone, where the ore is softened, fused, and
eventually melted, the ore descending forming the cohesion zone
in accordance with the state of gas flow that is in turn determined
by the burden distribution and the position of the tuyeres
(4) The coke zone, which is situated beneath the cohesion zone and
above the core, or the conical deposit of coke known as the dead
man, serving as the coke supply source for the combustion
zone
(5) The combustion zone, which is a zone of coke burning in and
around the raceway in a swirling motion
(6) The core, which is a deposit of coke of conical shape, found in the
lower part of the coke zone, and where the descending behavior
of coke is not a continuation from above, the coke being held up
for a long time
(7) The melt bath, which is composed of the slag layer on top of the
metal layer, both filled up with coke, which is often much
coagulated near the bottom, and the bath itself filling the space
between the lower portion of the core and the hearth, the upper
surface being raised or lowered in accordance with the state of
formation of slag
observe instances where the coke layers and the ore layers did not retain
the stratification, but formed a mixed burden layer at the furnace wall.
This phenomenon is known to be due to wall trouble, I and therefore is a
variation of the basic pattern. This theory has been verified in a test
conducted with a twodimensional model for an accident involving the
fall off of armor plates at the furnace top which had happened in the
Kukioka 4 BF furnace.
In the shaft, certain peculiar formations were seen: (i) in the Tsurumi
1 BF furnace the radial distribution of the ore layer is clearly different
between the top five or six layers and the layers beneath them, and (ii) in
the Amagasaki 1 BF the medium lump coke layer is convex at the center
presenting a mushroomlike appearance. In the former, it is suggested
that fluidization of the central portion of the coke layer occurred when
the top gas flow distribution was changing while an ore layer of lesser
gas permeability was charged. 17 From the blast volume that would give
rise to fluidization, those upper five or six charges are thought to
correspond to the time when the fluidization ceased to continue as the
gas flow was reduced. The case of the Amagasaki I BF is considered to
be similar except that here the fluidization took place in the medium
lump coke layer, which is more apt to be fluidized.
In any event, these features should be regarded as peculiar to the
stockline, or the furnace top portion, suggesting the importance of blast
volume in the formation of stratification structure at the top, along with
the more obvious influence of charging apparatus and property of the
raw materials.
120mmr/)
E
* S * * : Blinded tuyere
Fig. 1.4. Tuyere diameters of Kokura 2 BF.
Coke zone
Cohesion
zone 1'~~I
Centrol
core
 Melt both
(4) The residence time of the hearth coke, as estimated from the
graphitization degree of coke at the hearth, was about 1 week (Chiba
1 BF).16
Even though the peculiar phenomenon that the cohesion zone itself
had descended was seen in Kawasaki 2 BF and in Amagasaki 1 BF, it
may be concluded from these results that the descent of materials below
the deposition slope is not continuous from above but intermittent, and
that the motion is so sluggish that residence there is for 13 weeks.
In fact, there is further evidence to support this theory of intermittent
descent of the core materials. An examination showed that the shell at
the lower part of the raceway which was in contact with the core
descended stratified/ and this is considered to be a result of heaving, or
Kawasaki I Tsurumi
3 BF . 1 BF I
~ \ I
~
t F\e
~~.II • I
I
~G,
~~ I
Marker
Coke
Loyers
TL
Fig. 1.6. Distribution of caged samples and marker coke layers inside the
furnace.
DISSECTION OF QUENCHED BLAST FURNACES 19
of
Mark
upanddown, motion that the core coke was making owing to the
difference in buoyancy exerted by the tapping and accumulating
periods of hot metal and slag. 19 Further examination of the mechanism
of this motion is left to a later section but, in short, the driving force of
descent is due, partially at least, to the intermittent carburization of
metal by coke that accompanies change of slag level, and to the
consumption of coke on direct reduction by the dripping slag.
Another probable cause of coke motion is the pushingup of core
coke under increasing buoyancy due to accumulating slag, in which the
coke tends to ascend floating along the raceway at the periphery. This is
suggested by two observations: (i) the thin lime layers found in the
Tsurumi 1 BF furnace core coke zone were horizontal at the central part
of the core lower part, turning upwards at the periphery; (ii) there was a
coke zone of slightly different nature between the shell around the
raceway (to be described later) and the core, and there coke particles of
different color, namely those coke particles that were impregnated with
slag, were occasionally found.
Finally, the upper part of the raceway where the rate of inflow of
burning coke and the gas velocity are both large should be under a
smaller load than the central part of the furnace, and consequently the
ascent of coke from below should be easy. However, this problem is still
under active discussion as no conclusive evidence has been revealed in
the dissection studies.
20 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
1.4.2. Formation of Shell and Movements at the Lower Part ofthe Raceway
The formation of the shell found in the Tsurumi I BF is depicted in
Fig. 1.9. It was formed starting from slightly above the tuyere center
plane to a thickness of 3060 mm with, as mentioned above, small to
fine coke, slag of high basicity and high alumina content, and metal.
From the distribution of these substances, densification presumably
proceeded first with the coke particles closing together, then with the
viscous slag clogging the gaps between the particles. The fact that the
slag has a high basicity (high alumina content was the same for the
Kawasaki 3 BF, which operated on a mostly sinter charge, as for
Tsurumi 1 BF, for which the charge was mostly lump ores) would
appear to indicate that generation of SiO and inflow of lime in the
raceway was considerable. The features of the raceway lower part may
be summarized as follows.
(1) Traces of shell were often found stratified in the raceway lower
part, and the compositions ofthe slag in them were much the same in all
the cases. It may be that this stratified descent is due to changes in the
tuyere front state caused by the tapping slag, a phenomenon that is quite
often observed in small and medium size blast furnaces (Fig.l.lO).
(2) Many dark coke particles having numerous depressions on the
surface (those described as 'pockmarked') were found between the shell
and the wall of the raceway lower part. This was thought to show that the
metal and slag that drip down through this part have a different
o
Cil
r:n
~
::l
o
z
o"rI
10
~
(j
::r:
tTl
o
I:C
I : Co .... ty ~
II : Lorge brown round.sh cot.e ~
lit : Small brown round,s" c:olo.e "rI
1\ : Dork dM~ loyer hnt;t;lura of groph,re. meloi $Iog and C
5moll cokel
: Lorge coke .to line co~e 1· ,5 mml
\'1 : Oork ongulor lo rge co!.; •. tl'lelo; ond 5109 drop,"
\"11 : lO'g8 brown co!.:.e
~III : Dark small co'l.a, metal al'ld stag drop!
~
tTl
r:n
IX : Brown middle size colte Impregnoted with slog
\ : B.rown and dor!.:. large co~e
'V
101 Ibl
Slog
Co e
A.r...,'bIc+_ Void
Melol
r"·
CO"'~'o'"
90 __ ___
,,,",,,
0~ ~ I \
~~e
 80 • _0
c:!' I " 50_
o c 30
'" '"
:> :>
c
10
S
~~ 20
Melol 16
~ 0
10 Slag
0» C A
=I 7
large i Mot"
Coke
SmollL
Fig. 1.9. State of shell structure around the combustion zone (Tsurumi I BF).
1 Inside of roceway
2 The shell. a moxlure of
small coke and droplets
of melol and slog
MOlly medium size coke.
loosely pocked as a whole
4~ 1 Troces of shell
composition from that of the core, and that the movement of coke in this
part of the furnace is very sluggish.
As the behavior of materials in and around the raceway appears to be
related to the discontinuous movement in the core, discussed earlier, as
well as to the dynamics of coke consumption, further research is called
for.
1.4.3. Conditions Inside the Furnace and the Shape of the Raceway
As the asymmetrical distribution of burden found in the Chiba 1 BF
and the peripheral unevenness found in the Kokura 2 BF were
considered as being due to peripheral uneven distribution of gas flow,
the relation between these phenomena and the blast volume of
individual tuyeres has been examined.
It is known that in the Kokura 2 BF the tuyere nozzles at a certain
orientation were intentionally narrowed to protect the furnace wall. 4
The blast volume for each tuyere was calculated using the Wagstaff
formula 20 from actually measured values of raceway depth, particle size
in front of the tuyere, and tuyere nozzle diameter. This is shown in Table
1.2. It will be seen that in the northsouth direction, in which the small
diameter tuyeres were deployed, the blast volume was as low as 1/3 to 1/5
of that in the other directions, a fact that was considered to have caused
the cohesion zone to descend as far down as the tuyere leve1. 4
TABLE l.2
Blast Volumes Estimated for Individual Tuyeres of Kokura 2 BF
Hirohata I BF 1. V charging with bell; 1. Descent of 0 and C layers 1. Promotion of center flow by
formation of center flow as stratified high tapping rate
by inflow of large lumps 2. Decrease of slope as they 2. Cohesion zone is sharp
2. Promotion of center flow by descend inverse V; skirt in all
CO~ mixed charging 3. Core coke movement is orientations disappearing
3. 0 layers and C layers perfectly sluggish by melting high above
stratifying tuyere level
Kukioka 4 BF 1. V charging by bell but 1. Descent as stratified except 1. Low fuel rate; normal tapping
CC~OO~ type; much inflow mixed layer at periphery rate; presence of periphery
of ores to center, suppressing 2. In certain directions, mixed layer making cohesion
somewhat the center flow periphery flow dominated, zone W shape
2. Because of accidental helping center cohesion zone 2. Improved gas utilization rate
fall off of armor plate, OC to extend to lower part of by coexistence of central
mixed layers developed at furnace flow and periphery flow
periphery, promoting 3. Cohesion zone disappearing
formation of periphery flows before tuyere level reached
3. No discontinuity in ore layers
to the furnace center
Kawasaki 4 BF 1. CC~OO~ charging by bell, but 1. Descent as stratified all the 1. Low fuel rate and normal
flat gas distribution intended way through tapping rate intended; flattish
by making use of armor gas flow distribution
plates
(continued)
TABLE 1.3contd. N
0\
N
J
28 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
lumpy zone and the cohesion zone, (iii) the conditions in the
combustion zone, and (iv) the state of coke inflow at the combustion
zone. This is illustrated in Fig. 1.11; it can be seen that the factors have a
causeandeffect relationship with each other, so individual examination
can be problematical. For the sake of simplicity, if one singles out the
two factors of (a) the distribution of charge and (b) the production rate,
which is in proportion to the blast volume, their relationship with the
shape of the cohesion zone may be summarized as shown in Fig. 1.12.
Here the ordinate, the ore/coke distribution index (O/C), is the weight
ratio for the Kawasaki 2, 3, and 4 BFs and the Tsurumi 1 BF,
the layer thickness ratios of ore and coke layers as averaged over the top
five or six layers for the Chiba 1 BF, Amagasaki 1 BF, Kukioka 4 BF,
and Hirohata 1 BFs, and the layer thickness ratio as averaged over five
layers right above the cohesion zone for the Kokura 2 BF.
Distribution control
Properties of burden
Fig. 1.11. Interrelations among operation variables and resultant shape of the
cohesion zone.
u ;~L ____
Q t:I
1.5
til
Vi
m
0 n
>l
"Eo (3
? Z
Q)
o'TI
~
g' I:)
Q. c:::
Q m
0 Z
r
n
::r:
~ m
t:I
I:C
2.0
" "
~
>l
I L~J r~;l
..' 4 :: u
Note: o
o
In Ore Co~e ratios
]
10 Ci: 1$ bv v\leighl 2
o C . IS bv lo\er thickness I
m
Sror:E' ~~: I Asvmmetricol shope rille to mixing W shope due to 1111::<'ln9 of center Inverse V V shope with flat gas flow due to
I
Vi
of cenler riow Inverse VI Gild and periphery flows due to center periphery flow
perlpher, flow flow
N
Fig. 1.12. Relations between the shape of cohesion zone and the distribution of charged materials. \C)
30 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
I
~
I '", 00 before quench
:"
I \ ~
tTl
E
·0 .~ '"t:I
g ::c:
I .. ~ tTl
:';
·0 Z
~ 15.0 o
.c
o ~IDg a:::
I 'im~ .c~~~~~
.a3:cr
•• Co<) K~O TFe
oa RD before quenching ~
I 20.0 ..... Tecrp _ ~ after water quench
~ No~O'T.Fe
bution in coke increases from 1000°C 1000°C zone and attains peak in coke, increases fast from 900°C tT1
n
zone, and that in ores attains middle to lower part of cohesion zone, reaches maximum at 1100 ::l
peak in cohesion zone just before zone, below which it gets 1200°C, then decreases rapidly. o
melting (Fig. 1.14). Thence alkali distributed between metal and This means that peak position is
z
o'Tj
in slag droplets decreases. In slag. Distribution corresponds, in lower part of lumpy zone and
coke, on the other hand, concen like alkalis, to shape of cohesion in upper part of cohesion zone. D
tration peak at slightly lower zone, suggesting gaseous S Relationship with gas flow iiiz
position than for ores, then originated from below (Figs 1.18 unclear in that there were n
decreases in combustion zone. and 1.19). On the other hand, two instances in central flow type ::c:
tT1
However, there were cases where types of behavior found for S in furnaces where middle to Ij
concentration was high even at coke: in one it decreases as periphery parts were richer in Zn I:I:l
furnace center (Hirohata I BF burden descends (Hirohata I BF, (Hirohata I BF, Amagasaki 1 BF).
and others). Maximum content of Tsurumi I BF, Kawasaki 2 BF, This is because circulation region ~...,
alkalis per se found in cohesion and others); in the other it of Zn is different from those of
zone lower part, and distribution reaches maximum slightly below alkalis and S (Figs 1.23 and 1.24)
corresponds well to shape of cohesion zone as in Kokura I BF
zone. Therefore it is surmised (Fig. 1.20)
tT1
[Jl
that ascending gaseous alkalis
originate in combustion or
I
dripping zone (Fig. 1.15)
(continued)
w
w
w
.j:>.
TABLE 1.4contd.
ttl
Alkalis Sulfur Zinc'
E
...,
Circula From lOOO°C zone down to From lOOO°C zone to tuyere level From middle part of lumpy zone ;:g
tion region tuyere level of 9001250°C to cohesion zone
~
Paths of Reductiongasification from slag Gasification on combustion of Direct sublimation or reduction ~
ascent droplets trickling through coke in combustion zone (COS, gasification at 12001250°C, and tTl
dripping zone and that from HsS, CS~, and ascent on gas ascent on bosh gas "tl
::r.:
coke burning in combustion stream generated in combustion
zone, as well as by gas stream zone ~
upwards from combustion zone
o
a::
into furnace interior
Amount of l324 kg(Na20 + K20)/tonhot 0'42'7 kgS/tonhot metal 5,26 kg/Zn/tonhot metal in ~
circulation metal (Table 1.5 and Fig. 1.17) (Figs 1.21 and l.22), though Amagasaki I SF; 6' 57' 5 kg in ~
depends much on S content in Tsurumi I BF t:I
coke 8
Difference Basic sinter < acidic pellet Acidic pellet < basic sinter, Not much difference among ores, t:I
tTl
in absorp (Fig. 1.16), though in Amagasaki though in Amagasaki I BF the though generally ores are more t""
t""
tion by ore 1 BF it was MgObearing MgObearing pellets were less effective than coke Z
pellet < lump ore < sinter effective q
DISSECTION OF QUENCHED BLAST FURNACES 35
TABLE 1.5
Estimated Circulating Alkalis
Furnace
Hirohata I BF 131
Kawasaki 2 BF 19'5
Kawasaki 3 BF 16'5
Tsurumi I BF 24
Kokura 2 BF 1718
Amagasaki I BF 2223
5~'~~
Ore Slag
o • Periphery
o 6 A Middle
C • Center
] 10
C
"
u
o
1;;
C
E
g 15 C
i'"
Si
o
20 o
Fig. 1.14. Changes in alkali contents in ores and slags in blast furnace
(Tsurumi IBF).
W
0\
Na , O + K, O 1%1 NO lO + K, O 1%1
~ <0 .1 >2%
0 01  04 III
1.5 2
• >0.4
11.5 §
Belore <I 'Tl
charging 0. 7 C
~
f;
t'I'l
"C
:I:
t'I'l
Z
~t'I'l
~
~
o
6
I:)
t'I'l
E
z
Cl
101 In the slag Ibl In the ores lei In the coke
0.5
g>
.~
'"
t
0 : Middle K2 Kawasaki 2BF
K3 Kawasaki 3BF
:!! 0.4
0 : Periphery
Tl Tsurumi 1 BF
"
u Sinter
0 KK2 Kokura 2BF
10
Acidic A1 Amagasaki 1 BF
E
g 0.3 pellets
.9
~ill K2
. .\ ll..
0
0:; 0.2
L1 \
u
." ~O \SR
ill
KK2 \SP ,
E
a
is 0.1 !) \ "
I~
" A1
z I \ Tl
, if 6,
K3
0
0 0.01 0.02 003 0.04 0.05
IK 2 0 + Na201 IT Fe
ITsurumi 1 Bfl
SjT.fe lin acid pellell
o 0.0004 0.001
o t
Ji
a;
,t t
CL IKawasaki 3 Bfl
,
1t ! JACid pellel
,
5 SjTfe lin sinterl
00004 0001 ~ I S,nler
50
I : Metal drop
E
n s: ~
~~
(j)
~10 E ~ C' a
~ if 0
D
in ': r0
10 C'
ro
~
u
E
o ~ .~:
..:= 15 E \ b
l'
(j)
u 15
c
.~ B
o c
20 ~
o
20 6
Tuyere level
Fig. 1.18. Changes in S contents of ores and metal in blast furnaces (Tsurumi
1 BF and Kawasaki 3 BF).
DISSECTION OF QUENCHED BLAST FURNACES 39
•• ••
~ < 10 ~ <005 ~ 0.01  0.05
•
~ 1.0 1.5 0.050.10 0.050 10
> 1.5 >0.10 >0.10
0.9
.
So ,,, CO!1"bU5t,O'" Torol S
g 08 fudu@'
•
~_ 07
gZ I
.
.•
0.6 "
0
~@ 0.5 "."
~! 0.4 0'
g~ 0.3
_ 0.2
• ••
"".. ~
.
~
£ 0.1 ".
H, 0,0 •
0,1
03 04 05 0, I 0,2 03 04 05 0 I 02 03 04 05 06 07
TOlol S 1%1 Tolol S 1%1 S 10 ,,1
" e:,w"J"
Tsurumi I BF Unit: [kg·S THMI Kawasaki 3 BF
lumpy
I ""
zone
l L _]34
0.62 075
Cohesion
zone
2.92 ~r
04~ 0.49 Met,l [SI/S =8.0
25 Ui
1.25 ;
~ (1~0
1,14
. 618 Slag 210 kg
125~ 0
0591 ~5t ~ ~
"
Hearth U
ISlagl IPigl [Slogl [Pigl
231 kg 274 kg
Zn 1%1
~ <001
0.010.1
>0.1
Before
c ho(g ing 0.006
(2) The lumpy ores have mostly been thermally cracked or worn to
pulverized form, only a small portion of them retaining the original
form, just as in the case of sinter.
(3) The pellets, both acidic and basic, on the other hand, mostly
remained in the original form, regaining the strength after having been
reduced to about 40 kg/pellet once. 10. 22
(4) The degree of reduction is inordinately low before the start of
softeningmelting, clearly indicating reoxidation having ocurred, so
much so that no differences were seen due to the type of ore.
In short, no particularly novel insights were gained into property
changes of ores in the lumpy zone. For this, investigation of the shaft of
a live blast furnace by sinking probes will be more fruitful.
With regard to the cohesion zone lower part, on the other hand, the
entire process, starting with cohesion of several pieces of ore,
DISSECTION OF QUENCHED BLAST FURNACES 43
A ... : Zn
o • :S
13.5 c • :K
120
] 10.5
~
~9.0
2
E 7.5
o
.,
.!: 6.0
~ 4.5
g
o.~ 3.0 "
1.5
O LL~ __~L__L~~~~~
800 1000 1200 0 0 I K 100102
Temperature I·CI I I I
T,urum i I B.f
7 {), @
8 @
9 @
Fig. 1.25. Results of Xray diffraction analysis for lime (Tsurumi IBF).
