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List of the Members, the Advisory Members and Staff of

The Committee on Reaction within Blast Furnace Feb, 1982

Yasuo Omori, Research Institute of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy,
Tohoku University
Yasuhito Shimomura, R&D Laboratories-I, Nippon Steel Corporation
Secretarial Members
lunichiro Vagi, Research Institute of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy,
Tohoku University
Masakazu Nakamura, R&D Laboratories-I, Nippon Steel Corporation
Tsutomu Fukushima, Technical Research Center, Nippon Kokan KK
Masayoshi Amatatsu, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
Kuninobu Ishii, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University
Shinichi Inaba, Central Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel, Ltd.
Takeo Usui, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University
Masaya Ozawa, National Research Institute for Metals
Katsuya Ono, R&D Laboratories-III, Nippon Steel Corporation
Hoichi Kuwano, Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo
Mamoru Kuwabara, Faculty of Engineering, Nagaya University
Saburo Kobayashi, Research Institute of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy,
Tohoku University
Nobuo Sano, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
Teruhisa Shimoda, Hasaki Research Center, Central Research Laboratories,
Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.
Nobuo Tsuchiya, Technical Research Laboratories, Kawasaki Steel Corporation
Masanori Tokuda, Research Institute of Mineral Dressing and Metallurgy,
Tohoku University
Hiroaki Nishio, Technical Research Center, Nippon Kokan KK
Michiharu Hatano, Hasaki Research Center, Central Research Laboratories,
Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd.
Tsuyoshi Fukutake, Mizushima Works, Kawasaki Steel Corporation
Masahiro Maekawa, Central Research Laboratory, Kobe Steel, Ltd.
Akinobu Yoshizawa, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokyo
Advisory Members
Tasuku Fuwa, Tohoku University (Prof. Emeritus)
Mayasu Ohtani, Tohoku University
Yasuji Kawai, Kyushu University
Shinichi Kondo, Hokkaido University
Mitsuru Tate, The University of Tokyo (Prof. Emeritus)
Wataru Muchi, Nagoya University
Gyoichi Suzuki, Nippon Kokan KK
Masaaki Higuchi, Nippon Kokan KK
Tanekazu Soma, University of Tokyo
Kunihiro Yoshioka
Tadatoshi Koga
Kenzo Kato
Shigenobu Shimazaki
Kenichi Sato

Committee on Reaction within Blast Furnace,

foint Society on Iron and Steel Basic Research,
The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan


Crown House, Linton Road, Barking, Essex IG II 8JU, England

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Softcover reprint of the hardcover I st edition 1987

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data

Blast furnace phenomena and modelling.

1. Blast-furnaces - Mathematical models
I. Omori, Y. II. Joint Society on Iron
and Steel Basic Research. Committee on
Reaction within Blast Furnace
III. Nihon, Tekko Kyokai
669.1413'0724 TN677

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Blast furnace phenomena and modelling.

Bibliography: p.
Includes index.
1. Blast-furnaces. I. Joint Society on Iron and
Steel Basic Research (Japan). Committee on Reaction
within Blast Furnaces.
TN677.B577 1987 669'.1413 86-29313

ISBN-I 3: 978-94-010-8035-4 e-ISBN-13: 978-94-009-3431-3

DOT: 10.1007/978-94-009-3431-3

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As ironmakers are well aware, it was only a few decades ago that the
blast furnace was viewed as a strange 'black box'. Recently, however,
various in-furnace phenomena have become the subject of serious
scientific study, largely as the result of the 'dissection' of dead furnaces,
together with the development of advanced monitoring and control
techniques. In this way, a new frontier has been opened within the
venerable domain of metallurgy. In the light of these new developments,
the Committee on Reaction within Blast Furnaces was set up in March
1977 by the Joint Society ofIron and Steel Basic Research - a cooperative
research organization of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan (ISIJ), the
Japan Institute of Metals (JIM) and the Japan Society for the Promotion
of Science (JSPS). Consisting of twenty-six members and advisors
drawn from the fields of academia and industry, this committee
collected, discussed, and evaluated numerous papers during its five-
year commission. Particular attention was paid to the interpretation of
findings drawn from the autopsy of dead furnaces, in the context of the
live furnace state, and the correlation of data regarding cohesive zone
configuration, level, and furnace performance. The results of this
intense research activity are presented here in the hope that they will
serve not only as a source of enrichment to the professional knowledge
of researchers and operators, but also as textual material for graduate
students in the field of metallurgy. The thirty-one papers are included
within eight chapters as outlined in the following.
Chapter 1 is devoted to the detailed survey of dissected blast furnaces,
focusing on their spatial analysis: namely, their cohesive zone and its


function, changes in properties of burden materials, burden distribution,

and a number of intriguing metallurgical phenomena including the
recirculation behavior of certain chemical components.
Chapter 2 deals with the progress made in measuring and control
techniques, while Chapter 3 discusses the progress made in constructing
mathematical models of the in-furnace state. Such models include the
most up-to-date two dimensional steady-state and one-dimensional
non-steady-state models, derived from the findings of furnace
Chapter 4 deals with quantification of the flows of gas, liquid and
solid materials in the upper and lower parts of the furnace, and related
phenomena such as flooding, fluidization in the dropping zone, coke
movement, raceway behavior, the dead coke zone, and the flow of hot
metal and slag at tapping. Simulation test data are also presented.
In Chapter 5 the in-furnace high temperature properties of
agglomerated iron ores are discussed. Such properties constitute
important parameters for the construction of mathematical models and
for the prediction of cohesive zone position and level.
Chapter 6 takes up the subject of raceway phenomena and tuyere
combustion zone models, while Chapter 7 examines slag-metal-gas
reactions, with particular emphasis on silicon transfer in the lower part
of the furnace. Such reactions are also related to the process of forming
mathematical models.
Finally, Chapter 8 presents a number of views regarding future blast
furnace technology.
The Chairman would like to express his sincere thanks to all
members and advisors for their indefatigable efforts during their five
years of research, and to the ISIJ secretariat for their efforts in
documenting and editing the work. His special appreciation goes to
Dr. G. Belton, Dr. Peter Scarfe, and Dr. John Burgess of the Broken Hill
Proprietary Company who kindly carried out critical reading of the

Preface v

Part I: Phenomena in the Blast Furnace

Chapter 1 Dissection of Quenched Blast Furnaces 3

1.1 Introduction 3
1.1.1 Background to the present study . 3
1.1.2 Methods of quenching and their effects 4
1.1.3 General in-furnace situations and peculiar
phenomena 5
1.2 Relation Between Behavior of Descending Burden and
State of Combustion Zone. 14
1.2.1 Fundamental descent behavior of burden in the shaft. 14
1.2.2 Asymmetrical descent of burden . 15
1.3 Behavior of the Core. 16
1.4 Situations in and Around the Combustion Zone 20
1.4.1 State in front of the tuyere nose 20
1.4.2 Formation of shell and movements at the lower part
of the raceway. 20
1.4.3 Conditions inside the furnace and the shape of the
raceway . 23
1.5 Shape of Cohesion Zone and Relation to Distribution and
Movement of Burden. 24
1.5.1 Formation of the cohesion zone . 24
1.5.2 Relation between shape of the cohesion zone and
operation conditions 24
1.6 Behavior of Circulating Elements 30
1.6.1 Effect of water quenching on the circulating elements. 30
1.6.2 Behavior of circulating elements and amounts of
circulation 31


1.7 Changes in Properties of Burden Materials 41

1.7.1 Macroscopic changes 41
1.7.2 Microscopic structural and composition changes. 44
1.7.3 Effects of circulating elements on the behavior of the
cohesion zone. 50
1.8 Reactions in the Hearth 53
1.8.1 Slag formation reactions 53
1.8.2 Changes in the metal composition 53
1.9 Concluding Remarks 58
1.10 Addendum 59
1.10.1 Arrangement inside the furnace 60
1.10.2 Changes in properties of the burden 61

Chapter 2 Measurements in Operating Blast Furnaces 64

2.1 Objectives of Blast Furnace Measurements 64
2.2 Development of Measurements for Clarification of Furnace
Reactions 65
2.2.1 Standard instrumentation for blast furnaces a
~&~ ~
2.2.2 Development of instrumentation since the
introduction of blast furnace dissection. 66
2.3 Relationship Between Furnace Measurement and Furnace
Operation (Actual Examples) 72
2.3.1 Relationship between measurements before blowing
out of blast furnace and results of dissection. 72
2.3.2 Measurements and estimations of the cohesive zone 74
2.3.3 Development and use of the latest sensors to study
furnace interiors 78
2.4 Future Development of Blast Furnace Measurements 91

Part II: Modelling of the Blast Furnace

Chapter 3 Global Formulation 97

3.1 Review of Blast Furnace Models 97
3.1.1 Reichardt diagram. 97
3.1.2 Operation diagram 103
3.1.3 Kinetic model 108
3.1.4 Control models 116
3.1.5 Models for estimating internal situations based on
observed data . 121
3.2 One-dimensional Static Model. 121
3.2.1 Overall reaction rates 121
3.2.2 Overall material balance 135
3.2.3 Temperatures of gas and solid at the top of the
furnace . 136
3.2.4 Flow rate and composition of gas at tuyere level 140
3.2.5 Theoretical flame temperature 140

3.2.6 Temperature of gas and coke at tuyere level. 144

3.2.7 One-dimensional mathematical formulation for
internal state of blast furnace. 146
3.2.8 Effect of various operating conditions on productivity
and situation in blast furnace 151
3.2.9 Some applications of the model 162
3.3 Layered Structure Model . 166
3.3.1 Radial distribution of flow rate of gas 166
3.3.2 Mathematical-kinetic model of blast furnace 169
3.3.3 Numerical analysis of blast furnace operation 174
3.3.4 Computed results . 178
3.3.5 Steady-state two-dimensional modelling 182
3.3.6 Governing equations for cylindrical polar
coordinates 184
3.3.7 Some auxiliary relations 186
3.3.8 Numerical solution of two-dimensional model 188
3.4 Two-dimensional Model for Gas Flow, Heat Transfer and
Chemical Reactions . 195
3.4.1 General concept of the radial distribution model. 196
3.4.2 Momentum transfer 196
3.4.3 Mass transfer with chemical reactions 200
3.4.4 Heat transfer . 202
3.4.5 Input conditions 203
3.4.6 Method of analysis 205
3.4.7 Simulation results . 208
3.5 Two-dimensional Formulation by Finite Element Method /214
3.5.1 Flow analysis of gas ' 215
3.5.2 Computed results for gas flow 221
3.5.3 Simultaneous analysis of gas flow and heat transfer 229
3.5.4 Computed results on the simultaneous gas flow and
heat transfer . 231
3.6 Model for Estimating the Profile of the Cohesive Zone . 238
3.6.1 General description of the mathematical model . 239
3.6.2 Relation between indices estimated using the
mathematical model and from blast furnace
operation (cohesive zone analysis with 4000 m 3
class blast furnace) . 253
3.6.3 Analysis of operation with decrease in production 259
3.6.4 Future direction 263
3.7 One-dimensional Dynamic Model . 263
3.7.1 Outline of mathematical simulation model 264
3.7.2 Applications to blast furnace operations 272
3.8 Notation 280

Chapter 4 Flow of Gas, Liquid and Solid . " 297

4.1 Flow of Solids During Charging and Control of Burden
Distribution 299

4.1.1 Burden distribution of bell top furnaces 301

4.1.2 Burden distribution of bell-less top furnaces 314
4.2 Flow of Solids in the Upper Part of the Furnace 325
4.2.1 Information from dissected blast furnaces 325
4.2.2 Burden descent model 326
4.2.3 Decrease in angle oflayer inclination with burden
descent 329
4.2.4 Influence of some other factors 333
4.3 Flow of Solids in the Lower Part of the Furnace 336
4.3.1 Basic phenomena . 336
4.3.2 Formation of mixed zone in the peripheral region
near the wall 340
4.3.3 Movement of coke to the raceway. 344
4.3.4 Movement of coke in dead coke zone and hearth. 350
4.4 Theoretical Approach to the Flow of Burden Material in the
Furnace 352
4.4.1 Stress distribution in the blast furnace . 352
4.4.2 Inclination of the dead coke zone boundary . 360
4.4.3 Notation (Sections 4.3 and 4.4) 362
4.5 Numerical Simulation of Radial Gas Flow Distribution 364
4.5.1 Burden distribution model 364
4.5.2 Two-dimensional gas flow in the blast furnace 366
4.5.3 Outline of results of calculation 369
4.5.4 Concluding remarks 375
4.5.5 Notation 376
4.6 Flow of Gas and Liquid in the Dropping Zone 376
4.6.1 Counter-current flow region 377
4.6.2 Cross flow region 388
4.6.3 Concluding remarks 395
4.7 Flow of Slag and Metal in the Hearth During Tapping 395
4.7.1 State of coke bed in the hearth 396
4.7.2 Flow of slag during tapping . 398
4.7.3 Flow of metal during tapping 402
4.7.4 Mathematical simulation of hearth flow 405
4.7.5 Concluding remarks 408

Chapter 5 High Temperature Properties of Iron Ore

Agglomerates . 414
5.1 Reduction Behavior in Lumpy Zone. 414
5.1.1 Estimation of reducibility in lumpy zone 414
5.1.2 Determination of reaction rate constant of reduction
and comparison with blast furnace operation 417
5.2 Change of Mineral Phases in Blast Furnace 420
5.2.1 Change of mineral phases during reduction. 420
5.2.2 Mineral phases in reduced iron ore agglomerates 426
5.2.3 Change of gangue minerals 439
5.3 Flow Resistance of Gas Through the Fused Packed Bed . 445

5.3.1 Measurement of pressure drop in fused packed bed 446

5.3.2 Numerical calculation of gas flow resistance through
a fused packed bed by use of an orifice model 451
5.3.3 Equation of pressure drop in fused packed bed 456
5.3.4 Quantitative determination of softening properties 458
5.4 Effects of High Temperature Properties of Burden on Blast
Furnace Operation 472
5.4.1 Factors for evaluating high temperature properties of
burden 472
5.4.2 Relationship between high temperature properties of
burden and blast furnace operating performance. 476
5.5 High Temperature Properties of Burden with Cohesive Zone
Model and Direct Measurement of Cohesive Zone . 483
5.5.1 Estimation of cohesive zone with theoretical models 483
5.5.2 Effect of softening properties on gas permeability 486
5.5.3 Evaluation of softening properties of sinter 486
5.5.4 Direct measurement of cohesive zone 491
5.6 Notation 492

Chapter 6 The Raceway 498

6.1 Measurement and Observation of the Blast Furnace
Raceway 498
6.1.1 Movement of coke particles in the raceway 498
6.1.2 Condition near the raceway . 500
6.1.3 Reactions in the raceway 503
6.2 Mathematical Model of the Raceway 506
6.2.1 One-dimensional model 507
6.2.2 Two-dimensional model 520
6.3 Notation 542

Chapter 7 The Lower Region of the Blast Furnace and the

Slag-Metal-Gas Reaction 546
7.1 Reaction of Silicon 547
7.1.1 Introduction. 547
7.1.2 Behavior of silicon in the blast furnace. 549
7.1.3 Kinetics of silicon transfer 553
7.2 Other Reactions. 562
7.2.1 Manganese 562
7.2.2 Titanium 563
7.3 Application of Reaction Models of Silicon to Blast Furnace
Operation . 564
7.3.1 Review of silicon reaction models. 564
7.3.2 Partition reactions of Si, Sand Mn 566
7.3.3 Mathematical model of silicon reactions in the blast
furnace 575
7.4 Notation 597

Part III: Flexibility and Adaptability of Blast Furnace

Chapter 8 Blast Furnace Ironmaking Technology in the Near

Future 605
8.1 Flexible Operation 605
8.2 Increase of Furnace Life 611
8.3 Mechanization of Cast-house Operation 614
8.4 Technology Development Related to Innovative Steelmaking
Process 615
8.5 Use of Blast Furnace for Producing Other Metals 618

Index 621
Part I

Phenomena in the Blast Furnace


Dissection of Quenched Blast Furnaces


1.1.1. Background to the Present Study

Even though analytical studies and computer modeling of reaction
kinetics have developed steadily since the mid-1950s, the blast furnace
has remained a 'black box' and its operation largely empirical. For this
reason many dissection studies on a large number of blast furnaces
have been conducted. I-I I This method of study, in which an operating
furnace is quenched and disassembled so as to gain insight into the in-
furnace behaviour, had already been used in the usN 2 and in the
What differs in the case of the Japanese studies is that there have been
many replacement blowouts owing to the rapid advances in blast
furnace technology, such as enlargement, high pressure operation, low
fuel consumption, and high rate of production, so much so that in the
past 10 years as many as four experimental and nine operational
furnaces have been closed down and submitted to scientific research.
The matter is not only one of mere numbers, but the results have been
positively utilized in developing Japan's own technology, such as in the
low Si operation and stabilization techniques for the furnace condition.
Much of the results of dissection studies has already been published
elsewhere,14.15 but every dissection is unique in providing new
observations and insights. In the present study, in which we have been
fortunate to obtain the participation of many people who had actually


conducted dissections, more recent data were available, making the

analysis more comprehensive.

1.1.2. Methods of Quenching and their Effects

At the outset, the effects of operational conditions, blowout procedures,
and methods of quenching were examined on the basis of detailed
reports submitted.
As regards the method of quenching, the small experimental blast
furnaces were all cooled with nitrogen in much the same way as in the US
Bureau of Mines case, 12 but the operational furnaces were quenched with
water except for Nagoya 1 BF which was quenched with nitrogen. In
each of the latter cases, the effects of blowout and water cooling were
assessed by comparison of the before and after conditions and with
results of continuous measurements taken during the cooling. Objectives
were to observe mainly (i) changes in the positions of various charges,
(ii) changes in temperature, particularly the rise caused by oxidation
with water cooling, (iii) changes in the properties of the burden, and (iv)
changes in chemical composition.
One example of change in the stock line is shown in Fig. 1.1 which is
representative of the changing position of the content. This figure also
shows the descent distance as estimated by the bend of the pipes which

rSl -
• ... _-
aftel walel
16 hrs
6 hrs aller

______ dissected

~--- ---I~
i________ ~ ! 10

I ~ g
r----- -j ~ 15

~__ _ __ Tuyere

~ ~'O 0.5 1.0 1.5

Distance of descent of burden (m)
(Since 6 hrs after blowoutl

Fig. 1.1. Descent of burden following blowout (Tsurumi 1 BF).


had been inserted into the shaft after blowout and before water
quenching. It will be seen that the descent is 0·8-1'2 m at the stock line
on blowout, while that due to water spraying is about 1 m at the stock
line, getting smaller as one goes downwards and becoming almost nil in
the lower part of the shaft. Also, judging from the bend of the pipes, this
descent was almost flat in the radial directions. In addition to the above,
substances that melted and dripped through have to be taken into
consideration. However, as the locations and times at which these
composition changes take place remain unclear, no quantitative
examination is yet possible.
During quenching the temperature rise in the shaft due to water
spraying was examined, and a 150-200 °C rise was observed depending
on the details of the spray used. I. 8 Although no actual measurements are
available for the lower part of the furnace, it is estimated that the
temperature would be lower than in the shaft.
It has been shown that the property and composition changes are
subject to a considerable extent to the influence of the water spray.
However, not all the effects are known today, so results of dissection
studies should be considered in relation to individual requirements.

1.1.3. General In-furnace Situations and Peculiar Phenomena

The major operation parameters of the dissected blast furnace that this
committee has discussed are summarized in Table 1.1, and representa-
tive in-furnace arrangements of matters centering on the distribution of
ore layers are shown in Fig. 1.2. The features of those blast furnaces
during operation and immediately before and after blowout are as
(1) Relative to burden and operation
Higashida 5 BF: production of cast iron
Tsurumi 1 BF: burden mostly of acidic pellets
Kawasaki 2 BF: low strength coke
Amagasaki 1 BF: layer-by-Iayer charging of many different
kinds of raw materials and medium size coke
(2) Relative to conditions just before blowout
Kawasaki 4 BF: long time of blowing-down before blowout
Kawasaki 2 BF: frequent occurrences of hanging and slipping
(3) Relative to charging
Kawasaki 3 BF and 4 BF: control of ore/coke ratio at the center
part by means of auxiliary distributor plates

TABLE 1.1 t:I:l

Data on Dissected Blast Furnaces
Hirohata Kukioka Kawasaki Kawasaki Kawasaki Tsurumi Chiba Kokura Amagasaki
1 BF 4BF 4BF 2BF 3BF 1 BF 1 BF 2BF IBF 2l
volume (m 3) 1407 1279 922 I 148 936 1150 966 1350 721 ~
Hearth "tI
diameter (m) 8'5 7-9 1·7 N 7·1 7-6 7-6 8-4 6'7 II:
Average daily Z
production (tiD) 2605 2 III 1630 1872 1433 1682 1242 2527 1290 ~
Tap~ing rate
(tim· D) 1·85 1'65 1·77 1·63 1'53 1-46 1·29 1·87 1·79 ~
Last production ~
(tID) 3289 2268 1700 1459 1722 1252 2187 1380 ti
Last tapiJing ~
rate (t/m 3 • D) 2·24 1·77 1-48 1'56 1·50 1·30 1·62 1·91 ti
Time to water t""'
quenching from t""'
blow-out 20 min 30min 7h I h 100 min 105 min 20 min (90 min) 35 min Z
Time of water
quenching 6 h 30 min I h 55 min IOh 13 h 35.5 h 22 h II h 4h 45 min 14.5 h
Charging Bell + Buckets and Bell +
apparatus Bell Bell distributor bell distributor Bell Bell Bell Bell
plates plates
sequence CC.CO.OO. CC.OO. CC.OO. CC.OO. CC.OO. CC.OO. CCtoO. CC.OO. C.O.
Coke base (t) 12'5 7·2 5·8 7·28 6·2 7·35 10·2 4·7
Ore/Coke ratio 3·0 3·94 3-49 3·09 2·97 3·09 2·8 3·25 3-6
State of charge 20 0 , V Slightly M Flattish by Inclined to one Use ofY4Ch 20-25 0 , V 10-15 0 , V 20-25 0 ,
because of the use of side beca use distributor V; slightly 0
damaged y, ch of slipping plates; segregated VJ
top armor inclined to tTl
apparatus plates one side (')
Burden 0
composition (%) Z
sinter 50-4 61 58 79 60·2 60·2 39·9 0
pellets 15'2" 11·6" (2 b) 10 " 13 0 70 a 16 a 39·9" 'T1
lump ore 34-4 29 29 30 5 39'8 39·8 20'2 10
Top gas Z
temperature (')
(DC) :I:
center part 300-700 100-400 110 200-300 110 500 315-370 200-500 0
periphery 50-150 50-300 95 130-250 120-170 200 52-130 150-200 III
Top Tleo (%)
center part 20-30 30 40 46 15
periphery 45-55 35-40 45-50 43 52
o Acidic. b Mixed slag. C Basic. Z


Om ttl
5 21
Reduchon ~
Role 10,01 Scaffold
CJ 10 f;
~ 10 20 E I. tT1
= 20 30 '" ;0 '"tI
= 30 50
50 70 .E ::r::
""0v Sofle .. ng loy .. ' Z
gE I· a:::
~Holl:molten laye',;
c ~
gr 20 o
- 25 Carbon bnck tT1
Slog b

(0) H.Oholo 11lF (b) Ku~JOko 4SF

Fig. 1.2. Inside arrangements of dissected blast furnaces.

N)~trft'OO: ~elr:(S)07 ~- Tl + 10m --k "'l,," ,,,~·~:,;w ~
r Jl
Tl+8m - 1?L ~-:;,t::~:~:::::CI::l~:~::ai'."\ rJl
- - Tl+6m -f'.:I-.-~i'l 0
- Tl+4m --j~p~' \-;0...--- ~\"!J '"I1
-- Tl+2m - I:;:;~ ='.' _ :P""~~
-~~I . ~ tl
Raceway Raceway 0:1
:;: 22 Tuyere >
:;: 6 Tuyere :: 'I Tuyere rJl
!; '7 Tuyere lunu,ad! 170mm¢1 >-l
1140mm¢1 '"I1
• 5011.n;n9 zone [J Bed coke
D Coke, [fiI Ore and <ol.e. Z
Iril Ore.
lei Kakura 2Bf tTl

Fig. 1.2.-contd.

-0-- : Ore
~ : CoSl:e
: Ore Qnd Col.e
1___ : Dense loyer
..,z:;r (Mixture of Lime,
Coke and Fine Particles) §
Bu,dol'l :
Pellel 700" 1!S
l Ole!' 30"'<'1 tTl
Cole 515 ."
~Clle Ic.~ I
Ir"'t"r Vol
1 1501' )
H~(lIrit D.n ~
S ~
E~ Charging S~u"nc",
N 0102+ C1 C2+ E
C2 ' lorm"d cok"
Idl Tsurumi 1BF lei Kawasaki 3BF

Fig. 1.2.-collld.

rra:a O'e 10\e'

~ 1[11J1 Fused '0 ... tj

~ Ho ·h "'e;led 1000el C/')
~ tr1
o Vod
AP~ Q 'J CHG '\10 (3
~ 7'00 o'Tl
~ /:)
-=:: ,.. 0--
-- -- ----
,'-- 5'00
j$r-u:t1r:}-KJIJJ n
QFe::prr;:o1JJ OC'!i ::r:
:OlO][IJGWr-1 tr1
JI'tn'JIJ01[ - - , ~'OO· tj
?;: I til
I ,
I ~-l
2'00 ;g

III Ko"csok , 4SF Ig i Kowoso~ , 3BF

Fig, 1.2,-contd.
m. Sl

eb"c< ~ Qrelo..,.e'

15 ~ M..-ed IO,e' ~--l

1ft I f\lSed 1 lo'~e(
_ Holr,fus.ed' ~
R Med· ,,"1"1 ~'.7e cc~e
Vied'tllT"' 5'ze cc~e
M coI"lo,!'I""9 sfu9 1!)
CO io:e In.,.cr
unm cor,fo,,,,ng }'log tr1
10 '1:j
~ A ... so!,l ::t
M' )' ed bvrde" loyer
burden Z
~ Co~p. of ! .. -(ere !'lose o

T.H. U
o tr1
4m 3 2 I 0
Ih) Ch ibo I BF 1,1 Amogosoki I BF

Fig. 1.2.-contd.