44 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
I /
i1IT/ /~Y []
l1Lb/;/ J 13
(
Sinter\
70%) []
'0
I '0 14
[]
Tl : Tsurumi I BF
t
 M
":':L 15 K3: Kawasaki 3 BF
Fig. 1.26. Effects of burden materials on the development of the cohesion zone.
TABLE 1.6contd.
.j::.
...)
.j::>.
00
ttl
TABLE l.7contd.
~>l
Structural characteristics Xray diffraction
analysis of veins
~
Cohesion 1. Structure is undergoing great change: mixed phases of slag and metallic iron, ~,y2CaO . Si02 ~
m
zone where slag is the seeped out slag at the periphery or the dark to transparent 2CaO . AlP3 . Sial
(1200 ones in the interior, are seen :r:""m
1300°C) 2. Phase containing dark slag is compositionally close to 2CaO· Si0 2 containing Z
Contrac little Al 20 3, and is thought to have been derived from the acicular calcium
o
~
tion 3050% ferrite; that containing transparent slag is of a 2CaO . Al 20 3 . Si02 containing
much Al 20 3, and is thought to have derived from massive calcium ferrite
~
;..
3. Slag at periphery is of low basicity and high alkali composition
~
Half 1. Both metallic iron and slag conglomerated into large particles tl
molten 2. Many iron particles contain slag globulets, at which interfaces high ~
zone concentration of Ca and Mg is detected o
tl
(~ 1350°C) m
t""
t:
z
Q
DISSECTION OF QUENCHED BLAST FURNACES 49
~ 80
c;
c 60
0
Q
~
u
u 40
0
0
QJ
;,0 20
3.0
/,c., '0
, "
0"" \
,,
c:r' \ AI
'b___ · o ____o
r
~ 75
>
u
c
0
"
50
"
u
u
0
0
<))
4: 25
.c 1.5
~
1:'
;;; 1.0
~
~
'"
a< 0.5
,c
.';: Q.) 2c
<)).c <))
D "
U
0 0 
10 '"
.~ CD
'"" 0V
o ~
20 LV
.=
"
!" ..
0"
~ 30 'iJ 
00..5
c
,Q 0
U 40 • Sinle,.
~ v • MgO pellet
;:
8 50
0
• Acidic pellet
'0
'" 60
"
C<
70
80
90
Fig. 1.29. Softening under load cuIVes of specimens sampled in the furnace in
comparison with their beforecharging counterparts (Kawasaki 3 BF).
shell is formed assisted by the low melting phase, and this shell is strong
enough to hold the pellet for a while.
This theory is supported by comparison of changes in high
temperature reduction rates between the cases with alkalis and those
without alkalis, shown in Fig. 1.30. However, even for acidic ores, if the
Al 20JSi0 2 ratio is small, i.e. if the alumina content is small, formation
of Al20 3 • K20 . 2Si02 and low melting phase is promoted, so the
softening can be hindered.
2.0 r  r   ,     r   ,      r    ,
u
Sl
~
~ 1.0 1.0
o
0<
<I
I
U O~,~_+~_+~O
Sl
~
1000 1400
~
o R.Dl: Before charging
~1.0 RD2: Taken in the furnace  1.0
Fig. 1.30. Changes in the difference of high temperature reduction rate (RD)
between specimens sampled in the furnace and their beforecharging counter
parts (Tsurumi 1 BF).
the amount and composition of gangue (for acidic pellets especially the
Alz0 3/Si0 2 ratio, and for basic sinter the basicity and the MgO content)
with alkali contained.
6 .~r,"ro~r.r.r,
Sinter 0.546 >
Ore 01,/. 0.057
5 0
Coke 0.051
Coke 0.038
t"
:] 4
°
l
0;
>
2 3 ." "W:"",
\'>,11 ,
. ,, ""
~
. ,\ 0
\61 ..
~ ~ a;
::: "'0 c:
"0 4 0 ' :
o . QJo
~ ~· U  "'. ~\~!?. ~I~     
"'~.O,D
t 1+
I
r
Drop 01 .,~
i I
t~ ?
2 I
Massive
i
0.3 0.4 05 03 04 05
CoO IS,02 CoO j AI,O" + MgOJ
E
g
..::! 0
o
v;
01
2
Finol topping slog
0.4 o.~
~
.!1 3
..
~
> 2
2
E
g
..
u
c
0
0
6 1
 2
 3
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1
• 0.2 0.3
Fig.1.31contd.
AI,O J Iwl%1
Fig. 1.32. Relations between composition of gangue in the charge and changes
in composition of slag.
TABLE 1.8
Major Factors Contributing to Formation of Slag
Mainly sinter Acidic ores + Lime
Formation of (1) Separation and (1) Formation of acidic
dripping slag in dripping off of low slag out of reaction of
the zone basicity, low melting silicate slag and lime,
phase out of high and of lime phase
basicity, high that has reacted with
melting phase slag somewhat
(2) Radial composition
changes due to
segregated
distribution of lime
Assimilation reaction (3) Reaction of dripping slag with high melting
of two phases phase that descends carried by metal and coke
Effects of combustion
zone
motion (4) Inflow of unmelted high melting phase into
temperature combustion zone
(5) Promotion of melting of unmolten phase by
prevailing high temperature
reaction (6) Reduction of Sial and generation of SiO
combustion (7) Separation and scattering of coke ash
Tsurumi 1 BF Kawasaki 3 BF
Sinter IB=;o 18016090
Acidic pellet 70%
lime
Gangue
Olivine ICoO)
I zone
Center
I Tuyere I
level
I Center
RocElvay
I Coke
Final slog
I ash
CoO,"SiOc
J OT
l eN
~ ,~H
'''' ...
'
I
Fig. 1.34. Compositional changes of droplets of metal and slag (Hirohata I BF)_
.
• woU ~Ide
.& M~ddl8 porr
• C~nler pOfl t::owosoh:3 BF
 Mo
E 3 ! 18 C
;:: 2 ;:t; 19
_~ I a20
'" 21
~ 0 ~2'2
~  I ~13
6  2 0
ConCenlrQI,on ~
huruml I SF
] S E 18 C
  19
E ~ 20
1 2 g 21
~ 0 ~ 22
c g23
C_ 1 0 24
O ~I~2~
~ 3 ~'~O~O'~O~
. 1~1~~~O~'C~a~I~
1 ~O~O~I~O~O~
~ ~O~
~
ConCf;!nllo tIOt'J '\.
• ..... ,
...... "
• 6 Tuyefe \
12 Te~pero r ure or
IS· Ct\ \\~ .. \
~ , '
Alomlt~ \ ... \
'quid surfoce
1700'C
'1~
10 '. rOllo \ \ \ \ \ ~ 16QO'C
E
~\\'''.~ I500'C
1 8 "~ 1400'C
II gO ><~. ..,,~ ,,
0
;;
6 H/
+n l
.;;
6
.'{~
", 'If \:\\~,:\
"::.\
05
'"'Ii
(f.~~' .' , .~~...
2
. .
'\
,"\
\ '\ \
\,'
'\
'\
. "'.
101 0 I 2 3
C 1"'01
• 2
S,
4
tOot
6 Ibl
0
0 6
C 10.0 1
1.10. ADDENDUM
The foregoing was compiled from data obtained before June 1979. Since
then, the Nagoya 1 furnace 25  27 and the Kakogawa I furnace 28  3o were
blown out, and dissection results have partially been published. The
pertinent data and the infurnace arrangements of these two furnaces
are shown in Table 1.9 and Figs 1.37 and 1.38.
TABLE 1.9
Data on Dissected Blast Furnaces (Supplement)
Nagoya 1 BF Kakogawa 1 BF
TH Side
Fig. 1.37. Inside arrangements of dissected blast furnace (Nagoya IBF, 2nd).
w N
OT
1 BF was reversed for the upper and the lower parts. For this, the
information of reduced blast should be considered. In the same furnace,
further, a layer of fine particles that contained metal and slag was found
to exist at the boundary between the core coke of the dripping zone and
the overlying layer of coke that was flowing into the combustion zone.
As the presence of a similar layer was detected in other furnaces also,
this observation should be considered as revealing a phenomenon
important for analyzing the gas flows and other movements in the
vicinity of the central core.
(2) Little disintegration was seen in the pellets, but cracks developed
concentrically, and the decrease in strength was considerable.
(3) The reduction rate was not the same in the radial direction even
within a single ore layer, the reduction progressing fast suddenly in the
vicinity of the cohesion zone.
(4) In the cohesion zone, there was unreduced FeO remaining at the
center, and this tendency was stronger for acidic pellet.
It will be noted that these observations are basically the same as those
obtained through water quenching. However, the significance of the
Nagoya I BF is that it has substantiated the conclusions drawn from the
results obtained on the water sprayed samples. The reports on alkalis,
zinc, sulfur, and others as unaffected by water are awaited.
REFERENCES
64
MEASUREMENTS IN OPERATING BLAST FURNACES 65
have exerted upon the operation of the furnace. This has led us to
believe that, if samples are taken of the burden during furnace
operations, they will provide a clue to enable burden properties to be
improved. Accordingly, blast furnace instrumentation now includes
sampling of the furnace burden.
sounding
rod
top gas temp.,
pressure, composition
furnace top probe
Itemp, gas compn.1
Furnace Charge Gas temp. Gas flow" Charge Hot spot Mechan fJwave
~c::
top profile distribu tracing profile monito ical profile g;
and temp. tion by He measure ring by profile meter ~
distribu (Kobe) (NKK) ment camera measure (Chiba)
tion (Chiba, (Chiba, ment
Furnace Gas flow" ~
(Muroran, Kawasaki) Kawasaki) (Chiba)
top probe by He Z
NSC) o
system Gas tracer '1:l
Gas (Kokura, velocity (NKK) ttl
velocity Sumitomo) distribu
distribu
tion
G fl w"
as. 0
tion S
Z
(NKK) Q
(SumitomotracHmg c;,
'by e
Charge (Hirohata, §
profile NSC)
and gas
compn.
distribu
tion ttl
CJ)
(Chiba,
Kawasaki)
I
(continued)
~
0\
00
TABLE 2.lcontd.
to
1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981
~
>l
Upper Horizontal Horizontal Gas temp. Furnace Horizontal
shaft probe probe near wall analysis fixed ~
(Kimitsu, (NSC) (SOmm) by upper probe ~
NSC) (Waka and lower (Sakai, 1:;
yama) horizontal NSC) tTl
probe "tI
::r:
(Kimitsu,
NSC) ~
0
Horizontal E:::
tTl
probe Z
;..
(SLIO,
11.7 m) ~
(Mizu t:I
shima, E:::
0
Oita) t:I
tTl
Sampling t"'"
(SLIO.7 m)
t:
Z
(Kobe) Cl
raceway ....,
etc.) Z
(Sumitomo) (Kimitsu) Raceway
observa 0
'"C
tion by m
high
speed ~
Z
camera 0
(Kimitsu) ttl
t"'"
>
[Il
...,
(continued)
"r1
c:::
~
(")
m
[Il
96
.J
o
t:l:l
TABLE 2.Icontd.
~...,
1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981
21
N.A
c w c w C w C W C
Furnace Furnace
wall center
Fig. 2.2. The relation between the dissected shape of the cohesive zone and the
top gas data during furnace operation.
cohesive zone
dropping zone
TE
<D
1
'"
tuyere
tuyere
tap hole
• center
o middle
5~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15
time Ihrsl
25f_1
No. FR Si
CD 460 40 20
(2) 490 50 E
~\
G) 540
Q)
60
~
Q; 15
.~
E .,
\\
0
Co 10
..c
OJ \
1! \
.~
5
0
,~
\ I I I
2.4 2.5 2.6 2] \ 3.6 3] 3.8
pressure at the shaft
wall Ikg/em')
in the lower portion of the furnace increases. Thus it was found that the
height of the cohesive zone shows a good correspondence with the
change in shaft pressure.
2.3.2.2. Use of measuring devices together with estimation models for the
cohesive zone
In blast furnace operations, a knowledge of the shape and position of
the cohesive zone is vital but, in the absence of thoroughly satisfactory
direct measuring methods, a variety of estimation methods have been
tried. For routine control of the furnace, the behavior of the cohesive
zone as calculated by an estimation model is used as reference data.
The basic concept which guides the building of estimation models is
founded on the following two factors:
(1) As it flows through the cohesive zone, the hot reducing gas that
rises from the raceway will affect the furnace walls by its pressure
and temperature.
(2) The geometry of the cohesive zone will change the temperature
distribution and composition distribution of the top gas.
To make more accurate estimates, furnace walls have recently been
provided with measuring elements, or shaft probes have been employed.
The major estimation models that have been developed so far include
the following.
(a) Static pressure model. Developed by Sugata et al.,s this model is
designed to estimate the shape of the cohesive zone from the vertical
distribution of the static pressures that are measured by measuring
holes provided at positions up the furnace walls. Chapter 3 describes
this static pressure model in detail.
(b) Stave temperature model. Irita et al. 6 investigated the shape of the
cohesive zone and the changes in its shape in a MuroraN Works blast
furnace. As is clear from Fig. 2.8, the variations in the vertical
temperature distribution, as obtained from the cooling staves in the
furnace walls, is found to be in good agreement with the movement of
the shape of the cohesive zone, as calculated by the estimation model. In
short, movement of that area of the cohesive zone which is adjacent to
the furnace walls causes the heat loads on cooling staves to change,
thereby making it possible to estimate the form of the cohesive zone.
This method is intriguing in that existing detection devices can be used.
(c) Model based on gas temperature distribution and gas composition
distribution measurements. Shigemi et aU constructed a model in which
78 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
w (Z!
1~~
w
o
"
1
13\
12
10
9
131 \
12
10
9
13)
12
11
10
9
13) 12
11
10
9
8 8 8 8
7 7 7 7
6 6 6 6
5 5 5 5
Fig. 2.8. Relation between the shape of the cohesive zone and the distribution
of stave temperature. 6
A SWING VALVE
B LANCE DRIVING DEVICE
C SOUNDING DEVICE
I A CLOSED CASE
Cr~!\f~=m~~~~~~;~~g~b
t,\, LOCAL CONTROL
, PANEL
:,:""
0 I 2 3 4m
por
r;WAITI NG
ION
x.y
RECORDER
If ~y.
\' icc
wa
m ~
q: ~
center of
MEASURING EXAMPLE
furnace
I
rsL~Om~
~~, I /
~~'~'~SL=lm~~'7"~~
.....::  .,. I /::.... /
1'''''''',...,,~, SL~. 2;t>',,4::'''"''''""'\
coke "":::' ore
MA 4 notch
MA 3 notch
MA 2 notch
meos;uring stroke
1 70001
] 5
~
OJ
c
"D
4
0
:"
Q; 3
Q)
E
'"
~ 2
Q. A
~
0 I
';
g
E
2 3 4 5
measured values 1m)
o: data obtained during insertion
D. : data obtained during withdrawal
Beam I
Scanner
Burden surface
Z
Sl = El + 36698  1000
0000     ,    "I      ~  
I
I
I I ,
E 1000     +           T'=
I I f
.§
! : / :
WOJ
:::; 2000
, ,.,1/ ''
u
o I
__ J_
1_1'I
      1     ,  ,        r
II
Vi
I
I , I
3000    . Tr
, I I
I
detect.ng elements
Rodlol mognelOMtUer
C lfcumferenuol mognerome1er
INOla II *
TOP .. Throot D iameter
[ SOP ...  Shoft D~omeler Probe
prObe]
SWP··  Shalt Wall Probe
ore and coke. Normal shaft probes measure intermittently, whereas the
SDP is capable of continuous measurement. Since 1975 these probes
have been installed on the Sakai No.2 blast furnace. The behavior of the
cohesive zone has since been calculated using both measured values
from these probes and the aforesaid mathematical model built for the
estimation of the cohesive zone geometry. Figure 2.16 shows the
4.0
'\
""
"" 
'0
>_ 3.0
u >
c 0
<>
5>
~ ~ 2.0
11
0
10
I x 10 2 % I

68
...
.
66
64
ISil 62 • ;. ~ ,........,
60
58 I'
56
Sl814 15 16 17 18 19 20
Distance of the top end of the root
from the stock line Iml
Fig. 2.16. The relation between the top end of the root, Si contents, and the
frequency of slips.9
84 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
relationship between the position ofthe cohesive zone and blast furnace
operation. Figure 2.17 depicts the calculated shape of the cohesive zone
and the corresponding pattern of gas flow. This measuring system has
made the control of blast furnace operations possible.
iI
 2 3 4 5 6 Sl
~co
1%)
500 'C" ' V
2
)    )
BOO 50 1\
~ct \
I ~ V
<;
~
I
" 600 40
V 7""
700 'C~
l'i.
Q.
E
,,
10 2! ,
/
I
SDP
~
12 0 400 30
rn
I
L!V
14
~
16
18
0
20 2
c
V
f\
'" 09
~
22
V
.~
~
24 0
f\
w
O.B
ill
26 <;
3
07
Inner volume m3 2797
Pig iron
productivity
tiD m3 130
0
~
3 0
2.0
V
Fuel rate
t:,P/V
kg/T

441 10,1 2BI
0.279
'"U1~~

o 0
GO >~
~
:.:::: E
1.0 '..., /
o l)
0
uQ)
~
Fig. 2.17. Calculated shape of the cohesive zone and the corresponding pattern
of gas flow. 9
(b) Lower shaft probe. In order to obtain information from the lower
shaft, i.e. from near the cohesive zone, Oita Works, 10 Nippon Steel, has
recently provided its blast furnaces with a miniprobe (minishaft
probe) at a point 12 m below the stockline. Measuring tests are still
going on to study blast furnace reactions.
Figures 2.18 and 2.19 show the state of miniprobe mounting and
examples of measured data. As is evident from the illustration,
depending on furnace operation, the miniprobe can reach a part of the
MEASUREMENTS IN OPERATING BLAST FURNACES 85
7.1 m
miniprobe in the middle ,hoft
IDEGI 1%1
1100
I I 1/
1000 mini probe measu red ~ 70
te mperature ~
17
900 60
It I~ 1/
800
17 50
/ 1'\ V c
700
V 40 <;
Q
~ 1\ r'< 17.."
~~ f\ ~iniprobe
<; meosurt i 30 ~
iii 600
CL
E ~.
gas uti l i z~tion V ~
0
0>
2 500 ~co
20
~ 10
0
~
1\ shait ~robe u
'"
0
0>
400 \ ~co
17
300
; 0
K ./
200
1'\ /
sha ft probe f /
100 t~ m~e r~ t urre
~ 1/
/
0
V
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I 0
Fig. 2.19. Example of the data measured by the miniprobe in the middle shaft
ofOita No.2 blast furnace (around 13 :30,7 May, 1980).10
86 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
600
400
200
Fig. 2.20. Patterns of mean gas temperature and ffias utilization in periods L II
and III, respectively.
position of weight
before measurement gas seal
pushing rod
10
I
\~middle
b) An example of measurement
Fig. 2.22. Apparatus for sampling from tuyere, and its specification. 13
II)
v
Sample A Iproductivity 2.08 tid . m'! II)
"(;0 v
c
II)
0. O~OO~~~~~8~Q~ ~
0. 0
II)
..c <: ;g'o'~i::.!1~!1.~c ~'l;tYo a.
u ~Bc: . 0.
80 74"l ,15~ <:
g~ .c
v
o~
60 col:e
melol g~
80
~
C
40 60
" 0. .... ......1... •Iog (; II) ~
~ 5 20 ~,~....___ ... :.t""'" 40 ~
> " 0
.. "a.
Gi E 20
, 0
"0 100 'C...;..2.7 > " 0 fi
'~ 80 ~:::~~7r""":;:
38~~.:.r5~:;;::: SO 38~ c 100
.Q 80 Ul
,g~ 60 SOmm 25  15 15  10 10  5 :;
;;;
" 40 ,g~ 60 z
~o .!i ~
40
20 ~ <3g53
" u 20
o"tI
0 0
II)
~o " ...v tIl
i'! .~  0
~ "'0 ~
2000 30 ; 0>
\1) !; _ 2000
5iii '0 .s ~
a. . ~ U + '0 0 1
E " • 20 "
Z
.! ,,~ 1600 0u ~ .§ 0 1600 1: Cl
,,0» 8 O:l
G) £ .! ~~~
~ g> ~ 1200 10 ~ "1? ~ 1200 [;
11)
~.2 ~
"'0_ o '"I ~ ~~ ~
o 1.0 2.0
o '"I
Distonce from Ihe tip of tuyere [m!
~~~ Distance from the lip of tuyere Iml ;:J
[oj Exomple of Ihe size distribution and amount fbi Example of the si ze distribUlion ond amount
of coke in the sompling pipe ot high of coke in the sompling pipe 01 low
productivity.
productivity.
~
tIl
r:n
00
1.0
90 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
"". ,'x)(\
• 1.21.6
• 1,82.2
~ 4 \\{ "de> 1J151 fcom I,y"•
\. ',' 8
.a
3
\... " \ Z ","
'<~::::::t::.:·~
...
20'  2
::i ...... .
1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2
'~':_J
, 
Productivity It/d·m 3 )
Distance from the lip of luyere
oj Relation between the productivity of the furnace
and the mean size of coke sampled at luyere level. Q 0.60 8m
• 1.21.6
.1.822
85r~
Distance from the tip of luyere
m
~ 00.60.8
m
~
.
X 1.21.6
~ 80 .1.822
o
U
75
Fig. 2.24. The relation between the furnace productivity and the properties of
sampled cokeY.
CRT
Monlior
Wriling pen
camero
~
~ .....: t'
NOle2:
Colculolion of Hard copy
Ihe rolio of while
Two color
momtor
area / block area
Fig. 2.25. Measurement system for coke size and volume rate in raceway. 14
vertical probe
sounding rod
top gas temp.,
furnace top probe
~ pressure, c~mposition
._( burden profile meter
\ thermoviewer
gas static. ____ ;
layer thickness meter
pressure ~_
zone, i.e. the movement of the cohesive zone near the furnace
wall.
(3) A device to determine the behavior of molten pig iron and
molten slag in the hearth.
(4) A method to measure gas velocity.
(5) A method to measure the distribution of burden layers more
accurately.
Moreover, as soon as these methods are developed, it will be equally
important to establish their commercial application as practical
measuring instruments for blast furnace control.
REFERENCES
1. Private communication: from the construction design chart of Nippon
Steers blast furnace in 1969.
2. Blast Furnace Phenomena and Their Analysis. Interim report from the joint
research committee of Iron & Steel Institute of Japan, Japan Institute of
Metals and Japan Society for Promotion of Science (1979), Iron & Steel
Institute of Japan.
3. Y. Shimomura, K Kushima and S. Arino, TetsutoHagane. 62(1967), S65.
4. T. Fukushima, H. Yamada, T. Kobayashi, Y. Niwa, T. Furukawa and
B. lino, TetsutoHagane. 67(1981), S70.
5. Kimitsu Works, Nippon Steel, report to 54th Committee, Japan Soc. for the
Promotion of Sci. and Tech., No. 1456 (1978).
6. T. Irita, Y. Kanayama and K Tashiro, TetsutoHagane, 64(1978), S48.
7. A Shigemi, A Suzuki, Y. Hida and K Yamaguchi, TetsutoHagane,
64(1978), S47.
8. Kawasaki automatic burden profilemeter for blast furnace, Catalogue of
Kawasaki Steers Engineering Division.
9. T. Yamamoto, T. Masahisa, H. Kanoshima, Y. Hayashi and K Tamura,
TetsutoHagane, 67(1981), A1l7.
10. Oita Works, Nippon Steel, paper presented at March meeting (1981).
Committee for study of inside blast furnace reactions, Organization of
Joint Basic Research, ISIJ.
11. E. Schiirmann, W. Zischkale, P. Ischebeck and G. Heynert, Stahl u. Eisen,
80(1960),854.
12. A Katayama, N. Tsuchiya, K Okabe, S. Taguchi, K Okumura and
S. Tamura, TetsutoHagane. 66(1980), S682.
13. T. Nishi, H. Haraguchi, Y. Miura, T. Sakurai, K Ono and K Kanoshima,
TetsutoHagane. 66(1980), 1820.
14. K Sano, H. Nishio, T. Miyazaki, T. Ariyama and H. Yoshida, Tetsuto
Hagane, 63(1977), S522.
Part II
Global Formulation
97
98 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
Heat requirement
___ 0
o 10 5 5/10 4 kcol
r~I'I'I''G
I~ lbl I 1
\1
I~+I   T o t a l heat requirementf;I
~~
  
500
2 1 I
m
"'
.D I
1
. '
\ I ~ Heal requlre7ent over 90Q"C
0
0
I 1
H C
~a.    
1
1,11 ~ I
~ 1000 Consumption L>kI~++I
cedel 900'C \ I
1 \
4b
I \
J ~ Requirement
1
Consumption \
I I over 1400"(
_undeI1400°C~ I ""',
J I 'J I " B
1500 L__+"'L_i.J:"""'_ E
0 ____
i B i _~
5X104kcai
105 _IA
Heat consumptiofl Heot consumption
I       T o l o l heat c o n s u m e d        I
Fig. 3.1.1. Heat requirement curve for 100 kg Thomas pig iron.!
GLOBAL FORMULATION 99
15 in Fig. 3.1.1 (a) represent the heat requirements for the following
process:
1. Heating up and fusion of iron
2. Heating up and fusion of slag
3. Heat for decomposition of limestone and formation of slag
4. Heat of direct reduction of iron oxide
(a) direct reduction restricted in range 9001400DC
(b) direct reduction occurs above 1400 DC
5. Heat of reduction of MnO, Si0 2 and P20S
The overall heat requirements for the whole process were obtained by
summing each heat requirement curve illustrated by lines 15, which is
shown in Fig. 3.1.1 (b). The two lines in the temperature range 900
1500 DC show the two different fashions for the reduction of iron oxide
assumed above.
The heat content ofthe gas was calculated on the assumption that the
blast at 600°C reacted with coke at 1400 DC in the tuyere zone thereby
producing a gas mixture of CO and N 2 . This meant that 1 kg carbon
reacting with air made 2·33 kg CO + 445 kg N2 gas. Assuming
that 83·5 kg carbon (95·6 kg coke) was required for the production of
100 kg pig iron (66·4 kg C for combustion, 138 kg C for direct reduction
and 3· 3 kg C for hot metal), the heat availability of the gas could be
calculated as a function of temperature. An example of the calculated
result is shown by the line URKN in Fig. 3.1.2 together with the heat
requirements of burden materials given by the line ABCD.
"~
"
~ 500~~~~~+~
c
o
o
rn IOOO~~~+~~~
<D
~ 1500 ti~++'>,<+_""""I A
Q;
a.
E
c'" 2000 L..'_ _ _ _'''_ _'_ _ " U
2 0
Amount of heat IIOs keal)
0 15 ~
C
ill ill E
rn 2 ~ E 13
~
   J'.'
E .2 ~
4 6 ~ ~ ~ 11 ~
~ >f
~r
a 6 
a ill ill if> 9::
u
(; 1
c ______Ts_T.!_ ~_1S_ ____
0
":u
~ ~
a eT
<{
E
18 :u
0
ill
20 I
0 2 4 6
8 12 14 1610 18 20
Temperature I Xl 0 2 °el
(3.1.2)
102 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
0.8
..c
]' 06
Q)
] 0.4
c
Q)
E
15 0.2
OL~~_L_L_L~_ _~
I
I
I
I
I
I
\
\
\
" ,
""
Tuyere 0'4'00"80'01'200"16002'000
'\
zone
16.2 5
1
.I
, '"
,
/"
13.2 4
:. Reduction intensity curve Thermal and
1 chemical reserve
I
I zone
10.2 3
\
\ ,,
7.2 2
,
  
   .........
1\ ,,
4.4 I
lower zone with high ,;, \
,,
intensity of reduction and
solution 105s reactions ',,, ",' , " I
  ~..:~~,
TUYERE S   500 1000 TEMPERATURE "0 1500
5 10 % 15
Fig. 3.1.6. Reduction intensity and burden temperature estimated from the
observed temperature of gas. lO
A
.r~._~H
~
> 2
0
Xc OC
;:
U
f4+41000'C
800
600
400
The lines given by these two equations are drawn in Figure 3.1.7 as
lines L\I and L\2. qc and qg are thermodynamic constants; consequently
the line L\I has just one variable, qv, which includes blast temperature,
whereas eqn (3.1.14) contains (Yr + Ys) which are determined by the
composition of hot metal and Q, the output of heat in the elaboration
zone except the heat of reaction accompanied with direct reduction.
This equation can therefore evaluate the effects of composition and
temperature of hot metal, amount and temperature of slag, and the heat
loss in the elaboration zone on the operation result. In addition to this
the distance VE is obtained graphically as follows:
(3.1.15)
This means that the point P takes a balance between heat input
(VE X qg) and heat output (BV X qg). As summarized above, the
operation line of the blast furnace which can satisfy simultaneously
both heat and material balances is obtained as a line connecting points
Wand P. The point W is determined by the reduction equilibrium in the
shaft part and the point P is determined by the heat balance in the
elaboration zone.
This theory was applied to the analyses of fuel savings by the
injection of reducing gas into the lower part of a blast furnace under the
assumption of fIxed shaft efficiency.'4 Furthermore, favorable comparison
was made between the results obtained from the theory and those
observed for the experimental blast furnace. '5
Fe,03 13CO2Fe+3CO,
III C 1 CO,2CO
MnO+COMn+CO,
SiOH2COSi 12CO,
P,Os I 5CO2P + 5CO,
121 C+CO,2CO
MElTING OF IRON
FUSION OF SLAG
REDUCTION OF REMAINING
IRON OXIDES
YS;O, Ws WI' YC
yeoQ YS,
YMgO YMn
VAI 20, yp
REACTOR (]I
Fig. 3.1.9. Corresponding part of the blast furnace to the reactors and
accumulator shown in Fig. 3.1.8Y
(1), i.e. the shaft region of the blast furnace, by considering the major
chemical and physical phenomena taking place in the region. To be
more specific, the model was derived for a steadystate onedimensional
heterogeneous moving bed system in which heat exchange and
chemical reactions occurred between the countercurrent gas stream
and the solid flow of two components. Reaction rates of indirect
reduction of iron oxide and of solutionloss reaction were taken into
account. A system of six ordinary differential equations was consequently
obtained for representing the longitudinal distributions of CO and CO2,
mass flow rates of ore and carbon, and the temperatures of gas and solid
phases
dGg.co/dz = RC02 (3.1.16)
dGs.cldz Rc (3.1.18)
dGs.Fe2o/dz (3.1.19)
d(GgCgTg)/dz = 6(1  £)hgs(Tg  Ts)/dpc/J (3.1.20)
Tg , T5 I'KI
667 889 1111 1333 1556
3.1
6.1
9.3
]' 12.2
N
15.3
18.3
21.4
24.4
z=Or~ ~~
E
N
differential equations. The system gives deep insight into the essential
characteristics of blast furnace operation because it can simulate
principally the behavior of thermal and oxygen exchanges as the
superimposition of several rate processes. Unfortunately this model was
developed only for the shaft region and it cannot therefore evaluate the
whole performance of the blast furnace.
Independently, a complete onedimensional mathematical model
was developed by Muchi et al. 18 20 which consisted of overall heat and
material balance equations giving the solid temperature at tuyere level
and the theoretical flame temperature together with nine firstorder
ordinary differential equations and two algebraic equations for
computing the internal distribution of process variables. This model is
attractive because it can estimate operational results such as productivity
and fuel ratio and also longitudinal distribution of every process
variable taken into account. A detailed description ofthis model will be
given in the next section.
The earliest attempt at twodimensional analysis of a blast furnace
GLOBAL FORMULATION 113
Case 1   Case 3
IAI IBI
Case 2  Case 4
rs;;a
Wall Center Wall Center
~:: z;md
,,ook==1'd
1200
L '.
1250~ i I Z·~8 c" 1300 ,..,,"
t 1050 i
"
900
1750 ,,,,
,,"' .... '\
, /
\ /
1000
1150 ''''' 3
3 rim!
rim)
 Case 3
 Case 1 IDI  Case 4
V
ICI  Case 2 Wall Center
Wall Center
015c=
0.14
I Z~m~ 018 ~z~m~
0.14 "
_ '
_ __ _
.L......_...>l
D
'" Z= 4
E
.§ 0.09 ''''
"
6
~
UO.
12   " ........ ,
""" Z~8
0.06
0.12~Z~12
rim)
OO~ 3 2 I 0
rim)
Fig. 3.1.12. Radial distribution of gas temperature [(A) and (B)] and CO2
content of the gas [(C) and (D)] computed from twodimensional model. 21
GLOBAL FORMULATION 115
2.8 ,......=~:::=,
~ 2.0
c
Intermedi a te zone
.~
"g  Ts
] 1. 0
~ Peripheral zo ne
.s
o LJ~ __LL~__~C~__~~
300 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300
Tempera ture lO KI
This proposal was very attractive because it showed the possibility for
the twodimensional process analysis of a packed bed in which a gas
stream reacted with solid particles. One of the computed results on the
gas flow obtained by Radestock and Jeschar 3 is shown in Fig. 3.1.14.
Another important characteristic of the blast furnace is the alternating
layered structure of coke and iron ore. Kuwabara and Muchi24. 25
presented a mathematical model considering the layer by layer
structure. In the model, nonuniform gas flow was approximately
analyzed from the permeability of the bed on the basis of Ergun's
equation. This model will be fully described in Section 3.3.
Mter recognition of the existence of the cohesive zone by the dissection
of commercial blast furnaces some attempts have and are being made to
Pressure roloo Pt Pz = 1.25
14 67~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 14
12
~~+++Htttt1
~~~~T++~41+H10
~~~rr++rHt1 08
0.6
04
02
600
550
Wu
500
Ir\ ....,
I~
V
~
\
450
0]
0.6
0.5
 " IL
"
........
%Si
0.4 "
0.3
0.2
21563 22563
model, the heat required for the reduction of silicon and for the
overheating of the iron and slag, which was calledEe , was calculated on
the assumption that the silicon in pig iron was in an equilibrium state
with slag, although the use of this assumption might have some
restrictions. This concept is illustrated schematically in Fig. 3.1.16. One
of the comparisons is given in Fig. 3.1.17 between calculated and
observed relationships of Ee vs. %Si. The result obtained by CRM
showed one of the possibilities for profitable control.
In the Sakai works ofNSC,31 successful computer control of the blast
furnace was achieved on the basis of not only the thermal state in the
lower part of the furnace but also the permeability in the furnace for
stable and high performance operation.
dJ
I... s Blast Moisture
wQ.
II " Hot Metal
Coke 1000"(
_Burden_1000
C_'
0
Ec
SlAG VOlUME
  Experimental curve
422    Theoretical curve
635kgNTHM
::2 / =0075
I
f
/ as~;
Z 315 SlAG VOlUME
~,
5;2
~/ /~/=O.IOO 658kg .NTHM
°SiO
211
V
~
~ IV
105
.£
'
o
o 0.2 0.4 0.6
9b Si
Fig. 3.1.17. Comparison between theoretical and eXPoerimental curves for the
relationship of Ec and % Si. 0
Charged
Top gas materials
t t
Drying of the charge Shaft region
Indirect reduction
950·C
I
Indirect reduction Uppe r bosh
Solutionloss reaction regia
Water gas shift
reaction
1250·C
I
Tuyere I I
region Reduction of
Combustion of coke
Hot biast metalloids Hearth

Decomposition of
Transfer of sulfur region
blast additives
from metal to slag
+
Cast materials
Fig. 3.1.19. Computed response curves of process variables to step changes in blast temperature, ore/coke ratio, and
injected oil. 32
GLOBAL FORMULATION 121
silicon content. Hatano et al. 34. 35 applied the model to the dynamic
control of real blast furnace operation thereby stabilizing the temperature
of hot metal.
Another dynamic model was proposed by Hatano et al. 36• 37 for
simulation and forecasting of behavior due to change in operating
conditions. This model is described in detail in Section 3.7.
Horio and Muchi38. 39 reported a mathematical model for analyzing
the dynamic characteristics of a blast furnace in the region between the
melting and tuyere levels, by using the conservation equations of heat
and mass together with heat exchange and chemical reactions. The
response curves were computed for the location of the melting zone and
temperature of molten materials at tuyere level to step changes in
operating conditions. It has been found that the movement of the
melting zone markedly affected the dynamic behavior because the time
constant for this process was as long as several hours.
J. 1.0 o 100 0
~
773 07S 025
" 0.8 1173 8SA 047
.2
U 0.072
is 0.6
e
g 0.4
Q
] 0.2
(3.2,18)
where
RH [kHW(l + l/KHw )(1  isHW)213 r 1 (3.2.20)
Rw [kWF(l + l/KWF)(1  isWF) 213 r 1 (3.2.21 )
DH [do/(2DsM)][(l  isHWr 1l3  (1  isWFr 1l3 ] (3.2.22)
Dw [do/(2DsF)][(l  isWFr l/3  1] (3.2.23)
F l/kn (3.2.24)
W2 = Rw(RM + DH + Dw + F) + (RH + DH)(Dw+ F) (3.2.25)
Spitzer et al. 52 proposed a threeinterface unreacted core model for the
general analysis of the reduction kinetics of iron oxide, as shown in
Fig. 3.2.2. Hara et al. 53 modified the model thereby resulting in a series of
useful rate expressions for application to process analysis and this
method was used for analysis of a moving bed reactor4 56 for hydrogen
reduction of iron oxide pellets. Murayama et al. 57 and Takahashi et at. 58
./
.
/"
/
/
I
/
/
/
I ro
yeo
Fe
yeo.o
.
yeO,3
YeO,3
.
yeO.2
yeO.2
yeo. J
yeo. J
The overall reaction rate Rrper unit volume of the bed is defined as:
(3.2.38)
Assuming that the diffusion through gaseous film takes place steadily
and successively with the simultaneous processes of diffusion with the
pores and chemical reaction at the internal surface of lump coke, one
can derive the overall reaction rate given by eqn (3.2.41) from the rates
for both processes expressed by eqns (3.2.39) and (3.2.40).
Diffusion rate through gas film
= lTd;,Nccp~lkf2 . 273P'(Yeo  Yeo.o)/224Ts (3.2.39)
Diffusion rate in pore with chemical reaction
= EfmcNcCP;lk2 · 273P'Yeo.o/22·4Ts (3.2.40)
where irreversible firstorder reaction is assumed:
R* _ lTd~cp~INc· 273P'Yeo/22·4Ts
(3.2.41 )
2  (l/kf2) + (6/dcPc E rk 2)
(3.2.47)
where
k21 = exp(27·20l  35 900/Ts) (l/atm· h) (3.2.48)
k22 exp(l4·240  18 350/Ts) (l/atm) (3.2.49)
k23 10·3 (l/atm) (3.2.50)
k25 = exp(29·588  36 760/Ts) (l/atm) (3.2.51)
Er = exp [(In 0·15)(Ts  1073)/300] (3.2.52)
The equation for ~L is obtained on the basis of Curie's report68 and the
reaction rate constant k4 is obtained as follows:
k4 = 547 X 106exp ( 40 OOO/RTs ) (kmol(C0 2 )/m2 • h) (3.2.65)
In this relationship, the activation energy is estimated according to
the reports of Slonin69 and Hutting et al./o and the frequency factor is
obtained from the data observed by Britton et al. 71
The equilibrium constant K4 is represented as follows according to
data on the decomposition pressure by Perry et al.: 72
logK4 = 8202·5/Ts + 7·0099 (atm) (3.2.66)
Another expression of overall reaction rate for the decomposition of
limestone was presented by Miyasaka et al. 6O by considering heat
transfer and chemical reaction processes as the mixed rate control
steps:
R 4* 
(ll.H4 )[J. + ~ [(1  Ji)1I3 
hgs 2keL
1]]
Rt = rrd~<p;;Wc' 273P'YH/22'4Ts
(3.2.75)
l/kf6 + 6/dcPcE ;k6
The transport coefficients included in this equation can be obtained
using the same procedure as that for the solutionloss reaction.