While furnaces other than those mentioned above were typical of the
medium to small blast furnaces that work on sinter, the states of their
melting zones were considerably different due to differences in the
charge distribution, top design, and at the tuyere.
Generally, the ore layers and the coke layers keep their as-charged
stratification well in descending to the melting zone in the lower part of
the furnace, where three or four ore layers are softened and fused
together before melting. This formation of the fusion, or the cohesion,
zone is again considerably different from one furnace to another, but
the inverse V axisymmetrical shape, seen in the cases of Kukioka 4 BF,I
Hirohata I BF,t Kokura 2 BF,4 and Tsurumi I BF,s appears to be typical.
When considered together with the behaviour clarified by means of
marker materials,6-s. 16 the descent and structuring behaviour of burden
in the furnace may be functionally classified as shown in Fig. 1.3.



Fig. 1.3. Functional structuring of blast furnace.

(1) The top part, where the layering is determined by the charging
method, burden materials, and size distribution
(2) The lumpy zone, where the individual particles of ore do not as
yet get fused together, and the coke and ore layers make an
orderly descent as stratified

(3) The cohesion zone, where the ore is softened, fused, and
eventually melted, the ore descending forming the cohesion zone
in accordance with the state of gas flow that is in turn determined
by the burden distribution and the position of the tuyeres
(4) The coke zone, which is situated beneath the cohesion zone and
above the core, or the conical deposit of coke known as the dead
man, serving as the coke supply source for the combustion
(5) The combustion zone, which is a zone of coke burning in and
around the raceway in a swirling motion
(6) The core, which is a deposit of coke of conical shape, found in the
lower part of the coke zone, and where the descending behavior
of coke is not a continuation from above, the coke being held up
for a long time
(7) The melt bath, which is composed of the slag layer on top of the
metal layer, both filled up with coke, which is often much
coagulated near the bottom, and the bath itself filling the space
between the lower portion of the core and the hearth, the upper
surface being raised or lowered in accordance with the state of
formation of slag



1.2.1. Fundamental Descent Behavior of Burden in the Shaft

In this chapter we shall call the lumpy zone together with the cohesion
zone the shaft; then the coke zone, the core, and the melt bath collectively
form the core. Thus, in Fig. 1.3, we will regard the entire furnace as
consisting of the shaft, the core, and the combustion zone.
The following features were common to all the furnaces.
(1) the ore layers and the coke layers descended stratified until the
ore layers were melted down.
(2) the layer thickness decreased, while the angle of inclination also
decreased, as the burden descended.
Therefore the burden descends approximately in a piston-like flow
with the distribution given at the furnace top as the initial condition,
decreasing the angle of inclination of each layer mainly under the
influence of (i) the shaft angle, (ii) contraction and melting of ore layers,
and (iii) collapse into the raceway.
Incidentally, in the Kukioka 4 BF and Chiba I BF furnaces we

observe instances where the coke layers and the ore layers did not retain
the stratification, but formed a mixed burden layer at the furnace wall.
This phenomenon is known to be due to wall trouble, I and therefore is a
variation of the basic pattern. This theory has been verified in a test
conducted with a two-dimensional model for an accident involving the
fall off of armor plates at the furnace top which had happened in the
Kukioka 4 BF furnace.
In the shaft, certain peculiar formations were seen: (i) in the Tsurumi
1 BF furnace the radial distribution of the ore layer is clearly different
between the top five or six layers and the layers beneath them, and (ii) in
the Amagasaki 1 BF the medium lump coke layer is convex at the center
presenting a mushroom-like appearance. In the former, it is suggested
that fluidization of the central portion of the coke layer occurred when
the top gas flow distribution was changing while an ore layer of lesser
gas permeability was charged. 17 From the blast volume that would give
rise to fluidization, those upper five or six charges are thought to
correspond to the time when the fluidization ceased to continue as the
gas flow was reduced. The case of the Amagasaki I BF is considered to
be similar except that here the fluidization took place in the medium
lump coke layer, which is more apt to be fluidized.
In any event, these features should be regarded as peculiar to the
stockline, or the furnace top portion, suggesting the importance of blast
volume in the formation of stratification structure at the top, along with
the more obvious influence of charging apparatus and property of the
raw materials.

1.2.2. Asymmetrical Descent of Burden

Sometimes the burden in the shaft descends non-uniformly along the
periphery. This is mainly due to non-uniform combustion rate of coke
at each tuyere and non-uniform flow resistance of the burden,
particularly that in the cohesion zone, which gives rise to uneven gas
flow. They all influence the formation of the cohesion zone.
For example in the Kokura 2 BF, as shown in Fig. 1.4, the tuyeres of
the east and west sides are oflarger diameter (120-140 mm) than those
of the north and south sides (70 mm, some blinded altogether). As a
consequence, not only the location of disappearance of the cohesion
zone but the degree of decrease oflayer inclination is higher in the east-
west direction than in the north-south direction. This attests to the fact
that the blast volume, and hence the rates of melting and descent of
burden, was greater in the east and the west sides. This will be discussed
again later.


* S * * : Blinded tuyere
Fig. 1.4. Tuyere diameters of Kokura 2 BF.

Further, in the Chiba 1 BF, in which asymmetrical distribution was

found, two tuyeres on the east side had been blinded. This, together with
the peripheral development of mixed burden layer due probably to the
formation of ansatz, might have retarded the melting and descent of
burden in that direction. In the Amagasaki 1 BF, where north-south
asymmetry was noted in much the same manner as in the Chiba 1 BF,
however, neither unevenness in the tuyere diameter nor noteworthy
development of ansatz was found.
Though the true cause thus remains unknown, the following two
observations may offer a clue: (i) there was an iron notch on the north
side, about which the descent of burden appeared to have been faster
than at any other place; (ii) there were certain indications on the north
side wall, which might have been the traces of slightly developed ansatz,
because there the ore layers showed a tendency to hang from the lower
part of the shaft through the bosh. Of these two, the former should merit
further research, for there is an independent observation, made on an
operating large blast furnace, according to which the wear of
refractories can be related to the positions of the iron notches. 18


Generally, the core is made up of coke deposited conically, whose top

part isthe so-called coke zone, while at the lower end it touches upon the

raceway making an angle of30-50 o. This is illustrated in Fig. 1.5, where

the motions of various parts of the core are also depicted. It will be noted
that these motions, which have been reasonably deduced from various
observations to be discussed below, are distinctly different above the
slope from below it.

Coke zone

zone -1'~~I
- Melt both

Coke flowing into raceway

2 Sluggish flow into raceway at the
lower port of deposit
'3 Sluggish descent
'4 Periodic heaving motio:l

Fig. 1.5. Schematic view of movements in the central core.

As may be judged from Fig. 1.6, which shows the distribution of

formed coke layers that were charged as markers and of caged tracer
pieces, and from Fig. 1.7, which gives the locations of the graphite
tracers, the basic pattern of behavior above the slope is determined by
the motion of the coke flowing into the raceway.
With regard to the behavior of materials below the slope, on the other
hand, the following observations have been made.
(1) Even though the half-molten layers did exist stratified, the
markers, which were expected to be present continuously from above,
were not found (Kawasaki 3 BF; Fig. 1.2).7
(2) Thin layers containing lime were found descending making an
interval of 200-500 mm (Tsurumi 1 BF).8
(3) The locations of disappearance of un melted burden were found
to correspond at 2-3 weeks' lagging to the changes in armor position
(Kawasaki 3 BF).7

(4) The residence time of the hearth coke, as estimated from the
graphitization degree of coke at the hearth, was about 1 week (Chiba
1 BF).16
Even though the peculiar phenomenon that the cohesion zone itself
had descended was seen in Kawasaki 2 BF and in Amagasaki 1 BF, it
may be concluded from these results that the descent of materials below
the deposition slope is not continuous from above but intermittent, and
that the motion is so sluggish that residence there is for 1-3 weeks.
In fact, there is further evidence to support this theory of intermittent
descent of the core materials. An examination showed that the shell at
the lower part of the raceway which was in contact with the core
descended stratified/ and this is considered to be a result of heaving, or
Kawasaki I Tsurumi
3 BF . 1 BF I

--- ---L- -5L---:


~ \ I

t F\e

~~.II • I

~~ I


Fig. 1.6. Distribution of caged samples and marker coke layers inside the


o Cubic 5 doys 21 hrs. 090

~ large Ir!angular prism 3 days 2 hrs. ago
o 1 '8 Cylinder 1 day 20 hrs ogo
A Small Irlongular prism 19 hrs ogo

Fig. 1.7. Presence of graphite tracers (Chiba IBF).

up-and-down, motion that the core coke was making owing to the
difference in buoyancy exerted by the tapping and accumulating
periods of hot metal and slag. 19 Further examination of the mechanism
of this motion is left to a later section but, in short, the driving force of
descent is due, partially at least, to the intermittent carburization of
metal by coke that accompanies change of slag level, and to the
consumption of coke on direct reduction by the dripping slag.
Another probable cause of coke motion is the pushing-up of core
coke under increasing buoyancy due to accumulating slag, in which the
coke tends to ascend floating along the raceway at the periphery. This is
suggested by two observations: (i) the thin lime layers found in the
Tsurumi 1 BF furnace core coke zone were horizontal at the central part
of the core lower part, turning upwards at the periphery; (ii) there was a
coke zone of slightly different nature between the shell around the
raceway (to be described later) and the core, and there coke particles of
different color, namely those coke particles that were impregnated with
slag, were occasionally found.
Finally, the upper part of the raceway where the rate of inflow of
burning coke and the gas velocity are both large should be under a
smaller load than the central part of the furnace, and consequently the
ascent of coke from below should be easy. However, this problem is still
under active discussion as no conclusive evidence has been revealed in
the dissection studies.


1.4.1. State in Front of the Tuyere Nose

Generally, right in front of a tuyere there is a cavity called the
raceway, in which coarse coke particles are often found loosely packed.
Further ahead, there is the shell that is compactly made up of finely
divided coke, small size coke that is thought to have been created in the
raceway, and metal and slag. This zone transcends into the core, which
is composed of coke lumps. This situation is shown in Fig. 1.8, which
depicts the case of the Kukioka 4 BF as typical. l
It has been deduced from the results of probing for core depth
undertaken during active operation that the raceway cavity created by
the blast during the course of production had actually been extended up
to the shell. Though the dimensions and shape of the raceway differ
from one tuyere to another, it has been established that each one is
individually separated from the adjacent raceway.1.4

1.4.2. Formation of Shell and Movements at the Lower Part ofthe Raceway
The formation of the shell found in the Tsurumi I BF is depicted in
Fig. 1.9. It was formed starting from slightly above the tuyere center
plane to a thickness of 30-60 mm with, as mentioned above, small to
fine coke, slag of high basicity and high alumina content, and metal.
From the distribution of these substances, densification presumably
proceeded first with the coke particles closing together, then with the
viscous slag clogging the gaps between the particles. The fact that the
slag has a high basicity (high alumina content was the same for the
Kawasaki 3 BF, which operated on a mostly sinter charge, as for
Tsurumi 1 BF, for which the charge was mostly lump ores) would
appear to indicate that generation of SiO and inflow of lime in the
raceway was considerable. The features of the raceway lower part may
be summarized as follows.
(1) Traces of shell were often found stratified in the raceway lower
part, and the compositions ofthe slag in them were much the same in all
the cases. It may be that this stratified descent is due to changes in the
tuyere front state caused by the tapping slag, a phenomenon that is quite
often observed in small and medium size blast furnaces (Fig.l.lO).
(2) Many dark coke particles having numerous depressions on the
surface (those described as 'pockmarked') were found between the shell
and the wall of the raceway lower part. This was thought to show that the
metal and slag that drip down through this part have a different


I : Co .... ty ~
II : Lorge brown cot.e ~
lit : Small brown round,s" c:olo.e "rI
1\ : Dork dM~ loyer hnt;t;lura of groph,re. meloi $Iog and C
5moll cokel
: Lorge coke .to line co~e 1· ,5 mml
\'1 : Oork ongulor lo rge co!.; •. tl'lelo; ond 5109 drop,"
\"11 : lO'g8 brown co!.:.e
~III : Dark small co'l.a, metal al'ld stag drop!
IX : Brown middle size colte Impregnoted with slog
\ : B.rown and dor!.:. large co~e

101 Ibl

Fig. 1.8. State of materials distribution in front of tuyere (Kukioka 4 BF). tv



Co e
A.r-...,----'bIc-+_ Void

Roce- _ ' _ Shell

way ...... Core

90 __ ___
-0~ ~ I \

- 80 • _0
c:!' I " 50_
o c 30
'" '"
:> :>
~~ 20
Melol -16
~ 0
10 Slag
0» C A
=I 7
large i Mot"

Fig. 1.9. State of shell structure around the combustion zone (Tsurumi I BF).

1 Inside of roceway
2 The shell. a moxlure of
small coke and droplets
of melol and slog
MOlly medium size coke.
loosely pocked as a whole

4~ 1 Troces of shell

8 Many poe kmarked coke

Fig. 1.10. State of structural arrangement near the combustion zone as

observed in the Kawasaki 2 BF and 3 BF.

composition from that of the core, and that the movement of coke in this
part of the furnace is very sluggish.
As the behavior of materials in and around the raceway appears to be
related to the discontinuous movement in the core, discussed earlier, as
well as to the dynamics of coke consumption, further research is called

1.4.3. Conditions Inside the Furnace and the Shape of the Raceway
As the asymmetrical distribution of burden found in the Chiba 1 BF
and the peripheral unevenness found in the Kokura 2 BF were
considered as being due to peripheral uneven distribution of gas flow,
the relation between these phenomena and the blast volume of
individual tuyeres has been examined.
It is known that in the Kokura 2 BF the tuyere nozzles at a certain
orientation were intentionally narrowed to protect the furnace wall. 4
The blast volume for each tuyere was calculated using the Wagstaff
formula 20 from actually measured values of raceway depth, particle size
in front of the tuyere, and tuyere nozzle diameter. This is shown in Table
1.2. It will be seen that in the north-south direction, in which the small
diameter tuyeres were deployed, the blast volume was as low as 1/3 to 1/5
of that in the other directions, a fact that was considered to have caused
the cohesion zone to descend as far down as the tuyere leve1. 4

Blast Volumes Estimated for Individual Tuyeres of Kokura 2 BF

No. of Diameter Depth of Mean size Apparent Bosh gas volume

tuyere oftuyere raceway of coke density of at tuyere
(mm) (mm) (mm) coke (g/cm 3) (Nm 3/m in. tuyere)

1 70 200 7-4 0'92 6'3

2 140 430 10'6 0'92 32'5
4 130 600 13-2 0'96 45'4
6 120 400 13-4 0'93 29'2
5 120 470 11-3 0'86 29'9
6 140 620 11·9 0·82 45'0
7 140 450 9'9 0'90 32'6
8 140 490 10'5 0'86 35'5
9 140 715 15'2 0'86 57'5
21 140 550 12'1 0'91 43'7
22 70 250 18'8 0'89 12'3

Further, the permeability distribution of the burden affects the shape

of the raceway. This was seen in the Kawasaki 3 BF, where the armor
plates were so manipulated that more of the ore would be provided at
the center, so that the unmelted ore layers descending through the
furnace center would be increased and the raceway would become
shallower for the same blast velocity. 7 This observation suggests that the
distribution of charged materials does affect the raceway shape through
changes in permeability induced in the furnace lower parts. That is to
say, when the burden at the center is richer in ore, the central flow would
be weakened, and enlargement of the raceway towards the core would
be hindered, resulting in less flow of gas towards the core. Therefore the
tuyere front combustion zone should be such that the extent of the zone
can be controlled by means of tuyere nozzle diameter changes and
possibly by other devices on the basis that distribution of charged
materials will greatly affect the conditions inside the furnace,
particularly those in the lower parts.


1.5.1. Formation of the Cohesion Zone
Ores, in the form oflumps, sintered ore, pellets etc., descend through the
furnace, going through processes of reduction, softening, melting, and
dripping on to the hearth, and at temperatures between the start of
softening and dripping they form the cohesion zone. With regard to this
cohesion zone, the following features were common to all the furnaces
(1) The zone consists of a number of annular layers of fused ore.
(2) Each fused layer gets reduced and melted by the layer until it
disappears by dripping away along the core slope.
The shape of the cohesion zone may be inverse V, W, or upright V,
depending on the distribution ofthe gas flow which is determined by the
operation conditions, but recent investigation has revealed cases of
inverse V-W mixed type in the Chiba I BF and Amagasaki I BF. These
observations are summarized in Table l.3.

1.5.2. Relation Between Shape of the Cohesion Zone and Operation

The shape of the cohesion zone is influenced by (i) the distribution of
the charged materials, (ii) the descent behavior of materials in the
Distribution of Charged Materials, State of Descent and Features of Cohesion Zone

Furnace Distribution of charged materials Descent of burden Features of cohesion zone

and operations

Hirohata I BF 1. V charging with bell; 1. Descent of 0 and C layers 1. Promotion of center flow by
formation of center flow as stratified high tapping rate
by in-flow of large lumps 2. Decrease of slope as they 2. Cohesion zone is sharp
2. Promotion of center flow by descend inverse V; skirt in all
CO~ mixed charging 3. Core coke movement is orientations disappearing
3. 0 layers and C layers perfectly sluggish by melting high above
stratifying tuyere level
Kukioka 4 BF 1. V charging by bell but 1. Descent as stratified except 1. Low fuel rate; normal tapping
CC~OO~ type; much in-flow mixed layer at periphery rate; presence of periphery
of ores to center, suppressing 2. In certain directions, mixed layer making cohesion
somewhat the center flow periphery flow dominated, zone W shape
2. Because of accidental helping center cohesion zone 2. Improved gas utilization rate
fall off of armor plate, O-C to extend to lower part of by coexistence of central
mixed layers developed at furnace flow and periphery flow
periphery, promoting 3. Cohesion zone disappearing
formation of periphery flows before tuyere level reached
3. No discontinuity in ore layers
to the furnace center
Kawasaki 4 BF 1. CC~OO~ charging by bell, but 1. Descent as stratified all the 1. Low fuel rate and normal
flat gas distribution intended way through tapping rate intended; flattish
by making use of armor gas flow distribution

TABLE 1.3-contd. N

Furnace Distribution of charged materials Descent of burden Features of cohesion zone

and operations
2. Thick 0 layers at center when 2. Formation of inverse V O:l
armor plates in use cohesion zone; central ~
cohesion zone extending VJ
below tuyere level '"rI
Kawasaki 2 BF 1. With bucket and bell 1. Descent as stratified all the 1. Tending to central flow
CCtOO. charging, tending to way through domination; forming low ~
slight center flow domination inverse V cohesion zone ~
2. Presence of fused matter '"t:I
below tuyere level, probably ::r:
due to hanging and slipping Z
before blowout 0
Kawasaki 3 BFl. CCtOOt charging with bell, 1. Basically descent as stratified 1. Charging intended for flat gas tTl
while strengthening periphery all the way through flow distribution; formation Z
flow by use of armor plates 2. Formation of peripheral of inverse V cohesion zone
2. Stock line inclining to one mixed layers at shaft lower because oflowproduction rate ~
direction, perhaps an part where wall thickness operation
influence of blowout decreases 2. Central cohesion layers 0
extending below tuyere level t:I
Tsurumi I BF 1. CctOOt charging with bell; 1. Descent as stratified all the 1. Inverse V type cohesion zone t""
70% pellet; distribution way through due to low production rate; t:
controlled by changing 2. Evidence of flowing in to normal fuel rate operation Cl
method of forcing pellets raceway along core slope 2. OIC at center nearly zero;
into skip sharp temperature peak at
2. When normally blown, center
almost all ore layers
discontinued at center
Chiba I BF 1. CC~OO~ charging with bell; 1. Wall much eroded; extensive 1. Central flow and periphery
small O/C; basically central formation of mixed layers flow mixed type under low
flow dominant type due to ansatz production of rate operation;
2. 0 layers and C layers both 2. Occasional large disturbances due probably to disturbed
uneven and greatly disturbed in both 0 and C layers; this distribution of charged
and presence of blinded materials
tuyeres brought about 2. Height of inverse V cohesion 0
unbalanced blast distribution zone rather high for low VJ
production rate (j
Kokura 2 BF 1. CC~OO~ charging with bell ; 1. Stratified descent both of 0 1. Normal production rate; 0
central flow dominant type and C layers central flow dominant type Z
0 0
2. Presence of mixed layers at 2. Original 30 slope flattened operation "r1
center; small flow of ores at lower part of furnace 2. Inverse V shape cohesion I:)
into central part, promoting 3. In N-S direction, where some zone
center flow tuyeres only 70 dia. or
blinded, cohesion zone :r:
descended as far as tuyere tTl
level 0
Amagasaki 1. Heavily pellet-loaded charges; 1. Basically stratified descent 1. Basically, high production rate
I BF thicker ore layers at middle, 2. Development of periphery and formation of inverse V >-l
and thicker coke layers at flow due to mixed layer cohesion zone, but because ;:J
periphery and center formed on N side, helping of development of mixed
2. Ore layers occasionally central cohesion zone to layer on N side, flow became
broken at center, due survive to below tuyere level periphery dominant, making ~
probably to periodic changes cohesion zone asymmetrical VJ
in gas flow distribution


lumpy zone and the cohesion zone, (iii) the conditions in the
combustion zone, and (iv) the state of coke inflow at the combustion
zone. This is illustrated in Fig. 1.11; it can be seen that the factors have a
cause-and-effect relationship with each other, so individual examination
can be problematical. For the sake of simplicity, if one singles out the
two factors of (a) the distribution of charge and (b) the production rate,
which is in proportion to the blast volume, their relationship with the
shape of the cohesion zone may be summarized as shown in Fig. 1.12.
Here the ordinate, the ore/coke distribution index (O/C), is the weight
ratio for the Kawasaki 2, 3, and 4 BFs and the Tsurumi 1 BF,
the layer thickness ratios of ore and coke layers as averaged over the top
five or six layers for the Chiba 1 BF, Amagasaki 1 BF, Kukioka 4 BF,
and Hirohata 1 BFs, and the layer thickness ratio as averaged over five
layers right above the cohesion zone for the Kokura 2 BF.

Distribution control
Properties of burden

Top burden distribution 1 1 - - - - - - - - - - ,

Fig. 1.11. Interrelations among operation variables and resultant shape of the
cohesion zone.
u ;~L ____
Q t:I
0 n
"Eo (3
? Z
g' I:)
Q. c:::
Q m
0 Z
~ m
" "
I L~J r~;l
..' 4 :: u
Note: o
In Ore Co~e ratios
10 Ci: 1$ bv v\leighl 2
o C . IS bv lo\er thickness I

Sror:E' ~~: I Asvmmetricol shope rille to mixing W shope due to 1111::<'ln9 of center Inverse V V shope with flat gas flow due to

of cenler riow Inverse VI Gild and periphery flows due to center periphery flow
perlpher, flow flow

Fig. 1.12. Relations between the shape of cohesion zone and the distribution of charged materials. \C)

The conclusions that may be drawn from these observations are as

(1) In the case of normal bell-charging operation, the O/C at the
center is small, and the inverse V type cohesion zone will be formed
(Kawasaki 2 BF, Tsurumi 1 BF, Kikura 2 BF, Hirohata 1 BF).
(2) The elevation of the inverse V cohesion zone center is high when
the blast volume (the production rate) is large.
(3) By making the central O/C greater by the use of the armor plates,
the cohesion zone center is lowered until it touches the core top; then a
steady V shaped cohesion zone is formed because, as the motion of the
core coke is so sluggish that the cohesion zone captured in the lower
parts of the core cone slope is held up for a long time, affecting the
permeability of the core, the flow at the periphery is enhanced
(Kawasaki 3 BF and 4 BF).
(4) If a mixed burden layer is formed in the periphery due to
difficulties at the furnace wall, the permeability of the periphef'j is
improved, so that a W type cohesion zone is developed as a result of
mixing of the central and the periphery flows (Kukioka 4 BF).
(5) When a mixed burden layer is formed in the periphery and either
circumferential inbalance in the blast volume or uneven descent of the
burden has occurred, an asymmetrical cohesion zone is formed under
asymmetrical mixing of the center and the periphery flows (Chiba 1 BF).
Here the phenomenon in the Amagasaki 1 BF, where the cohesion
zone was asymmetrical in shape and the unmelted ore layers had
descended as far as near the slag layer of the core lower part, is
apparently different from the case of the Chiba I BF above, but the two
causes mentioned in Section 1.2.2 may be the ones that are to be
considered. However, no evidence is available as yet.


1.6.1. Effect of Water Quenching on the Circulating Elements

The elements that circulate through the furnace interior via gaseous
phases are the alkalis, i.e Na and K, Zn, S, Si, AI, Mg, and possibly
others. The behavior of the first five elements is of particular interest
because it is related to the following operational problems;
(a) Formation of ansatz; K, Na, Zn
(b) Behavior of softening-melting of ores; K, Na, S

(c) Changes of coke properties: K Na

(d) Increase of blast pressure due to overheating at the tuyere front: Si
(e) Composition of the hot metal: Si, S
It was hoped that the dissection studies would ascertain (i) amounts
of circulation and accumulation, (ii) states of occurrence, both
macroscopic and microscopic, and (iii) effects on the softening-melting
behavior of ores. However, these elements were all subject to the
influence of the water quenching and other actions taken,S and the
following problems remained unsolved.
(1) Influence of water quenching. As clearly shown in Fig. 1.13, the
influence was considerable at least in the shaft. The changes incurred
were not consistent, but the trend was that, as the water circulated, the
concentration increased slightly at the top portion but decreased in the
middle to lower parts of the shaft. In particular, the decrease of alkalis at
the middle portion of the shaft was great. This may mean that what were
seen in the dissection studies were only those that were in forms which
are relatively stable to water.
(2) Analysis only ofsolid phases. The analysis of circulating elements is
possible only with solid samples, and no examination together with the
gas counterparts is possible.
(3) Changes ofmicroscopic states during cooling. Analysis is possible for
phases that are not only water-insoluble but have already been
sUbjected to segregation and other structural changes.
(4) Difficulty of quantitative determination. As the content of each
constituent does not remain unchanged, and as no reference is available
to serve as the standard, determination of absolute or even relative ones
that are consistent is very difficult.
Therefore the examples of calculations to be discussed in the
following should be understood as subject to these restrictions.

1.6.2. Behavior of Circulating Elements and Amounts of Circulation

The distribution, regions of circulation, amounts of circulation, and
difference in absorption by different ores have been assessed and
summarized in Table 1.4 for alkalis, S, and Zn.
As may be seen in Table 1.4, the macroscopic distribution is basically
much the same for all the blast furnaces examined, but it must be
remembered that the behavior ofS in coke is inconsistent so that further
analysis is needed, and that alkalis in the core lower part might have
been influenced by the quenching water, since unusually high
concentrations were sometimes found.

Temp. lOCI 1:0

400 500 600 700 800 900
Iri--~-.--~--r--T--~ §
.... after quench

I '", 0-0 before quench
I \ ~
·0 .~ '"t:I
g ::c:
I .. ~ tTl
·0 Z
~ 15.0 o
o ~IDg a:::
I 'im~ .c~~~~~
•• Co-<) K~O TFe
o-a RD before quenching ~
I 20.0 ..... Tecrp _ ~ after water quench
~ No~O'T.Fe

. . . R0 oher quencljlng ... 0--0 IK"O + No!OI T Fe ~

Tvyere level
~. t:l
Point of a:::
o I0 20 30 40 50 0 0.001 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.005 o 0.0001 00002 o 0001 0.002 0.003 0.004 o
Reduction degree 1%1 K,O /T Fe, NacO /T Fe, SIT Fe ZnO/T Fe t:l
IK20 + Na,OI /T Fe tTl
Fig. 1.13. Influences of water quench on circulating elements in blast furnace (Tsurumi IBF). 52C)
Behavior of Circulating Elements and Amounts of Circulation

Alkalis Sulfur Zinc

Distri- Concentration both in ores and Content in ores increases from Content, both in ores and in Cii

bution in coke increases from 1000°C 1000°C zone and attains peak in coke, increases fast from 900°C tT1
zone, and that in ores attains middle to lower part of cohesion zone, reaches maximum at 1100- ::l
peak in cohesion zone just before zone, below which it gets 1200°C, then decreases rapidly. o
melting (Fig. 1.14). Thence alkali distributed between metal and This means that peak position is
in slag droplets decreases. In slag. Distribution corresponds, in lower part of lumpy zone and
coke, on the other hand, concen- like alkalis, to shape of cohesion in upper part of cohesion zone. D
tration peak at slightly lower zone, suggesting gaseous S Relationship with gas flow iiiz
position than for ores, then originated from below (Figs 1.18 unclear in that there were n
decreases in combustion zone. and 1.19). On the other hand, two instances in central flow type ::c:
However, there were cases where types of behavior found for S in furnaces where middle to Ij
concentration was high even at coke: in one it decreases as periphery parts were richer in Zn I:I:l
furnace center (Hirohata I BF burden descends (Hirohata I BF, (Hirohata I BF, Amagasaki 1 BF).
and others). Maximum content of Tsurumi I BF, Kawasaki 2 BF, This is because circulation region ~...,
alkalis per se found in cohesion and others); in the other it of Zn is different from those of
zone lower part, and distribution reaches maximum slightly below alkalis and S (Figs 1.23 and 1.24)
corresponds well to shape of cohesion zone as in Kokura I BF
zone. Therefore it is surmised (Fig. 1.20)
that ascending gaseous alkalis
originate in combustion or
dripping zone (Fig. 1.15)



TABLE 1.4-contd.
Alkalis Sulfur Zinc'
Circula- From lOOO°C zone down to From lOOO°C zone to tuyere level From middle part of lumpy zone ;:g
tion region tuyere level of 900-1250°C to cohesion zone
Paths of Reduction-gasification from slag Gasification on combustion of Direct sublimation or reduction- ~
ascent droplets trickling through coke in combustion zone (COS, gasification at 1200-1250°C, and tTl
dripping zone and that from HsS, CS~, and ascent on gas ascent on bosh gas "tl
coke burning in combustion stream generated in combustion
zone, as well as by gas stream zone ~
upwards from combustion zone
into furnace interior
Amount of l3-24 kg-(Na20 + K20)/ton-hot 0'4-2'7 kg-S/ton-hot metal 5,2-6 kg/Zn/ton-hot metal in ~
circulation metal (Table 1.5 and Fig. 1.17) (Figs 1.21 and l.22), though Amagasaki I SF; 6' 5-7' 5 kg in ~
depends much on S content in Tsurumi I BF t:I
coke 8
Difference Basic sinter < acidic pellet Acidic pellet < basic sinter, Not much difference among ores, t:I
in absorp- (Fig. 1.16), though in Amagasaki though in Amagasaki I BF the though generally ores are more t""
tion by ore 1 BF it was MgO-bearing MgO-bearing pellets were less effective than coke Z
pellet < lump ore < sinter effective q

For the in-furnace circulation balance, there is a detailed report

available for the Hirohata I BF. For all others, the values cited above
and summarized in Table 1.5 are those that were estimated from
changes determined in the height direction at locations that were
deemed representative. Also, the total amount of active alkalis, i.e.
excluding those that have adhered to the walls, has been estimated for

Estimated Circulating Alkalis


Hirohata I BF 13-1
Kawasaki 2 BF 19'5
Kawasaki 3 BF 16'5
Tsurumi I BF 24
Kokura 2 BF 17-18
Amagasaki I BF 22-23


Ore Slag
o • Periphery
o 6 A Middle
C • Center

] 10

g 15 C


20 o

o 0.1 0.2 0.3

IK,O + NozOI /15i0 2 + CoO + AI203 + MgOI

Fig. 1.14. Changes in alkali contents in ores and slags in blast furnace
(Tsurumi IBF).

Na , O + K, O 1%1 NO lO + K, O 1%1
~ <0 .1 >2%
0 01 - 04 III
1.5- 2
• >0.4
1-1.5 §
Belore <I 'Tl
charging 0. 7 C

101 In the slag Ibl In the ores lei In the coke

Fig. 1.15. Distribution of alkalis in blast furnace (Hirohata 1 BF).



0 : Middle K2 Kawasaki 2BF
K3 Kawasaki 3BF
:!! 0.4
0 : Periphery
Tl Tsurumi 1 BF
u Sinter
0 KK2 Kokura 2BF
Acidic A1 Amagasaki 1 BF
g 0.3 pellets

~ill K2
. .\ ----ll..

0:; 0.2

L1 \

." ~O \SR
KK2 \SP ,
is 0.1 !) \ "
" A1
z I \ Tl
, if 6,
0 0.01 0.02 003 0.04 0.05
IK 2 0 + Na201 IT Fe

Fig. 1.16. Difference in alkali absorption between sinter and pellet.

Unit: !kg Ipl

Fig. 1.17. Alkali (Na20 + K20) circulation balance m blast furnace

(Hirohata IBF).

the Tsurumi 1 BF of inner volume 1150 m 3. 8 The result was 5600-

5900 kg of (Na20 + K20), which is 2· 5 to 2· 7 times the amount that was
contained in all the coke and ores charged, which was 2000-2200 kg.
As regards the circulation of Si, from the composition of ash in the
coke near the tuyere front combustion zone, changes in the slag, and
thermodynamic considerations, it may be safely presumed that a
considerable amount of Si0 2 will gasify as SiO and ascend through the
furnace in the gas flowing out of the combustion zone. It may further be
assumed that the SiO thus generated will be consumed in (i)
disproportion reaction, (ii) reduction to metal, and (iii) condensation
into and absorption by ores and slag by oxidation, but clarification of
regions for these is difficult.
Silicate formation in lime in the Tsurumi 1 BF is shown in Fig. 1.25. It
will be seen that the limes in the central part, i.e. those that are on the
course of gas flow that does not pass through the ore layers, can form a
compound with SiO at fairly high levels in the furnace. Because of the
temperature at that location, it is reasonable to consider that the

ITsurumi 1 Bfl
SjT.fe lin acid pellell
o 0.0004 0.001
o t

,t t
CL IKawasaki 3 Bfl
1t ! JACid pellel
5 SjTfe lin sinterl
00004 0001 ~ I S,nler
I : Metal drop
n s: ~


~10 E ~ C'- a
~ if 0-
in ': r0-
10 C'-
o ~ .~:
..:= 15 E \ b
u 15

.~ B
o c

20 ~
20 6
Tuyere level

o 0.04 0.08 0.12

S lin melal dropl 1%1 S lin metal dropl 1%1

Fig. 1.18. Changes in S contents of ores and metal in blast furnaces (Tsurumi
1 BF and Kawasaki 3 BF).

1511%1 S 1%1 5 1%1

•• ••
~ < 10 ~ <005 ~ 0.01 - 0.05

~ 1.0- 1.5 0.05-0.10 0.05-0 10
> 1.5 >0.10 >0.10

101 In the slog Ibl In the metol Ie! In the Ores

Fig. 1.19. Distribution of sulfur in blast furnace (Hirohata I BF).


• (K 0 ~ BF) Amogo,o i I Bf Kowc:sok '2 SF

• HQClshOO 51lf • Wall 'ide
S.l 1.0 .. H.rchoto 11lf .. Cen,.r po"


So ,,, CO!1"bU5t,O'" Torol S
g 08 fudu@'

~_ 07
gZ I
0.6 "
~@ 0.5 "."
~! 0.4 0'
g~ 0.3
_ 0.2
• ••
"".. ~

£ 0.1 ".
H, 0,0 •

03 04 05 0, I 0,2 03 04 05 0 I 02 03 04 05 06 07
TOlol S 1%1 Tolol S 1%1 S 10 ,,1

Fig. 1.20. Changes in sulfur content of coke.

Fig. 1.21. Circulation of sulfur in blast furnace (Hirohata IBF).


" e:,w"J"
Tsurumi I BF Unit: [kg·S THMI Kawasaki 3 BF

Coke Flux Ores Coke Ores

Charge 013
299 Balance 0.09


I ""

l L _]34
-0.62 -075
2.92 ~r
04~ 0.49 Met,l [SI/S =8.0

25 Ui
1.25- -;
~ (1~0
. 618 Slag 210 kg

125~ 0

0591 ~5t ~ ~

Hearth U
ISlagl IPigl [Slogl [Pigl
231 kg 274 kg

Fig. 1.22. Sulfur balance in the Tsurumi 1 BF and Kawasaki 3 BF.

formation is through a solid reaction with Si0 2 produced by oxidation

of SiO by CO 2,
Conversely, this means that the gas that passed through the cohesion
zone supplied the SiO there, and it may mean further that there can be a
source of Si0 2 to the cohesion zone other than that through the supply
of Si to dripping metal. However, quantitative analysis from the
dissection study results is as yet almost impossible.


1.7.1. Macroscopic Changes

Only the property changes of ores will be discussed here.
In the shaft lumpy zone, ores have been left untreated after blowout
until water quenching, and been subjected to the influence of sprayed
water. Their states as found on dissection are summarized as follows.
(1) The sintered ores had been disintegrated through reduction or
embrittled during the time between blowout and water spraying,
making direct application of the observations to quantitative analysis of
reduction-disintegration rather problematic.

Zn 1%1
~ <001


c ho(g ing 0.006

Fig. 1.23. Distribution of zinc in blast furnace (Hirohata 1 BF).

(2) The lumpy ores have mostly been thermally cracked or worn to
pulverized form, only a small portion of them retaining the original
form, just as in the case of sinter.
(3) The pellets, both acidic and basic, on the other hand, mostly
remained in the original form, regaining the strength after having been
reduced to about 40 kg/pellet once. 10. 22
(4) The degree of reduction is inordinately low before the start of
softening-melting, clearly indicating re-oxidation having ocurred, so
much so that no differences were seen due to the type of ore.
In short, no particularly novel insights were gained into property
changes of ores in the lumpy zone. For this, investigation of the shaft of
a live blast furnace by sinking probes will be more fruitful.
With regard to the cohesion zone lower part, on the other hand, the
entire process, starting with cohesion of several pieces of ore,

A ... : Zn
o • :S
13.5 c • :K
] 10.5
E 7.5
.!: 6.0
~ 4.5
o.~ 3.0 "--
O L--L~ __~-L__L-~~~~~
800 1000 1200 0 0 I K 100102
Temperature I·CI I I I

o 0.02 S 1%1 004

o 02 04
Zn 1%1

Fig. 1.24. Changes in contents of circulating elements m sinter and their

regions of circulation (Amagasaki IBF).

T,urum i I B.f

CoCO CetOH coo 5,0 . 2COO , ,0,

I @
2 @
0 0 0
,3 {), @ 0
5 {), @
6 {), I>. {),

7 {), @
8 @
9 @

Fig. 1.25. Results of X-ray diffraction analysis for lime (Tsurumi IBF).

progressing into agglomeration of the ore layer as a whole, unification,

contraction and densification under static load, and finally separation
and melting of slag and metal, has been seen in a huge mass. Though
there was a distinct difference between the mostly acidic pellet charge
and the mostly basic sinter charge as shown in Fig. 1.26, detailed
analysis has not yet been made. Nevertheless, having seen the
phenomenon in an enormous mass, every investigator was very strongly
impressed with the need to understand the characteristics of softening
of ores under load. Other items that were left for future research were the
force of holding the burden when unbalanced descent of the cohesion
zone was taking place and characteristics of the melting by the

+ 50 mm sinter IK-31 1%1

Portion of Rate of contraction 1%1
o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Portion of unfused !T-l ) pellets 1%1
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 loaded softening curve
XI0' h,.-.,---r--:.r--r--T--T-T-.,::...-.j I

I /-
i1IT/ /~Y []

l1Lb/;/ J 13
70%) []
I '0 ---14

T-l : Tsurumi I BF
- M
":':L 15 K-3: Kawasaki 3 BF

Fig. 1.26. Effects of burden materials on the development of the cohesion zone.

1.7.2. Microscopic Structural and Composition Changes

In Tables 1.6 and 1.7 the behavior of gangue constituents in the ores has
been summarized with acidic pellet and sinter as representative of ores.
The following conclusions may be drawn.
(l) From the crystalline viewpoint, even while acidic pellets exhibit
X-ray diffraction spectra of alkali silicates readily in the cohesion zone
or thereabout, no such lines are seen in the sinter, but first spectrum
lines of alumina that is dissolved in calcium ferrite appear then spectra
due to 2CaO . Al 20 3 • Si02 are seen.
TABLE 1.6 o
Changes of Gangue in Acidic Pellet r;;
Structural characteristics X-ray diffraction ::l
analysis o
Before 1. Homogeneous structure composed of iron oxide and silicate slag a-Si02
charging 2. In the gangue, the silicate slag particles exist between particles of quartz of 18
about 100 /l and particles of iron oxide §i
Lumpy zone 1. Pore increase in pellet, leading to formation of concentric cracks ()

(- 950°C) 2. Not much change in gangue ::r:

Early stage 1. Formation of primary slag (K20-FeO-Si02 type low-melting slag) seen at Na2Si03 I:tI
of fusing periphery
(950°C- 2. This slag disappears from places heated beyond 1000°C, and occasionally ~..,
llOO°C) seeping of slag out to surface is seen, indicating periphery getting densified
(Structural and compositional changes in radial direction begin, and 2 or 3
pellets start to coagulate with each other)

TABLE 1.6-contd.

Structural characteristics X-ray diffraction

Cohesion 1. Many metallic iron particles at periphery and many FeO particles at center KAlSi04
zone 2. Much molten slag Na2Si03
(1150°C) 3. FeO at center starts spheroidizing 2FeO· Si02
30% tT1

Marked structural and compositional changes in radial direction

(1250°C) ~
Periphery Middle part Central part o
contraction ~
50% tT1
State of More metallic iron, Metallic iron and FeO and less ~
iron and conglomerating less FeO metallic iron
State of High melting point slag Porous slag of high Low melting point slag
gangue of K20 3-Al20 3 type Al20 3 content of 2FeO . Si02 type with ~
low Al 20 3 content o
Half-molten 1. In upper part of zone, many pellets seen to have core FeO seeping out to surface t""
zone 2. In middle part, slag formation of lime, olivine, and others in progress Z
(- 1350°C) 3. In lowest part, conglomeration of metal has progressed so far that almost no
slag is seen
Changes of slag in sinter

Structural characteristics X-ray diffraction tl

analysis of veins VJ
Before 1. Composed of phases of iron oxide and acicular or massive calcium ferrite, with CaO·2Fel 03
charging silicate slag, some of which is relatively large, dispersed in between CaO· 3FeO . Fe203 oz
2. Calcium ferrite is of high basicity (CaO/Si0:J and high Al 10 3 content while y-2CaO . Sial o
calcium silicate has basicity of ~ 1·0 and low Al 10 3 content ~-CaO· Sial ."
3. Acicular ferrite is CaO· 2Fel03 like structure and low in AlP3' while massive tJ
ferrite is of CaO . 3FeO . Fel0S like structure and high in Al1 0 3 tTl
Lumpy 1. Structure before charging is well preserved ~-CaO· Sial
zone 2. Diffraction spectra of calcium ferrite no longer seen, indicating complete (y-2CaO· Sial) tTl
(~950°C) decomposition tl
3. Both acicular and massive calcium ferrite decompose into iron oxide and slag
(contain 30-40% FeO) at about 1000°C preserving structure as it was; spectra of ~
2CaO . Al 20 3 • Sial obtained from massive ones in early stage
Early 1. Molten slag begins to appear 2CaO . Al10 3 . Sial
softening- 2. Massive calcium ferrite has disappeared, and instead a slag and metal mixed (~,y-2CaO . Sial)
cohesion phase, the slag being chiefly of 2CaO . Al1 0 3 . Sial, is seen, while many traces ~
(~ 1150°C) of acicular ones are still seen VJ
tion 20%


TABLE l.7-contd.
Structural characteristics X-ray diffraction
analysis of veins

Cohesion 1. Structure is undergoing great change: mixed phases of slag and metallic iron, ~,y-2CaO . Si02 ~
zone where slag is the seeped out slag at the periphery or the dark to transparent 2CaO . AlP3 . Sial
(1200- ones in the interior, are seen :r:""m
1300°C) 2. Phase containing dark slag is compositionally close to 2CaO· Si0 2 containing Z
Contrac- little Al 20 3, and is thought to have been derived from the acicular calcium
tion 30-50% ferrite; that containing transparent slag is of a 2CaO . Al 20 3 . Si02 containing
much Al 20 3, and is thought to have derived from massive calcium ferrite
3. Slag at periphery is of low basicity and high alkali composition
Half- 1. Both metallic iron and slag conglomerated into large particles tl
molten 2. Many iron particles contain slag globulets, at which interfaces high ~
zone concentration of Ca and Mg is detected o
(~ 1350°C) m

(2) Structural and compositional changes of the gangue start with

reaction of Si0 2 with alkali in the case of acidic pellet, or of CaO . Si02
with alkali for sinter, both with formation of primary slag at the particle
surface; thenceforward, as the temperature rises, the acidic pellets
undergo distribution changes in composition and structure via the
liquid phase, leading to formation of metallic shell, as shown in
Fig. l.27. Though this process is not so apparent for the sinter, such a
tendency is still seen as shown in Fig. l.28.
(3) In the ore layers just before melting, separation of metal and slag
is complete if the ore is acidic pellet, with the metal presenting compact
structure, but in the case of sinter a considerable amount of gangue is
seen condensed within large voids and at the surface of the layer, but
also many small granules of slag are found within the metal phase.
Examination in an XMA (X-ray microanalyzer) often reveals a sharp
concentration ofMgO at the interface of those minute slag particles and
metal matrix, a fact which may be considered as attesting to the

~ 80
c 60
u 40
;,0 20


/,c-., '-0

, "
0"" \
c:r' \ AI
'b___ · o ____o

Fig. 1.27. Changes of structure and composition of acidic pellet in radial

direction (Tsurumi IBF, 12S0°C).

beneficial effects ofMgO on the high temperature properties of ores and

low silicon operation of blast furnaces.

~ 75

4: 25

.c 1.5
;;; 1.0
a< 0.5

.';: Q.) 2c
<)).c <))
D- "-

Fig. 1.28. Changes of structure and composition of sinter in radial direction

(Kawasaki 3BF, 1200°C).

1.7.3. Effects of Circulating Elements on the Behavior of the Cohesion

Of the circulating elements, those that influence the softening-Gothic
melting behavior of ores are alkalis and sulfur. The sulfur, even though
showing macroscopically a high content in the cohesion zone,
microscopically, e.g. in XMA investigations, was rarely seen in local
concentrations. Therefore it may be concluded that S is in a low melting
point phase, such as FeS, and as such would not affect the softeningY
The alkalis, on the other hand, participate in the formation of slag at
an early stage of softening, as mentioned in the preceding section, and
are seen to be contained in the gangue of the cohesion zone to an
appreciable extent. From these observations, the alkalis are likely to
exert a great influence on the high temperature properties of the ores.

A series of loaded softening experiments were conducted on ores

sampled from locations in the lOOO°C zone that were judged to have
been subjected to a similar thermal history with their reduction adjusted
to 6%. The results are shown in Fig. 1.29 in comparison with those for
samples from before the charging. It will be seen that the stay in the
lOOO°C zone, the zone that is thought to have been influenced by the
circulating elements, brought about a marked softening for the sinter,
but for the acidic pellet it was a slight improvement. This is in agreement
with Shimomura et af. 24 who studied the effects of alkalis on a laboratory

0 -0- -

10 '"
.~ CD
'"" 0V
o ~
20 LV

!" ..
~ 30 'iJ -
,Q 0
U 40 • Sinle,.
~ v • MgO pellet
8 50
• Acidic pellet

'" 60




900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500

Temperoture I'CI

Fig. 1.29. Softening under load cuIVes of specimens sampled in the furnace in
comparison with their before-charging counterparts (Kawasaki 3 BF).

Thus, macroscopically, the effect is reversed on the acidic pellet and

on the basic sinter, but the contraction at an early stage of softening is
somewhat greater for both when containing alkalis, though the
deformation of pellet after this is small. This is probably because first a
silicate type low melting phase containing alkalis is formed in the skin
of the pellet, then, as this phase seeps out on the surface, a high melting,
high Al 20 3-K20 phase is formed in the skin, while a strong metallic

shell is formed assisted by the low melting phase, and this shell is strong
enough to hold the pellet for a while.
This theory is supported by comparison of changes in high
temperature reduction rates between the cases with alkalis and those
without alkalis, shown in Fig. 1.30. However, even for acidic ores, if the
Al 20JSi0 2 ratio is small, i.e. if the alumina content is small, formation
of Al20 3 • K20 . 2Si02 and low melting phase is promoted, so the
softening can be hindered.

2.0 r - r - - , - - - - r - - , - - - - - r - - - ,


~ 1.0 1.0
U O~----,~-_+--~-_+~O
1000 1400

o R.Dl: Before charging
~-1.0 RD2: Taken in the furnace - 1.0

1000 1100 1200 1300 1400

Temperature I'CI

Fig. 1.30. Changes in the difference of high temperature reduction rate (RD)
between specimens sampled in the furnace and their before-charging counter-
parts (Tsurumi 1 BF).

As shown in Fig. 1.29, on the other hand, softening is markedly

greater for sinter than for basic pellet. Thanks to a laboratory study of
alkali addition for varying amounts of gangue, in which more gangue
was seen to be more liable to be affected,22 this phenomenon may be
understood as due to differences in the quantity of gangue. That is to
say, of the two strengthening constituents of basic ores, metal and high
melting slag, the slag is the more liable to be affected by alkali, and slag
is richer in the sinter than in the pellet.
The discussion studies have shed light on the characteristics of the
cohesion zone, from which the importance of high temperature
properties of ores, in particular the softening behavior under load, has
been recognized anew. The method of evaluation is under continued
study, but it will have to be one that can appreciate the relation between
the high temperature softening under load characteristics of ores and

the amount and composition of gangue (for acidic pellets especially the
Alz0 3/Si0 2 ratio, and for basic sinter the basicity and the MgO content)
with alkali contained.


1.8.1. Slag Formation Reactions

There was great expectation that dissection studies would clarify the
reactions taking place in the region from the dripping zone to the
hearth, because this is where the composition of the pig, the final
product of a blast furnace, is determined. Unfortunately, from the
samples taken from the dripping zone, no conclusive evidence was
obtained as to how the droplets of metal and slag had been interacting
quantitatively during active operation. Therefore analysis results
reported herein will have to do no more than suggest basic notions for
physical and chemical influences in the combustion zone.
As regards the slag formation process, results obtained in the
Kawasaki 3 BF, which was operating on a mostly sinter charge, and
those gained in the Tsurumi I BF, whose charges were of mostly acidic
pellet plus limestone, have been comparatively summarized in
Fig. 1.31.8 Also, relations among gangue of ores, coke ash and flux
components seen in these two furnaces are shown in CaO-Alz0 3-SiO z
ternary diagrams in Fig. 1.32.
From these results, the major factors in slag formation were singled
out as shown in Table 1.8, of which the action of factors (6) and (7) has
been schematically depicted in Fig. 1.33. The importance of the
combustion zone for flux components and high melting phases that did
not quite get melted before the melting level was reached should be

1.8.2. Changes in the Metal Composition

In the test blast furnaces, a tendency of Si, Mn and Ti contents in metal
droplets to rise to an extremely high value in the vicinity oftuyere level,
dropping again in the hearth, was seen.5, 6 In the operational furnaces no
such clear trend was observed, except perhaps for Si, which sometimes
showed similar behavior as may be seen in Figs 1.34 and 1.35, In a test
furnace, further, an interesting observation shown in Fig, 1,36 was made
with regard to the behavior of C and Si. Namely, at the tuyere level,
where the partial pressure of SiO is high, decrease of C content may

6 .-~---r--,---"ro--~---r--.---r--.---r--,
Sinter 0.546 >
Ore 01,/. 0.057
5 0
Coke 0.051
Coke 0.038
:] 4

2 3 ." "W:"",
\'>,11 ,

. ,, ""
. ,\ 0
\61 ..
~ ~ a;
::: "'0 c:
"0 4 0 ' :
o .- QJo
~ -~· U - -"'-. ~\~!?. ~I~ - - - - -
t 1+

Drop 01 .,~
i I

t~ ?
2 I

0.3 0.4 05 03 04 05
CoO IS,02 CoO j AI,O" + MgOJ

+ Coke 0620 Ore 01,1 , 0584

5 C
0 Coke 0.625
:] 4 0 ""'- Ompplng
~ 3

..::! 0
Finol topping slog

0.4 o.~

Fig. 1.31. Changes in slag droplet composition (Kawasaki 3 BF and

Tsurumi 1 BF).

occur because decarburization due to the reaction SiO + C = Si + CO

can predominate over the carburization reaction.
Another significant observation was that for P, obtained in the
Tsurumi 1 BF. As may be seen in Fig. 1.35, the radial distribution of P
was higher in the periphery, and this corresponded well with the
distribution of the converter slag charge, which contained much P.
From these results, the following conclusions have been drawn
6 I
O re av. 0.316
5 Coke 0.309
] 4

.!1 3
>- 2

6- 1
- 2
- 3
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1
• 0.2 0.3


Ka YQsa I No.3 8 F TSLPrumi No.1 B'F.