However, the diffusion coefficient required for the calculation of k f6 and
E;is that for water vapor in the COCOzNzHzO system instead ofCO z
in the COCOzN zsystem for the solutionloss reaction. The temperature
and pressure dependences of the diffusion coefficient of HzO are
expressed as:
(3.2.76)
The reaction rate constant k6 is derived by making a slight
modification of the equation presented by Kunugi et al. 78 according to
the reactioninterface model:
k6 = 4·83 X I04Ts exp( 17 31l/Ts) (m 3/kg . h) (3.2.77)
134 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
kmOl(H 2
(m 3 (bed)h
») (3.2.81)
Material balance on H 2 :
(3.2.92)
Vol
..J

138 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
where the heat of fusion and heat of reaction are calculated as follows:
~mi(Lf)i = (3'7Fms,Fe + 3'6Fms,Si02 + 19'OFms,CaO + 26'OFmS ,Al20 3
+ 18'5Fms,Mgo + nOFms ,MnO) X 103 (3.2.97)
~Msj(!:1HO)j = [545Fms,wus,i  2·12Fms ,Fe203  7· 12Fms ,Fe304
 31'13Fms ,wus,d  42'6Fms ,CacOj + 29'2(0'21 + Xo)
X 60Fb/ll·2  284(60Fb)wsJI8 000
(3.2.98)
In the derivation of eqn (3.2.97), it is assumed that all the iron ore
charged melts as metallic iron after complete reduction, the CaC0 3
charged melts as CaO, and the other oxides melt in the same form as
charged, and that the total heat of fusion is calculated by adding the
heats of fusion for each component. For the derivation of eqn (3.2.98), it
is assumed that the heat of direct reduction comprises both indirect
reduction and the solutionloss reaction. Solution loss by water vapor is
included in solution loss by CO2 because of the small quantity of the
reaction, and the heat of indirect reduction by H2 is neglected because
the amount of reaction and the heat of reaction are both negligibly
small.
The heat of slag formation Qs and heat loss through the wall Qw
included in eqn (3.2.96) can be obtained from eqns (3.2.99)83 and
(3.2.100):84
The temperatures of gas and solid at the top of the bed are thereby
obtained by solving eqns (3.2.96) and (3.2.106) simultaneously for a
fixed operating condition.
/
~<o6~ ~
h~
oE
9 .....
g, 92 9" g4 go,
f V
e ~ e,
d i<e ~d,

d,
b
c ~ C? CJ
0
~ ib,b,  b 3r   b4
0, 02 03 °4 O:J
Te t[ T~l Tb t, Tt
Temperoture T ['K]
(3.2.124)
(3.2.126)
TABLE 3.2.2
Specific Heat of Materia1s 85 cp = a + bT  cT 2 + dT2 (cal/mol· 0c)
Tuyere
1
++J
Level
TgC.dC
>D>1.1
Fig. 3.2.4. Control volume at tuyere leve1. 20
where Ggr and Ggz designate radial and axial mass velocities of gas. For
simplicity, Ggz/G gr is assumed to be proportional to LJr and a is
introduced as an arbitrary constant:
(3.2.130)
Solving the eqns (3.2.128)(3.2.130) with the assumption that T = TT
and Vgr = F 1/2lTL tR c are satisfied at r = Reo the following relationships
can be obtained:
Tg = Tc + f3 exp(8r 1 a ) (3.2.131 )
Vgr = Flra/nOOlTLtR~+a (3.2.132)
Vgz = (1 + a)F 1ra1/nOOlTR c1+a (3.2.133)
where
f3 (TT  TJexp( 8~a)
8 1]/(la)
1] 1·2lTL(l  Gl)hgslR~+a /<PccgldclPglFl
Assuming that the gas temperature is expressed by eqn (3.2.131) for
r = 0 to Rc and is given by TT for r = Rc to Dh/2, we can obtain the
GLOBAL FORMULATION 145
Rr VR:
In the derivation of eqn (3.2.134), a is assumed to be 1/2 since this value
has been found to give reasonable values of U z in the range 710 (m/s)
after many trials.
An overall heat balance between the top and tuyere levels in a blast
furnace, using the assumption that coke is at the same temperature as
molten materials at tuyere level, gives:
AoGsocsoTso = + cgOpgOFoTgO
A I GsI CsI Tc
 CgIPgIFITgml + Qw  Qs + I:.mi(Lr)i  I:.Msj (IlHO)j
(3.2.135)
where
PgO = 1·2507 + O·726IYeo2.o  1·l608YH2o.o  0447lYH2o.0
Fo = 474Fb /(l  Yeo. 0  Ye02.0  YH20.0  YH2.0)
The procedures to calculate the values of I:.mi(Lr)i, I:.Mi(  IlHO)j' Qs
and Qw have already been given in Section 3.2.3. In order to eliminate
TgO, Tso , Tgml and F" eqns (3.2.96), (3.2.106), (3.2.114) and (3.2.134) are
therefore substituted into eqn (3.2.135), resulting in the following
expression for the coke temperature at tuyere level:
(3.2.136)
where
PI = n i  n4 X 10\
nl = A(ml  'l'N)I(l  'l')N, n2 = B + A(M  moTso)/(l  'l')N,
n4 = A(2c + d),
146 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
L (l  aj)(~HDRj·
8
qj
j =j
q2 (l·2507~+ O·726Ir)R; + O·5246R; + 1·9768R: + O·7143R~
+ O·5364R~ + 2·5014R;
q3 = 6(1  t:)hg.(Tg  Ts)/<Pdp
(3.2.138)
GLOBAL FORMULATION 147
P'F,O, Fo,
egO, G gO , TgO
Stock Line
Cso,Gso, tm
L,
dZ
L,b
H
Tgz+dz
GszI·dz Ggz+dz
Db
Pgj, FJ
Tuyere Level
where
L a;(~Ht)Rj'
8
q4 =
The heat transfer coefficient between gas and particle streams, hg5' the
mean diameter of particle, dp , and the overall heat transfer coefficient
through the wall are all important parameters in the above differential
equation system, These parameters are determined by using the
following relationships.
The heat transfer coefficient, h g" is estimated by Ranz's equation: 86
Nu = 2,0 + 0·6(Rep y!2(Pry/3 (3.2.150)
GLOBAL FORMULATION 149
where
Nu = hgsdp/kg, Rep = d p Gg/f.1g, Pr = cgf.1g/kg
The mean diameter of solid particles, dp , is evaluated from the
harmonic mean diameter:
(3.2.151 )
The overall heat transfer coefficient through the wall can be obtained
as follows:
u (3.2.152)
where
TTDb(Ljsin WI + Lb/sin W 2 + La)
 TT[L;/(sin WI • tan WI) + LV(sin W2 . tan (2)] (3.2.153)
Since blast furnace gas is considered to be a gas mixture of CO, COb
H 2, H 20 and N 2, the average heat content may be expressed as follows,
by component addition:
cg = LI(Cp)iY;!LIMYi (3.2.154)
The average heat content of the solid stream is also defined in the
same way:
(3.2.155)
where the specific heat for each component has been given in previous
literature. 20, 81
The longitudinal distribution of process variables can thus be
estimated from the above kinetic model together with boundary
conditions which have been determined previously in Sections 3.2.2 to
3.2.6.
To illustrate the procedure for estimating the situation in a blast
furnace, a schematic profile of the furnace is shown in Fig. 3.2.6. It is
assumed that the rate of dust elutriation from the furnace throat and its
composition (4) remain unchanged, and that the ratios of steam injection
and of oxygen enrichment per unit volumeflow rate of blast are held
constant.
Suitable values for the temperatures of hot metal and of slag (5) and
for the concentrations of C, Mn and Si in hot metal (6) are selected on
the basis of the results of practical operations. The operating variables
Vl
o

Volume rate of flow and temperature of blast, oil ratio, 1:1:1
CD
steam ratio and enrichment of oxygen in blost
contained in the model are top pressure (2), blast volume, temperature
of blast, oil ratio, steam ratio, oxygen enrichment (1), compositions of
solid particles fed into the furnace, and the diameter and fractional
pre reduction of iron ore (3). Boundary conditions at the top level of
burden bed (8, 11) and those at tuyere level (12, 13) can be determined as
shown in the previous section, and the values of massflow rates of iron
ore, coke and limestone in the charge materials (8) (We, We> Wj) are
given arbitrarily.
Under the boundary conditions at the top level of burden bed (2, 3, 8,
9, 10, 11), ten ordinary differential equations, (3.2.137)(3.2.146), and
three algebraic equations, (3.2.147)(3.2.149), are solved simultaneously
on a digital computer. The RungeKuttaGill method is employed in
obtaining the numerical solutions for the model. In this way, the
longitudinal distribution in process variables (14) can be determined.
If the values of Tg , T" Fg , Yeo and YH2 at tuyere level thus obtained in
(14) agree with those obtained in (12) and (13) within the limit of
allowable errors, and the conditions offs = 1,j; = 1, andYeo2 = YH20 = 0
are satisfied, then the given values of WQ) We and WI in (8) and the
longitudinal distributions of process variables obtained as (14) can be
considered to be valid. But, if satisfactory agreement between them is
not obtained, then the preceding values of We, We and Wj are modified
and the same computation is carried out repeatedly until good
agreement is found.
I:C
Po kg/m 2
2.033)( 10' §
 5033x1O'
.§
trl
i
"tI
:I:
1400
,
~
~
t:l
0.2 f" f, I 0j4 0.6 O.S I 0 I V, 1m secl
~
t:l
I ! P/l04(kg'm~) I
trl
oI 02 yco, Yco, [_I 0.3 04
2~3 21,4 2.15 2'.6 2 '7 ~
FI( / 10 5lNm 3 /minJ o
Fig. 3.2.7. Longitudinal distribution of process variables in blast furnace (A) for the case of highpressure operation
(do = 19·35 mm, F b = 2942·2 N m 3/m in, T
b = 1366° v w = 23·2 g/Nm3,x0 2
"'''''st = 0)· 19
GLOBAL FORMULATION 153
figure, top pressure is the only parameter changed and predictions for
the two pressures under consideration are shown as either solid or
dashed lines.
From Fig. 3.2.7 it is clear that the variations in the distributions of
temperatures for gas and solids are not large, although the distributions
shown by the dashed lines in the shaft and belly are lower than those
shown by solid lines. That is, an increase in the feed rate of solid
particles caused by an elevation in gas pressure in the furnace brings
about a decrease in the temperatures of the gas and the solid
particles.
As the top pressure becomes higher, the molar fraction ofC02 ,Yeo2,
increases and that of CO,Yeo, decreases. It is especially noteworthy that
in the case of the dashed line, i.e. high top pressure Y C02 shows a larger
value than that of Yeo at the furnace top.
The fractional reduction of iron ore in the case of higher pressure is
lower than in that of lower pressure, but the former proceeds more
rapidly as the solids approach tuyere level. Furthermore, the elevation
of top pressure leads to lower linear velocity of gas and to less pressure
drop.
Variations in the production rate of pig iron, Wp , and the carbon
ratio, Cn accompanying the change in top pressure are illustrated in
Fig. 3.2.8. This figure shows that the increase in Wp and the decrease in
Cr caused by the elevation of top pressure are comparatively large in the
range of top pressure below about 4 atm within the range 3000
3500 Nm3/min in blast volume.
Generally, the driving force for indirect reduction of iron ore
increases with increase in top pressure, and this increase in reduction
rate of ore leads to better productivity. However, if the top pressure
exceeds about 4 atm, then the value of CO/C02 comes to thermodynamic
equilibrium with the reduction of iron oxide, so that improvements in
productivity cannot be expected from elevating the top pressure more
than about 4 atm.
200
,
\
470
 
\ Wp
190
I
\
\
\ /
, ""

,..
460
180
\ ,/
Fb Nm 3/min
450 ~
~ .z
'= \ 2942.2 Q
~ \
0. 170 \ 3500 440 =
Ol
S \
\
U
160
"" 430
150 420
140 410
1 2 3 4 5 6
Po X 10 4 Ikg/m')
Fig. 3.2.8. Effect of the top gas pressure, Po, on the production rate of pig iron,
Wand carbon ratio, e p in blast furnace (A) (do = 19·35 mm, Tb = 1366°K,
P'
W st = 23·2 g/Nm ,x~ = .
3 0) 19
200 480
  Po = 2033 xl 0' kg/m'
 Po=4.033x 10'
180 460
OJ
~ E
?
160 440 g
~
U
/
,/
140 420
 
/"
/"
... /"
120 400
10 15 20 25 30
do Imml
Fig. 3.2.9. Effect of the diameter of iron ore, do, on the values of Wp and Cr in
blast furnace (A) (Fb = 2942·2 Nm 3/min.j Tb = 1366°K, wst = 23·2 glNm 3,
x0 2 = 0).1
300 500
'=
? 200
?;~
100 ~LL~~400
2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Fb IN m3/ minl
Fig. 3.2.10. Effect of the blast volume, F b , on the values of Wp and C r in blast
furnace (A) (do = 19·35 mm, Tb = 1366°K, wst = 23·2 g/Nm 3, x0 2 = 0).19
156 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
(J)
155 C, 450 E
.<: ~,
g
£
:;
; 150 425
0
145 400
1366 1416 1466
Tb lOKI
Fig. 3.2.11. Effect of the blast temperature, T b , on the values of Jfj, and C r in
blastfumace(A)(Po = 1·433 X l(f kg/m2,do = 19·35 mm,Fb = 2942·2 Nm3/min,
w st = 23·2 g/Nm 3, XC>:! = 0).19
GLOBAL FORMULATION 157
2C + O2 = 2CO
dB 52·85 kcal/mol(02) (3.2.156)
X 0,
\
\ 007
\
\
I:tI
\
\
\ ~
>3
] vI \\ \ f, ~
I, "
121 \_':;!{ . . . . .
..... ~
"
~
t'rl
"tI
16 ::r:
B F IAI ~
20
o
~
IUUU ,
500 Tg L, [OKI
~
90U 10uU 1100 fJ b [kg m 3 (bed)) 1200 1300 ~
tJ
05 I" I, I " 1.0 P /10 4 [kg m 2 )
o1 02 03 Y CO I I 04 05 ~
2Y 3U 3.1 32 3.3
P
F~ / 10 51Nm 3 hrl
Fig. 3.2.12. Longitudinal distributions of process variables in blast furnace (A) for the case of oxygenenriched operation
(Po = 1'433 X 104 kg/m2, do = 19·35 mm, Fb = 2942'2 Nm3/min, Tb = 1366°K, W st = 23'2 glNm3, x0 2 = 0'07).19
GLOBAL FORMULATION 159
200r,
190
, 500
g
;'
U
450
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
xOz 1%1
Fig. 3.2.13. Variations of the values of Wp and C r caused by the change in the
ratio of oxygen enrichment, xo)~ in blast furnace (A) (Po = 1·433 X 104 kgfm 2,
do = 19·35 mm, Fb = 2942·2 Nm3/min, Tb = 1366°K, Wst = 23·2 g/Nm3).19
N
~
tTl
'1:l
:r:
tTl
BJ.[A[ Z
o
~
~
Tg, T,I"K[ 400 [600 800 1O~0 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
>
Yeo, Yeo,[' 0.1 0.2 0.3 04 ~
I ! ! ! tl
02 f" f,'. f, [. [0.6 0.8 1.0 P T 10 '[kg, m 2[ ~
I I I ! ,
r
.; p t:'
o t Fine el 01 III
.;: 40
20
0.2 04 06 0_8
Fig. 3.2.15. Rate of increase in the production of pig iron, ~p, and that in the
coke saving, (c, caused by the prereduction of iron ore (standard operating
conditions). 19
162 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
range ofIso above 0·3. Data observed by Woolf,92 Peart et al. 93 and Fine
et al. 94 in experimental or commercial blast furnaces are also plotted in
the figure. Comparing these observed data with the calculated curves
obtained by the experimental work, the theoretical result is slightly
larger than the experimental data in both';p and Sc. It seems that these
deviations are caused by the differences in operating conditions and in
the profiles of the blast furnace. However, the curves determined in the
work show similar variational trends with the data observed by other
investigators.
problem, the effect of flow rate and temperature of the injected gas and
the injection level were examined through the mathematical model,
thereby clarifying their effect on the production rate and fuel ratio. A
similar analysis was also carried out by Kobayashi et al. 97 on the
injection of reducing gas produced by nuclear energy into a blast
furnace.
An estimation on the lowest fuel ratio of the blast furnace was
attempted under specified operation conditions by Togino et al. 98 by
means of the mathematical model. 396· 5 kg( coke )/t(pig) was reported as
the lowest limit for the operation of the blast furnace under the specified
conditions.
A slight modification of the model was made by Miyasaka et al. 99
whereby an effective crosssectional area for gas flow was introduced in
the lower part of the furnace. As shown in Fig. 3.2.16, this modification
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Yco' yco" f, f, f I II
0.020.04 1""Y",0111.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Pllotml
I I I i
2004006008001000120014001600180020002200 Tg , T, I'KI
'0 Tg
Q
o
r
meant that the gas was assumed not to flow through the dead zone, and
that the molten materials formed in the melting zone, dropped only into
the dead zone. The computed distributions of pressure and temperature
under these conditions were reported to agree well with those measured
in an actual blast furnace as shown in Fig. 3.2.17. Abnormal increase in
blast pressure sometimes occurs in actual operations and this may
cause a serious decline in the state of the operation. As a result of
analyzing this abnormal situation, the increase in blast pressure was
found to be predicted by the mathematical model about 3 hours in
advance of the actual problem.
The dissection of commercial blast furnaces, of which recent
advancements are summarized in Chapter 1, has shown significant
nonuniformity of conditions in the radial direction. An attempt was
Wal l Cenler Wa ll
3 Iml
Belly
Bosh
Tuyere
Tuyere
H,rohala I BF
I~ Compuled cohesive zone. Cohesive zone o blained by d,sseclionl
made by Ono et al. 100 to analyze this nonuniformity. In the analysis, the
blast furnace was divided into 20 annular elements in the radial
direction. The onedimensional mathematical model was applied to
each annular element and numerical computation was conducted
according to the boundary conditions specified at the top from
measurements taken during actual operation. This computation gave
the radial distributions of temperature and fractional reduction as in
Figs 3.2.18 and 3.2.19. It is possible to obtain the upper shape of the
cohesive zone based on the isotherms as shown in the figures, and the
very good agreement between the calculated and observed shapes ofthe
cohesive zone shown means that the mathematical model can predict
the approximate shape and position of the cohesive zone for stationary
operation of the blast furnace.
Cenler Wall
20
averaged particle size dp and the voidage &", the Ergun equation
expressing the pressure drop of gas may be rewritten as follows:
aPiaz = (Pg/gc)[l  n01 . '1'(0 . u g (0 2/ [(j)(0 . d p (0 . &"(01 (3.3.1)
where the drag coefficient '1'(0 is defined by:
'1'(0 == 150[1  n;)]lRep(0 + 1·75 (3.3.2)
Rep(0 == (j)(0· d p(0 . &"(0· ug(;)/v
Because the value of Rep is very large in a blast furnace, the radial
change in '1'(;) is slight even if there existed radial changes in d pj and Gj
in each layer. Consequently, it may be assumed as '1'(0 = const. == '1'.
Moreover, itis assumed that the shapefactor(j)(0 = ¢I = ¢2 == ¢ = 0·64.
Let each volume of ore and coke burdens in a block enclosed between
the radial position ; and (; + d;) be designated by VI; and V2;,
respectively. Then, n0 can be readily expressed as:
&(0 = (GI VI; + G2 V2;)/(VI; + V2;) = A + B; (3.3.3)
where the dimensionless factors, A and B, are related to the charging
conditions through the following expressions:
A 8 1VI + G2 V2 + (2/3)7TR~A(81  8 2)
B == 7TR~A(81  82)/(VI + V2), A == tan a2  tan a I (3.3.4)
168 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
~i = ~l.i + ~2.i
~I.i == [VI + lTRjA(2/3  O]/lTRr
~2.i == [V2  lTRjA(2/3  O]llTR~
C i == [V,/D pl + V2 /Dp2  (2/3)lTRjf A]/lTRl
Di == fARi!Rr
f == l/DP2  l/Dp,
Dpj == dpj ' c/(l  Cj) (j = 1,2) (3.3.6)
U _.