McS5.I'<'e Drop
o • Well sde
I) .... Mddle
• Cetl1et'

AI,O J Iwl%1

Fig. 1.32. Relations between composition of gangue in the charge and changes
in composition of slag.

regarding the influences of those factors on the longitudinal and radial

distributions of metal components in the lower part of the furnace:
(1) The component that is strongly influenced by the gas flowing out
from the combustion zone to the melting zone: Si
(2) The components that are influenced by the Si content: Mn (and

Major Factors Contributing to Formation of Slag
Mainly sinter Acidic ores + Lime
Formation of (1) Separation and (1) Formation of acidic
dripping slag in dripping off of low slag out of reaction of
the zone basicity, low melting silicate slag and lime,
phase out of high and of lime phase
basicity, high that has reacted with
melting phase slag somewhat
(2) Radial composition
changes due to
distribution of lime
Assimilation reaction (3) Reaction of dripping slag with high melting
of two phases phase that descends carried by metal and coke
Effects of combustion
motion (4) Inflow of unmelted high melting phase into
temperature combustion zone
(5) Promotion of melting of unmolten phase by
prevailing high temperature
reaction (6) Reduction of Sial and generation of SiO
combustion (7) Separation and scattering of coke ash

Tsurumi 1 BF Kawasaki 3 BF
Sinter IB=;o 18016090
Acidic pellet 70%

Olivine ICoO)

I zone
I Tuyere I

I Center


I Coke
Final slog
I ash


Fig. 1.33. Schematic representation of slag formation; comparison of the cases

of mostly acidic pellet burden and mostly sinter burden.

(3) The component that is influenced by the shape of the cohesion

zone and the gas flow distribution in it: S
(4) The component that is influenced by the distribution of charged
material that contains much of the same element: P

Somp ling IMelo l porlto n)

p OSl fion
.------.. c Si S Mn
II j I j II
." ..... 00

---J OT
---l eN

~ ,~H
'''' ...

Fig. 1.34. Compositional changes of droplets of metal and slag (Hirohata I BF)_

• woU ~Ide
.& M~ddl8 porr
• C~nler pOfl t::owosoh:3 BF
- Mo
E 3 ! 18 C
;:: 2 ;:t; 19
_~ I a20
'" 21
~ 0 ~2'2
~ - I ~13
6 - 2 0

ConCenlrQI,on ~
huruml I SF
] S E 18 C
- - 19

E ~ 20
1 2 g 21
~ 0 ~ 22
c g23
C_ 1 0 24

O ~I~2~
~ 3 ~'~O~O'~O~
. 1~1~~~O~'C~a~I~
1 ~O~O~I~O~O~
~ ~O~
ConCf;!nllo tIOt'J '\.

Fig. 1.35. Compositional changes in metal droplets (Kawasaki 3BF and

Tsurumi I BF)_

• ..... ,
...... "
• 6 Tuyefe \
12 Te~pero r ure or
IS· Ct\ \\~ .. \
~ , '
Alomlt~ \ ... \
'quid surfoce

10 '. rOllo \ \ \ \ \ ~ 16QO'C
~\\'''.~ I500'C
1 8 "~ 1400'C
II gO ->--<~. ..,,~ ,-,
6 H/
+n l
", 'If \:\\~,:\
(f.~~' .' , .~~...
. .
\ '\ \

. "'.

101 0 I 2 3
C 1"'01
• 2
6 Ibl
0 6
C 10.0 1

Fig. 1.36. Change in Si and C contents of hot metal at experimental blast

furnace of Nippon Kokan.


The Committee on Reaction within Blast Furnace, the Joint Society on

Iron and Steel Basic Research, ISH, was fortunate to have been able to
collect an enormous amount of dissection study results and to have so
many people participate with their personal experiences and observa-
tions gained from dissections. The reports presented were examined
from every angle, but it was clear that dissection studies by themselves
could not produce many quantitative conclusions. Nevertheless, many
insights were gained and many points of future research identified.
In view of the many studies that have already been published, the
present report was compiled so as to avoid excessive duplication. We
believe that basic notions for and states of affairs within the blast
furnace with regard to the following points have been clarified:
(1) The behavior of various charged materials above the core
(2) The influences of distributions of burden materials, tuyeres, and
states of furnace walls on the shape of the cohesion zone
(3) The behavior of circulating elements except SiO
(4) The influences of alkalis on the behavior of softening-melting of
(5) The role of the combustion zone in slag formation reactions
On the other hand, there is still almost no knowledge about the
movement of the materials within the center core, and about the
locations, paths, and quantity of condensation or absorption of SiO.

When evaluation and analysis of such macroscopic factors as the force

that supports the steady descent of the cohesion zone, which was also
left unc1arified, is added to these, it has to be said that many problems
remain for future blast furnace technology to face and solve.


The foregoing was compiled from data obtained before June 1979. Since
then, the Nagoya 1 furnace 25 - 27 and the Kakogawa I furnace 28 - 3o were
blown out, and dissection results have partially been published. The
pertinent data and the in-furnace arrangements of these two furnaces
are shown in Table 1.9 and Figs 1.37 and 1.38.

Data on Dissected Blast Furnaces (Supplement)

Nagoya 1 BF Kakogawa 1 BF

Date of blowout 1 June 1977 5 March 1978

Inner volume (m 3) 2518 3090
Hearth diameter (m) 11 11-9
Average daily
production (tiD) 4315 3306"
Tapping rate (t/m 3 • D) 1'71 1'07"
Operation conditions
just before blowout
blast volume (Nm3/min) 3100 3800
blast temperature (0C) 742
fuel rate (kg/t) 465 581 b
(O/C) 3'77
Steady furnace Steady furnace even
though blast greatly
Burden Mostly pellets Mostly (70' 5%) pellets
comprising sinter,
cold pellets, fluxed
pellets, and acidic
Method of cooling By nitrogen from top By water spraying
to tuyere

a Just before blowout. b All coke.


TH Side

Fig. 1.37. Inside arrangements of dissected blast furnace (Nagoya IBF, 2nd).

1.10.1. Arrangement Inside the Furnace

The arrangement oflayers, particularly the shape of the cohesion zone,
was a complex asymmetrical one in the Nagoya I BF, and was an
inverse V verging slightly on a W in the Kakogawa I BF. This
observation has been examined in the light of analysis according to
Fig. 1.12.
Since the Kakogawa I BF was operating on a high pellet burden, so
that the Ole ratio was high in middle to center parts, and since
operation was under a reduced blast, the layers were rather flattened.
Then there was formation of a mixed burden layer at the furnace wall,
and further some of the tuyeres were blinded. These together appeared
to promote the slightly decentered W type cohesion zone.
For the Nagoya I BF, on the other hand, even though not all the
reports have yet been returned, flattening of structure due to high pellet
burden, formation of mixed burden layer due to some wall trouble, and
some influence of either tuyere or iron notch were in evidence.
Therefore it may be concluded that basically both blast furnaces
behaved as expected from Fig. 1.12.
The temperature distribution in the radial direction in the Kakogawa

w N


Fig. 1.38. Inside arrangements of dissected blast furnace (Kakogawa IBF).

1 BF was reversed for the upper and the lower parts. For this, the
information of reduced blast should be considered. In the same furnace,
further, a layer of fine particles that contained metal and slag was found
to exist at the boundary between the core coke of the dripping zone and
the overlying layer of coke that was flowing into the combustion zone.
As the presence of a similar layer was detected in other furnaces also,
this observation should be considered as revealing a phenomenon
important for analyzing the gas flows and other movements in the
vicinity of the central core.

1.10.2. Changes in Properties of the Burden

The Nagoya 1 BF was special in that it was quenched with nitrogen,
thereby eliminating effects due to cooling medium. Examination was
conducted chiefly on the cold bond pellet and has been summarized as
(1) The disintegration of sinter was greatest at a reduction degree of
about 10% and less on either side.

(2) Little disintegration was seen in the pellets, but cracks developed
concentrically, and the decrease in strength was considerable.
(3) The reduction rate was not the same in the radial direction even
within a single ore layer, the reduction progressing fast suddenly in the
vicinity of the cohesion zone.
(4) In the cohesion zone, there was unreduced FeO remaining at the
center, and this tendency was stronger for acidic pellet.
It will be noted that these observations are basically the same as those
obtained through water quenching. However, the significance of the
Nagoya I BF is that it has substantiated the conclusions drawn from the
results obtained on the water sprayed samples. The reports on alkalis,
zinc, sulfur, and others as unaffected by water are awaited.


1. K Kanbara, T. Hagiwara, A Shigemi, S. Kondo, Y. Kanayama,

K Wakabayashi and N. Hiromoto, Tetsu-to-Hagane, 62(1976), 535.
2. Y. Shimomura, K Nishikawa, S. Arino, T. Katayama, Y. Hida and
T. Isoyama, Tetsu-to-Hagane, 62(1976),547.
3. M. Sasaki, K Ono, A Suzuki, Y. Okuno, K Yoshizawa and T. Nakamura,
Tetsu-to-Hagane, 62(1976), 559.
4. K Sasaki, M. Hatano, M. Watanabe, T. Shimoda, K Yokotani, T. Ito and T.
Yokoi, Tetsu-to-Hagane, 62(1976), 580.
5. Technical Research Center, Nippon Kokan K K, report submitted to 54th
Committee (Ironmaking), Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
(JSPS), Rep. No. 54-1059 (1970).
6. RAndo, T. Fukushima and S. Kishimoto, Tetsu-to-Hagane, 57(1971), S665.
7. K Horikawa, report submitted to 54th Committee (Ironmaking), Japan
Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Rep. No. 54-1371 (1976).
8. G. Suzuki, report submitted to 54th Committee (Ironmaking), Japan
Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Rep. No. 54-1486 (1979).
9. S. Hashizume, H. Takahashi, T. Nakagawa, S. Tomita, M. Sato, Y. Morioka
and H. Koitabashi, Tetsu-to-Hagane, 64(1978), S108.
10. K Yoshimura, T. Sato, A Fukihara, S. Shimazaki, K Narita and M. Maeda,
Tetsu-to-Hagane, 64(1978), S551.
11. M. Tate, Y. Kuwano, K Suzuki, T. Chang, H. Go and M. Matsuzaki, Tetsu-
to Hagane, 62(1976), 35.
12. 1. J. Bosley, N. B. Melcher and M. M. Harris, J Metals, Sept. (1959), 610.
13. V. M. Muravev and N. I. Mischenko, Stal in Eng. (1970), 591.
14. M. Tate, notes submitted to 40th Ironmaking Committee, Joint Research
Society, ISIJ.
15. S. Kondo, 33-34th Nishiyama Memorial Seminar, ISIJ (1975), 125.
16. M. Kondo, Y. Konishi, H. Koitabashi, Y. Morioka, S. Hashizume,
H. Takahashi, K Okumura and S. Tomita, Tetsu-to-Hagane, 64(1978), S546.

17. O. Tajima, report submitted to 54th Committee (lronmaking), Japan

Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Rep. No. 54-1458 (1978).
18. N. Shimada, Y. Koyama, A Miyamoto and M. Nishi, Tetsu-to-Hagane,
58(1972), S34l.
19. H. Nishio et al., Tetsu-to-Hagane, 62(1976), S38.
20. J. B. Wagstaff, Proc. AIME Blast Furnace, Coke Oven and Raw Material
Comm. (1953), 104.
2l. K Kojima, T. Nishi, T. Yamaguchi, H. Nakama and S. Ida, Tetsu-to-Hagane,
62(1976), 570.
22. G. Suzuki, report submitted to 54th Committee (Ironmaking), Japan
Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Rep. No. 54-1500 (1979).
23. R. Takahashi, Y. Omori and Y. Takahashi, Tetsu-to-Hagane, 62(1976), A99.
24. Y. Shimomura, M. Sasaki, T. Nishi, K Nishikawa and T. Enokido, Tetsu-to-
Hagane, 63(1977), A79.
25. K Ezaki, Y. Abe, K Iwatsuki, K Imada, M. Takasaki and N. Inoue, Tetsu-
to-Hagane, 67(1981), S50.
26. A Suzawa, T. Inazumi, M. Takasaki, T. Noda, K Ezaki and K Nojima,
Tetsu-to-Hagane, 67 (1981), S5l.
27. K Exaki, T. Inazumi, Y. Kojima, M. Takasaki, J. Haruna and K Nojima,
Tetsu-to-Hagane, 67(1981), S719.
28. M. Takami, S. Tada, R. Hori, T. Okada, I. Kobayashi and H. Yamaguchi,
Tetsu-to-Hagane, 67(1981), S718.
29. I. Kobayashi, S. Inaba and K Narita, Tetsu-to-Hagane, 67(1981), S720.
30. I. Kobayashi, S. Inaba, M. Shimizu and K Narita, Tetsu-to-Hagane,
67(1981), S72l.

Measurements in Operating Blast Furnaces


Currently the measurement of blast furnace conditions is performed for

a variety of purposes. This chapter outlines the progress being made in
areas of blast furnace measurement, ranging from the clarification of
blast furnace reactions to the control of furnace operations. The
description centers not so much on measurement hardware as on
measuring methods and their application to blast furnace operations.
With the development of blast furnace operations, a wide variety of
measuring methods have been developed to clarify furnace physics and
chemistry. Today some of these measuring processes are increasingly
being built into routine blast furnace instrumentation. In recent years a
number of blast furnaces have been dissected for analysis. As a result,
furnace burden behavior is better understood and many control points
of blast furnace operation have been clarified. This has resulted in a
demand for the measurement of variables at these control points in an
operating furnace. This is why new measuring methods have been
studied, and the result is that the technical level of blast furnace
operations has since been improved.
The methodology of blast furnace measurement covers not only the
determination of temperature and gas distribution in the blast furnace.
The dissection of blast furnaces has recently clarified to a large extent
how the properties of burdens change as they descend through the
furnace. It also has shown the large effect that changes in properties


have exerted upon the operation of the furnace. This has led us to
believe that, if samples are taken of the burden during furnace
operations, they will provide a clue to enable burden properties to be
improved. Accordingly, blast furnace instrumentation now includes
sampling of the furnace burden.



The development of blast furnace measurement in the past decade is

outlined below.

2.2.1. Standard Instrumentation for Blast Furnaces a Decade Ago

It was about ten years ago that detailed dissection of blast furnaces was
first started in Japan. Before that, a few small blast furnaces were
examined for furnace reactions, but the results were not conclusive
enough to significantly alter the basic concept of the blast furnace
process. It is true that at that time blast furnaces were already exhibiting
steady, excellent performance. However, the conceptual ideas of the in-
furnace phenomena then differed widely from our understanding at the
present time.

top gas temp.,
pressure, composition
furnace top probe
Itemp, gas compn.1

gas static ---T- wa!1 temp.


blast temp. &


pig & slag

compn. L_-====r-L-- Hearth & battom

Fig. 2.1. Instrumentation of blast furnace about a decade ago.


Figure 2.1 shows the standard instrumentation of an up-to-date blast

furnace built at that time. l As is clear from the diagram, the instruments
used were not as varied as they are now, and the objectives of
instrumentation were limited mainly to computer control for the
prediction and control of furnace operations and to the control of
burden distribution at the furnace top to reduce fuel rates.

2.2.2. Development of Instrumentation Since the Introduction of Blast

Furnace Dissection
As mentioned in the preceding section, the use of dissection analysis to
study burden behavior in the blast furnace marked a turning point in
the development of blast furnace instrumentation. Table 2.1 shows a list
of reports on blast furnace instrumentation that have been presented at
the annual conferences of the Iron and Steel Institute of Japan. As the
table shows, the number of reports dealing with instrumentation
development has risen steadily. In this list there may be a time lag of one
to two years between the presentation of the reports and the actual
measurements, but the listing is sufficient to allow us to make the
following observations about the development of blast furnace
instrumentation over the past decade.
(1) The practice of dissecting blast furnaces for furnace analysis has
clarified in much more detail than before the formation of the cohesive
zone in the furnace, the flow of gas through the cohesive zone and the
chemical reactions in the furnace. It has further drastically altered the
very concept of the process. This epoch-making advance in blast
furnace technology in tum has generated a demand for new blast
furnace instrumentation. Behind this demand lies the belief of
ironmakers that a knowledge of the position and behavior of the
cohesive zone in an operating blast furnace is essential for the
successful operation and control of the furnace. Methods for the direct
measurement of the cohesive zone have since been exhaustively sought,
and several methods for indirectly estimating the location and
movement of the cohesive zone have been developed. However, their
commercial application to actual blast furnace operations has not yet
been perfected.
(2) Initially, measured values of the temperature and the chemical
composition of gases just above the stockline surface were used to
estimate the shape of the cohesive zone. Recently, to increase the
accuracy of such estimates, measuring probes are actually being
inserted into the burden. The trend appears to be toward increasing the
List of Reports of Blast Furnace Measurements

1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 ~

Furnace Charge Gas temp. Gas flow" Charge Hot spot Mechan- fJ-wave
top profile distribu- tracing profile monito- ical profile g;
and temp. tion by He measure- ring by profile meter ~
distribu- (Kobe) (NKK) ment camera measure- (Chiba)
tion (Chiba, (Chiba, ment
Furnace Gas flow" ~
(Muroran, Kawasaki) Kawasaki) (Chiba)
top probe by He Z
NSC) o
system Gas tracer '1:l
Gas (Kokura, velocity (NKK) ttl
velocity Sumitomo) distribu-
G fl w"
as. 0
tion S
(SumitomotracHmg c;,
'by e
Charge (Hirohata, §
profile NSC)
and gas
tion ttl


TABLE 2.l-contd.
1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981
Upper Horizontal Horizontal Gas temp. Furnace Horizontal
shaft probe probe near wall analysis fixed ~
(Kimitsu, (NSC) (SOmm) by upper probe ~
NSC) (Waka- and lower (Sakai, 1:;
yama) horizontal NSC) tTl
probe "tI
NSC) ~
Horizontal E:::
probe Z
11.7 m) ~
(Mizu- t:I
shima, E:::
Oita) t:I
Sampling t"'"
(SL-IO.7 m)
(Kobe) Cl

Lower Horizontal Horizontal Vertical

shaft probe probe sonde a
(SL,-12 m) (Kimitsu) (Chiba,
(NKK) Fukuyama)
Bosh Melting Melting Melting Melting
zone zone zoneD zoneD
measure- measure- measure- measure-
ment by ment by ment by ment by
radio- stave vertical vertical
active temp. sonde sonde a::m
tracer (Muroran) (Kobe) (NKK)
NSC) f;;
Tuyere Temp. Tuyere Coke Tuyere a::m
level and gas probe sampling probe ...,Z
in (sampling, (Yawata) (NKK) [Il

raceway ....,
etc.) Z
(Sumitomo) (Kimitsu) Raceway
observa- 0
tion by m
speed ~
camera 0
(Kimitsu) ttl



TABLE 2.I-contd.
1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981

Hearth Metal Metal and ~

flow slag flow "tl
radio- by radio- ::r:
active activity ~
tracer (Hirohata) o
(Hirohata) tTl

Topics Hirohata All coke operation of biast furnace ~

furnace ~
dissec- t:I
report 8
aThis item relates to the total furnace height. E

depth of the measuring position of these probes in the shaft. Currently,

an upper shaft probe designed for introduction 10 m or so below the
stockline is fast being established as a practical proving unit. Probes
which monitor reactions still lower in the shaft are under development.
(3) The behavior of coke in the raceway, the flow of gas from the
raceway, and the change which coke undergoes in the hearth are
important variables, the control of which is essential for the control of
the blast furnace. For this reason, measurements are also being taken of
the furnace interior at tuyere level. Specifically, a particular probe,
called a tuyere probe, is introduced into the furnace interior through the
tuyere to take measurements and samples as it travels through the
raceway to the furnace center. The commercial application of this new
device is under way to enhance control over blast furnace operations.
(4) The world energy situation and fluctuating steel demand have
forced blast furnace operators to adjust furnace operations to meet large
marginal fluctuations in steel output and in fuel/raw materials. This has
required the availability of suitable instrumentation to keep blast
furnace operations under precise control and to improve the control
systems based on the above. Consequently, shaft probes have since been
perfected. They are now used to collect in-furnace data and, as a result,
the circumferential probing of the blast furnace interior has almost
been perfected. Circumferential probing is aimed at balancing the state
of the furnace around its circumference.
(5) In order to clarify furnace reactions in even more detail, probing
has recently been carried out in the lower part of the furnace, and from
the lower part to all regions within the furnace both vertically and
horizontally. The probes now under study include those that are
designed to penetrate the furnace wall into the burden, at a point
approximately 14 m below the stockline. Still others are on trial to probe
the furnace interior at tuyere level.
The bosh remains the only area where probe measurement has yet to
be achieved. In this connection, the vertical sonde which was once tried
in Germany over 10 years ago is about to be returned to service to make
thorough longitudinal probing of the blast furnace possible, at least at
one point in the radial direction.
(6) If the gas flow distribution in the blast furnace is clarified, it will
greatly help to elucidate furnace reactions. And it is for this reason that
many measurements have been repeatedly taken of the gas flow velocity
at the stockline surface. In this regard, standard measurement practice
has yet to be established.



Some of the examples of measurements taken recently in Japan to

clarify furnace reactions, together with examples of the application of
the results to furnace operation, are shown below.

2.3.1. Relationship Between Measurements Before Blowing Out of

Blast Furnace and Results of Dissection
It has been revealed from the dissection of quenched blast furnaces that
there is an important relationship between the formation of the
cohesive zone and the operation of blast furnaces. Therefore determina-
tion of the shape of the cohesive zone has become an important issue.
As will be discussed later, however, the development of a method for
directly measuring the cohesive zone has not yet been completed, and
several methods for indirect estimation already developed are being
used without clarification as to whether the estimation corresponds
with the actual conditions in the furnace.
For this reason, in developing the method for cohesive zone
measurement, examination was made as to whether or not the condition
of the cohesive zone discovered on dissection could have been
estimated from the detecting element information obtained when the
blast furnace in question was in operation. However, most of the
furnaces so far dissected were small and old with insufficient
instrumentation. In these furnaces, the judgement of the furnace
condition relied mainly on the top gas temperature and composition
distribution. Since there was no concept of the cohesive zone when the
first dissection was carried out, no comparison was made between the
findings and the actual operation data. In the later dissection of
quenched blast furnaces, the condition of the cohesive zone was
estimated before blowing out, and a comparison was made between the
estimated shape and the results of dissection.
Figure 2.2 shows the relationships between the rough shapes of
cohesive zones observed on dissection and the top gas temperature
distribution and distribution of reducing gas utilization during actual
operation, obtained for several blast furnaces. 2 It is apparent from the
figure that there is a general tendency for the shape of the cohesive zone
to be almost the same as that of the temperature distribution, and that
the distribution of gas utilization shows a reverse tendency.
At Hirohata No.1 furnace, the top of the cohesive zone is high and


c w c w C w C W C
Furnace Furnace
wall center

Hlrohoto Kukioko Kawasaki Kawasaki Tsuruml Chiba

No.1 No.4 No_ 2 No.3 No.1 No I

G (good) 6. ineu rly good) 0 0 X Ihadl 6

Fig. 2.2. The relation between the dissected shape of the cohesive zone and the
top gas data during furnace operation.

the temperature distribution shows a very high level in the furnace

center; thus there is a good correspondence between the results of
dissection and those of operation. For Kawasaki No. 2 and No. 3
furnaces, flat distributions indicating low temperatures in the furnace
center correspond well with the low levels of the cohesive zones. Indeed,
at Kawasaki No.3, peripheral gas flow was strengthened by controlling
the burden distribution at the furnace top. This is an example where the
results of estimation from operation are in fair agreement with those of
dissection. For Tsurumi No. I furnace, a cohesive zone similar to that of
Hirohata No. I was estimated from the measurements taken during
operation. However, the actual cohesive zone had a considerably
different shape. In the examples of Kukioka No.4 and Chiba No.1
furnaces, it was predicted that the center of the cohesive zones would be
rather high, and this was confirmed. However, the actual cohesive zones
had the complicated shapes shown in the figure, and these could not be
estimated during operation.
Although it was possible in some of the above cases to predict the
shape of the cohesive zone from the measurements of top gas during
operation, this does not always produce reliable results. For this reason,

it has been of urgent necessity, as will be discussed later, to develop

model equations for estimating the shape of the cohesive zone more
accurately, and methods for its direct measurement.

2.3.2. Measurements and Estimations of the Cohesive Zone Development of direct measuring methods

(a) Radioisotope method. By using a radioisotope (60 Co) Shimomura
et al. 3 developed a method of directly measuring the cohesive zone.
Figure 2.3 shows the principle of the method. The radioisotope was
charged at a prescribed point in an ore layer at the furnace top. On
reaching the cohesive zone, the radioisotope melted and finally flowed
out of the tap hole in the molten iron. During tapping, the radioactivity
of the iron was measured and the height of the cohesive zone was then
estimated from the time it takes from the charging of the radioisotope to
its discharge at the tap hole. Retention time in the dropping zone may be
negligibly short but there is a problem in the estimation of the retention
time of pig iron in the hearth. In our case, the time it takes for pig iron to
shift in the hearth was actually determined, to formulate an equation of
retention time estimation.

cohesive zone

dropping zone

Fig. 2.3. Principle of measurement. 3


Figure 2.4 shows an example of the above radioisotope-based

measurement method. It was found that, using this method, radial
measurements at two or three points enabled the shape of the cohesive
zone to be estimated.




tap hole

Fig. 2.4. An example of measurement in Hirohata No.3 blast furnace?

(b) Vertical probe method. A method for directly measuring the

position of the cohesive zone in the furnace was developed at Nippon
Kokan Technical Research Laboratories by measuring the length of a
conductive cable inserted in the furnace. 4 As shown in Fig. 2.5, special
cables are inserted perpendicularly from the furnace top. The end of
each cable melts when it reaches the cohesive zone. Therefore the height
of the cohesive zone can be determined by measuring the residual
length of the cables in the furnace.
measuring roll

!calculation of height of cohesive zone)

Fig. 2.5. Schematic diagram of measuring apparatus.


The cable length can be determined by sending square-wave voltage

pulses through the cables and measuring the time until reflected waves
return. It has been ascertained that measurement is possible to an
accuracy of ± 30 cm or better, for a cable of 159 m in length.
As shown in Fig. 2.5, three cables radially spaced are lowered from
the fixed probe in the furnace while tension is applied to prevent
deflection, and their lengths to the positions where they melt in contact
with the cohesive zone are measured. An example of measurements is
shown in Fig. 2.6, from which it is found that the height of the cohesive
zone fluctuates considerably with time. Figure 2.7 reveals that the shape
of the cohesive zone changes greatly depending on the operating
conditions of the blast furnace. When the fuel rate decreases, the height
of the cohesive zone decreases and, at the same time, the pressure drop

• center
o middle

o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15
time Ihrsl

Fig. 2.6. Change of height of cohesive zone. 4

No. FR Si

CD 460 40 20
(2) 490 50 E
G) 540
Q; 15
E .,
Co 10
OJ \
1! \

\ I I I
2.4 2.5 2.6 2] \ 3.6 3] 3.8
pressure at the shaft
wall Ikg/em')

Fig. 2.7. Change of cohesive zone and shaft pressures.4


in the lower portion of the furnace increases. Thus it was found that the
height of the cohesive zone shows a good correspondence with the
change in shaft pressure. Use of measuring devices together with estimation models for the
cohesive zone
In blast furnace operations, a knowledge of the shape and position of
the cohesive zone is vital but, in the absence of thoroughly satisfactory
direct measuring methods, a variety of estimation methods have been
tried. For routine control of the furnace, the behavior of the cohesive
zone as calculated by an estimation model is used as reference data.
The basic concept which guides the building of estimation models is
founded on the following two factors:
(1) As it flows through the cohesive zone, the hot reducing gas that
rises from the raceway will affect the furnace walls by its pressure
and temperature.
(2) The geometry of the cohesive zone will change the temperature
distribution and composition distribution of the top gas.
To make more accurate estimates, furnace walls have recently been
provided with measuring elements, or shaft probes have been employed.
The major estimation models that have been developed so far include
the following.
(a) Static pressure model. Developed by Sugata et al.,s this model is
designed to estimate the shape of the cohesive zone from the vertical
distribution of the static pressures that are measured by measuring
holes provided at positions up the furnace walls. Chapter 3 describes
this static pressure model in detail.
(b) Stave temperature model. Irita et al. 6 investigated the shape of the
cohesive zone and the changes in its shape in a MuroraN Works blast
furnace. As is clear from Fig. 2.8, the variations in the vertical
temperature distribution, as obtained from the cooling staves in the
furnace walls, is found to be in good agreement with the movement of
the shape of the cohesive zone, as calculated by the estimation model. In
short, movement of that area of the cohesive zone which is adjacent to
the furnace walls causes the heat loads on cooling staves to change,
thereby making it possible to estimate the form of the cohesive zone.
This method is intriguing in that existing detection devices can be used.
(c) Model based on gas temperature distribution and gas composition
distribution measurements. Shigemi et aU constructed a model in which

w (Z!

131 \

13) 12
8 8 8 8
7 7 7 7
6 6 6 6
5 5 5 5

100120140160180 100120140160180 100120140160180 100120140160180

shapE of, stove temp- shape of stove temp- shape of stave shape of stove temp
cohesive zone eroture lOCI cohesive zone erature (OCI cohesive zone erature cohesive zone erature rei

Fig. 2.8. Relation between the shape of the cohesive zone and the distribution
of stave temperature. 6

furnace temperature distribution is calculated from the gas temperature

and gas composition observed at two levels in the blast furnace shaft. In
this method, the solid temperature line of lOOO°C as estimated by the
model is assumed to correspond with the shape of the upper surface of
the cohesive zone. The validity of this method in relation to actual blast
furnace operation is discussed in a report by Shigemi et al.

2.3.3. Development and Use of the Latest Sensors to Study Furnace

Interiors Profilometer for blast furnace burden

At the furnace top, the distribution of charging coke and ore feedstock is
adjusted to control the reducing gas flow distribution in the furnace.
This is one of the fundamentals of blast furnace operation. To
accomplish this, coke and ore charging must be succeeded by the
accurate measurement of their respective profiles in the furnace.
Traditionally, steelmakers have mainly used mechanical methods to
take profile measurements. At Kawasaki Steel Corporation, they have
developed microwave and laser measuring instruments. These
mechanical and non-mechanical instruments are introduced below, as
are the state of their use in blast furnaces. They have their advantages
and disadvantages relative to each other but, with the progress of their
development, these apparatuses are sure to be established as reliable
measuring methods.
(aJ Mechanical profilometer. As Fig. 2.9 shows,8 a weight is suspended
from a pair of wires attached to the tip ofa lance provided in the furnace
throat. As the lance advances, the weight is lowered and lifted repeatedly





0 I 2 3 4m

If ~y.

f\f'L ~t<;; 'II \LJi

LEVEL IJf ~n v

rr,J/' r, armor notch 0 lorel

armor notch 5 Icoke)


\' icc

m ~
q: ~
center of

Fig. 2.9. An example of a mechanical profilometer. 8

along the burden surface to measure the burden profile. It takes

approximately 40 s for this profilometer to take a measurement at 12 to
13 points along its route from the furnace wall to the furnace center. It
was first mounted on Kawasaki Steel's Mizushima No.3 blast furnace
in May 1979.
As the notch number of the movable armor plate is changed, so is
the profile of charged coke and ore feedstock, as Fig. 2.10 shows.
Accordingly, when a notch number not smaller than 3 is used, coke is
charged more on the furnace center side to form an M-shaped profile,
and if on this profile (coke layer) ore is charged, a pattern of burden in
which the ore/coke ratio is higher on the furnace wall side is obtained.
(b) Microwave method. A microwave generator provides oscillatory
modulated waves, which on reaching the burden surfaces bounce back
to the receiver via a receiving antenna. In this microwave method, the

~~, I /-
.....:-: - .,. I /::.... /
1--------'''''''',...,,~,- SL~. 2;t>',,4::''-'"''''""'------\
coke "":::' ore

MA 4 notch
MA 3 notch
MA 2 notch

Fig. 2.10. Notch number of movable armor and burden profile.

time that this process requires is measured to determine the burden

profile. Figure 2.11 shows a general view of the profilometer. The
measuring probe requires approximately 2 min to complete a measure-
ment scan between the furnace wall and the furnace center. Figure 2.12
compares the values obtained by this microwave method with those
actually measured by a wired weight. The good agreement between the
two sets of values shows how practical the microwave method is in
(c) Laser method. Figure 2.13 shows the principle of the laser method.
By using a beam scanner, laser beams are projected from a window in
the furnace top to scan the burden. The locus of light described as a
result is recorded by a TV camera from another window. By
calculations, profile measurements are made possible over a wide range
ofthe burden surface. Figure 2.14 shows a profile image of the coke layer
surface and a profile of calculated results. The time required for the
complete measurement was approximately 2 s.

meos;uring stroke
1---- -7000----1

position of probe head on

stond by

measuring points <D - @

Fig. 2.11. Microwave type profilometer.


In the laser method, where continuous measurements are possible,

the distribution of burden descending speed can be estimated from
time-dependent changes in the profile. The distribution of layer
thickness in each batch of raw material charged can also be estimated.

] 5
Q; 3
~ 2
Q. A

0 I
2 3 4 5
measured values 1m)
o: data obtained during insertion
D. : data obtained during withdrawal

Fig. 2.12. A comparison between microwave profilometer reading and

measured values.

Beam I

Burden surface

Fig. 2.13. Principle of laser method of measurement.


Sl = El + 36698 - 1000
0000 - - - - ,- - - - -"I - - - - - ~ -- --

I I ,
E -1000 - - - - -+ - - - - - - - - - - --T'---=---
I I f

! : / :
:::; -2000
, ,.-,1/ ''
o I
__ J_--
- - - - - - 1 - - - - , - , - - - - - - - r-----
I , I
-3000 --- - - .----- T------r----
, I I

L - - - - - L -____L -____L -___

-1200 0000 1200 2400
Distance from the center (mm)

Fig. 2.14. A profile of calculated results. Horizontal probe in the blast furnace shaft

The practice of measuring the temperature and composition of top gas
by means of a cross probe arranged on the burden at the furnace top was
first commercially started a fairly long time ago. Recently the desire to
obtain information from nearer the cohesive zone has produced a shaft
probe designed to be inserted into the burden to take measurements. Its
mounting position on the shaft is becoming ever lower.
(a) Development of lumpy zone measuring technique. Yamamoto et az.9
have developed a technique for comprehensively observing the lumpy
zone of the shaft in a blast furnace at Sakai Works, Nippon Steel
Corporation. As Fig.2.15 shows, in this system the information
gathered from all these detecting elements is synthetically analyzed and
the state of the lumpy zone is accordingly studied. These detecting
elements comprise a throat diameter probe (TOP), shaft diameter probe
(SOP), and shaft wall probe (SWP). TOP is a traditional cross probe
laid out at the furnace throat to detect the temperature and the
composition of top gas. SOP is a newly developed, mUlti-purpose probe
which is laid out across the furnace and fixed on both ends in the shaft.
Figure 2.15 shows the cross-section of SOP. SOP has different detectors
built into its pipe to measure the temperature and composition of the
furnace gas and the speed of descent of the burden, respectively. In
contrast, SWP is attached to the furnace walls to determine the speed of
burden descent. The speed of burden descent is measured by a
magnetometer, a new device the principle of which is based on the
measurement of the difference in magnetic permeability between iron

~od at d sIT bl.l.()t: of f@:'T!pemfUfl!!

g05 cQr"pm,~ ·on

Rodlol mognelOMtUer

C lfcumferenuol mognerome1er

INOla II *
TOP .. ---Throot D iameter
[ SOP ... -- Shoft D~omeler Probe
SWP·· --- Shalt Wall Probe

Fig. 2.15. Lumpy zone measuring system. 9

ore and coke. Normal shaft probes measure intermittently, whereas the
SDP is capable of continuous measurement. Since 1975 these probes
have been installed on the Sakai No.2 blast furnace. The behavior of the
cohesive zone has since been calculated using both measured values
from these probes and the aforesaid mathematical model built for the
estimation of the cohesive zone geometry. Figure 2.16 shows the


"" -
>-_ 3.0
u >-
c 0
~ ~ 2.0


I x 10- 2 % I


ISil 62 • -;-. ~ ,........,
58 I'--
Sl814 15 16 17 18 19 20
Distance of the top end of the root
from the stock line Iml

Fig. 2.16. The relation between the top end of the root, Si contents, and the
frequency of slips.9

relationship between the position ofthe cohesive zone and blast furnace
operation. Figure 2.17 depicts the calculated shape of the cohesive zone
and the corresponding pattern of gas flow. This measuring system has
made the control of blast furnace operations possible.
- 2 3 4 5 6 Sl


500 'C" --' V--
) - - - )-
BOO 50 1\
~ct \
I ~ V

" 600 40

V 7""
700 'C~
10 2! ,

12 0 400 30




20 2
-'" 09


24 0-

26 <;
Inner volume m3 2797
Pig iron
tiD m3 130
3 0
Fuel rate

441 10,1 2BI

o 0
GO >-~

:.:::: E
1.0 '-..., /
o l)-

lJeo % 53.7 o >

Tf 'C 2337
furnace furnace
Slip Time/D 2.2 wall center

Fig. 2.17. Calculated shape of the cohesive zone and the corresponding pattern
of gas flow. 9

(b) Lower shaft probe. In order to obtain information from the lower
shaft, i.e. from near the cohesive zone, Oita Works, 10 Nippon Steel, has
recently provided its blast furnaces with a mini-probe (mini-shaft
probe) at a point 12 m below the stockline. Measuring tests are still
going on to study blast furnace reactions.
Figures 2.18 and 2.19 show the state of mini-probe mounting and
examples of measured data. As is evident from the illustration,
depending on furnace operation, the mini-probe can reach a part of the

- - - - octuo l ,tock line

-H--~-- 'hoft probe

7.1 m
mini-probe in the middle ,hoft

top hole center

Fig. 2.18. The state of mini-probe layout in the middle shaft. 1O

I I 1/
1000 mini -probe measu red ~ 70
te mperature ~
900 60
It I~ 1/
17 50
/ 1'\ V c
V 40 <;

~ 1\ r'< 17.."

~~ f\ ~ini-probe
<; meosurt i 30 ~
iii 600
E ~.
gas uti l i z~tion V ~
2 500 ~co
~ 10
1\ shait ~robe u
400 \ ~co
-; 0
K ./
1-'\ /
sha ft probe f- /
100 t~ m~e r~ t urre
~ 1/
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I 0

Fig. 2.19. Example of the data measured by the mini-probe in the middle shaft
ofOita No.2 blast furnace (around 13 :30,7 May, 1980).10

cohesive zone and conduct probing operations. Figure 2.20 is an

example of the analysis of measured values obtained by the mini-probe.
As the diagram shows, unlike the measured values from the shaft probe
and from the throat probe, the values obtained from the mini-probe are
found to fluctuate over wide margins on account of the mini-probe's
closeness to the cohesive zone. This shows how much more accurately
the mini-probe can detect furnace behavior than other probes.
Period I Period II Period III
[Dec. 25, 1978 - Feb 10, 19791 IFeb II, 1979 - April 10, 19791 [April II, 1979 - June 30, 19791

I'CI 28F [%1 ['CI 28F 1%1 ("CJ 2BF (%1

1000 «: 1000 q 1000 <r

[II 60




Fig. 2.20. Patterns of mean gas temperature and ffias utilization in periods L II
and III, respectively. Venical probe

Progress has been made in the investigation of the furnace interior
using horizontal probes installed in the shaft of the blast furnace. It has
also become possible to investigate the furnace top and to use the data
for operation control. The measurement in the furnace with such
vertical probes was carried out by Schiirmann et alY in 1960 at blast
furnaces in West Germany. In recent years, studies by this method have
been actively carried out again in Japan. This has been done because
this method can provide information on the reactions during the ascent
of the reducing gas in the furnace and contribute to the clarification of
the conditions in the furnace based on the concept of the cohesive zone.
The utilization of vertical probes for the measurement of the cohesive
zone height is described in Section 2.3.2.l(b). Therefore use of vertical
probes for the measurement of the reducing gas temperature and
composition in the vertical direction is dealt with here. The principle of
these probes is the same as that of the above-mentioned vertical probes
used in Germany and details are omitted here. These vertical probes are
classified into the consumable type, used mainly for research activities,
and the non-consumable type installed for long service and intended
for daily operation, and control purposes. In the former type, a flexible

tube containing a temperature measuring cable and a gas sampling pipe

is inserted from the furnace top. The end of the flexible tube is drawn
down into the furnace with the descent of the burden, and measurement
is made until it melts in the cohesive zone. In the latter type, a rigid pipe
is installed in the furnace, which contains measuring elements capable
of temperature measurement and gas sampling at appropriate heights.
Continuous measurement in the vertical direction is possible by
installing this pipe in the burden until the descending burden
approaches the cohesive zone. Figure 2.21 shows examples of these
installations and measurement data. 12

position of weight
before measurement gas seal

pushing rod

oj Schematic diagram of measuring apparatus


--+_--1 20 1979.6.14 1979.]].14

o 500 1000 oL-L-s-::'o-:-o- - I0-'-00--'1300
temp. ["CI temp ["CI

b) An example of measurement

Fig. 2.21. Measuring apparatus and an example of measurement by the vertical

sonde. 12

Recently a tuyere probe has been increasingly used to examine the
raceway and to sample coke in the farthest end of the raceway, an area
often referred to as the deadman. (Problems of the raceway are
discussed elsewhere in another chapter.) Further, tuyere examination
has now commenced with a mounted camera or other device for
observing the state of the raceway. The details are as follows.
(a) Coke sampling by tuyere probe. Nishi et al. 13 examined the raceway
and the deadman by using the sampling apparatus illustrated in
Fig. 2.22. First the probe with sampling points was inserted from the
tuyere to sample coke. Furnace temperature was then estimated from
the crystal form of the coke carbon. Coke size distribution was also
measured. Figure 2.23 gives an example of sampling results. The area
where temperature changes abruptly coincides with the wall of the
raceway. From the appearance of sampled coke, it is found that coke
size undergoes a drastic change at the raceway boundary wall. Figure
2.24 shows the results of sampling conducted at different times at
different operating rates. As is apparent from these diagrams, the lower
the operating rate, the larger the mean size of furnace coke and the
greater the degradation of coke.

Specification of sampling apparatus.

Diameter of sampling tube 800 A IJISI

Pushing machine Self-propelled pneumatic hammer

Pushing force: 80t hammer

Driving apparatus Driving force
Topping force 90kg-m 1800 times/mini

Sampling time 15 min

Depth into BF 5.8 m Ito the center of BFI

Fig. 2.22. Apparatus for sampling from tuyere, and its specification. 13
Sample A Iproductivity 2.08 tid . m'! II)
"(;0 v
0. O~OO~~~~~8~Q~ ~
0. 0
..c <: ;g'o'~i::.!1~!1.~c ~'l;tYo a.
u ~Bc: . 0.
80 74"l ,15~ <:
g~ .c
60 col:e
melol g~
40 60
" 0. .... ......1... •Iog (; II) ~
~ 5 20 ~,~....___ ... :.t"-"'" 40 ~
>- " 0
.. "a.
Gi E 20
,- 0
"0 100 'C...;..2.7 >- " 0 fi
'~- 80 ~:::~~7r""":;:
38~-~.:.r5~-:;;::: SO- 38~ c 100
.Q 80 Ul
,g~ 60 SOmm 25 - 15 15 - 10 10 - 5 :;-
" 40 ,g~ 60 z
~o .!i ~
20 ~ <3g5-3
" u 20
0 0
~o " ...v tIl
i'! .~ -- 0
~ "'0 ~
2000 30 -; 0>
\1)- !; _ 2000
-5iii '0 .s ~
a. . ~ U + '0 0 1
E " • 20 "
.! ,,~ 1600 -0u ~ .§ 0 1600 1: Cl
,,0» 8 O:l
G) -£ .! ~~~
~ g> ~ 1200 10 ~ "1? ~ 1200 [;