Fg A +B~ (3.3.10)
N  2lTR;Ei ICi + Di~
where Ei is a dimensionless factor defined as:
GLOBAL FORMULATION 169
S.L ~t\
B.F.ID III
Do Iml 7.50
D.11ml 11.20
Db Iml 10.30.
Z, Iml 17.30
Z, Iml 2.80
Z, Iml 0.61
and the bulk density of its layer can be represented by eqns (3.3.19) and
(3.3.21), respectively.
dTsddt = K,(Tgl.i  T s') + He(AHe)
+ Hcl44(cp)co2  56(cp)co + l2csdTs' (3.3.19)
where K, and He are defined as follows:
K, == a,hgs1.Jpbdcs' + Ts,(dcs,/dTs' )]
He == Ce.o(dfcldt)/Pb, [cs! + Ts,(dcs,/dTs' )] (3.3.20)
Pb' = Pb'.O  l2Ce.ofe (3.3.21)
where the first and the second terms of the integrals in the lefthand side
of eqn (3.3.22) represent the heat amounts transferred by the heat
exchange between gas and solid particles and by the heatinmass
transfer, respectively. Each integral term on the righthand side shows
the change in the heat content of the gas and the heat transferred in the
radial direction, respectively.
To estimate the value of (, an effective thermal conductivity102 has
been applied for analyzing the observed temperature distribution in a
cylindrical bed. 103 As a result, the following simple correlation has been
obtained:
(3.3.23)
172 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
In eqns (3.3.27) and (3.3.28), the variables Ts1,je,Pbl and Csl' with suffix
i, are defined as those respective values at t = t f •
It is to be noted in eqns (3.3.25) and (3.3.27) that the gas temperature in
the layered burdens case is governed by three thermal flow ratios (y, L,
M) instead of y alone for a homogeneously mixed burden.
3.3.2.4. Pressure drop of gas flowing through ore and coke layers
The pressure drop of gas passing through each layer of burden with
thickness ~j. i, and ~Pj. i, can be evaluated on the basis of the Ergun
formula described by eqn (3.3.1). Then the gas pressure at the lowest end
of each layer is given as follows:
PI.i = P 2. i + M 2. i (3.3.40)
P2. i + 1 = Pl.i + Ml.i (3.3.41)
TABLE 3.3.1
Data for numerical analysis of blast furnace (DII)
W1 (kg/ch) 38950
WI (kg/ch) 11900
V1 (m3(bed)/ch) 21'68
VI (m\bed)/ch) 1725
d po (m) 0'0196
d pl (m) 0'0152
d pc (m) 0'0519
Fs (m3(bed)/ch) 2725
e (h) 0·1429
Co. 0 (katm(O)/m3(bed» 26'86
Cl. O (kmol(CaCONm 3(bed» 0·1387
Cc. o (katom(C)/m3(bed» 4944
T s1. O CC) 30a
TsI.o (0C) 30a
T g2.1 CC) 203
P2.1 (kg/m2) 14300
Yeo. 0 () 0'241
Ye02.0 () 0'190
YH20.0 () 0'013
YH2.0 () 0'036
YN2.0 () 0'520
Fg (Nm 3/h) 311600
U (kcal/m 2 • h· 0C) 15
aEstimated value.
176 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
and z
WRITE
Results of i,z,T s ,T g ,fk,Pb'YCO'YC0 2 ,F g,u,
and p ____~
YES
YES
Fig. 3.3.3. Flow chart for computing the longitudinal distributions of process
variables.
GLOBAL FORMULATION 177
TABLE 3.3.2
Numerical Data for Computation Based on Twodimensional Model
cations to the pattern of Ao(O are repeated until the final pattern is
obtained, neglecting the radial change in YH2.0 and YH20.0:
where
ME
0.4 r~~::::::::""",_l2.0 ;;
z
::0
Fig. 3.3.4. Radial distributions ofe, d p and UN at the top of blast furnace (DII).
178 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
Figure 3.3.5 shows the radial profiles of the temperature and the
compositions of CO and CO2 of the top gas in B.F.(DII), determined by
the procedures mentioned above.
500 r            . , 0.4
400 0.3
.'00 0.1
I 00 '_'_L_'_"'' 0
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 10
, II
Fig. 3.3.5. Radial distributions of Yeo, Yeo, and Tgl. I at the top of blast
furnace (DII).
0 02 0 .4 ) 10 0 1m seel 12
I", I,. f, I t: j,!
1 I I I I
05 1.0 20 2.5 3.0
I 1 I I I
2.8 29 3.1 3.2 3.3
10
0 51
10
12
]
N 14
16
18
et al. 104 observed the inner features of Hirohata No. 1 blast furnace
quenched by water. A number of annular layers, in which the iron ores
had been softened and partly molten, were detected over the zone from
the tuyere to the middle level of the shaft. These softening layers would
be located in the range surrounded by the isotherms of 1200°C and
1400°C in Fig. 3.3.8. The pattern of the cohesive zone illustrated in
Fig. 3.3.8 is similar to the findingsl04 in the dissected furnace and it
should be noted that the inversely Vshaped cohesive zone has resulted
from the operation with a strongly centralized gas flow both in this
calculation and in Hirohata No.1 furnace.
10
12
E
N 14
16·
18
20
22
24
26 B.F. ID III fo
2B

(mass flow) (reaction)
N n
 
(j = g, s, 1), Dg = 1, Ds = Dt = 1 (3.3.43)

and Kjn is the effective thermal conductivity. As for fluid flow in porous
media, this dispersion of heat stems from hydrodynamic fluctuations of
G j. Parameter 1Jj is the fractional acquisition of heat of reaction
including the extent of heatinmass transfer.

below seems to apply successfully to the nonuniform flow of gas in the
blast furnace: 23. 28. 106113
gradP = (j; +hIGgl)Gg (3.3.46)
where
150(1  f:)2f.lg/gcpg(tjJd p )2f:3
1·75(1  f:)/gcPg(tjJd p )f:3 (3.3.47)
On the other hand, we have less understanding of the equation of
motion of burden materials in the furnace. A simple and probable
principle which simulates the burden flow is given by potential flow
theorf? which prescribes the irrotational movement of fluid particles
 
and is expressed as:
ill = rot V sj = 0 (j = 0, c) (3.3.48)
This equation may be utilized whether the burden is in the form of a
solid or a liquid.
184 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
L f3k R:
N
o (rGjr)/or + o(rGjz)/oz  Dj = 0,
k~1
(j = g, s, 1), Dg = 1, D5 = DI = 1 (3.3.49)
which can be satisfied by working in terms of the stream function ljIj
defined as:
Sg == f( ik~1
f3k R : ) r dr (3.3.50)
oP/or
oP/oz

(j; + 12lG g l)Ggr
Cil + 121 Ggl)Ggz
(3.3.51 )
(021f1
+h:1" _! Olfl 021f1 OSg)][(OIfl
:1 +:12+:1
S)2 (OIfl)2]
:1 + g + ur
:1
ur r ur uZ uZ uZ
(3.3.53)

(3.3.54)
ur r ur uZ ur uZ L....
k =1
where W == 11 + 121G g l.
The iterative solution of eqn (3.3.54) also gives the pressure at all
points in the furnace. We usually need to know the pressure and the
temperature during the course of the solution for IfI because their
variations may affect gas density which in turn requires recasting of the
flow resistance.
+ (s g
olnpj _ OSg)
oz oz = 0 (j = o,c) (3.3.56)
which gives the stream function for ore or coke flow in the domain of
interest. Domain borders on which boundary conditions should be
stipulated may comprise not only the furnace geometry but also the
contours of the stagnant coke cone and the raceway for coke flow, and
the socalled 'dry zone' in front of the tuyeres for ore flow. The velocity
field of each material can be determined also by inserting the converged
value of the stream function into eqn (3.3.50). Superimposition of the
two velocity fields obtained approximately accounts for the global flow
field of burden.
3.3.6.3. Temperature
The expression of eqn (3.3.44) in angular symmetry may be derived to
yield:
(02Tj 1 OTj) o2Tj oKfr oTj oKfz oTj
+ Tr a; + a; a;
e e
K jr or + ;:a;: + K jz OZ2
L R:(!:l.Hd = 0
N
 f>jhgba(Tg  T b) + 1/j
k =1
(j = g, b), 1 (3.3.57)
where Tjz designates the axial linear velocity of fluid. The observed
relationship I 14 between Pejn and particle Reynolds number,
Repj( = d p Tjp/J1j)' normally gives the following constant over the Repj
range possible in the blast furnace:
Peg, = 10, Pe gz = 2; Pel, = 50, Pelz = 0·5 (3.3.59)
(b) Effective thermal conductivity of burden (KD. This may be
approximated to the effective thermal conductivity of solids (K~)
because of a small holdup in the dropping zone. Since the solidsolid
thermal conduction through the point of contact is relatively slight, K~ is
governed by the indirect and direct radiation whose mechanism was
formulated by Shotte l15 as follows:
K~ (l  8)/(l/ks + l/k,) + 8k"
k, = 1·97 X 10 7 dp(Ts + 273)3 (kcallm· h· 0c) (3.3.60)
(c) Interphase heat transfer coefficient (h gb). When we define hgb based on
eqn (3.3.44), we may tacitly assume Tb as representing the mean
temperature of solid particles with and without the surrounding melt.
Thus hgb should be an overall parameter involving the true gas/burden
film heat transfer coefficient (h~b) and the burden conductivity (kb). The
expression for spheres was given by Stuke l16 in the form:
l/hgb = l/h~b + (dp /lO)k b
(3.3.61)
where Bi = h~bdp/kb is the Biot number. Thermal conductivities of solids
take the values of 0·5 for coke and 1·4 for ore materials, in
kcal· m· h· °e ll7 The true heat transfer coefficient, h~b' is well
correlated by Shirai l18 according to:
8(h~bdp/kg) = 2·0 + 0·75 P r l/3 Re~!2 (3.3.62)
where 8 is the void fraction of the packed bed and Pr (= cg J1g1k g ) refers to
the Prandtl number.
(d) Specific heat ofgaslburden (Cj). The specific heat of multicomponent
gas/oreburden can be evaluated by:
n n
(j = g,b) (3.3.63)
i =I i =I
where Ci is the specific heat of each component i, and it is expressed as a
temperature function.
188 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
Input data:
1) Furnace geometries
2) Operating conditions
3) Burden distribution
4) Physical and thermal properties
of cohesive zone
NO
Fig. 3.3.10. Flow chart for seeking the shape of the cohesive zone.
190 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
zone which may range between the isotherms of 1200°C and 1400°C
would strongly affect the gas flow patterns and temperature distribution
in the course of the iterative step. Thus a convergence criterion should
be specified with respect to the shape of the cohesive zone. The
computational grid in this calculation contained 30 X 120 points.
,..
()
I I
I (l)
I
(/)
a
4.0 ,..
2 '"0
I (l)
I
I
I
t9
I
I ""a
3.0
I
I
a "tD
2
I
I
I
C
I
I
I III
CJ
a
+~fO
1.0
0.0
1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0
~=rJRb()
It is of interest to note from Figs 3.3.12 and 3.3.13 that the distorted
dome associated with the inner shape of the cohesive zone corresponds
to the developed outflow of gas through the coke slits in that region. This
fact underlines the important role of the slit gas flow in the construction
of the inner shape of the cohesive zone.
Figures 3.3.14 and 3.3.15 show the computed results for the case where
al = a2 = 25°. In this case, the gas flow path which minimizes the total
pressure loss between the tuyere and the top is towards the peripheral
~ ()
4
,....,
()
Q)
OJ
.......
....;::J ,....,
4 '"0
0..0 Q)
Ie:: 8
e; e...
s
" 0.4 "t.:J
0: CJ
1e:: 0 •3 2 110
~ C)
0
0.2
0.1
++0
0.0
0.0
1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0
~ (J
wall because the global flow resistance of the lumpy zone distributes
uniformly in the radial direction. Consequently, hot blast inject from
the side wall flows towards the peripheral region of the furnace and ore
burden at that location is increasingly fused until a steady state is
attained.
Thus, an even distribution of ore/coke ratio, in contrast to the former
case, cannot suppress a preferential fusion at the peripheral part. As a
result, a Vshaped cohesive zone appears, as in Fig. 3.3.15. This must be
g ()
P 600
0)
r
..
C)
r
tIC
"'''!I1od~'0
~O)
BOO
1000
++0
1200
1800
0.0
1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 t.O
~ ()
Fig. 3.3.13. Calculated isotherms of gas and burden together with radial
distribution of burden temperature (aj = 25°, a2 = 28°).
194 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
~ ()
I I
2 U
(I)
I
,
I (/)
,., 0.7 a
+'
,.,
0...0" 0.6 4 "0
(I)
Ie .D
2 ''
e= 0.5
, C'J
El
"txl
I
" 0.4 ,a
I
4
5: C
Ie 0.3 2
e= 0
QD
0.2 a
'OF==   +, O
0.0 ,,
I
I
I
I
0.0
\.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 \.0
~ ()
~ ()
,...., ~
$J
OJ
r 0
X In
0 r
2
K:~~IO
1800
0 .0
1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0
~ ()
Fig. 3.3.15. Calculated isotherms of gas and burden together with radial
distribution of burden temperature (al = 25°, a2 = 25°).
~/EjCJ + C div Vj  D e V
j 2C j = Rj(CI>"" Cn ) (3.4.2)
where subscript i denotes the chemical species and subscript j denotes
the phase, i.e. gas, liquid, or solid. Assuming steady state conditions:
D
Dt =
D
(Ep·)
Dt J J
. V =
+ p.J dlV J
LR.M·1 1
(3.4.4)
where the diffusion term in eqn (3.4.2) was neglected for the reason
described later.
By assuming steady state conditions, eqn (3.4.4) becomes:
(3.4.5)
The gas velocity in the axial and radial directions is obtained by using
the above equation and the stream function IjI which is defined as
follows: 125
(3.4.6)
Vgz IjI,J(pgr)
Furthermore, by using the equation of state for gas given by p = pgkTg
and (P2)", = (P2),w an elliptic partial differential equation of the second
order is obtained. This equation is solved numerically using finite
differences. The numerical solution of IjI thus obtained gives the
distribution of gas velocity in the furnace by using eqn (3.4.6), and the
pressure distribution by using eqn (3.4.1).
a xy and f3XY in eqn (3.4.1) are the tensors which characterize the
anisotropic permeability introduced for considering crossflow, namely
the gas flow in the radial direction in the furnace. This crossflow has
been found in the analysis of the cohesive zone in quenched blast
furnaces.
The tensors are determined as follows. The charged materials in the
blast furnace may be divided into ore and coke layers; by assuming
isotropic permeability in each zone, the following equations may be
obtained.
In the ore layer
where
gradP  
(aopg I Vg 1+ f3o) V g (3.4.7)
f30
198 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
(3.4.8)
where
By the use of am Po, a e and Pc, the permeability vertical to the layer
(aJ..,pL) and the permeability parallel to the layer (all,PII) are
approximately obtained as follows by assuming vertical flow to the layer
(VJJ or parallel flow to the layer (V;I)'
(aJ Permeability vertical to the layer. The pressure drop in the vertical
direction at the ore layer or the coke layer can be presented as
follows:
(P,i..)o = (aOpgVJ. + Po) Vi.. (3.4.9)
(P, t.)e = (aePg Vi.. + PC> Vi..
Therefore, by assuming that the thicknesses of the ore layer and coke
layer are AXo and AXe, respectively, the total pressure drop vertical to
the layer at both layers is given by the following equation:
(3.4.10)
where
AX=AX+M
o. e (3.4.11 )
By substituting eqn (3.4.9) into eqn (3.4.10), the following equation is
obtained:
AX (ai..pgVi +Pi..Vd = AXo(aopgVi +PoVJJ+Me(aePgVi +PeVt.)
Comparison of the coefficients of Vi.. and vi leads to the following
equations respectively:
Mai.. = Moao + Meae
MPi.. = MaPa + MePe
Thus the permeabilities vertical to the layers are represented as
follows:
a..L = (Moa o + Meae}!AX (3.4.12)
P..L = (MaPa + MePe)!M
GLOBAL FORMULATION 199
(b) Permeability parallel to the layer. Similarly the pressure drop in the
parallel direction at the ore layer and the coke layer may be given as
follows:
(P,")o =  [a opiVII)o + fio](V;I)o (3.4.13)
(P,II)c = [acpg(V;I)c + fic](V;I)c
(3.4.16)

The diffusion term was neglected in the mass conservation law shown
by eqn (3.4.2) because of the following reason. The convection term
D(EjCJ/Dt = Vj . grad C has a value of about 3 X 10 3 kmol/(m3 • s)
because the gas velocity in the actual furnace is about 1 mls and grad Ci
GLOBAL FORMULATION 201
D (Epli)
Dt + ~iPj div 
Vj = RiM, (3.4.18)
202 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING

conductivity k e of gas at 1000°C is 1·9 X 10 5 kcallm 2 • s . °C and the

average value of V 2Tg is about 200°C/m2. On the other hand, heat
transfer by the gas flow CgpgV g . gradTg becomes about 12 kcall(m 3 • s)
because V g is about 1 mis, CgP g is about 0·0755 kcallm 3 and the average
gradTg at the top of the furnace is about 160°C/m. Therefore heat
transfer by conduction is much smaller than heat transfer by gas flow,
by a factor of 103, and for this reason, in this model, the following heat
transfer equation is adopted as a firstorder approximation:
(3.4.21)
0.21"""'\
y
0.1
o~~~~
o 1000 2000
Solid temperature lOCI
(b) Heat transfer coefficient between solid and liquid Heat exchange
between the dripping liquid and the solid surface can be basically
divided into two portions: heat transfer in the liquid and conduction in
the solid.
The heat transfer coefficient for the solid is obtained by averaging the
integrated results of unsteady state heat conduction in the solid when
the liquid is in contact with the surface of the solid:
hs = 2 (ksCcPs Vi) 1/2 (3.4.24)
TTds l
The heat transfer coefficient for the liquid is obtained by modifying
the forced convection heat transfer equation: 128
hI = 0·664 kl l/3 l
d PrI Re I !2 (3.4.25)
or
RiMi + ~i~RiMi
1
(3.4.30)
(3.4.31)
or
d ~hdT
k J J
 Tk)/f> + Q.J  c.r.~R·M
J J ill
dz (CjIj) = E (3.4.32)
jPj%
Here the denominators in eqns (3.4.29)(3.4.32) represent the mass'flow
rates.
206 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
By using this equation, good convergence was obtained even when the
larger mesh distance was employed.
Start
End
Fig. 3.4.3. Flow chart of calculation; T is the temperature of gas, solid, and
liquid; IjI is the stream function of gas.
208 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
TABLE 3.4.1
Blast Furnace Profile and Operating Conditions
o/c:t:]
T
I
t
0.1 m/min
T
I kg/sec. m2
800~TOP
gas
'c
o
1400·C
1200
1500
1800
2100
Fig. 3.4.7. Temperature distribution of gas (  ) and solid () in the blast
furnace; (_. ) boundary line between moving and stagnant zones.
212 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
1400·C
1500
1600
Fig. 3.4.9. Mass fraction of Fe203 and Fe in the blast furnace; (_._)
boundary line between moving and stagnant zones.
\
I '
\ o
Fig. 3.4.10. Mass fraction of FeO in the blast furnace; (_. ) boundary line
between moving and stationary zones.
co/co,
4tj° pg
as
" ,,
\
\
\
\ \
\
\
\
\
\
o
Fig. 3.4.11. Mole fractions of CO () and CO 2 (  ) gas in the blast furnace;
average CO/C02 of top gas = 1·02.

form is used as the fundamental equation for computing the pressure
distribution in a blast furnace:

Equation (3.5.1) is a nonlinear equation with respect to the velocity
vector G g. It is therefore linearized as eqn (3.5.3) for convenience of
216 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
G is assumed to be

numerical analysis. This means that the change in g
negligible in the small region:

The equation of continuity is expressed by eqn (3.5.4), and eqn (3.5.5)
is derived by combining eqns (3.5.3) and (3.5.4):
div (G g) = Qrn (3.5.4)
(3.5.5)
The functional for eqn (3.5.5) is written as eqn (3.5.6) in the cylindrical
coordinate system assuming axis symmetry:
2~ det
and (r" Zj), (r2' Z2), and (r3' Z3) denote the coordinates of the nodes 1,2,
and 3.