~.2 ~
"-'0_ o '"I ~ ~~ ~
o 1.0 2.0
o '"I
Distonce from Ihe tip of tuyere [m!
~~~ Distance from the lip of tuyere Iml ;:J
[oj Exomple of Ihe size distribution and amount fbi Example of the si ze distribUlion ond amount
of coke in the sompling pipe ot high of coke in the sompling pipe 01 low

Fig. 2.23. Results of coke sampling at different blast furnace productivity.13


Distance from the tip of tuyere

o O.6-0.Bm
" \\
MSl o : Micro strength
MSI mdex
: ReactiVity
f k b I
co.e e ore
chargmg ond

"-"-. ,'x)(\
• 1.2-1.6
• 1,8-2.2
~ 4 \\{ "de> 1J151 fcom I,y"•

\. ',' 8
\... " \ Z ","
20' - 2
::i ...... .
1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2
, ---
Productivity It/d·m 3 )
Distance from the lip of luyere
oj Relation between the productivity of the furnace
and the mean size of coke sampled at luyere level. Q 0.6-0 8m
• 1.2-1.6
Distance from the tip of luyere

~ 00.6-0.8

X 1.2-1.6
~ 80 .1.8-22



1.6 1.8 2.0 1.0 '--:-'------:-'-:-----"-;:--------f.,.--'

1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
Productivity It/d o m3 J Productivity It/d. m3 )
bl Relation between the productivity of the furnace c) Relation between the productivity of the furnace
and the strength of coke sampled at luyere level. and the properties of coke sampled at tuyere level

Fig. 2.24. The relation between the furnace productivity and the properties of
sampled cokeY.

As the furnace operating rate becomes lower, the furnace center,

namely the deadman, becomes inactive. So, in order to control the
furnace central temperature, it is useful to measure the temperature by
means of the tuyere probe.
(b) Observation ofraceway. In blast furnace operation, observations of
the state of coke in front of the tuyere and judgements from this
information are vital, but it is very difficult to carry out such
observations continuously. To solve these problems, Nippon Kokan
have developed and practised raceway observation using a television
camera. A high-speed camera has also been used to observe coke
behavior in the raceway. A raceway observation television, which is
mounted on a wheel and can be moved freely to any selected tuyere,
transmits an enlarged picture to a monitor tube and the state of the
raceway can thereby be monitored continuously.
In addition, observation of the behavior of coke falling in front of the
tuyeres has also been practised. Nippon Kokan has investigated the
behavior of raceway coke in the Fukuyama Works No.4 furnace using a
16 mm high-speed camera when low strength coke was used. 14 The

measuring system is shown in Fig. 2.25. The size distribution of raceway

coke was calculated by analyzing the film taken at 3000 frames/so The
relation between the charged coke strength and the size in the raceway
was confirmed. Thus on-line measurement of raceway conditions will
be expected to become a major means of furnace operating control.

Wriling pen


~ .....: t------'
Colculolion of Hard copy
Ihe rolio of while
Two color
area / block area

Fig. 2.25. Measurement system for coke size and volume rate in raceway. 14



As described above, the development of blast furnace instrumentation

in the past decade or so has been tremendous, particularly since the
introduction of blast furnace dissection analysis. Figure 2.1 shows blast
furnace instrumentation of a decade ago. Figure 2.26 shows the latest
blast furnace instrumentation. The latter features the extended use of
detectors to measure furnace variables (the temperature and composition
of reducing gas that ascends in the furnace and the sampling of solids
that descend) at various points in the furnace. With the progress of
furnace control systems where information from these detectors is
processed and an estimation model is used, stable operation of large
blast furnaces has become established. Despite this, blast furnace

vertical probe
sounding rod
top gas temp.,
furnace top probe
~ pressure, c~mposition
._---( burden profile meter
\ thermoviewer
gas static. ____ -;
layer thickness meter
pressure ~_

upper shaft ---:-'- - H - t - - - wall temp

__ r---- micro pressure
lower shaft _~~+----+-­
probe blast temp
& pressure
heat flow _-+----'1
meter N----blast flow meter
tuyere probe --~------«
pig & slag

Fig. 2.26. Instrumentation of newly constructed blast furnaces.

instrumentation needs further development before the control of

furnace operations is perfected.
The dissection of blast furnaces has brought home to ironmakers the
importance of the cohesive zone. This awareness has prompted
ironmakers to estimate the position and the shape of the cohesive zone
and operate the blast furnace with the results of the estimation in mind.
This has naturally improved the level of overall furnace control.
The problems yet to be solved lie in the inability of existing
techniques to directly and continuously measure the cohesive zone. In
addition, blast furnaces of still larger sizes and of ever longer lives are in
demand. To meet this demand, the stable operation of furnaces is
essential, and this in turn requires the establishment of a comprehensive
blast furnace control system aided by overall instrumentation.
The targets of comprehensive instrumentation include (1) a clear
understanding of the state of coke and ore in the blast furnace, (2) the
attainment of a level of measurements which fully reflect furnace
information obtained by furnace dissection, and (3) a full knowledge of
the state of reducing gas. Therefore the items requiring development in
the future include the following:
(1) A method for directly measuring the position and shape of the
cohesive zone.
(2) A method to determine the behavior of the 'root' of the cohesive

zone, i.e. the movement of the cohesive zone near the furnace
(3) A device to determine the behavior of molten pig iron and
molten slag in the hearth.
(4) A method to measure gas velocity.
(5) A method to measure the distribution of burden layers more
Moreover, as soon as these methods are developed, it will be equally
important to establish their commercial application as practical
measuring instruments for blast furnace control.

1. Private communication: from the construction design chart of Nippon
Steers blast furnace in 1969.
2. Blast Furnace Phenomena and Their Analysis. Interim report from the joint
research committee of Iron & Steel Institute of Japan, Japan Institute of
Metals and Japan Society for Promotion of Science (1979), Iron & Steel
Institute of Japan.
3. Y. Shimomura, K Kushima and S. Arino, Tetsu-to-Hagane. 62(1967), S65.
4. T. Fukushima, H. Yamada, T. Kobayashi, Y. Niwa, T. Furukawa and
B. lino, Tetsu-to-Hagane. 67(1981), S70.
5. Kimitsu Works, Nippon Steel, report to 54th Committee, Japan Soc. for the
Promotion of Sci. and Tech., No. 1456 (1978).
6. T. Irita, Y. Kanayama and K Tashiro, Tetsu-to-Hagane, 64(1978), S48.
7. A Shigemi, A Suzuki, Y. Hida and K Yamaguchi, Tetsu-to-Hagane,
64(1978), S47.
8. Kawasaki automatic burden profilemeter for blast furnace, Catalogue of
Kawasaki Steers Engineering Division.
9. T. Yamamoto, T. Masahisa, H. Kanoshima, Y. Hayashi and K Tamura,
Tetsu-to-Hagane, 67(1981), A1l7.
10. Oita Works, Nippon Steel, paper presented at March meeting (1981).
Committee for study of inside blast furnace reactions, Organization of
Joint Basic Research, ISIJ.
11. E. Schiirmann, W. Zischkale, P. Ischebeck and G. Heynert, Stahl u. Eisen,
12. A Katayama, N. Tsuchiya, K Okabe, S. Taguchi, K Okumura and
S. Tamura, Tetsu-to-Hagane. 66(1980), S682.
13. T. Nishi, H. Haraguchi, Y. Miura, T. Sakurai, K Ono and K Kanoshima,
Tetsu-to-Hagane. 66(1980), 1820.
14. K Sano, H. Nishio, T. Miyazaki, T. Ariyama and H. Yoshida, Tetsu-to-
Hagane, 63(1977), S522.
Part II

Modelling of the Blast Furnace


Global Formulation


Although the blast furnace process has been studied by numerous

researchers for many years, a variety of problems still remain unsolved
concerning the rates and mechanisms for the phenomena occurring in
the furnace. The major reason for this is that the blast furnace process
includes many physical and chemical changes which occur simul-
taneously. A number of attempts have, however, been made to develop
mathematical models for the better understanding of this complicated
process. The models have also given a great deal of information on the
internal situation of the blast furnace. This has proved useful for the
improvement and the stabilization of the operation. It is therefore
instructive for the future advancement of a blast furnace model to
review the models already proposed. Mathematical models proposed
hitherto may be classified as the following five groups:
(1) Thermal analysis of the furnace based on thermodynamics
(2) Application of the operation diagram
(3) Kinetic model
(4) Control model
(5) Models for internal situations based on observed data
A brief description of the best models in each group is given below.

3.1.1. Reichardt Diagram

Reichardt' proposed that a blast furnace was divided into five zones in
terms of temperature because the heat requirements of the burden


material descending in the furnace could be calculated as a function of

temperature provided that the sequence of reactions occurring and the
temperature range for each reaction were both known. The function of
each zone was defined as follows:
(i) 0-400DC: preheating of burden
(ii) 400-900 DC: indirect reduction
(iii) 900-1200 DC: direct reduction
(iv) l200-l400DC: fusion of reduced iron and direct reduction
(v) > l400 DC; formation of slag, reduction of metalloid (Si02,
MnO, P20S etc.)
Heat exchange between the gas and solid (or molten) phases took place
together in each zone mentioned above. According to this concept, the
heat requirement of the burden was calculated for 100 kg production of
hot metal. A result calculated by Reichardt! is shown in Fig. 3.1.1. Lines

Heat requirement
___ 0
o 10 5 5/10 4 kcol
I~ lbl I 1

I~--+I- - - T o t a l heat requirement---f-----;--I


- - -

2 1 I
.D I
. '
\ I ~ Heal requlre7ent over 90Q"C
I 1
~a. - - - -

1-----,1-1 ~ I
~ 1000 Consumption --L-->k-I~--+----+---I
cedel 900'C \ I
1 \
I \
J ~ Requirement
Consumption \
I I over 1400"(
_undeI1400°C-~ I ""',
J I 'J I " B

1500 L-__-+"---'L-_-i.J:"""'-_ E
0 ____
i B i----- _~
105 _IA
Heat consumptiofl Heot consumption
I - - - - - - T o l o l heat c o n s u m e d - - - - - - - I

Fig. 3.1.1. Heat requirement curve for 100 kg Thomas pig iron.!

1-5 in Fig. 3.1.1 (a) represent the heat requirements for the following
1. Heating up and fusion of iron
2. Heating up and fusion of slag
3. Heat for decomposition of limestone and formation of slag
4. Heat of direct reduction of iron oxide
(a) direct reduction restricted in range 900-1400DC
(b) direct reduction occurs above 1400 DC
5. Heat of reduction of MnO, Si0 2 and P20S
The overall heat requirements for the whole process were obtained by
summing each heat requirement curve illustrated by lines 1-5, which is
shown in Fig. 3.1.1 (b). The two lines in the temperature range 900-
1500 DC show the two different fashions for the reduction of iron oxide
assumed above.
The heat content ofthe gas was calculated on the assumption that the
blast at 600°C reacted with coke at 1400 DC in the tuyere zone thereby
producing a gas mixture of CO and N 2 . This meant that 1 kg carbon
reacting with air made 2·33 kg CO + 4-45 kg N2 gas. Assuming
that 83·5 kg carbon (95·6 kg coke) was required for the production of
100 kg pig iron (66·4 kg C for combustion, 13-8 kg C for direct reduction
and 3· 3 kg C for hot metal), the heat availability of the gas could be
calculated as a function of temperature. An example of the calculated
result is shown by the line URKN in Fig. 3.1.2 together with the heat
requirements of burden materials given by the line ABCD.

Heat carried out

by top gas
Heat loss
c o~--~~~~--.---o~


~ 500~~~--~~--+---~
rn IOOO~----~~+-~~--~


~ 1500 t-i----~-+--+-----'>,<+_-----""""I A
c'" 2000 L..-'_ _ _ _'-----'-----'----_ _---'---_ _- " U
2 0
Amount of heat IIO-s keal)

Fig. 3.1.2. Heat requirement and availability.l


In Fig. 3.1.2, the heat coordinates corresponding to the points B, C

and D give the heat requirement above the temperature at the
individual point. On the other hand, the heat coordinates for the points
U, R, K and N give the heat content of the gas which is available for the
temperature region over the individual points. The line ON in Fig. 3.1.2
represents the overall heat input which is generated by combustion of
66·4 kg C, and OD reveals the overall heat output accompanied by the
output of hot metal and slag. Therefore the heat given by ND is the
remaining heat after subtracting the heat requirements of the burden
materials from the total heat input. Moreover, ED is considered as the
heat content of discharged gas and the latent heat for the vaporization
of water. As the result, NE becomes the heat loss through the wall.
The lines for heat availability of gas (UN) and heat requirements of
the burden (ACD) must not intersect for stable operation. According to
this theory, the least coke consumption can be achieved by minimizing
the difference between both lines in Fig. 3.1.2. This is called the ideal
operation of the blast furnace in one aspect. I By decreasing the amount
of coke consumption, the line for heat availability of gas moves to the
heat requirement curve. If the case (4b) in Fig. 3.1.1 is assumed to be
taken by solid burden, the heat content line for gas contacts first the heat
requirement line at point B. This fact means that the lowest carbon rate
is determined by the heat requirement for the temperature range above
900°C. It was evaluated as 52·0 kg/lOO kg hot metal in the case of
Fig. 3.1.1. 1 If the burden takes the other course shown by (4a) in
Fig. 3.1.1, point C gives the minimum carbon consumption.
As explained above, Reichardt1 pointed out that the amount of heat
required by burden materials had to be supplied by the gas with a higher
temperature than that of burden materials and the fuel rate was
determined by the heat requirement in the higher temperature range of
the burden.
Some modification was proposed by Ridgion 2 for more precise
calculation of the heat requirements curve on a computer. Numerous
reactions which occurred in the blast furnace were taken into account
in the specified temperature range for each reaction and summation
of the contributions of all reactions together with the heat content of the
solid phase and heat loss gave a heat requirement of the burden. The
heat requirement curve for solid phase was calculated in 50°C steps
from O°C to 1500°C. A typical computed result obtained by Ridgion2 is
illustrated in Fig. 3.1.3. During his calculation of this curve, changes in
the quantities, temperatures and heat content of gas stream caused by

0 15 ~
ill ill E-
rn 2 ~ E 13

- - - J'.'
E- .2 ~
4 6 ~ ~ ~ 11 ~
~ >f-
---a 6 -
a ill ill if> 9-::-

a a> 0 a> _f- I

~ 0
illS) ill~
8 I a I
N I a 7
10 - I 3 c' 5""
0 I eTc '>
12 I ill ill 3 S!ill
l' t t ~ill -~ ~

(; 1
c ______Ts_T.!_ ~_1S_ ____
~ ~
a eT
18 :u
20 I
0 2 4 6
8 12 14 1610 18 20
Temperature I Xl 0- 2 °el

Fig. 3.1.3. Graphical representation of stepwise heat balance?

chemical reactions were considered in each 50 0 e step of solid

temperature. For computation of the gas line, the theoretical flame
temperature was obtained, first of all, from the amount and composition
of the tuyere gas using the assumption that the injected blast reacted
with coke at 1500°C. Account was taken of the variation of specific heat
with temperature and the changes in mass and heat content of the gas
stream due to the exchange of gaseous components with the solid phase.
The resultant curve of heat availability which is shown in Fig. 3.1.3
looks almost a straight line.
An attemptl was made to determine the longitudinal distribution of
solid temperature from the lines of heat requirement and heat
availability vs. temperature. From Fig. 3.1.3, an approximate equation
for heat transfer was written by Ridgion 2 for 50 0 e step divided by two
where A z is cross-sectional area, a is effective surface area per unit
volume, hgs is heat transfer coefficient, tlHT is amount of heat
transferred from gas to solid for one incremental step, tlz is longitudinal
distance between the two isotherms Tsl and T s2 , and Tg and Ts are mean
temperatures of the increment, Tg = (Tgl + T gz )/2, Ts = (Tsl + Tsz)/2.


Though hg.,A z and a are not independent of the operating conditions

and the shape of furnace, a simplified equation may be written as a first
.6Zr = 1::goo !J.HT/(Tg - Ts)
F = 1:: o15OO !J.HT /(Tg - T)

Figure 3.1.4 illustrates a computed result on the longitudinal distribution

of solid temperature from eqn (3.1.3).


]' 06


] 0.4
15 0.2

OL-~~_L_L_L~_ _~

o 400 800 I 200 I 600

Solid temperature I"CI

Fig. 3.1.4. Computed temperature profile of solid particle."

Another precise model was proposed by Wartmann 3-6 according to

the Reichardt principle. In the model, the blast furnace was divided into
four zones: preheating, indirect reduction, direct reduction and hearth.
Heat and material balances in each zone were combined with an overall
material balance taken around the whole furnace. Consequently the
quantity of heat transferred from one zone to another, the production
rate of pig iron, the discharge rate of slag and the consumption of coke
were determined numerically from the model.
The models mentioned above have been quite effective, even up to
the present time. However, some uncertainties have been found for the
determination of the boundary temperatures and for the prediction of
reduction behavior which plays an important role for the determination
of the heat requirements in the higher temperature region.

3.1.2. Operation Diagram

The theory of the heat exchange between gas and solid in the blast
furnace was proposed by Kitaev. 7 According to the theory, the thermal
capacity of the gas stream, which is defined as the product of mass
velocity and heat capacity, is almost constant throughout the blast
furnace, while that of the solid changes along with longitudinal
position. In the upper part of the furnace, the thermal capacity of
burden is less than that of gas. This causes the temperatures of gas and
solid to sharply increase longitudinally downwards, with decreasing
difference between them. In the lower region, the thermal capacity of
burden is seemingly higher than that of gas because of endothermic
reactions such as solution-loss reaction, direct reduction of iron oxide
and reduction of metalloid. In this region, both temperatures of gas and
solid again increase longitudinally downwards, with increasing difference
between them. There is a region between the upper and the lower
regions mentioned above where the temperature is kept almost constant
around 1000°C and the ratio of thermal capacities of gas and solid
almost equals unity. This region is called the thermal reserve zone, in
which heat exchange hardly occurs. From another aspect it is also
called the thermal pinch point. As a result, the principal shape of the
longitudinal distribution of temperature in the blast furnace can be
expressed by the simple heat exchange theory by using the apparent
heat content which includes the latent heat of the phase transformation
and the heat of chemical reactions. The temperature profile obtained
from this theory is illustrated by Fig. 3.1.5.

"- ,
Tuyere 0'---4--'-00------"80'-0--1--'-20-0--"16-00-2-'000

Fig. 3.1.5. Typical temperature profile in blast furnace.


Staib and Michard8,9 proposed the existence of the chemical reserve

zone for ideal operation of a blast furnace which has uniform burden
distribution. In this zone, oxygen exchange between gas and burden, i.e.
the reduction of iron oxide, is not active due to the equilibrium of the
FeO + CO = Fe + CO 2 (3.1.4)
This region therefore has the characteristics of a chemical pinch point.
This heat and oxygen exchange theory was proved by the results of
internal measurements of some blast furnaces undertaken in the USSR
and European countries. lO- 12 On the basis of such elementary furnace
phenomena, a physico-chemical model for the functions of the furnace
was proposed by Staib et '1l.8 as shown in Fig. 3.1.6.
HEIGHT I---~ Heat exchange zone

' - ----, --~:;"" g

Primary reduction

16.2 5
, '"
13.2 4
:.-- Reduction intensity curve Thermal and
1 chemical reserve
I zone
10.2 3
\ ,,
7.2 2
- --- ----
----- ---- -- .........
1\ ,,
4.4 I
lower zone with high ,;, \
intensity of reduction and
solution 105s reactions ',,, -",' , " I

-- --- --------------~..:~~,-
TUYERE S -- --- 500 1000 TEMPERATURE "0 1500
5 10 % 15

Fig. 3.1.6. Reduction intensity and burden temperature estimated from the
observed temperature of gas. lO

An operation diagram was developed by Rist et al.13 for analyzing

blast furnace operation on the basis of the outstanding findings
concerning heat and oxygen exchange described above. The outline of
the theory is explained below referring to the reports ofMiyashita and of

Hatano. 13 First, let us consider a simple example for understanding the

principle of the operation line, using the following assumptions:
(1) The reduction of iron oxide proceeds uniformly in the radial
(2) The particle diameter is small compared to the furnace
(3) The bulk density of iron is unchanged as reduction proceeds
(4) There is no radial component of gas flow
(5) Isothermal conditions are taken for zone balances on energy and
(6) There are no reactions such as carbon deposition, carburization
of iron, decomposition of carbonates and hydrates
Under these assumptions, oxygen exchange between gas and iron
oxide in the furnace can be expressed as follows for a differential height:
where n Fe is molar velocity of iron (mol/m 2.s), ng is molar velocity of gas
(mol/m2 .s), X, Yare relative oxidation of iron oxide and reducing gas.
For example, Y is 1·5 for hematite and zero for metallic iron. The
operation line for a shaft furnace can be easily obtained from the
integral form of eqn (3.1.5). However, the blast furnace has two active
zones on both sides of the thermal and chemical reserve zone. One is an
upper gaseous reduction zone whereas the other is a lower elaboration
zone. The operation line for such a complicated reactor is not as simple
as that for a single function process. An example of the operation
diagram for the blast furnace is illustrated in Fig. 3.1.7 with X and Y
coordinates as atomic ratios ole and OIFe respectively, where no
account has been taken of hydrogen for simplicity.
Oxygen exchange gives the following relationships for the X axis:
where X b , Xr and Xd designate atomic number of oxygen in blast, that
generated by the reduction of metalloids (SiO b MnO, P20S), and that
generated by direct reduction of iron oxide, respectively; and for the Y
where Y b , Y r and Y d designate number of oxygen atoms in blast, that
combined with e in the reduction of metalloids, and that combined


>- 2


Fig. 3.1.7. Operation diagram. 13

with C in the direct reduction, respectively, and f.l is the requirement of

reducing gas for one atom of Fe.
It should be noted thatf.l in eqn (3.1.7) has the same meaning as n g/n Fe
in eqn (3.1.5). A straight line with slope f.l can be obtained from eqns
(3.1.6) and (3.1.7). This is the operation line for a blast furnace as shown
by ABCDE in Fig. 3.1.7. The partAB of the operation line expresses the
amount of oxygen removed by gaseous reduction. It is located in the
region I < X < 2. Therefore,Xi and Yi represent the numbers of oxygen
atoms removed from iron oxide by gaseous reduction per mole of CO
and per mole of iron respectively.
When a top gas compositionXe is obtained for an initial oxidation of
charging iron oxide Ye, the equilibrium state for the reduction ofwustite
may be another limiting condition. Therefore the operation line can be
rotated around the point W which has the equilibrium gas composition
for wustite reduction. It is also apparent that the operation line cannot
pass through to the right-hand side of the point W. The shaft efficiency
r, which gives the effective utilization of gas in the reduction furnace, is
defined as follows:

(Ye - Yd)max has a maximum value in ideal operation where the

operation line passes through the point W. In actual operation, r has a
smaller value than unity because the operation line passes on to the left-
hand side of the point W. For the explanation of the thermal behavior of
the furnace, a heat balance equation for the elaboration zone can be
written as described below, where the temperature of the thermal reserve
zone T R(OC) is taken as the reference temperature III the heat
and Yv is number of oxygen atoms in blast per iron atom, qv is heat
content of blast at the reference temperature T R , qc is heat of reaction for
C + !02 - CO per oxygen atom at T R, q g is heat consumed by the
reaction C + CO 2 - 2CO per oxygen atom at TR,f, I are heat contents of
hot metal and slag,Pis heat loss in the temperature region above TR,qris
heat of direct reduction of oxides except iron oxide per oxygen atom, r is
number of carbon atoms dissolved in molten iron per iron atom, qr is
heat of carbon dissolution into molten iron per carbon atom, Yzqz is heat
of indirect reduction of iron oxide in the elaboration zone taking T Ras
the reference temperature.
The operation line in Fig. 3.1.7 may be expressed by the following
equation in accordance with the material balance:
where Y s can be neglected because it designates number of oxygen
atoms replaced by sulfur in slag.
By eliminating Y d by combining eqns (3.1.9) and (3.1.11), the
following equation can be derived:

Yv( X qc + :: + qg - 1) = [Y - (X - l)(Yr + Y s) + X(Q/qg)] (3.1.12)

This equation gives a family oflines for Yv as a parameter. The fixed

point P is determined as the intersection of the following two equations
which are obtained by considering eqn (3.1.12) as an identical
X = qg/(qc + qv + qg) (3.1.13)
Y = (X - l)(Yr + Y s) - X(Q/qg) (3.1.14)

The lines given by these two equations are drawn in Figure 3.1.7 as
lines L\I and L\2. qc and qg are thermodynamic constants; consequently
the line L\I has just one variable, qv, which includes blast temperature,
whereas eqn (3.1.14) contains (Yr + Ys) which are determined by the
composition of hot metal and Q, the output of heat in the elaboration
zone except the heat of reaction accompanied with direct reduction.
This equation can therefore evaluate the effects of composition and
temperature of hot metal, amount and temperature of slag, and the heat
loss in the elaboration zone on the operation result. In addition to this
the distance VE is obtained graphically as follows:
This means that the point P takes a balance between heat input
(VE X qg) and heat output (BV X qg). As summarized above, the
operation line of the blast furnace which can satisfy simultaneously
both heat and material balances is obtained as a line connecting points
Wand P. The point W is determined by the reduction equilibrium in the
shaft part and the point P is determined by the heat balance in the
elaboration zone.
This theory was applied to the analyses of fuel savings by the
injection of reducing gas into the lower part of a blast furnace under the
assumption of fIxed shaft efficiency.'4 Furthermore, favorable comparison
was made between the results obtained from the theory and those
observed for the experimental blast furnace. '5

3.1.3. Kinetic Model

The model reported by Flierman et al. 16 divided a blast furnace into fIve
zones, these being shaft, melting zone, zone containing molten
materials, tuyere zone and hearth. The reaction rates of indir6ct
reduction of iron ore by CO and by H 2 , the solution-loss reaction and
the decomposition of limestone were taken into account in the model.
The expression of these reaction rates was rather simple and not enough
to fIt wide variations in the conditions encountered in a blast furnace.
However, it is noteworthy the rate constants were measured in the
laboratory for the burden materials fed to the blast furnace. The
longitudinal distributions for temperatures of gas and solid particles
and those for molar fractions of CO and CO 2 were estimated in terms of
the model but unfortunately the combination of the heat balance
equations with reaction rate was not complete.
Koump et al. 17 presented an idealized physical model of the blast

furnace process as shown in Figure 3.1.8, considering a blast furnace

process as a series of chemical reactors in the steady state involving gas,
solid and liquid phases. The model consists of three reactors and one
accumulator. The reactors correspond approximately to the region of a
blast furnace illustrated in Fig. 3.1.9. Reactor (1) comprises the shaft
region of the blast furnace where the heat exchange between gas and
solid occurs together with the chemical reactions of indirect reduction
of iron oxide and solution-loss reaction. Reactor (2) comprises the
cohesive zone and deadman zone in which phase transformation from
solid to liquid phases occurs, and molten iron and slag are dripping
with some chemical reactions. The principal characteristic of the region
is the coexistence of gas, liquid and solid in one reactor. Reactor (3)
corresponds to the raceway region and reactor (4) corresponds to the
hearth region which is a vessel for storage of hot metal and slag.
In order to give a global formulation of the multiple reactor system, it
is necessary to combine the specific mathematical models of each
reactor. Koump et af. 17 proposed a mathematical formulation for reactor

Fe,03 13CO-2Fe+3CO,

SiOH2CO-Si 12CO,
P,Os -I 5CO-2P + 5CO,
121 C+CO,-2CO

yeoQ YS,
VAI 20, yp

Fig. 3.1.8. Idealized reactor model of the blast fumace. 17



~~~~-- ACCUMUlATOR 141

Fig. 3.1.9. Corresponding part of the blast furnace to the reactors and
accumulator shown in Fig. 3.1.8Y

(1), i.e. the shaft region of the blast furnace, by considering the major
chemical and physical phenomena taking place in the region. To be
more specific, the model was derived for a steady-state one-dimensional
heterogeneous moving bed system in which heat exchange and
chemical reactions occurred between the counter-current gas stream
and the solid flow of two components. Reaction rates of indirect
reduction of iron oxide and of solution-loss reaction were taken into
account. A system of six ordinary differential equations was consequently
obtained for representing the longitudinal distributions of CO and CO2,
mass flow rates of ore and carbon, and the temperatures of gas and solid
phases = RC02 (3.1.16) = Reo (3.1.17)

-dGs.cldz Rc (3.1.18)

-dGs.Fe2o/dz (3.1.19)
-d(GgCgTg)/dz = 6(1 - £)hgs(Tg - Ts)/dpc/J (3.1.20)

d(GsCsTs)/dz = 6(1 - £)hgs(Tg - Ts)/dpc/J + 'i:.Ri(-~H)i (3.1.21)

where Ri and "LR i( - ~H)i are the rates of reaction producing the i-th
species and total heat of reaction. It should be noted that the downward
direction is taken to be positive z for the above description.

The six differential equations were solved simultaneously by

applying the Runge-Kutta-Gill method for the fixed boundary
conditions given at the top of the furnace. A computed result obtained
by Koump et al. 17 is shown in Fig. 3.1.10, which represents the
longitudinal distribution for the temperatures of gas and solid and for
the reaction rates of indirect reduction and solution loss. Since the result
shows typical progress of heat exchange and reduction of iron oxide
observed in the blast furnace, the model proposed was essentially
proved to simulate the blast furnace process. Other computed results 17
are shown in Fig. 3.1.11, representing the transition from case (A) to case
(C) which was accomplished by decreasing the mass flow rate of
nitrogen at the top of the furnace as the boundary condition. This
transition was characterized by decreasing the reduction rate and
increasing the gasification of coke. The three types of behavior show
counter-current reduction in a moving bed (A), the shaft region of a
blast furnace (B) and a moving bed gas producer (C). It was found from
these computations 17 that blast furnace operation may be easily
disturbed by small perturbations in operating conditions.
The model mentioned above was stressed to be the first one in which
the blast furnace process was formulated mathematically by a system of

Tg , T5 I'KI
667 889 1111 1333 1556




]' 12.2





0.48 0.80 1.12

Rr', R; Ikgmoles/hr.m 3 Ibedll

Fig. 3.1.10. Temperature distribution and rates of indirect reduction and

solution loss reactionY

z=Or-------~ ~------~


Fig. 3.1.11. Three different types of behavior of the reactor (1).17

differential equations. The system gives deep insight into the essential
characteristics of blast furnace operation because it can simulate
principally the behavior of thermal and oxygen exchanges as the
superimposition of several rate processes. Unfortunately this model was
developed only for the shaft region and it cannot therefore evaluate the
whole performance of the blast furnace.
Independently, a complete one-dimensional mathematical model
was developed by Muchi et al. 18- 20 which consisted of overall heat and
material balance equations giving the solid temperature at tuyere level
and the theoretical flame temperature together with nine first-order
ordinary differential equations and two algebraic equations for
computing the internal distribution of process variables. This model is
attractive because it can estimate operational results such as productivity
and fuel ratio and also longitudinal distribution of every process
variable taken into account. A detailed description ofthis model will be
given in the next section.
The earliest attempt at two-dimensional analysis of a blast furnace

was made by Lahiri and Seshadri.21 The fundamental equations were

derived as follows:
oGs/iJz + R j =0 (3.1.22)

-Mi(l/r)o(rN;,J/or + oGgi/oz + Ri =0 (3.1.23)

-(l/r)o(rqs)/or - o(GsCsTs)/oz + 'E.iRi(-tlH;)

+ 6(1 - s)hgs(Tg - Ts)/dp<p = 0 (3.1.24)
-(l/r)o(rqg)/or + o(GgCgTg)/oz - 6(1 - s)hgs(Tg - T.)/dp<p =0

oP/OZ 7·61 X 1O-11{[1·75 + l50(1-s)]lRepl[(l-s)!c3]Gi/pgdp<p

N~ (-Eri/RTg)opjor
qs -kesoTJor
qg -kegoTgior
In the above equations, downward direction is assumed as positive z.
The computed results obtained by Lahiri et al. 21 are shown in
Fig. 3.1.12 for four cases of different boundary conditions at the top of
the bed. In cases (1) and (2), the radial distribution ofTg was fixed, with
uniform Pi and Ggi at the top of the bed and different values of GgN2 • In
cases (3) and (4), the radial distribution of Tg was fixed and those for Pi
and Ggi were assumed as a k ± b k sin(2lTr/Do). Although there were some
oversimplifications in the model, it should be noted that the model
represented a method for estimating the two-dimensional internal state
of a blast furnace from the data measured at the top of an operating blast
A simplified approach was made by Chon and Tate 22 to represent
radial nonuniformity of the process variables by dividing the blast
furnace into three annular independent reactors which had different
gas flow rates according to the permeability. One of the computed
results is shown in Fig. 3.1.13.
An outstanding method was proposed for analyzing the nonuniform
gas flow by Radestock and Jeschar.23 The fundamental idea was to use
the vectorial form of Ergun's equation as described below:

Case 1 - - Case 3
Case 2 ---- Case 4

Wall Center Wall Center

~:: z;md


L '-------.
1250~ i I Z·~8 c-" 1300 ,..---,-----,--"

t 1050 i

c-" 1400 ,-;.......,-----,----, 1100

/' , /


I 200 '--_...L-_--'-_---' 1600

1750 ,---,-----,----,
,,"'- .... '\
, /
\ /
1150 '-----'-----''----' 3
3 rim!