In order to derive the global finite element equation on gas flow, eqn
(3.5.6) is integrated after substitution of eqn (3.5.7). Equation (3.5.10) is
derived from the equation thus obtained together with eqn (3.5.9) for
minimizing X:
o (3.5.9)
(3.5.10)
where superscript e indicates a local finite element. The signs [ ] and ( )
designate matrix and vector, respectively. The matrix and the vectors in
eqn (3.5.10) are defined as follows.
Vector for the pressure of nodel points (P)":
(p)e = (Ph P2 , P3 )T
BjB j + CjC j B jB 2 + C jC 2 B jB 3 + C jC 3
[H]e aoV B 2B j + C 2 C j B2B2 + C 2C 2 B2B3 + C 2C3
~~+~~ ~~+~~ ~~+~~
where
(r j  7)2 + (r2  7)2 + (r3  7)2
(r j  7)(Zj  z) + (r2  r)(z2  z) + (r3  r)(zj  z)
=
r = (r j + r2 + r3)/3
=
Z = (Zj + Z2 + z3)/3
V = TTr/2~
218 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
Inflow vector (Fs)": suppose that the gas flows in with mass velocity
qrn between the nodes i and j; thus we have:
2rj + rj
o
A set oflinear algebraic equations with respect to the nodal pressure is
obtained as given by eqn (3.5.11) by summing eqn (3.5.10) for the whole
range:
[H](P)  (Fs)  (Fb) = 0 (3.5.11 )
The pressure gradient can be obtained by differentiating eqn (3.5.7)
and substituting it for eqn (3.5.3), which gives the following equation:
IGgrt
Ggz\
e = a'
0
IOP/ort
op/oz\
e = _ ~IB'
2.6. C,
B2 B3 t (p)e
C2 C3 f
(3.5.12)
This equation gives the distribution for the mass velocity of gas. Since a o
depends on the velocity vector Gg, the same computation is repeated
after the recalculation of a o on the basis of the previously computed
value of Gg • The computation is assumed to be convergent if the
maximum change in the mass velocity before and after the trial
computation becomes smaller than a specified value (10 4 in relative
error).
TABLE 3.5.1
Operating Conditions of the Blast Furnace28
In the gas flow analysis, both the computation condition and the
structure of the bed are given on the basis of the operating conditions
listed in Table 3.5.1 and of the profile shown in Fig. 3.5.1 for a large blast
furnace operating in Japan. Characteristic values for the four different
kinds of elements which are used for numerical computation are given
in Table 3.5.2 and the essential conditions for the numerical computation
are summarized in Table 3.5.3.
TABLE 3.5.2
Properties of the Layers28
35
30
OC 1=
25 73.4°
20
E 15
N
10
o 5 10
r (m)
Fig. 3.5.1. Profile of the blast furnace. 28
tv
TABLE 3.5.3 tv
0
Characteristics of the Case Studies for Gas Flow Analysis28
30
25
20
15
E
N 10
5

... . , ....
.::: ;;: : ~
.....
o
I I I
o 5 10
rIm)
Fig. 3.5.2. Gas flow vector (G, mass velocity of gas) computed for case (1).28
Compared to case (I), case (3) shows significant preferential flow in the
central core at the top of the bed. These results indicate that the
difference in permeability of the layers and the inclination angle of the
burden principally cause nonuniform gas flow in the upper part of a
blast furnace.
For the approach to the real internal state of the working blast
furnace, cohesive and raceway zones were assumed in cases (4), (5) and
(6). Figure 3.5.4 gives the shape and position of the cohesive and
raceway zones for case (4). Case (5) has the same bed structure as case (4)
except that the cohesive layers contact the furnace wall (termed the
cohesive zone 'roof), while case (5) does not have such wall contacts of
cohesive layers. The bed structure for case (6) is also similar to that for
case (4). In case (6), however, the dead zone occurs which has high
resistance to gas flow. Figures 3.5.5 to 3.5.7 show the computed results
for case (4), indicating that the velocity vector is principally governed by
the bed structure. It is easily understood from the figures that the
cohesive layers playa role as gas distributor.
GLOBAL FORMULATION 223
35 ... 5(kg/m Zsl
30
25
20
15
E
N 10
o
I I I
o 5 10
rIm)
Fig. 3.5.3. Gas flow vector (G, mass velocity of gas) computed for case (3).28
35
30
25
20
15
E
N 10
0 5 10
rim)
Fig. 3.5.4. Schematic representation of the bed structure and finite elements for
case (4).28
224 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
4 S(kg/m 2.s1
35
III!,
30 II I!\'r'/I\
[","':""',
,!, ',', ~: ",', \.
I': ~'j r ~ ',', \.
20 ~!~~:~~:!,:,
E
15
~l 1r«;\
:13j
N 10
ii!!fifi//
.....
:: ~ :~~:
" ''
5 ~~~
·
·..··. . , ....
' ,.
.. .,.,, ..
o ·.
I I I
o 5 10
rIm)
Fig. 3.5.5. Contour lines of Gz computed for case (4).28
Figure 3.5.8 shows the pressure distributions along the furnace wall
for cases (4), (5) and (6) as shown in Table 3.5.3. No difference was found
in the upper part of the cohesive zone, but a small deviation was
observed in the lower part of the zone. This means that the change in
bed structure affected the gas flow only upstream of the change.
Figure 3.5.9 shows a different bed structure, where the cohesive layers
were assumed to be wider. Computed results corresponding to this bed
structure are represented in figs 3.5.10 and 3.5.11. Compared to case (4),
this case gave exactly the same flow pattern downstream of the cohesive
layers, but significant influence of the cohesive layers upstream.
Increase in the volume of the cohesive layers may therefore lead to
increase in pressure loss. Figures 3.5.12 and 3.5.13 illustrate computed
results for the case of higher top pressure in the same bed structure.
These results show almost the same flow pattern, but considerable
decrease in pressure loss.
GLOBAL FORMULATION 225
35
30
25
20
15
E
1.0
N 10
5
0.1
0
I
0 5 10
rIm)
Fig. 3.5.6. Gas flow vector (G, mass velocity of gas) computed for case (4).28
35
0.167
30
25
20
15
E
0.226
N 10 0.230
5
0.234
P(M Po)
o
I [ I [
Shaft
0.25
I ~ II a
Cohesive lie,s (Cases 4 and 6)
02
< Wall "";;._~:
.:__:::<
__
o
c.. 023
::::0: .
. .. ~:....,..
35
30
25
20
15
E
N 10
0 5 10
r (m)
Fig. 3.5.9. Schematic representation ofthe bed structure and finite elements for
case (7)?8
GLOBAL FORMULATION 227
3S
111:!:\t
30
"~~!! :,:, lL,
l\',',I!I\I,
2S
20
15
E
N 10 J r. .... ';
5 ,!!HH~
o
o 5 10
r (ml
Fig. 3.5.10. Gas flow vector (G, mass velocity of gas) computed for case
(7).28
o 5 10
r(ml
35
I I I! ~ !'
30 :~~~\~!!/
,,:, I~!!~\
, 't I ~, ~ I : ••
i\~\~I\
25
20
Ir::r:::'
15
.5 N
10
i
~L.
5 l [:;~ :~iti
o 5 10
r i m)
3S
0.275
30
2S
20
.,_.___, 0.314
IS
E
0.324
N 10
1_..< 0.333
0.338
5
PIMPo)
o SID
rim)

(3.5.13)
Boundary 8 2 :
the tuyere):
q3 
= n K~V(Ts)
Heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference

(heat loss through the wall):
n K~ V(Tg  Ta) hg(Tg  Ta)
n K~V(Ts  Ta) hs(Ts  Ta)
The temperature distributions for gas and solid can be computed by
solving the finite element equations derived from eqns (3.5.l3) and
(3.5.l4) according to the Galerkin method together with the above
boundary conditions. Both the finite elements and the interpolation
function for the temperature equations are the same as for the gas flow
analysis. Accordingly, the temperature distributions in a local finite
element are expressed as follows:
Combining these equations with eqns (3.5.13) and (3.5.14), and also
with the boundary conditions, weighted residuals are obtained
according to the Galerkin method. Equations (3.5.l5) and (3.5.16) are
230 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
derived by equating the sum of the weighted residuals for each term in
eqns (3.5.13) and (3.5.14) to zero:
 JrQgAj dv = 0
v SI ~
(3.5.15)
(3.5.16)
   
summing eqn (3.5.17) over the whole range:
[Hij](T i) + [F ij](T i) + (b j) =0 (3.5.18)
where i and j are changed from 1 to the number of the nodal points.
Since the terms in regard to physical properties of gas, liquid and
solid are nonlinear with respect to temperature, numerical computation
is conducted iteratively. The computation is considered to be in
convergence if the maximum temperature change before and after one
iterative computation becomes less than a specified value (10 3 relative
change).
In order to solve the heat balance equations given by eqn (3.5.18), the
solutions not only for gas flow but also for solid flow are required. Here,
potential flow is assumed for the solid movement. Therefore the
equation of motion is expressed by eqn (3.5.19) and the equation of
GLOBAL FORMULATION 231

continuity which is also necessary for the flow analysis on solid is
represented by eqn (3.5.20):

 grad (c/>s)
div (V s)
= V./a s
= Vsm
Solid flow in the blast furnace was investigated by Nishio et al. 138 on
the basis of the data obtained by dissections. Their results support the
appropriateness of potential flow in the stack region. Further research,
however, is required on solid flow in the lower part of a blast furnace.
3.5.4. Computed Results on the Simultaneous Gas Flow and Heat Transfer
A set of computed results obtained by the simultaneous analysis of gas
flow and heat transfer are shown in Fig. 3.5.14. In the analysis, the same
configuration of finite elements for gas flow analysis was used.
However, a dead zone for solid flow was set up additionally as
illustrated in Fig. 3.5.14(a). It should be noted that allowances have not
been made for the heat sink accompanying the fusion of iron ore and
also the heat generation associated with the combustion of coke in the
raceway region for the case shown in Figs 3.5.14, 3.5.17,142 and 3.5.18. 143
These results, however, show the significant interaction between gas
flow and heat transfer. Figure 3.5.14 gives the computed results for
uniform particle size and uniform voidage in both the ore and coke
layers. The flow vectors for gas and the pressure distribution illustrated
in Fig. 3.5.14(b) and (c) demonstrate essentially similar patterns to the
results obtained by gas flow analysis alone. During computation of
simultaneous heat transfer and gas flow, the temperature distribution
computed successively was used as the temperature distribution
required for the computation of the physical properties such as density,
viscosity, heat capacity and so on. Figure 3.5.14(d) gives the flow vectors
for solid movement showing that the movement is principally governed
by the furnace shape. This is the behavior of solid particles which are
governed by the potential flow assumption without consideration of the
effect of gas flow and temperature distribution, and where the only solid
disappearance is through discharge at the tuyere. Figure 3.5.14 (e) and
(f) illustrate that the temperature distributions of the gas and the solids
are represented by almost uniform profiles in the upper part of the
cohesive zone, while in the lower part the temperature distributions are
governed principally by the shape of the cohesive zone. Accordingly,
232 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
35 35 "Slkg/m 2 s) 35
III!~'
30 3D \'\\,1 1, 30
)))/~.",!\
)))\~~(,
25 25
))~M;' 25
II 11\\
1\\\\\
11\\\\
~li~
20 20 20
15 15 15 0.235
E
E E
11/1'mIl' '
NIO :; 10 ;; 10
.... n~,'~
Irm~m
5 5 5
PIMPal
o 0 0
o 5
rim)
10 0 5 10 0 5
rim)
10
rim)
(a) Fonite element r"presen Ib) Gas flow vectorlG 'mass Icl isopressure lines
lotIon velOCity of gosl
35 35 35
30 30 30
25 25 25
20 20 20
15 15 15
~ E
N 10 ;; 10
5 5 5
TgIK)
o 0 0
o 5 10 0 5 10 0 5 10
rim) rim) rim)
I d I Sol id ftow vectorlV : lin Ie) isother ms of go s (I) Isotherms of solid
ear velocity of solId)
Fig. 3.5.14. Results obtained by the simultaneous analysis of gas flow and heat
transfer in the blast furnace (uniform size and voidage in ore and coke layers,
respective! y).
GLOBAL FORMULATION 233
10
IAI Type 139,140
141
E
8 \, IBI Type
0
I
",
iii
OJ
E
6
"' ", Coke
"
0
~
4
~~
'\
Average

'"
'§

CL
2 '
~~=
Average
..::::..  

 
IAI Type
\ IBI Type
0.55 '\
'\ ,
'" Coke layer
'\~~,~= .=
Average
c
Q
u 0.50
g
0
6
>
. . ___ _
Ore layer
35 35 5IKG/M'S)
_OAE
COKE
30 30
25 25
_ 20
I:
N 15 N 15
COHESIVE
10
ZONE
10
5 5
DEAD ZONE
fDA SOLID
o o
o 5 10 o 5 10
RIM) RIM)
IA) fINITE ELEMENT (8 ) GAS fLOW VECTOR
REPRESENTRTION (G:MASS VELOCITY
Of GAS)
35 P 35
30 30
25 25
_ 20 _ 20
I: I:
N
15 0196 N 15
0.201
0.206
10 10
5 5
0 0  0.1!'
o 5 10 o 5 10
A 1M) A (M)
(C) ISOPRESSURE LINES (0) CONTOUR LINES Of
AVERAGED MASS
VELOCITY Of GAS
GLOBAL FORMULATION 235
35 TG(Kl 35 T5(K)
30 30
25 25
_ 20 _ 20
=
N 15
s:::
N 15
10 10
1600
700
1750
5 1795 5
0 o
o 5 10 o 5 10
R (Ml R (M)
Fig. 3.5.17. Results computed from the simultaneous analysis of gas flow and
heat transfer (particle size distribution, type (A)).
the result shows that the shape of the cohesive zone dominates the gas
flow pattern and the gas flow markedly affects the temperature
distribution.
Regarding the radial distribution of temperature, the computed
results show an almost uniform distribution in radial direction in the
shaft region, whereas actual measurements of temperature in operating
blast furnaces and dissection investigations 134 often gave significant
nonuniformity in temperature distribution. Since bed structure exerts a
great influence not only on gas flow but also on the temperature
distribution as already described, radial distribution of the particle size,
as well as the void fraction distribution, may play an important role for
the internal situation of a blast furnace.
According to the paper by Yamada et al., 139 the void fraction depends
on the particle size and its distribution in sinter and coke beds,
respectively. Empirical equations were derived by them representing
the relationship between void fraction and particle size on the basis of
the experimental data. Simplified expressions were obtained from the
236 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
35 35  5(KG/M' S)
ORE
COKE •\~!!,
30 30 ""I,
~))~~~~'I
)))\))(,
25 25
)))M\
))~)\'\I
\\\\(\1
\\\\\\1
_ 20

1\\1\\\
20 11\ \ \ \ \ \ .
III \\ \\\
I: I: lr\\\
IS ~~4~\
l rIWf!~'
N N
15
10 10
5 EWAY
AD ZONE
SOLI D
5
i!"'!;ffi
o 0
0 5 10 0 5 10
R (M I R ( M)
(A) FI NIT E ELEMEN T (8) GA5 FLOW VEC TOR
REPAESEN TATION (G:MASS VE LOC I TY
OF GAS)
35 P
30
25
_ 20
I:
N
15
0.196
0.201
10 0205
o 5 10 o 5 10
R (M I R (M)
(C ) 150PRESSURE LI NES (0) CONTOUR LI NES OF
AVERAGED MASS
VELOC I TY OF GAS
GLOBAL FORMULATION 237
3S TG(K) 3S TS(K)
30 30
2S 25
~ 20 ~ 20
.
:E:
~
N IS N IS
10 1600 10
170
175
780
8 160
170
~175
8
5 1795 5 1780
1795
0 0
0 5 10 0 5 10
R (M) R (M)
(E) ISOTHERMS OF GAS IF) ISOTHERMS OF SOLID
Fig. 3.5.18. Results computed from the simultaneous analysis of gas flow and
heat transfer (particle size distribution, type (B)).
equations for estimating the void fraction distribution for the averaged
size of sinter and coke as described below.
For sinter layer:
(3.5.21)
For coke layer:
e = 0·153 log de + 0·724 (3.5.22)
where do and de have the dimension of m.
Regarding the radial distribution of particle size, it is very difficult to
measure the size distribution of particles at the top of an operating blast
furnace. Some observed data were, however, reported by using a full
scale charging model without gas flow or by sampling from a real blast
furnace, also without gas flow, at the time when it was packed just before
starting up. The two types of observed distribution of particle size are
shown in Fig. 3.5.15. 142 The average diameter for both distributions is
shifted to the value specified in the figure. Figure 3.5.16 143 gives radial
distributions of void fraction computed from eqns (3.5.21) and (3.5.22)
for the particle size distribution shown in Fig. 3.5.15.
238 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
Figure 3.5.17 and 3.5.18 demonstrate the internal state of the blast
furnace computed from the mathematical model applying both (A) and
(B) type particle size distributions. In both cases, the same bed structure
and same finite element configuration were used. Each finite element in
the same layer was, however, assigned a different permeability due to
different particle size and void fraction. This gives rise to marked
nonuniform gas flow even in the shaft region as shown in Figs 3.5.17 (B)
and 3.5.18(B). Figures 3.5.l7(D) and 3.5.18(D) provide a clearer
representation on this nonuniformity of gas flow where, in Fig. 3.5.18(D),
preferential flow of gas is found in the central zone in the shaft region
and, in Fig. 3.5.18(D), the intermediate region has higher resistance for
gas flow caused by size distribution. Therefore the main flow of gas is
still in the central region but a considerable gas flow occurs in the
peripheral region. The temperature distributions for gas and solid are
illustrated in Figs 3.5.17 (E) and (F), and Figs 3.5.18 (E) and (F) show
the corresponding gas flow patterns. These results are quite realistic in
terms of real furnace operation compared to the results obtained for the
case of uniform size distribution given in Fig. 3.5.14. It can therefore be
inferred that the temperature profile is governed mainly by the gas flow
distribution and that the bed structure, including size distribution of the
particles, is a predominant factor governing gas flow. It may consequently
be understood that the charging method and the profile of the cohesive
zone are the principal important factors for estimating the static
performance of the blast furnace.
and thereby to make clear the functions of the cohesive zone for blast
furnace operation, and further to investigate the desired profile of the
zone in furnace operation. 40 It has become clear from the results of an
investigation during the test operation of a blast furnace 152 that the
desired profile of the cohesive zone is such that the inside boundary of
the zone (i.e. the starting line of melting down) should be as close as
possible to the dead man of the furnace in order to optimize the furnace
stability, reducibility and thermal efficiency.
For analyzing blast furnace operation in terms of the cohesive zone,
it becomes necessary to estimate the profile of the zone and the gas flow
distribution in operating furnaces. However, at present a mathematical
model for estimating the profile of the whole cohesive zone is
unavailable. Therefore the aforementioned mathematical model will be
modified to obtain a model for estimating the profile of the cohesive
zone and the gas flow distribution at each coke slit with the use of gas
pressures at the wall of the furnace (hereinafter referred to as shaft gas
pressures). The results will be checked against data obtained in blast
furnace operation, and the blast furnace operation will be analyzed
using the estimated results.
profile of the cohesive zone can be obtained from the shaft pressure
distribution.
For obtaining the profile of the cohesive zone based on the above
principle, two methods are available:
(1) Method using a mathematical model (static pressure model)
(2) Method using the analogy of gas flow to electrical conductivity
with the use of electrically conductive paper
In these two methods, when the whole profile of the cohesive zone is
given, both the volume of gas distributed to the coke slit layers and the
pressure distribution at the inside and outside boundaries of the
cohesive zone can be obtained.
Methods (1) and (2) differ in the following respects. Using method (I),
the profile can be changed relatively easily, and the error between
calculation results and data acquired by actual measurement can be
verified readily; further, the relevance of the equations available for
estimation can be improved with experience. On the other hand,
method (2) is timeconsuming since the profile of the cohesive zone has
to be measured by physically making the zone configuration with
conductive paper. However, it is possible to easily understand the gas
flow and pressure distributions in a locally unusual profile which is
difficult to express by numerical equations, e.g. a profile with no zone
apex or root.
This section takes method (1) as the main subject, and a few remarks
are also made about the principle of method (2).
Figure 3.6.1 shows the principles associated with measurements
made using conductive paper,153. 154 where (a) is a method available for
obtaining the pressure distribution and (b) for obtaining the gas flow
distribution.
In the pressure model the cohesive layers are represented by cutting
out the conductive paper, whereas in the flow model the conductivity is
raised by applying a silver paint. The gas flow lines and pressure
distribution can be obtained by measuring the voltage distribution
while applying a constant voltage to the conductive paper. However, it is
clear that this measurement is made on the basis of twodimensional
potential flow, and this is appreciably different from the actual flow
in a threedimensional situation.
It is to be understood from Fig. 3.6.2 that when comparing profile E,
where the inner side profile has protruded inward, with the profile of the
cohesive zone A, the ratio of the pressure drop in the lower part of the
GLOBAL FORMULATION 241
131
02 04 0_6 08 I0
p . II
X Rb Profi le
H'b 1.73
AE
W, 0. 17
0.32 A
Wb
0.67 £
Fig. 3.6.2. Relation between profiles of cohesive zone and pressure distribution.
Figure 3.6.3 shows a calculation flow diagram for computing the way
in which gas is distributed to the coke slits at the cohesive zone once the
profile of the cohesive zone is provided.
Usually pressure loss is determined by the gas flow rate. However, in
this model it has been taken that the flow rate depends on the pressure
loss. That is, gas flow is produced at the coke slit layers according to the
difference in pressure between the coke column inside the cohesive
zone and the lumpy zone.
The calculation is performed as follows using a trialanderror
method. First, a certain proportion of the gas flow is allocated to the
lowest coke slit layer, whereby pressure at AB, Aa and ab can be
obtained.
Gas flow rate at the secondstage coke slit layer from the bottom may
be obtained from the difference in pressure between Band b with the
above assumption. The gas flow rate at the next coke slit layer can also
be obtained in a manner similar to that used in the above discussion.
During iterations in which pressure inside the cohesive zone
becomes lower than the pressure at the same level in the lumpy zone, the
calculation is suspended and the flow rate has to be set again to a new
value at the bottom stage of the calculation.
GLOBAL FORMULATION 243
B.==:!lJ
Fig. 3.6.3. Schematic diagram and calculation flow chart of gas volume rate
r,
distribution by cohesive zone (C~, C position and thickness of cohesive layer;
PA, Pdp PLu, pressure in front oflowest coke slit, at dropping zone, and at lumpy
zone; Pn , pressure at next coke slit; lJ.Pi, pressure drop at ith coke slit; Vb, lowest
coke slit gas volume rate; V", coke slit gas volume rate; Vd, calculated total gas
volume rate; VT , total (bosh) gas volume rate).
244 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
Burden surface
(TOP gas temperature)
softening
Lower level of
(IOOOOe)
apex
Inner side of
softening  melting
zone (iSOOOC)
Fig. 3.6.4. Determination of the profile of the softeningmelting zone and gas
temperature in the furnace.
GLOBAL FORMULATION 245
at the tuyere centre line. The inner and outer boundaries of the zone are
assumed to lie at l800°C and 1000°C respectively. The gas temperature
in the intermediate regions is linearly approximated according to the
height. Temperatures at the inner and outer boundaries of the cohesive
zone are determined based on the values calculated by another
mathematical modeU 8 These temperatures will be redefined in future
when the softening and melting properties of burden are made clear.
(4) The gas viscosity is kept at a fixed value regardless of gas
composition and temperature. Gas density is also maintained at a fixed
value irrespective of gas composition, and change by gas temperature
only is taken into account.
(5) The gas pressure at the tuyere center is set to 0·9 times the blast
pressure.
(6) Taking account of the volume change of burden as a function of
height, the bulk densities of ore and coke are provided by the following
equations according to the dissection studies of the Kukioka No.4 blast
furnace: 145
Po 1·90 + 1·3x (3.6.l)
Pc 045 + 0'3x (3.6.2)
where Po and Pc designate the bulk densities (tlm 3) of ore and coke, and
x is the dimensionless height from burden surface to tuyere center.
divided according to the ore and coke bases. Thus the following
parameter adjustment sequence is fixed: height oflower level of root_
Height of origin  Inside radius at origin _ Height of upper level of
apex  Height of upper level of root  Outside radius at origin.
With the first parameter changed, calculation is continued while the
sum of squares of the difference between the calculated and the
measured values is decreasing, and when the sum commences to
increase the calculation is transferred to the next parameter. On
completion of the calculation, made by changing the final parameter,
the profile of the cohesive zone which gives the minimum value for the
sum of squares of the difference between the calculated and measured
values is found. Mter that, a second calculation is made by changing
from the first parameter once again with this profile adopted as the
initial value. As a result of the second calculation, the profile of the
cohesive zone which yields the minimum sum of squares of the
difference can be obtained. This minimal sum of squares of difference is
taken as the minimum value in the calculation process, and no
restrictions are placed on its absolute value.
The profile of the cohesive zone obtained by the above procedures is
not computed through every alteration sequence of the five parameters,
and therefore it cannot be said, in the strict sense, that the sum of
squares of difference is kept absolutely at a minimum. However, it may
be considered to approximate a very exact solution in view of the fact
that the results of verification of the model stated later are satisfactory,
and the procedures described above take account of savings in
calculation time.
0
 pressure distribution in
\ the case that gas
2 \
\ temperature is decided
\ by simple linearization
\
4
\  pressure distribution in
6 \ the case that cold gas
\ flows
\
E 8 \ • Measured shaft pressures
\ used in the mode I
.
10 \
CD \ Measured top pressure
> \
.!! 12 \
....u

\
\
0 14 ~
II> \
\

16
E \
...
0
18
\
\
\

CD \
u
c 20 \
0 \
II>
·0 22
24
26
28
dropping zone. Slightly above the root, however, gas flows towards the
wall through the bottom coke slit and this results in a sudden pressure
drop.
Based on the following three points, it was judged that better results
are ensured in the case where no gas flows through the dead man:
(1) Only a slight difference between the calculated and measured
shaft gas pressure at the bottom level is found for the assumption
of zero gas flow through the dead zone.
(2) Since the radial gas temperature distribution obtained with a
shaft probe shows a low temperature at the wall, it is guessed that
a u
o pressure distribution in the
case that gas doesrft flow
2 1000 CD
~
through dead man
;:)
 Pressure dist ribution in
4 500 "0
~ the case that gas flows
CD
0 through dead ma n
E
6
...
CD • Measured shott pressures
used in the model
E II>
8 o ® Measured shaft pressure
<!)
at the lowest level
CD 10
>
..!
12
....u
0
14
Vi
E 16
...e 18
CD
u
r::
0 20
Vi
0
22
 ...
.... ...
,,
,
24 \
\
26 ,
I
I
\
\
28 \
\
Fig. 3.6.6. Effect of dead man on the profile of the softeningmelting zone.
GLOBAL FORMULATION 249
.
\ linearization
E \
\ Measured shaft pressures
.
10
\ used in the mode I
Qi \
>
II> 12 \
\
\
.\
.>0:
0 14
~
II>
16

E
...0
18
Q)
0
c:
c 20
.~
0
22
24
26
28
the exponential function given by eqn (3.6.3) taking the gas temperature
distribution obtained with the top probe as the initial value. This case,
which takes the averaged radial temperatures calculated from the
equation at each vertical level, is compared with the simple linear
temperature distribution given earlier in the figure.
(3.6.3)
where Tg designates gas temperature caC), db d 2 and d 3 are constants,
and z is the distance (m) from the burden surface.
It can be said that the difference between the calculated and
measured values of shaft gas pressure is made smaller by predicting the
gas temperature more accurately using the above equation, and the
estimation accuracy of the profile of the cohesive zone has thereby been
improved. However, since there is no substantial difference in the
estimated results of the profile, it is preferable to use the simple
temperature prediction method.
8
E
10
Q)
>
Q)
12

.>0::
()
o 14
I II
E 16
o...
'0
Q) 18

()
J::
o
I II 20
o
22
24
center wall
Fig. 3.6.8. Comparison of the results estimated using the model with those from
another mathematical model.
_ 0 50 . .               ,
~
0
~
".&>
..
E! ~ (a )
'&e ( b)
1! ..
.~ e /.
'50.. 60
0.0.
~. ..
o
X 40 :.

Q.
.. 0. ~:
.c 0
.: =i
.. .
0:
" "j
!' 0:."
30 .~.; 55
~ '0
" " / ~.E
~o..&>~ :sg
: .~
E 0 "o 0
0:
20 '""_'_ _l.._......J ~"Oo 50 '_L_ _ ' _ _'_'
50 60 70 80 90 0 ~ 50 60 70 80 90
o '"
'" E Gas flow in Ih. peripheml region (Nm 3/s) Gas flow in Ihe peripheral region "(Nm3/s)
130,,
o
o ~
0
_0 \
i
0
~ 60 ,;(c:C~) " ,,110
0: ~ <.>
5~ " 0
"00:
A..,
~.~ g~
o
"0 "
.c 40 .:~ • ~.
<.>  ~ CP 90
O.c
.~
" "
.. 0 1;;

..5 
~ ~
~ e. ~
o ~
20 ~ 70
E~
~ "~
2
8.1! o L_L_ _ ' _ _'    _  '
x. :;
E
~
;0
•
Al1aehed level of Ihermoeouples
2. 50 '_...L.I..._ _ '  _   '_ _ '
" 
E  50 60 70 80 90 17 18 19 20 21
.... 0
Gas flow in Ihe peripheral region (Nm3/s) Dislane.of upper level of rool from slack level (m)
Fig. 3.6.9. Relation between the results estimated using the model and data
obtained with other instruments in the furnace"
volume of
droppi nil zone Cross section of co~e sli Is
ot inner side of softeni ng
melting zone
110
(.) (a )
0

...
Q)
::J
100
...
.,
0
Q)
a.
E
Q)
1/1
0
90
• .~
co
a.
0
~ 80
1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800
52
(b)
~
0
~

c:
0 50
• •
0 •
, •••

N
• • •
•
::J
• • •
48 •
1/1
0
•
co
0
(.)
46
1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800
increases, greater heat exchange between gas and solid occurs and, as a
result, the average top gas temperature decreases. However, the average
TJco in the top gas remains almost constant and this may be because
reduction does not occur below a certain temperature or because the
effect of radial gas flow distribution in the lumpy zone is equally as
important as the volume of the lumpy zone.
Analysis results, including those gained in the operational test of the
Kimitsu No.3 blast furnace with low fuel ratio in 1975, have revealed
that there is a favourable correlation between gas utilization ratio (TJ",)
and lumpy zone volume. It has been discovered that increasing the
lumpy zone volume greatly contributes to improvement in furnace
efficiency.
Figure 3.6.12 shows the relationship between dropping zone volume
and blast furnace operation. Since the quantity of heat transferred from
the gas to the molten metal becomes greater as the volume of the
dropping zone increases, the molten metal temperature rises and the
retention time of liquids becomes greater, thus resulting in an increase
in the Si content in the molten metal. The Si content in the molten metal
shows a fixed value for dropping zone volumes below a critical value,
and in this range the chief reaction is between SiO gas and metal at a
high rate. When the dropping zone volume increases beyond the above
range, the contribution to hot metal Si of the slagmetal reaction
becomes great. The mechanisms for these reactions are currently under
study.
It is to be understood from the description given above that the
volume of the lumpy zone is a useful index representing the thermal
efficiency and reducibility of the blast furnace, while the volume of the
dropping zone is a useful index for representing molten metal
quality.
It is found from Fig. 3.6.13 that the permeability resistance index, K,
in the blast furnace rises as the gas flow per unit crosssection of coke
slits at the inner side of the cohesive zone increases. It is surmised that
this is because the total crosssection of the slits reduces as the apex of
the cohesive zone becomes lower, and this results in an increase in gas
pressure.
K = (P~  p?)/BG17 (3.6.4)
where P b and PI are blast pressure and top gas pressure (g/cm abs), and
2
..0
1540 r,
( 0)
U
a
1530
.•
Q)
...,
~
:::s
rc
• •
• •
~
•
.~
Q)
1520
.
D..
•
...,
E
Q)
...,rc •
Q)
E 1510
...,
0
:c
1500
500 550 600 650 700 750
0.45
*
...,
';;; .
Q) •
E
..., 0.40
0
.<:: •
•
C
...,
.~
c
 . •
,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __eo_.
...,
Q)
0.35
c
0
u
.~
Vl
•
0.30
500 550 600 650 700 750
2.6 r                             ,
/
•
2.5

III
o
0'
o
><
a>
2.4 .1 •
"0
c:
2.3
.J:J
o
a>
2.2
....E
a>
0.. /.
~.
2.1
2.0
1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4
Fig. 3.6.13. Effect of gas flow per unit crosssection of coke slits at inner side of
softeningmelting zone on permeability index of gas.
20 .~
>
0
"0 15
"'
II>
Q)
• •
E
0
0
10 •
....
0
+
0
(/)
___________ .
>< 5
l~
If)
.
OL~L~~~~~~~
. .
1.3 14 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8
Fig. 3.6.14. Effect of the shortest distance between inner side of softening
melting zone and dead man on descent of burden.
.1
Stagnanr zone
Ibl Movemenl af sound,ng
150.3.21
lal
Fig. 3.6.15. Successive slips in operational test of the Kimitsu No. 3 blast
furnace with low fuel rate.
~ 20 r(a,)
.D
o •
><
CI)
a. .~.,~.~.~.

18
o •
o •
~~
.!! E 16
...
CI) ...
o.CI)
g.~
•
_ ~ 14
./
/
o
•
.~
.... II)
oC'"
.~~
!~. 12 L_ _ _ ~ ____ ~~ _________ L_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ ______ ~
II) 20.;l~~(b~)1
>
o
I·
.D
o
><
CI)
a. 18

o
o • ••
~ ..... ••• •
./
16
.!! E
...
CI) ...
o.CI)
a. ....
C
/'
::::I
_ u
II) 14

0
.... II)
oC'"
.~ ~
! ~ I~IOOO 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000
high coke base in Fig. 3.6.l6(a», the level of the apex is decreasing
despite a constant gas flow. This is supposed to be because of a delay in
the heating of ore inside the thick ore layer.
Further, when Fig. 3.6.l6(b) is prepared by taking only the data
enframed by the rectangle in Fig. 3.6.16(a), it is found that, the larger
the kinetic energy of the blast flowing through the tuyere (hereinafter
referred to as a tuyere energy), the higher the level of the apex even
though the gas flow is the same. This is because the depth of the raceway
becomes larger and more gas flows toward the central region as tuyere
energy increases.
Thus, the greater the bosh gas volume per tuyere, the lower the level of
the root, as shown in Fig. 3.6.17(a). The reason for this is the same as the
.
above, namely that, the greater the gas flow, the deeper the raceway and
~ ~
••
•
1\.
1\ , :

,..
Q) 2.0 1\
J \
'0;
Data in high coke base __   i
1.0 '_ _'_ _'_ _'=L::.."_L.

(0 0

0 o~~~~
_ _'=_ _...L._ _.....J
'0

o~
~ E (b)
":.>
o ~ 3.0
Q)
>
Q)
~
Q)
c:
Q)
... ..
 
:p
..
(J 2.0
....
~ Q)
,...,
o ~
0;
:c Q)
1.0 '       '       '     '          '
13000 14000 15000 16000 17000
'" 0>
._
Q) .0
::c c Kinetic energy of blast (kg' m Is )
Fig. 3.6.17. Effect of bosh gas volume and kinetic energy of blast on the level of
the root.
262 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
the more gas flows towards the central region. As bosh gas volume
decreases, the raceway depth becomes less and this results in more gas
flowing in the peripheral wall region. Consequently the root is melted
more rapidly and the level of the root goes up.
Further, when the ore base per charge is high (encompassed by short
dashes as data in high coke base in Fig. 3.6.17(a)) despite gas flow being
the same, heat transfer to the root interior is delayed and the level of the
root is lowered. In addition, when Fig. 3.6.17(b) is prepared by taking
only the data encompassed by the rectangle in Fig. 3.6.17(a), it is found
that, the greater the tuyere energy, the lower the level of the root, even
though the gas flow is the same. The reason for this is that more gas
flows toward the central region when tuyere energy is higher and gas
volume in the peripheral region decreases. Also, for operation with low
fuel rate, the volume of gas for melting the root decreases and, as a result,
the root level lowers.
The mechanism of descent in the apex and ascent in the root for
decreased production operations, based on the above results of
investigation, is as shown in Fig. 3.6.18. However, the extent of the
IEer.a.. in production
n
Oecreo.. in volume Of} ... Decreall in volume of gal
bosh gas per un it croll section of
y
the furnace
1
Decrease in kinetic
energy of blaB' I Oecreo.e in volume of I I ,,~.,'.. '" .~~
~I reduction in volume
'"~
of
tuyer.
I
bosh gal per
r race way
Acceleration
Descent in apex I
Fig. 3.6.18. Change of the blast furnace condition with a decrease in the
production of the furnace.
GLOBAL FORMULATION 263
change in the levels of the apex and the root differ according to whether
reduction has occurred through change in tuyere energy, gas flow per
unit crosssection of the furnace, and bosh gas volume per tuyere when
bosh gas volume decreases owing to operation with decrease in
production, ore base per charge and change in 'fuel rate.
Also, with regard to blast furnaces having the same inner volume, it
can be said that the rate of change in the levels of the apex and the root
for decreased production operations is less in a blast furnace with fewer
tuyeres or a smaller belly diameter.
in ut variables out ut
Volume flow rate
Chemical compositions (Burden) (Top Gas)
Physical properties. Temperature
(Diameter ,DensitY,etc.) Compositions
(State variables)
( Parameters)
Temperature
Geometric profile 'Heat exchange
. 1 Compositions
Rate parameters
'Heat loss. Packing condition
in ut variabl es out ut
TABLE 3.7.1
State Variables in this Model
(a) Reduction of iron oxide by the gas: Rt, Ri, Rj, Rt (kmol/ml . h). An
unreacted core model with two reaction interfaces is adopted for the
reduction of iron oxide by the gas as follows:
R*1
ITO
a ( 
P)
UPl·X22  UP2 ·X12
(i = 1,3)
o 22.4R T pO X ll X 22  X l2 X 21
1 TOP)UP2.XIIUP1.X21
R*1 a (
o 22.4R T pO X ll X 22  X l2 X 21
(i = 1,4)
TABLE 3.7.2
Transport Phenomena in this Model
Reactions
R(: Fe203 + CO _ 2FeO + CO2
R1: Fe203 + H2  2FeO + H 20
Rj: FeO + CO _ Fe + CO 2
Rt: FeO + H2  Fe+H20
Rt; FeO + C _ Fe+CO
Rt: HP + CO  H2 + CO 2
Rr: C + CO2  2CO
Rt: C + HzO  CO + H2
R~: Evaporation of moisture
k
fi
= Di(2
do
+ 0·55 Reog 5S CgO.333)
DsF = k et:;(Tj296Y75
Dsw = ket:~T,/296)175
(k e = 0·0677 for CO reduction and 0·0298 for Hz reduction)
k HW. CO = 20100exp(14000/RTs), k HW. Hz = 107 exp(30000/RT.)
k WF . CO = 2600 exp(14 OOO/RTs), k WF . Hz = 106 exp(30 OOO/RTs)
Rt = ak6
1
( 224R Ts pO
ro P)2 (YCOYH20  Yco:J!H/K6)
268 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
38 .7 PgUgCg a
Re04
g
GLOBAL FORMULATION 269
where Pgis the density, cgis the specific heat coefficient of gas and Reg is
the Reynolds number. Here a is introduced to correct the heat exchange
parameter in the case of the existence of liquid phase as follows:
Heat capacity of coke and un melted ore
a = Heat capacity of coke, un melted ore and liquid
(h) Heat loss coefficient: hw (kcal/m2 . h . DC). The heat loss through the
blast furnace wall proceeds in proportion to the temperature difference
between the inside and outside of the wall. The coefficient of heat loss is
estimated as follows:
h = kb
w lb
where kb (kcal/m· h . DC) is the heat conductivity of the lining brick and
lb (m) is the thickness of the furnace wall.