- Case 3
---- Case 1 IDI ---- Case 4

ICI - Case 2 Wall Center
Wall Center

I Z~m~ 018 ~z~m~
0.14 "-
_ ---'
_ __ _

0.12F=======l Z~4 0.15 ,---,---:=---,----,

0.11 '-----'----'----' /." ... '-- .......... "

'" Z= 4
.§ 0.09 '----'-----'----'
12 - - " ........ ,
""" Z~8


OO~ 3 2 I 0

Fig. 3.1.12. Radial distribution of gas temperature [(A) and (B)] and CO2
content of the gas [(C) and (D)] computed from two-dimensional model. 21
2.8 ,......=~:::-----=-----------,

~ 2.0
Intermedi a te zone
"g --- Ts
] 1. 0
~ Peripheral zo ne
o L-J-~ __L--L~__~-C~__~~
300 500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300
Tempera ture lO KI

Fig. 3.1.13. Longitudinal distribution of temperature in three zones of blast

furnace (Ole = 0' 6, 0'99, 1'10 for c.l.p.).22

This proposal was very attractive because it showed the possibility for
the two-dimensional process analysis of a packed bed in which a gas
stream reacted with solid particles. One of the computed results on the
gas flow obtained by Radestock and Jeschar 3 is shown in Fig. 3.1.14.
Another important characteristic of the blast furnace is the alternating
layered structure of coke and iron ore. Kuwabara and Muchi24. 25
presented a mathematical model considering the layer by layer
structure. In the model, nonuniform gas flow was approximately
analyzed from the permeability of the bed on the basis of Ergun's
equation. This model will be fully described in Section 3.3.
Mter recognition of the existence of the cohesive zone by the dissection
of commercial blast furnaces some attempts have and are being made to
Pressure roloo Pt Pz = 1.25
14 67~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 14

~~~-rr++rHt1 08


Fig. 3.1.14. Two-dimensional bed structure and corresponding profiles of

streamline and pressure for gas?3

develop an advanced mathematical model which can simulate two-

dimensional profiles of temperature and fractional reduction of iron
ore by using the vectorial form of Ergun's equation for layered structure
of the bed together with heat and material balance equation~.
One such two-dimensional model was proposed by Hatano and
Kurita. 26 The model consisted of transport equations concerning
momentum, heat and mass with non-catalytic chemical reactions. The
construction of the model and the numerical technique for the solution
are given in detail in Section 3.4.
Another attempt to develop the same kind of model is now being
undertaken by Kuwabara et al.,27 in which a different numerical
technique is applied to the simultaneous analysis of gas flow, liquid
flow and heat transfer. This model will be fully described in Section 3.3.
The finite element method is now being developed for use in the two-
dimensional analysis of a blast furnace?8 However, at the present time it
is not fully developed, although nonuniform gas flow and heat transfer
in the blast furnace have been analyzed. Since some attractive results
have already been obtained, the principal derivation of the governing
equations and some numerical results will be shown in Section 3.5.

3.1.4. Control Models

Early attempts at the automatic control of a blast furnace were made to
regulate the thermal state indicated by silicon content in pig iron, except
for some statistical and empirical models. Among the models, an
overall heat balance was used for the purpose of stable operation by
Tsuboi. 29 A theory on Wu was developed by Staib et al. 9 , to which
represented available heat for the fusion of iron and slag, for the
reduction ofthe dissolved elements in pig iron and for the compensation
of heat loss in the lower part of the blast furnace. This model was
constructed according to the fundamental theory of the ideal blast
furnace which had thermal and chemical reserve zones. Using this
theory, the value of Wu can be calculated by subtracting the heat
consumed by the direct reduction of iron oxide from the instantaneous
heat input into the lower part of the blast furnace which are obtained
from the observed flow rate and composition of top gas and hot blast,
respectively. Figure 3.1.15 gives a typical example showing good
correspondence between the parameter Wu and the observed silicon
content in hot metal.
A somewhat different model for automatic control of the thermal
state was developed at CRM30 on the basis of the same theory. In the


Ir\ ....,

-- " IL
0.4 "-
21-5-63 22-5-63

Fig. 3.1.15. Correspondence of thermal index Wu and % Si in hot meta1. 9

model, the heat required for the reduction of silicon and for the
overheating of the iron and slag, which was calledEe , was calculated on
the assumption that the silicon in pig iron was in an equilibrium state
with slag, although the use of this assumption might have some
restrictions. This concept is illustrated schematically in Fig. 3.1.16. One
of the comparisons is given in Fig. 3.1.17 between calculated and
observed relationships of Ee vs. %Si. The result obtained by CRM
showed one of the possibilities for profitable control.
In the Sakai works ofNSC,31 successful computer control of the blast
furnace was achieved on the basis of not only the thermal state in the
lower part of the furnace but also the permeability in the furnace for
stable and high performance operation.

I... -s Blast Moisture
II -" Hot Metal

Coke 1000"(


Fig. 3.1.16. Fundamental concept for calculating thermal index Ee. 3o


- - Experimental curve
422 - - - Theoretical curve
::2 / =0075
/ as~;

~/ /~/=O.IOO 658kg .NTHM


~ IV
o 0.2 0.4 0.6
9b Si
Fig. 3.1.17. Comparison between theoretical and eXPoerimental curves for the
relationship of Ec and % Si. 0

The models mentioned above were formulated for a steady-state

process. This means that the control by the models is effective only for
smooth operation.
Fielden and Wood32 proposed a dynamic model at BISRA in order to
obtain more feasible control over a wide range of operating conditions.
A mathematical model was constructed by taking heat and material
balances for the dynamic simulation of the practical operation. In the
model, the blast furnace was divided into five zones according to the
temperature, and the chemical reactions occurring in the individual
zones were specified as shown in Fig. 3.1.18. The working volume was
sub-divided into a number of horizontal zones which had a thickness of
1 m. The amount and composition of the material and the temperature
of gas and solid within the zone were assumed to be expressed by the
average values. In the zones, actual gas and solid streams moved
continuously in opposite directions. However, for simplicity, both
streams were approximated in the model by the movement of the solid
and gaseous contents to the zone immediately below (for solid) and
above (for gas) after some retention time in a stepwise manner. The
retention times were estimated as 0·2 s for gas and 15 min for solid in
each zone.
Although the mathematical model proposed by Fielden and Wood 32
is not reproduced here, the dynamic behavior obtained from the model
is shown in Fig. 3.1.19, representing the response curves for the step
changes in blast temperature, ore/coke ratio and injected oil. The
authors noted that the responses compared favorably with the trends
observed in the actual furnace. For example, the silicon content
response curve to the step change of blast temperature had a similar

Top gas materials
t t
Drying of the charge Shaft region
Indirect reduction

Indirect reduction Uppe r bosh
Solution-loss reaction regia
Water gas shift

Direct reduction lower

Reduction of
Water gas shift bosh
reaction region

Tuyere I I
region Reduction of
Combustion of coke
Hot biast metalloids Hearth

Decomposition of
Transfer of sulfur region
blast additives
from metal to slag

Cast materials

Fig. 3.1.18. Chemical reactions occurring in the blast furnace. 32

trend to that of metal temperature and was approximately first-order

with a time constant of 4 h. The response of silicon content to the step
change in ore/coke ratio was again first-order with a time delay of 8 h
and a time constant of8 h. However, a second-order response curve was
found for the response of silicon content and metal temperature to the
step change in oil rate. For the behavior of gas, a higher order response
curve was obtained as is also shown in Fig. 3.1.19.
Tuchiya33 developed a dynamic mathematical model which considered
the rates of heat exchange and chemical reaction. In the model, a blast
furnace was divided into five zones and process variables were assumed
to be constant within each zone. Although this assumption seemed to be
an oversimplification, the computed temperature change at tuyere level
with lapse of time showed a similar trend to the measured change in
'·00 1 Silicon 11575 0·90 084 tv
501;<on ~ 1530~ o
u 080
1580 u
070 1560~. ..;
'" 0<

il/ 11555 ~ t060 1540;::*072 '":l

q; • 1520'<
* 1545 ~ .n"O.SO 1520 ~ Vi 0.68 ~
. Q. til
040 1500~ 064
IOoy 1.5 ~ 1525 .... .... lDoy 1.5 ~
I . 030 1480 060 §
10 12 14 0 2 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 6 8 10 12 14 1510
167 245 180 23.9" .........-,...~~,--...-~016 20
24 I 16.6 24 ° 175 I
if 24 0 165#.#235 IS80if ..,tTl
: co 170~Nif 23.5
ci 23.9
u 164 230 165
88 80 o ~
238 163 22S 160 u 154QV
100y 1.5
162 220
~ 155
23.0 o
2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
0 2 6 8 10 12 14 15.00 ~
900,r-"'---'~----'~~"--"""""" 31 220 45
y y y Oil 51 ep
810$1 remperoture 36
240 :.., ~
~ 225~ ~ Z o
:l :lO '":l 027 ~op 905 tempera1ufO 230 :; tJ
fop 90$ temperorUfe ~ U 3 00 210'< .... ....
<8D tTl
w o<w
wO< ~ 0 18. - 220~ t""'
Q. Q.. t""'
~ 22O~O '" 2102
w 0 100y 1.5 w lDay 1.5 ~ 0 lDoy 1.5 Z
. . roo .. 2W o 2OO~ Cl
o 2 6 8 10 12 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 200 o 2 4 6 8 10 12 14

Fig. 3.1.19. Computed response curves of process variables to step changes in blast temperature, ore/coke ratio, and
injected oil. 32

silicon content. Hatano et al. 34. 35 applied the model to the dynamic
control of real blast furnace operation thereby stabilizing the temperature
of hot metal.
Another dynamic model was proposed by Hatano et al. 36• 37 for
simulation and forecasting of behavior due to change in operating
conditions. This model is described in detail in Section 3.7.
Horio and Muchi38. 39 reported a mathematical model for analyzing
the dynamic characteristics of a blast furnace in the region between the
melting and tuyere levels, by using the conservation equations of heat
and mass together with heat exchange and chemical reactions. The
response curves were computed for the location of the melting zone and
temperature of molten materials at tuyere level to step changes in
operating conditions. It has been found that the movement of the
melting zone markedly affected the dynamic behavior because the time
constant for this process was as long as several hours.

3.1.5. Models for Estimating Internal Situations based on Observed Data

Modem blast furnaces are equipped with many measuring devices for
detecting the internal state. Some attempts 40 -42 have been made to
simulate and to forecast the change in the internal state by using the
observed data from continuous measurements. A typical model in this
category was reported by Togino et al. 40 for estimating the shape and
location of the cohesive zone. This model will be fully described in
Section 3.6.


In this section, an outline of the mathematical model of a blast furnace

which was developed by Muchi and his coworkers 18-20 is described.

3.2.1. Overall Reaction Rates

Numerous chemical reactions occur in a blast furnace, and examples of
these are: the indirect reduction of iron ore by CO, the solution-loss
reaction, the direct reduction of molten Wllstite, the decomposition of
limestone, the indirect reduction of iron ore by H 2 , the water gas
reaction, the water gas shift reaction, and the reduction of silica in
molten slag. In the section below, kinetic studies reported in the
previous literature are summarized in order to obtain the effective rate
expressions for the kinetic model of a blast furnace.
122 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING Indirect reduction of iron ore by CO

Reduction of iron oxide by CO is assumed to proceed topochemically
with one interface in accordance with the following equation:
The overall reaction rate R fper unit volume of the bed in a blast furnace
is defined as:
Rf = -dnco/Vsdt (3.2.2)
using the assumption that the three steps are (i) diffusion through the
gas film surrounding the particle, (ii) intra particle diffusion and
(iii) chemical reaction at one reaction interface, and that these steps take
place steadily and successively; R tis derived as eqn (3.2.6) through the
rates for the individual steps given by eqns (3.2.3)-(3.2.5):
Rate of gas film diffusion
= TTd~<p;;Wokfl . 273P'(Yeo - yeo.o)/22·4Ts (3.2.3)
Rate of intra particle diffusion
= TTd~<p;;INoDsl . 273P'(yco.o - Yeo. JrJ[22·4T sro(r o - rJJ (3.2.4)
Rate of chemical reaction
= TTd~<p;;INokl(l + lIKd(rJrol· 273P'(YeO.i - y~o)/22-4Ts (3.2.5)

Rf = _____TTd~<p;;INo . 273P'(Yeo - y~o)/22-4Ts

lIkfl + (do /2)[(l - !sr /3 - l]1Dsl + [(1 - !sf3k l (l + lIK IW I
The three terms in the denominator of the right-hand side of the
equation represent the resistances of the three processes. The rate
constants included in eqn (3.2.6) are determined as follows.
The mass transfer coefficient k n can be evaluated from Frossling's
equation: 43
Sh = kndolD eo , Rep = doVg/Jg/fJg, Sc = fJg/pgD eo
The viscosity fJ gand density Pgare calculated for the gas mixture from
the addition of the values for the component gases. The viscosity for the

pure gas is obtained by using the Licht-Stechert equation,44 and Dca is

determined from Wilke's equation,45 given by eqn (3.2.8) for the
CO-C0 2-N2 system. The diffusivities for the two-component system
included in eqn (3.2.8) can be obtained by Andrussow's equation.46
Dco = (1 - Yco)/P' [yca/Dco~ca2 + YN/Dca-N2 ]
~ 2·592 X 1O-6T~78/P' (m2/h) (3.2.8)
The intraparticle diffusion coefficient D s ] through the metallic shell
may be defined approximately as follows, using solid temperatures for
the calculation:
= 0·53 + 0·47cpi
Cv (3.2.10)
~pi = 0·238cpi + 0·04 (0·15 < Cpi < 0·5) (3.2.11)
The value of Dca in eqn (3.2.7) can be estimated from eqn (3.2.8) for
temperatures under 848 °K whereas the following equation is better for
temperatures over 848°K:
Dca = 2·592 X 1O-6T~o/P' (m 2/h) (3.2.8)'
Reaction rate constants can be estimated by an Arrhenius type
equation which has been obtained by plotting the observed data from
previous literature: 47-5]
k] = 347exp(-3460/Ts) (m/h) (3.2.12)
The activation energy in this equation is approximately equal to
6·9 kcallmol (CO). The equilibrium constant K, in eqn (3.2.6), is
obtained thermodynamically from the equations described below.
For temperatures under 848 oK:
K] exp(4·91 + 6235/Ts) for is < 0·111 (3.2.13)
K] exp(-0·7625 + 543·3/Ts) for is > 0·111 (3.2.14)
For temperatures over 848 oK:
K] exp(4·91 + 6235/Ts) for is < O· 111 (3.2.15)
K] exp(2·13 - 2050/Ts) for 0·111 < is < 0·333 (3.2.16)
K] exp( -2·642 + 2164/Ts) for is > o· 333 (3.2.17)

The theoretical reduction curves obtained by integrating eqn (3.2.6)

compare favorably with observed data, as shown in Fig. 3.2.1, and it may
therefore be reasonably concluded that the expressions for k fl, D 51, k 1
and K 1 detailed above satisfactorily predict the reduction behavior of
ferrous burden.

J. 1.0 o 100 0
773 07S 025
" 0.8 1173 8SA 047
U 0.072
is 0.6
g 0.4
] 0.2

00 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Time t (mini

Fig. 3.2.1. Comparison between calculated and observed indirect reduction

curves. I8

The iron ore containing FeZ03 and Fe304 is actually reduced to

metallic iron through the intermediate Fe30 4 and FeO. Therefore the
one-interface model mentioned above is only a first approximation for
the rate expression. A two-interface unreacted core model was
developed for a better description of the reaction rate and this method is
used in the mathematical models of a blast furnace by Chon and Tate,Z2
Hatano and KuritaZ6 and Hatano and Yamaoka. 36,37 The first model
mentioned above appeared in Section 3.1 and the second and the third
models will be described in Sections 3.4 and 3.7. The overall rate
expressions based on the two-interface unreacted core model are given
below: 53


- (Dw + F)(Yeo,Q - Yeo, 1)] (3.2.19)


RH [kHW(l + l/KHw )(1 - isHW)213 r 1 (3.2.20)
Rw [kWF(l + l/KWF)(1 - isWF) 213 r 1 (3.2.21 )
DH [do/(2DsM)][(l - isHWr 1l3 - (1 - isWFr 1l3 ] (3.2.22)
Dw [do/(2DsF)][(l - isWFr l/3 - 1] (3.2.23)
F l/kn (3.2.24)
W2 = Rw(RM + DH + Dw + F) + (RH + DH)(Dw+ F) (3.2.25)
Spitzer et al. 52 proposed a three-interface unreacted core model for the
general analysis of the reduction kinetics of iron oxide, as shown in
Fig. 3.2.2. Hara et al. 53 modified the model thereby resulting in a series of
useful rate expressions for application to process analysis and this
method was used for analysis of a moving bed reactor4- 56 for hydrogen
reduction of iron oxide pellets. Murayama et al. 57 and Takahashi et at. 58

I ro






yeo. J

yeo. J

Fig. 3.2.2. Sketch of three-interface unreacted core mode1. 58


measured rate constants for the reduction of iron oxide by CO applying

the stepwise reduction technique 57 and a parameter fitting technique. 58
The rate expressions on the basis of the three-interface unreacted core
model are written below:
lTd 2(P-W 273P'
R~M = Ow 0 22.4T /[Rw(RM
3 s
+ DM + Dw + F)
+ (RM + DM)(Dw + F)] (yeo. 0 - Y~O.I)

+ [Rw(DM + Dw + F) + Dw(Dw + F)] (yeo. 0 - Y~O.2)

- RM(Dw + F)(yco.o - Y~o.3)1 (3.2.26)

R* lTd~</>;;INo 273P'I[(R +D +D )(R + D + F)

MW W 22.4T H H M W W
3 s

+ Rw(Dw + F) (yeo. 0 - Y~O.2)

- [Dw(Rw + Dw + F) + Rw(Dw + F)] (yeo. 0 - Y~O.I)

- (RH + DH)(Dw + F)(yeo.o - Y~o.3)1 (3.2.27)

R* lTd~</>;;Wo 273P' I[(R + D )(R + D + D + F)

WF = W3 22.4Ts H H M M W

+ RM(D M + Dw + F)] (yeo. 0 - Y~O.3)

- RM(Dw + F)(yeo.o - Y~O.I)

- (RH + DH)(Dw + F)(yeo.o - Y~o.2)1 (3.2.28)
RH [kHM(l + 1/KHM )(l - isHMf/3 r 1 (3.2.29)

RM [kMW(l + 1/KMW )(1 - isMW)2I3 r 1 (3.2.30)

Rw [kWF(1 + 1/KWF )(1 - isWF)213 r 1 (3.2.31)

DH [do/(2DsM)][(1 - isHMr '/3 - (1 - isMW)-1/3] (3.2.32)

DM [do/(2Dsw)][(l - isMWr Il3 - (1 - isWF)-I13] (3.2.33)

Dw = [do/(2DsF)][(1 - isWFr '/3 - 1] (3.2.34)

F = 1/kn (3.2.35)
W3 = (RH+ DH)[Rw(RM + DM + Dw + F) + (RM + DM)(Dw + F)]
+ RM[Rw(DM + Dw + F) + DM(Dw + F)] (3.2.36)

In summary, the three-interface model mentioned above may be used

for the analysis of a blast furnace to provide a better evaluation of not
only the reduction rate but also the heat of reaction for the wide range of
conditions which iron ore encounters in a blast furnace. Solution-loss reaction

The solution-loss reaction described by the following equation
proceeds in the lower part of a blast furnace:
C + CO2 = 2CO (3.2.37)

The overall reaction rate Rrper unit volume of the bed is defined as:

Assuming that the diffusion through gaseous film takes place steadily
and successively with the simultaneous processes of diffusion with the
pores and chemical reaction at the internal surface of lump coke, one
can derive the overall reaction rate given by eqn (3.2.41) from the rates
for both processes expressed by eqns (3.2.39) and (3.2.40).
Diffusion rate through gas film
= lTd;,Nccp~lkf2 . 273P'(Yeo - Yeo.o)/22-4Ts (3.2.39)
Diffusion rate in pore with chemical reaction
= EfmcNcCP;lk2 · 273P'Yeo.o/22·4Ts (3.2.40)
where irreversible first-order reaction is assumed:
R* _ lTd~cp~INc· 273P'Yeo/22·4Ts
(3.2.41 )
2 - (l/kf2) + (6/dcPc E rk 2)

Numerical values for kfl may be obtained by substituting

Sh = k f2 djD eoz ' Rep = dcVgpg/f.lg. and Sc = f.lg/pgD eoZ into eqn (3.2.7),
where Dcoz is defined as the diffusion coefficient of CO2 in a ternary
system of CO-C0 2-N2• Deoz may be calculated using the same
procedure as eqn (3.2.8) which results in the following equation:
Deoz = 2·236 X 1O- 6T I78/P' (m 2/h) (3.2.42)

The reaction rate constant k 2 can be determined from the following

equation which was proposed by Heynert et al. :59
k2 = 2·99 X 1013 exp( -80 OOO/RTs) (m3/kg· h) (3.2.43)

The effectiveness factor E r, which appeared in eqn (3.2.41), can be

calculated for an irreversible first-order reaction by eqn (3.2.44) in terms
of the Thiele modulus m as defined below:
Er = 3(m coth m - 1)/m 2 (3.2.44)
m = (de/2) J Pe k 2IDs2 (3.2.45)
where Ds2 is estimated from:
Ds2 = DcoleEe (3.2.46)
Another formulation for the reaction rate was reported by Miyasaka
et at.:&:!


k21 = exp(27·20l - 35 900/Ts) (l/atm· h) (3.2.48)
k22 exp(l4·240 - 18 350/Ts) (l/atm) (3.2.49)
k23 10·3 (l/atm) (3.2.50)
k25 = exp(29·588 - 36 760/Ts) (l/atm) (3.2.51)
Er = exp [(In 0·15)(Ts - 1073)/300] (3.2.52)

This rate equation simulates the advancement of reaction for a wide

variation of reaction conditions and it is noteworthy that the equation
considers the inhibiting effect of CO gas on the reaction rate. It is,
however, not easy to incorporate into this equation the film diffusion
process which may playa major role in the high temperature region of
the blast furnace.
Extensive studies have been presented for the solution-loss reaction
by Kobayashi and Omori6 1. 62 for determining both diffusion coefficient
through the coke pores and the chemical reaction rate. Direct reduction of molten wustite

The wustite formed by indirect reduction of iron ore in the shaft region
of a blast furnace melts and the molten wustite falls through the packed
bed of lump coke. The wustite may be reduced by solid coke or by
dissolved carbon in molten iron during this molten slag flow according
to the reactions described below:

FeO(l) + C(s) Fe(l) + CO(g) (3.2.53)

FeO(l) + C Fe(l) + CO(g) (3.2.54)
Only eqn (3.2.53) is considered here because of the very meagre
information on the kinetics for the reaction given by eqn (3.2.54).
Shabrin et al. 63 and Philbrook et al. 64 reported that the reaction given by
eqn (3.2.53) was second-order with respect to the concentration of
wustite in slag. Under these conditions, the expression for the overall
reaction rate per unit volume of the bed is:
Rt = -dnFeo/VBdt = k3(AclVB)C~eO (3.2.55)
where the reaction rate constant k3 is expressed by eqn (3.2.56) which
has been obtained by analyzing the experimental data reported by
Shabrin et al. 63 and Philbrook et al.: 64
k3 = 4·66 X let exp( - 53 300/RTs ) (m4/h . kmol(FeO)) (3.2.56)
The concentration of wustite is expressed by the following equation
by assuming that all the iron oxides exist as molten wustite which is
dissolved homogeneously in slag:

C FeO = 3Fms.Fe20p -Is) (3.2.57)

(WJps) + 71·85 [3FmS.Fe203(1 - J.)]Ipw
The effective surface area for the reduction of molten wustite per unit
surface of lump coke is calculated approximately from the following
equation which is obtained by applying the empirical equation65 for gas
absorption in a packed bed:
f3a = f3~(FSL + FW)/(FSL + Fw + F M )

Although surface tension, density and superficial velocity of molten

materials may change with changes in the composition and temperature
of slag, the fractional reduction of wustite, the driving rate of the
furnace, and the cross-sectional area, an approximate calculation gives
0·078 as the value of f3~. The specific surface area available for the
reaction can be described approximately as follows:

Another formulation on the direct reduction rate of molten wustite

was attempted by Miyasaka et al. 60 on the basis of experimental results
reported by Sugata et al. 66 These results showed that the reduction rate of
molten wustite is proportional to the activity of FeO in slag and to the
reaction surface, with the rate equation:
Rt = k;(AjVB)aFeO (3.2.59)
The activity of molten wustite must be expressed by the concentration of
FeO for convenient practical use. For this purpose, the experimental
result obtained by Samarinet at. 67 at l600°C is assumed to be applicable
at any arbitrary temperature. The activity ofFeO is thereby expressed by
eqn (3.2.60) and the rate constant is obtained as eqn (3.2.61) from the
experimental result: 66
k; = exp(l1'SS4 - 19980/Ts ) (kmol(FeO)/m2. h) (3.2.61) Decomposition of limestone

The overall reaction rate R;
for the decomposition of limestone