Here the time dependent term in the differential equations for gas can
be neglected because of the short passing time of gases through the blast
furnace:
oYg _ I
;;  ~ fg(Yg , t, z) (3.7.2)
uZ ug
On the other hand, the differential equations for solid may be
rewritten in the form of total differential equations since they have a
unique solution as follows:
dYs = oYs dt + oYs dz
at oz
Therefore eqn (3.7.1) for solid can be transformed into a set of
ordinary differential equations as follows:
dYs dz
dt = fs(Y" t, z) and dt = Us (3.7.3)
270 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
TABLE 3.7.3
Input Variables in this Model
In this way the differential equations for gas and solid states may be
written as follows:
d
dt Pbe =
Liquid ratio: rl
Temperature of solid: Ts
d 1
dt Ts = Phe~Yn(dTs' csn/dTs) + Phe~ Yn.(dTs· csn,/dTs)
 Ts(:~:; cn~mk,n
n k
. R~ + ~ cn,~mk,n" R~)l
k 0 1
~
Position: z
dz
Us
dt
Descending velocity of solid: Us
Gas temperature: Tg
 Tg~Cl'
1
~mk,l
k
'R~lJ
Gas pressure: P
respectively, D (m) is the diameter of the blast furnace, e is the void ratio
of packed bed, Reg is the Reynolds number, and gc is the gravitational
conversion factor.
3. 7.1.4. Calculations
In solving the differential equations it is convenient to rewrite eqns
(3.7.2) and (3.7.3) in finitedifference forms. Here, the space difference
(Az) and the time difference (At) are given as follows.
The content of the blast furnace is divided into finite layers as small
as the space difference. One unit layer is made of burden and coke
charged at the same time.
The time difference is evaluated such that the blast rate over this time
supplies the necessary quantity of oxygen for the consumption of
carbon in the unit layer at tuyere level. Although this is about 10 min or
so, it may be subdivided into a half or a quarter of the required time
when it is too long to obtain accurate simulation results.
At the start of the calculation, the solid state variables must be set as
an initial condition. The boundary condition for gas at the tuyere level
and the time difference are calculated from the input blast conditions.
Then the differential equations are integrated from the tuyere level to
the top of the layers to give the new state variables. The new positions of
each layer are calculated with their new volumes based on the geometric
profile of the blast furnace.
If the height of the top of the layers is lower than stock level at the
particular time, one or some charges are made to fill the space between
the top of the layers and the stock level.
Behavior of the blast furnace in any operation can be simulated by
iterating the calculation steps mentioned above. An example of the
calculated results for the steady state operation of a blast furnace of
1350 m 3 in inner volume is shown in Fig. 3.7.2.
oil is one of the main control parameters for the furnace heat condition,
namely the hot metal temperature (H.M.T.).
The simulated result shown in Fig. 3.7.3 has a good agreement with
the actual result in Fig. 3.7.4. It takes rather a long time to reach the new
steady state in the case of heavy oil injection. This also occurs for change
in ore/coke ratio, oxygen enrichment and blast volume rate, but the time
is smaller for blast temperature and blast moisture change as shown in
Fig. 3.7.5.
+40
+30
+20 H. M.T.
+I0
0
0.5
0
+30
+20 T.G.T
+10
0
0
2 Reduction (+4.IKmol/min)
0
Total Reductionn(5.5Krnol/min)
0
 2 CO Reductio n ( 3.4 KmoVm in)
0
2 O'irect Reduction (3.5Kmol/min)
4
0 5 10 15 20 25
Time(hr.)
Fig, 3.7.3. The simulated result of the dynamic response to the change in heavy
oil injection by 7'5 kg/H.M. ton for the blast furnace of 3000 m 3•
GLOBAL FORMULATION 275
+40

Hot metal
+ 30
T
tlO
20

O~~~;~
0.4
0.2
O¥~~
 I
 2
 3
....... _
D i rec t Reduction
o 2 4 6 8 /0 /2
( Hou r)
Fig. 3.7.4. The experimental result of the dynamic response to the chanSe in
heavy oil injection by 5'0 kg/H.M. ton for the blast furnace of 1850 m .
276 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
+40
~30
o~ (+29°C)
10 H.MT
20 ( 2~'5°C )
30
_ _ CO/C02
Or~~==~~
005 CO/C02
O~===~ T.G.T (tI4°C)
10 TG.T (1°C)
o K======~(r::I_II.::i3I1(;Km;;:;;o:;[;V;;:;;min)
 2 Total Reduction
O~==== ____,=;~~~
 2 (O.2Kmol/min)
CO Reduction
 °+C====~r:;;~~
2I . (I. I Kmol/min)
4
Direct Reduction Direct Reduction
o 5 10 15 20 25 () 5 10 15 20 25
o 
IO~.M.T.
 20
 30 (330C)
Toto I Reduction
4 ( '52 Kmo !;min)
0
2 (3.1 Kmo!;min)
H2 Reduction CO Reduc:ti~on::~'::':';
0
°k:===="I(r:vi'l'~.6:1<Kmrncoor;l;;;;m:J;;in ) 2 r:zT Kmol/m in)
 2 Direct Reduction 4 Direct Reduction
o 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25
Fig. 3.7.5. The simulated results of the dynamic response of blast furnace to the
step change in (a) BT from 1250°C to 1150°C, (b) BY from 4850 Nm 3 to
4650 Nm 3, (c) BM from 10 g!Nm 3 to 20 g/Nm 3, (d) Ore/coke ratio from 4·1 to 4'0,
for the furnace of 3000 m 3 volume.
GLOBAL FORMULATION 277
It was assumed that the decrease of descent velocity at the top of the
furnace for an hour or two after the shutdown is brought about by the
scaffold formation caused by resolidification of the melting zone during
the shutdown, and that subsequent slipping is caused by remelting of
this solidified scaffold. Therefore, in the simulation, no charge is made
until this scaffold has remelted. The time required for the remelting is
given by the mathematical model itself. The result of the simulation is
shown in Fig. 3.7.6 where the blast and charge parameters were input
Actual
Calculated
J\ fl.
\:i \ I
~
O/C 3.4
25 I
I
,_.Jr.J
1.2 CO/C02
() 1.1
1.0
0.
slipping
12 o 12 0 12 o
Time( hr)
Fig. 3.7.6. Simulated results of blast furnace operation before and after
shutdown for the furnace of 4200 m3 .
278 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
a) 4
2
1550
H.MT
(OC) 15O'Jt" tcf"'~LT9>'     
1450
b)
30 O/C 40
15
H.M.T
(OC) 1::Yv\.'I~~ ++,1 7'7£"H".M'.t  
1450
20 10 20 30
c) 16hr 9hr3IT1 ~.~~______~O~/~C~
1550 3.2
H. M. T __ ;::::::==
( 0C) 1500+~"'+ +,...7",,'7'7
1450 H.M.T
10 20 30
Time(hr)
Fig. 3.7.7. Calculated results of the effects of (a) the inteIVal shutdown, (b) the
change in orelcoke ratio (O/C) before shutdown, and (c) the change in OIC after
shutdown on the recovery of H.M.T. for the blast furnace of 4200 m 3 inner
volume.
5000
25
4000
3500 20
3200
3000 0;,
15
C
(Nm' )
~n 2000
Geametric
10
rate profi Ie
1000 12aa
sao 5
0 IJ
40 400
CO(%)
30
(%)
20
eo}%) o /
.. ~
10 /
~'" T.G.T (Oe) o. Actual
0
~ ........ = Calculated
____________________________________ ~r
I I I I I I I I
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Time (hr.)
Fig. 3.7.8. Simulated results of the blowin operation for the blast furnace of
3600 m 3.
GLOBAL FORMULATION 279
  schedu led
[ _ _ actual
____~B~last temp~________~~====~
Stock level
(m)
lJt"'=    H . M.T.

(Ton) Water sprinkled
~===Co::=(=%=):::::::::::I~
(%) IO~ \~
o C02(%) ~ ~
o 4 8 12. 16 20 24
Time (hr.)
Fig. 3.7.9. Results of blowout operation with the decrease of stock level for the
blast furnace of l350 m 3.
280 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
from the actual operation. The effects of the interval of shutdown and
changes in the charge parameter (ore/coke ratio) have been studied as
shown in Fig. 3.7.7, through which the schedule of controlling ore/coke
ratio should be optimized in order to get smooth recovery of the blast
furnace after the shutdown.
(b) The blowin ofthe blastfurnace. The initial condition of solid in the
furnace can be given from the actual results of filling of coke and
burden before the blowin. Then the blowin operation can be
simulated according to the schedule of the increase in blast rate and
blast temperature. One of the simulated results is shown in Fig. 3.7.8.
The adequacy of the model for the application to the planning of the
blowin of the blast furnace was confirmed.
(c) The blowout of the blast furnace. An example of the simulated
results is shown in Fig. 3.7.9, where a blast furnace of 1350 m 3 in inner
volume was blown out with the decrease of stock level from the top to the
upper bosh under the schedule predicted by this mathematical model.
The actual results are in good agreement with the schedule and the
predictions by the mathematical model until the top of the burden
reached a height around half the hearth diameter above tuyere level.
3.8. NOTATION
Greek letters
a apparent angle of repose ()
aj apparent angle of repose of jth layer (j = 1,2) ()
ai molar fraction of ith component in hot metal ()
ab inclination angle of large bell (rad)
a xy , f3xy permeability in packed bed in directions
x and y (I/L, Mt/L4)
a o, f30 coefficients of permeability at layer 0 (l/L, Mt/L4)
f3a effective area for reaction per unit surface
area of coke ()
f3b inclination angle of feeding hopper (rad)
f3c, f3H mass fractions of C and H in injected oil ()
Yc mass fraction of C in coke ()
8 representative length (= d/6Ej) (L)
Lli vertical depth of ith block (L)
Ll,j, I vertical depth of jth layer in ith block (L)
C'CI void fraction in bed and c at tuyere level ()
Cl ratio of liquid volume to void volume in
packed bed ()
GLOBAL FORMULATION 289
SUbscripts
b burden
be belly
c coke
g gas
gs between gas and solid
gl between gas and liquid
in inflow
ith component
J j = 1, 2 (1, coke layer; 2, ore layer)
k kth reaction
I liquid
M cohesive zone (13001400°C)
o ore
out outflow
R raceway
r component for rdirection
,rz partial differentiation with respect to rand z
S cohesive zone (12001300°C)
s solid
sl between solid and liquid
wi inside wall
wo outside wall
we outlet of cooling water
x component for xdirection
,x partial differentiation with respect to x
y component for ydirection
z component for zdirection
o at top of bed or initial condition
I at tuyere level
~ II vertical and parallel to layer respectively
GLOBAL FORMULATION 291
REFERENCES
65. S. Fujita, Kagaku Sochi Benran (1965), 259, Kagaku gijutsu Sha.
66. M. Sugata, T. Sugiyama and S. Kondo, TetsutoHagane. 58 (1972),
1363.
67. A M. Samarin, A W. Poliakov and L. A Shvartsman, Izv. Akad Nauk
SSSR, 12 (1949), 1639.
68. 1. A Curie, Brit. J. Appl. Phys., 11 (1960),318.
69. C. Slonin, Z. Elektrochem, 36 (1930), 439.
70. G. F. Hutting and H. Kappel, KolloidZ.. 91 (1940), 117.
71. H. T. S. Britton, S. J. Gregg and G. W. Winsor, Trans. Faraday Soc.. 48
(1952),63.
72. 1. H. Perry, C. H. Chilton and S. D. Kirkpatrick, Chemical Engineers'
Handbook, McGrawHill (1963).
73. A W. D. Hills, Chem. Eng. Sci., 23 (1968), 279.
74. W. M. McKewan, Trans. AIME, 218 (1960), 2.
75. W. M. McKewan, Trans. AIME, 221 (1961), 141.
76. T. Otake, S. Tone and S. Oda, Kagaku Kogaku, 31, (1967), 71.
77. Y. Nakamura, E. Tsunetomi and S. Kondo, preprints of 55th TIM
meetings, Toyama, Japan (1964), p. 65.
78. M. Kunugi, H. Jinno and H. Torii,J. Chem. Soc. Japan, Ind Chem. Sect., 56
(1953), 46.
79. W. Graven and F. 1. Long, J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 76 (1954), 2602.
80. J. M. Moe, Chem. Eng. Progr., 58(3) (1962), 33.
81. J. Yagi and I. Muchi, Trans. ISIJ, 10 (1970), 181.
82. C. Yoshii and T. Tanimura, TetsutoHagane, 51 (1965), 1823.
83. Iron and Steel Institute of Japan, Koro SeisenhonoRiron (Domennyi
protsess by AD. Gotlib (1958), translated by M. Tate into Japanese) Iron
and Steel Institute of Japan, Tokyo (1966), p. 333.
84. Ibid., p. 331.
85. J. Perry, C. H. Chilton and S. D. Kirkpatrick, Chemical Engineers'
Handbook, McGrawHill (1963).
86. W. E. Ranz, Chem. Eng. Progr., 48 (1952), 247.
87. 1. C. Agarwal and H. R. Pratt, Blast Fum. Steel PL., 55 (1967), 405.
88. T. Yamada, T. Yonezawa, T. Nagai and M. Nozaki, technical report, Fuji
Iron & Steel Co., 15 (1966), 99.
89. T. Hasegawa, H. Nemoto, E. Sakamoto and K Kuroda, TetsutoHagane,
51 (1965),628.
90. T. Kitagawa, H. Ota and K Kimura, TetsutoHagane, 53 (1967), S205.
91. N. Meysson, A Maaref and A Rist, Rev. Metall., 62 (1965), 1161.
92. P. L. Woolf, J. Metals, 18 (1966), 243.
93. 1. A Peart and F. J. Pearce,J. Metals, 17 (1965), 1396.
94. M. M. Fine, P. L. Woolf and N. Berstein, USBM Rep. No. 6523 (1964).
95. K Wakabayashi, M. Fujiura, T. Mori and N. Inoue, TetsutoHagane, 55
(1969),867.
96. T. Yatsuzuka, K Nakayama, K Ohmori, Y. Hara and M. Iguchi, Tetsuto
Hagane, 58 (1972), 624.
97. T. Kobayashi, F. Nakatani, K Okabe and T. Miyashita, TetsutoHagane,
55 (1970), 881.
294 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
This chapter deals with the flow phenomena in the blast furnace. The
blast furnace is a countercurrent reactor of rising gas and descending
liquid and solid. Since energy for reduction and heating of iron ore to
produce pig iron is supplied by the rising gas, the flows of gas and solid
in the furnace are crucial to furnace performance in both fuel rate and
productivity. While all aspects of the flows of solid and liquid in the
furnace are discussed, only a part of the interesting area of gas flow is
mentioned in the present chapter. One of the major fields of interest,
raceway phenomena, is discussed in Chapter 6. The following subjects
will be discussed:
297
298 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
Of the three phases  gas, liquid and solid  present in the furnace,
the flow of the gas has been most extensively investigated. Owing to
FLOW OF GAS, LIQUID AND SOLID 299
these investigations and the relatively simple kinetics of the flow in the
empirical formulation, it is now not very difficult numerically to
simulate gas flow in a packed bed of known distributions of particle
diameter, porosity and temperature, On the other hand, present
knowledge about the flows of solid and liquid in the furnace is not as
well developed. Therefore the aim of this chapter is not to present a
comprehensive account of flow in the furnace, but to give an account of
the latest knowledge. It is expected that this will give the reader a clearer
insight into the physical phenomena in the furnace. However, it must be
stressed that descriptions of the phenomena have been given quantita
tively wherever possible.
l'"
\
Hyd(oulic unll
Furnoce ,hell
J
i/
101 Bell lOp wllh movable armor 16
I
I
I
lorse bell ' ¥......... J... O
'"
\
\
\
\
\
y
burden surface, the throat wall or the movable armor to form a burden
profile.
These four stages, as described above, are involved in the trajectory of
burden materials at the furnace throat.
(b) Formulation o/the/alling trajectory. We imagine that the large bell
lowers enough to allow the burden materials to discharge. The total
energy T of a unit volume of granular bed at level h 0 in the large bell
hopper is described as
(4.1.1)
where Pb denotes the bulk density of the bed, Vb the descending speed of
the particles,gthe acceleration due to gravity, andh o the distance from a
point made by the hopper wall and the large bell surface.
In the vicinity of the hopper exit, the area where the particles flow
downwards is approximately expressed as follows:
S = 21TR H(D H  kdp ) (DH">kdp) (4.1.2)
where RH denotes the radius of the annular hopper exit, DH the
horizontal clearance at the level h, and d p the mean size of the burden. k
is a dimensionless parameter to be empirically determined and is equal
to about 4, as mentioned previously.
The descending velocity Vb is expressed in terms of ho with the aid of
the correlation DH = he/tan 0b:
Vb = W/PbS = W/Pb21TRH(ho/tan Ob  kdp ) (h o "> kdp tan (}b) (4.1.3)
where W denotes the mass flow rate.
According to Brown's theory,2 the total energy T is dissipated by the
burden descent in the hopper attaining a minimum at the level where
the dynamic arch is formed, where h 0 is approximately equal to the large
bell opening ha:
(dT/dh)ho=ha = 0 (4.1.4)
Substituting eqn (4.1.3) into eqn (4.1.1) and defining the descending
velocity u D (= Vb) at the level of the dynamic arch h a' we may rewrite eqn
(4.1.4):
(4.1.5)
The velocity of particles u E striking the large bell surface after the free
fall from the dynamic arch is written as
(4.1.6)
FLOW OF GAS, LIQUID AND SOLID 303
where it is assumed that the average fall distance is h a!2. Assuming the
nonelastic collision of particles to the large bell surface, we obtain the
initial velocity U Esin (Jb of particles moving along this surface and the
velocity at the edge of the large bell U o:
(4.1.7)
in which 10 denotes the distance shown in Fig. 4.1.2 and /1 the friction
factor of the large bell. The free fall trajectory of particles leaving the
large bell edge is described as
(4.1.8)
If we prepare the data on large bell dimensions 10 and (Jb, friction
factor /1, mean size of particles d P' and large bell opening h a' the falling
trajectory of the burden material leaving the large bell may be
calculated with the aid of eqns (4.1.5)(4.1.8).
The calculated results for coke and sinter are shown in Fig. 4.1.3. It
r
will be seen that, the lower the bell descends, the closer to the wall the
 2.2 ~ 2.2 ~
r
0.1 
2.0 0.2 5
200mm 2.0 2 mm 0.2 5
0.3 :? 0.3 :?
18 500mm OA·~  1.8 00
500 OAO'
  050 ~ O.5~
1.6 700mm 0.6  1.6 700mm 0.6 0
  0.7  0.7
lA lA
1.2 1.2
1.0  1.0
E 0.8 0.8
]0 E
~ 0.6 L 0.6 0
E
00
0
I " OA <{
4' OA 9
<{
:;: 0.2 :;:
·0.2
SlOm SlOm
0 0
0.2 0.2
OA 0.4
0.6 0.6
0.8 0.8
1.0 1.0
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
Distance from wall (m) Distance from wall Iml
laJ Coke Ibl Sinter
Fig. 4.1.3. Calculated trajectories of coke and sinter from a large bell.
304 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING
burden materials fall. In this case the movable armor comes to affect the
falling trajectory at a position at least 600 mm inwards from the
wall.
(c) Burden profiles obtained by use of movable armor. Figure 4.1.4 shows
the coke layer profiles obtained for three movable armor positions:
600 mm, 800 mm and 1000 mm inwards from the furnace wall. 3 In the
600 mm case, the burden profile is similar to that obtained without
movable armor. The 800 mm position gives a typical burden profile
obtained by use of movable armor; the coke layer is thinnest at the wall,
thickest about 1· 3 m inwards from the wall, and gradually decreases in
thickness towards the center, although that is affected by the base
profile. In the 1000 mm case, such a tendency is extremely pronounced.
1000
cc.
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