expressed by eqn (3.2.62) was derived by Muchi 18 from consideration of
mass transfer of CO2 and chemical reaction as described below:
CaC03 = CaO + CO2 (3.2.62)
lTdVI>"LINL • 273(P~02 - Yco2P')/22'4Ts
(l/k f4 ) + dd(l - fl)-1I3 - 1]/2Ds4
+ [(1 - fl)-2/3k4R'T/K4]-1
The transport coefficients k f4 ,D s4 and k4 included in eqn (3.2.63) may
be determined as follows. The value of kfL is calculated by substituting
Sh = kf4dL/Dc02' Rep = dLVgPg//lg, and Sc = /lg/p gD C02 into eqn (3.2.7).
In the calculation, Dco2 is obtained from eqn (3.2.42) for temperatures
under 1I73°K. However, for temperatures over 1173 oK, DC02 may be
estimated by making use of(Tg + Ts)/2 instead ofTg because of the high
endothermic reaction. The coefficient Ds4 is defined as:
cvL 0'702cpL+ 0·298
~L = (cv d0 41

The equation for ~L is obtained on the basis of Curie's report68 and the
reaction rate constant k4 is obtained as follows:
k4 = 5-47 X 106exp ( -40 OOO/RTs ) (kmol(C0 2 )/m2 • h) (3.2.65)
In this relationship, the activation energy is estimated according to
the reports of Slonin69 and Hutting et al./o and the frequency factor is
obtained from the data observed by Britton et al. 71
The equilibrium constant K4 is represented as follows according to
data on the decomposition pressure by Perry et al.: 72
logK4 = -8202·5/Ts + 7·0099 (atm) (3.2.66)
Another expression of overall reaction rate for the decomposition of
limestone was presented by Miyasaka et al. 6O by considering heat
transfer and chemical reaction processes as the mixed rate control

R 4* --
(-ll.H4 )[J.- + ~ [(1 - Ji)-1I3 -
hgs 2keL

+ (1 - Ji)-2/3 ~[l + K 4(PCO/Pd)] (3.2.67)

k4 1 - (PCO/Pd)
where T: and P d designate the starting temperature of decomposition
and the decomposition pressure. The values required to calculate the
overall reaction rate were given as follows:
(Rt = 0 for Ts « T:)
(-ll.H4 ) = 45400 - 4·50Ts (kcal/kmol(C0 2 ))
Pd = exp[20·3 X 103 (1/1170 - 1/Ts)] (atm)
k4 = 2·25 X 10-3 (1/atm . h), ke = 0·680 (kcal/m . h . DC), K4 = 4·0
Equation (3.2.67) was recommended by Miyasaka et al. 6O for the
condition of low partial pressure of CO 2 , as in a blast furnace, because
the rate equation contains not only the heat transfer process but also the
chemical reaction process.
A comprehensive study of the kinetics of the decomposition of
limestone was made by Hills 73 who proposed a more rigorous rate
expression to adequately simulate the observed decomposition curve

even if the reaction conditions change widely. The form of Hills's

equation is, however, quite complicated. Indirect reduction of iron ore by H2

Iron ore is also reduced by H2 in a blast furnace in accordance with the
The reduction is assumed to proceed topochemically with one interface,
with the overall reduction rate represented, in the same way as R r,
*_ 1Td~</>;lNo • 273P'(YH2 - y~y22-4Ts
R5 - l/k fS + (do /2)[(1 -Is) 1/3 - 1]/D s5 + [(1 -1s)2/3k 5(1 + l/K 5)] 1
The transport coefficients k f5 , Ds5 and k5 are obtained by following a
similar procedure to that for the indirect reduction of iron ore by co. In
this case, the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen is used for the
computation of kfS and Ds5 instead of that for CO. The reaction rate
constant k5 and the equilibrium constant K5 for this reaction are
obtained as shown below from the observed data by McKewan 74 and
from thermodynamic data respectively.
For Ts < 848 oK
k5 = 102·78Ts exp( -14 900/RTs) (m/h) (3.2.70)
exp(8·883 - 8475/Ts) (3.2.71)
For Ts > 848 oK
k5 = 82·50Ts exp(-15300/RTs) (m/h) (3.2.72)
K5 exp(1·0837 - 1737·2/Ts) (3.2.73)
The discontinuity at the boundary between two temperature regions is
caused by the instability of the wustite phase in the lower temperature
In some cases75 - 77 the effect of water vapor adsorption on the
reduction rate has been reported. However, in the shaft region of a blast
furnace, the reduction does not proceed so rapidly due to the low H2
concentration. The effect of water vapor adsorption is therefore
neglected here.
As described previously in connection with the indirect reduction of
iron ore by CO, rate equations for the reaction have been proposed on

the basis of the three-interface unreacted core modeUz,53 This model is

also useful for counter-current reduction systems containing Hz like the
shaft region of a blast furnace. The rate constants for each reduction
step by Hz were measured by Yanagiya et al. 55 and Hara et al. 54 for the
reduction of iron oxide pellets. These relationships can be applied
favorably to mathematical models of a blast furnace.
It should be emphasized that some transport coefficients given here
were obtained for specific solid particles and therefore the coefficients
may change with changes in the physical and chemical properties of the
particle. This is particularly true for the reaction rate constant
parameters, but it is also believed to apply for the other rate
equations. Water gas reaction

For the water gas reaction given by eqn (3.2.74) below, the overall
reaction rate is derived by assuming that the diffusion process through a
gas film around lump coke takes place in series with the parallel
processes of intra particle diffusion and chemical reaction. The
chemical reaction is also assumed to be irreversible first-order. The
overall reaction rate Rt is thus obtained per unit bed volume as
described in eqn (3.2.75):
C + HzO = CO + Hz (3.2.74)

Rt = rrd~<p;;Wc' 273P'YH/22'4Ts
l/kf6 + 6/dcPcE ;k6
The transport coefficients included in this equation can be obtained
using the same procedure as that for the solution-loss reaction.
However, the diffusion coefficient required for the calculation of k f6 and
E;is that for water vapor in the CO-COz-Nz-HzO system instead ofCO z
in the CO-COz-N zsystem for the solution-loss reaction. The temperature
and pressure dependences of the diffusion coefficient of HzO are
expressed as:
The reaction rate constant k6 is derived by making a slight
modification of the equation presented by Kunugi et al. 78 according to
the reaction-interface model:
k6 = 4·83 X I04Ts exp( -17 31l/Ts) (m 3/kg . h) (3.2.77)

Miyasaka et al. 60 recommended the following rate expression for the

same reason for the solution-loss reaction:
Rt = E,(\ m~Ne)[
I + P'(k22YC02 + k yCO + k2SYH20)
] 3
( .2.78)
k24 = exp(22·355 - 26360/T,) (l/atm . h) (3.2.79)
The other parameters are given by eqns (3.2.48)-(3.2.52). We again have
to note that in this rate equation it may be difficult to include the film
diffusion process. Water gas shift reaction

The water gas shift reaction given by eqn (3.2.80) may take place in a
blast furnace because the gas ascending in the furnace consists of CO,
CO 2 , H 2 , H 20 and N 2 :
Although some kinds of metallic oxides act as a catalyst for the
reaction the net reaction rate can be estimated to a first approximation
from the following equation which is derived on the basis of the
experiment by Graven et al. 79 in the temperature range 800-1100 o e
using a quartz vessel:
R7* = 7·29 X 10 11 (y )1/2(y )(P'/T )3/26 exp(-67300/RTg)
co H20 g JI + 14· I 58y H2 P' /Tg
10 1/2 3/2 exp( - 57 OOO/RTg)
- 1·386 X 10 (YCO)(YH) (P'/Tg) 6 (l + 4'24YcoP'/Tg)

kmOl(H 2
(m 3 (bed)h
») (3.2.81)

On the other hand, Miyasaka et al. 60 recommended the use of an

overall reaction rate obtained by Moe80 for the reaction:

Rf = k 7(VoIV;)(l - 6)( O':S;TJ(YCOYH~ - YC~~H2) (3.2.82)

In this relationship, the reaction rate constantk 7 and the equilibrium

constant K7 are calculated from the equations:
k7 = exp(23'81 - 4890/T,) (m 3/kmol . h) (3.2.83)
K7 exp(-3'7176 + 4302'9/T,) (3.2.84)
GLOBAL FORMULATION 135 Reduction of silica in slag

Reduction of silica in slag is assumed to proceed in accordance with the
SiOil) + 2C(s) Si + 2CO(g) (3.2.85)
Si02 (l) + 2~ Si + 2CO(g) (3.2.86)

It has been established that these reactions proceed in the high

temperature region and their rates are extremely low and that the overall
reaction rate 81 may be expressed approximately by eqn (3.2.87) on the
assumption that the reaction is of irreversible first order with respect to
the concentration of silica in slag:
The following expression is obtained for the rate constant k8 according
to the analysis of experimental data measured by Yoshii et al. 82
k8 = 7·59 X 104exp (-62870/RTs ) (m/h) (3.2.88)

Extensive studies have recently been made on the mechanisms of

silica reduction in a blast furnace and of silicon transfer, with the result
that the major part of the silica reduction in a blast furnace has been
found to proceed through SiO gas. This suggests that a different rate
equation based on a gas-phase SiO transfer mechanism should be
formulated. A detailed description will be given on this topic in a later

3.2.2. Overall Material Balance

The flow rate and the composition of the top gas, production rate of hot
metal and discharge rate of slag are estimated by taking overall material
balances as follows.
Material balance on Fe:
Material balance on C:
F mc. c + W oi1 f3jl2 + F mL. c = W pa c /12 + Fo(yco.o + YCQz.o)/22-4 + F mD. c
Material balance on N 2 :
FOYN2.0 (3.2.91)

Material balance on H 2 :


Material balance on 02:

1·5Fms.Fe203 + 2Fms.Fe304 + Fms.caC03 + (0'21 + xo)(60Fb )/22'4

+ 60Fb w st /(2)(18 000) + F mAO + Wp[asJ28 + a Mn /(2)(54'9)]
= Fo(yco.o/2 + YC02.0 + YH20.o/2)/22-4 + Fmo.o (3.2.93)
Summation of molar fractions of component gas at the top:
YCO.o + YC02.0 + YN2.0 + YH2.0 + YH20.0 = 1 (3.2.94)

Total material balance on molten phases:

W; = 60·lFms.sio2 + 56·lFms.cao + 102·OFms.Al203 + 40·3Fms.MgO

+ 70·9Fms.MnO + 79·9Fms.Ti02 - W p(60'las;/28 + 70·9aMn/54·9)

In order to solve these equations, the discharge rate and composition

of dust (Wo,Fmo. c>FmO. 0, rFe) are estimated through statistical analysis of
operational data, and the composition of hot metal (aSi, aMn) is
postulated to be constant for fixed operating conditions. With these
assumptions, Wp and Ws can be calculated from eqns (3.2.89) and
(3.2.90) independently. Fo, Yco.o, YC02.0, YN2.0 and YH2.0 can then be
determined by solving eqns (3.2.90)-(3.2.94) simultaneously for the
given operating conditions (charging rate of raw materials and their
constituents, blast volume, oxygen enrichment, oil injection, and
addition of water vapor).
Some computed results and observed data are listed in Table 3.2.1.
The very good agreement between calculated and observed data
indicates high reliability of the above overall material balance.

3.2.3. Temperatures of Gas and Solid at the Top of the Furnace

An overall heat balance for the whole blast furnace provides the
following equation:

+ Qs - Qw + I:,Msi -l1HO)j - :Emi(Lad/(FocgOpo + Woco)

TABLE 3.2.1
Comparisons of the Results Computed from Overall Material Balances with Observed Data 20

Yco,o Yc~.o YN2,O YH2,O

1O- 3 w:p 1O- 3 Ws 1O- 5F o Fo/(60Fb) 0
Value t'"
(-) (-) (-) (-) (kg/h) (kg/h) (Nm 3/h) (-) 0

calculated 0·238 () 185 {}522 0'055 145·8 4{}8 2'747 1'51 ~

observed 0'236 0·184 0'536 0·044 145·6 41'7 ~
calculated 0·254 () 169 0'552 0'026 65'6 18'0 1·237 1'42 ~
B 0,027 c:::
observed 0·234 0·186 0'553 62·5 20'0
calculated 0'228 0'194 0'521 0'057 131·8 32·8 2-381 1'52
C 131·8 31·9
observed 0'238 0'182 0'555 0'025
calculated 0'231 0'191 0'548 0'027 124'3 43'2 2'453 1'42
observed 0·236 0·186 0'550 0·029 124·8 42·9


where the heat of fusion and heat of reaction are calculated as follows:
~mi(Lf)i = (3'7Fms,Fe + 3'6Fms,Si02 + 19'OFms,CaO + 26'OFmS ,Al20 3
+ 18'5Fms,Mgo + nOFms ,MnO) X 103 (3.2.97)
~Msj(-!:1HO)j = [5-45Fms,wus,i - 2·12Fms ,Fe203 - 7· 12Fms ,Fe304
- 31'13Fms ,wus,d - 42'6Fms ,CacOj + 29'2(0'21 + Xo)
X 60Fb/ll·2 - 28-4(60Fb)wsJI8 000
In the derivation of eqn (3.2.97), it is assumed that all the iron ore
charged melts as metallic iron after complete reduction, the CaC0 3
charged melts as CaO, and the other oxides melt in the same form as
charged, and that the total heat of fusion is calculated by adding the
heats of fusion for each component. For the derivation of eqn (3.2.98), it
is assumed that the heat of direct reduction comprises both indirect
reduction and the solution-loss reaction. Solution loss by water vapor is
included in solution loss by CO2 because of the small quantity of the
reaction, and the heat of indirect reduction by H2 is neglected because
the amount of reaction and the heat of reaction are both negligibly
The heat of slag formation Qs and heat loss through the wall Qw
included in eqn (3.2.96) can be obtained from eqns (3.2.99)83 and

Qs = 314(56'lFm,cao) - 17Ws(kcal/h) (3.2.99)

Qs = (4000Db + 1000Dh + 100) X 103 (kcal/h) (3.2.100)

To obtain the solid temperature at the top of a blast furnace, a
simplified analysis based on unsteady heat transfer is presented. Thus,
the particles fed to a blast furnace actually encounter two main heating
processes: firstly, heat conduction through the bed on a large bell and,
secondly, convective heat transfer at the top of the bed during the
charging interval. These processes are thought to be nonuniform in
both the radial and circumferential directions. To simplify, however, the
simulation has been reduced to a one-dimensional heat conduction
problem through the bed for the former process, and a one-dimensional
convective heat transfer problem in a packed bed for the latter

The temperature change of solid particles on a large bell within the

specified residence time may be represented by:
where the thermal diffusivity r = ke/PbCsO and to is the time interval for
the charging operation. Thus, the mean temperature Tsmo for the solid
particles which fall from a large bell to the top of the bed at successive
time intervals to can be expressed by:
r [5erf(0·112710/2~) + 8erf(0· 510/2M)
+ 5erf(0·887310/2M)]l18
= V,/A B
AB = lTl [(D~ - lcot ab)cosec ab + (D~ + lcot {Jb)cosec {Jbl
I is determined as a real root of the following equation which must
satisfy the condition 0 < 1 <: D~ tan ab/2:
lTz2(cotab + cot{Jb)[D~/2 -l(cotab - cot{Jb)/31 - Vs = 0 (3.2.103)
Mter falling, the solid particle is heated up at the top level of the bed
during the charging interval. This temperature rise can be expressed as
er' = 6hgsldpppcso
From eqn (3.2.104), the average temperature of solid particles at the top
of the bed during the time intervals between charging operations is:
A = [5exp( -0·1l27toer') + 8exp( -0·5toer') + 5exp( -0·8873toer')]l18
By combining eqns (3.2.102) and (3.2.105), the expression of solid
temperature at the top of the bed is obtained:

The temperatures of gas and solid at the top of the bed are thereby
obtained by solving eqns (3.2.96) and (3.2.106) simultaneously for a
fixed operating condition.

3.2.4. Flow Rate and Composition of Gas at Tuyere Level

By considering the complete progress of the following four reactions
which may take place in the combustion zone in front of the tuyeres, the
flow rates of N 2, CO and H2 at tuyere level are expressed as eqns
(3.2.111 )-(3.2.113):
= 2H 20(Tst )
2H 2(oil, T l ) + 02(Tb ) (3.2.107)
2C(oil, T l ) + 02(Tb ) = 2CO(Tt) (3.2.108)
2C(coke, Tc) + 02(Tb ) = 2CO(Tt) (3.2.109)
H 20(Tst ) + C(coke, Tc) = H 2(Tt) + CO(Tt) (3.2.110)
FN2 = (60)(0'790)Fb = 47-4Fb (3.2.111)
FeD = (60)(0-420 + 2x~ + 1·244 X 1O- 3 wst )Fb (3.2.112)
FH2 = (60)(1·244wst + 11·2,BHYd X 10- 3Fb (3.2.113)
The flow rates of H 20 CO2 and O 2 are equal to zero because of the
completion of the above reactions, and we thus have the following
expression as the total flow rate of gas at tuyere level:
Fl FN2 + FeD + FH2
(60)[1·210 + 2xo2 + (11·2,BHYl + 2-488wst ) X 1O- 3]Fb (3.2.114)
The molar fractions of N 2, CO and H2 are represented as follows:
YN2,l = FN/F], YH2.l = FH/F b YeO,l = FeolFl (3.2.115)

3.2.5. Theoretical Flame Temperature

In the combustion zone in front of the tuyeres, the four reactions given
by eqns (3.2.107)-(3.2.110) proceed as mentioned previously. The
temperatures of each reactant and product are specified in the reaction
equation. The parameters a, b, c and d are introduced to designate the
molar amount of O 2 consumed by the reactions of eqns (3.2.107)-
(3.2.109) and the molar amount of water vapor consumed by eqn
(3.2.110) per mole ofN2:
a = (5'6 X 1O- 3,BHY lFb)/(0'79)Fb = 7,089 X 1O-3,BHYl (3.2.116)
b (0'9333 X 1O-3,BcYlFb)/(0'79)Fb = 1·181 X 1O- 3,BcYl (3.2.117)

c = (1·266)[0·21 + X0 2 - (5·6{3H + 0·9333{3d X 1O- 3yd (3.2.118)

d (3.2.119)
The standard enthalpy changes for the reactions given by eqns
(3.2.107)-(3.2.110) and the enthalpy change from the temperature
change of N2 given by N 2(Tb ) - N 2 (TT), which are designated by
(-dH;) (i = 1 to 5, in the order of equation), are expressed as below with
the aid of Fig. 3.2.3:
dHf = b]h - db 2 = a2g2 + g2h - a 2 b] - db 2

~<o6~ ~
9 --.....--
g, 92 9" g4 go,
f V
e ~ e,
d i<e ~d,


c ~ C?- CJ
~ ib,-b, - b 3r - - b4
0, 02 03 °4 O:J

Te t[ T~l Tb t, Tt
Temperoture T ['K]

Fig. 3.2.3. Enthalpy change accompanied by chemical reaction. 2o



By postulating an adiabatic system for the combustion zone, the

following equation can be written:
a(~H0 + b(~H~) + c(~Hf) + d(~H':) + ~H~ = 0 (3.2.125)
Substituting eqns (3.2.116)-(3.2.119) and eqns (3.2.120)-(3.2.124) into
eqn (3.2.125) and replacing the standard enthalpy changes in eqns
(3.2.120)-(3.2.123) by (~H~98)1 = -115596 (cal/mol(Oz)), (~H~98)Z =
(~~8)3 = - 52832 (cal/mol (Oz)), and (~~8)4 = 31 382 (cal/mol (HzO)),
one can obtain the following equation for the calculation of the
theoretical flame temperature:


Integration of the equation gives the following expression for the

theoretical flame temperature:
Tt = [JB 2 + A(e - D) - BlIA (3.2.127)
A = [0·50 + 1'20(b + c) + 1·005d] X 10- 3
B = 3·25 + 6·60(b + c) + 6·61d

C = (2c + d)(2·93Te + 1·0 X 1O-3T~)

D = E-F+G-H+J
E = -115 596a - 52 832(b + c) + 31 382d
F = (6·50 + 8·27Fa )Tb + (0·50 + 0·129Fa ) X 1O- 3Tt
+ 1·877 X 105Fa/Tb
Fa = a +b+c
G = (2a - d)(7·16Tst + 1·29 X 1O- 3T st )
H = (13-24a + 5·86b)T, + (0·81a + 2b) X 1O- 3Ti + 2·2 X 105 b/T,
J = 298J, + 88·804J2 + 3·3557J3
J, = 7·19a + 0·93b - 2·00c - 3·13d
J2 = -1·641a + 0·929b - 0·071c + 1·285d
J3 = 187·7a + 407·7b - 297·7c + 110d
The equation for coke temperature, Te, in the expression for C above
is formulated in the following section and data for the specific heat
required for the integration of eqn (3.2.126) are listed in Table

TABLE 3.2.2
Specific Heat of Materia1s 85 cp = a + bT - cT- 2 + dT2 (cal/mol· 0c)

Material a b X J03 CX JO- 5 dx J05 Temperature (K)

N2 6·65 1·00 300-3 000

CO 6·60 1·20 273-2500
H2 6·62 0·81 273-2500
CO2 10·50 2·40 2·00 273-1873
H 2O 8·22 0·15 0·134 300-2500
C 2·93 2·00 1·10 273-1873
Fe203 24·72 16·04 4·23 273-1097
Fe(l) 8·15 1803-1873
Si0 2 lO·87 8·712 2·412 273-848
Si02 17·09 0·454 8·972 523-1973
CaO lO·OO 4·84 1·08 273-1 173
Al20 3 22·08 8·971 5·225 273-1973
MgO lO·86 1-197 2·087 273-2073

3.2.6. Temperature of Gas and Coke at Tuyere Level

In order to obtain the average temperature of gas at tuyere level, heat
and material balances are taken for the annular control volume at
tuyere level shown in Fig. 3.2.4. From this balance we obtain the
following two equations:
dTgldr = 6(1 - Gl)hgs1(Tg - Tc)/<PcCglGgrdcl (3.2.128)
dGgJdr = Ggz/Lt - GgJr (3.2.129)


Fig. 3.2.4. Control volume at tuyere leve1. 20

where Ggr and Ggz designate radial and axial mass velocities of gas. For
simplicity, Ggz/G gr is assumed to be proportional to LJr and a is
introduced as an arbitrary constant:
Solving the eqns (3.2.128)-(3.2.130) with the assumption that T = TT
and Vgr = F 1/2lTL tR c are satisfied at r = Reo the following relationships
can be obtained:
Tg = Tc + f3 exp(8r 1- a ) (3.2.131 )
Vgr = Flra/nOOlTLtR~+a (3.2.132)
Vgz = (1 + a)F 1ra-1/nOOlTR c1+a (3.2.133)

f3 (TT - TJexp( -8~-a)
8 1]/(l-a)
1] 1·2lTL(l - Gl)hgslR~+a /<PccgldclPglFl
Assuming that the gas temperature is expressed by eqn (3.2.131) for
r = 0 to Rc and is given by TT for r = Rc to Dh/2, we can obtain the

average temperature of gas over the whole cross-sectional area as

'l' (l - cf»(2RjDh)2
cf> 4[R~ - 3R;/¢ + 6RJq/ - 6(1 - exp(-<jJRr»1<jJ3]1<jJR;
<jJ 247TL(l - £1)hgSIR~/<jJcCgldclFIPgl

Rr VR:
In the derivation of eqn (3.2.134), a is assumed to be 1/2 since this value
has been found to give reasonable values of U z in the range 7-10 (m/s)
after many trials.
An overall heat balance between the top and tuyere levels in a blast
furnace, using the assumption that coke is at the same temperature as
molten materials at tuyere level, gives:
AoGsocsoTso = + cgOpgOFoTgO
A I GsI CsI Tc
- CgIPgIFITgml + Qw - Qs + I:.mi(Lr)i - I:.Msj (-IlHO)j
PgO = 1·2507 + O·726IYeo2.o - 1·l608YH2o.o - 0-447lYH2o.0
Fo = 47-4Fb /(l - Yeo. 0 - Ye02.0 - YH20.0 - YH2.0)
The procedures to calculate the values of I:.mi(Lr)i, I:.Mi( - IlHO)j' Qs
and Qw have already been given in Section 3.2.3. In order to eliminate
TgO, Tso , Tgml and F" eqns (3.2.96), (3.2.106), (3.2.114) and (3.2.134) are
therefore substituted into eqn (3.2.135), resulting in the following
expression for the coke temperature at tuyere level:

PI = n i - n4 X 10-\
nl = A(ml - 'l'N)I(l - 'l')N, n2 = B + A(M - moTso)/(l - 'l')N,
n4 = A(2c + d),

The parametersA, B, C, D, c and d in the above equations are the same as

those given in Section 3.2.5.

3.2.7. One-dimensional Mathematical Formulation for Internal State

of Blast Furnace
In order to formulate a model for one-dimensional counter-current flow
of gas and solid in a blast furnace, the following assumptions are
(l) Steady-state operation
(2) The heats of reaction are released to the solid particles
(3) Axial dispersion of gas and solid is neglected
(4) Radial distribution of process variables is not considered
(5) Voidage is unchanged
(6) The volume flow rate of solid particles is unchanged
(7) The temperature of molten material is equal to that of the solid
Within the framework of these assumptions, a mathematical model
describing the internal state of a blast furnace is derived by taking heat,
material and force balances for gas and solid particles around the
differential height of the bed at an arbitrary position from the top level
of the bed as illustrated in Fig. 3.2.5. The model consists often first-order
ordinary differential equations and three algebraic equations expressed
as follows:
dTg/dz [Az(qj + 22-4c gT gq2 + q3) + lTDzU(Tg - Twe)]

L (l - aj)(~HDRj·

j =j
q2 (l·2507~+ O·726I-r)R; + O·5246R; + 1·9768R: + O·7143R~
+ O·5364R~ + 2·5014R;
q3 = 6(1 - t:)hg.(Tg - Ts)/<Pdp

P'F,O, Fo,
egO, G gO , TgO

Stock Line

Cso,Gso, tm

Tsz,G sz G!{ll Tgz


GszI·dz Ggz+dz


Pgj, FJ

Tuyere Level

Fig. 3.2.5. Schematic representation of blast furnace for the derivation of

mathematical model. 18


L a;(-~Ht)Rj'

q4 =

qs (16 + 12~)R~ + + 44R; + 16R; + 12R; + 56R;

dls/dz = Az(R~ + R;)/3FsC hO (3.2.139)
dj;/dz = AzR;/FsClO (3.2.140)
d!c/dz = Az(~R; + R; + R~ + 2R;)/FsC eo (3.2.141)
dYco/ dz = 22-4Azl(~ + ~Yeo)R~ + (yeo - 2)R; + YeaR:
+ (yeo - 1)R~ + R; + (yeo - 2)R;)/Fg (3.2.142)

dYco/dz = 22-4A z [(?YcOz - r)R~ + (Y C02 + I)R; + (Y C02 - I)R;

+ YCOzR~ - R; + 2YC02R;]IFg (3.2.143)
dYH/dz 22·4A z [yHlR~ + YH2R; + YH2R~ + R~ + (YH2 - I)R~
- R; + 2YH2R;]IFg (3.2.144)
dpb/dz -A z [(l6 + 12?)R~ + 12R; + 44R; + 16R; + 12R~ + 56R;]IFs
fk = 1·75 + 150(1 - 8)/Rep
Rep = d pGg/f.1g
f.1g = 4·960 X 1O-3T~!2/(Tg + 103)
Pg = 1·2507 + 0'7261ycOz - 1· 1614YH2 - 0'4471YH2o (3.2.147)
Fg 47-4Fb/(1 - Yco - YC02 - YH2 - YH20) (3.2.148)
YH20 = FO(YH2,O + YH20,o)/Fg - YH2 (3.2.149)

Do for o < z < Lso

Do + 2z/tan WI for Lso < z < Ls
Db for Ls < z < Lsb
Db + 2(Lsb - z)/tan(JT - ( 2) for Lsb < z < H
1, { = 1, ? = 0, and r = for o <: Ts <: 1673°K
3, { = -1, ? = 1, and r = 0 for o <: Ts > 1673°K

The heat transfer coefficient between gas and particle streams, hg5' the
mean diameter of particle, dp , and the overall heat transfer coefficient
through the wall are all important parameters in the above differential
equation system, These parameters are determined by using the
following relationships.
The heat transfer coefficient, h g" is estimated by Ranz's equation: 86
Nu = 2,0 + 0·6(Rep y!2(Pry/3 (3.2.150)

Nu = hgsdp/kg, Rep = d p Gg/f.1g, Pr = cgf.1g/kg
The mean diameter of solid particles, dp , is evaluated from the
harmonic mean diameter:
(3.2.151 )
The overall heat transfer coefficient through the wall can be obtained
as follows:

u (3.2.152)
TTDb(Ljsin WI + Lb/sin W 2 + La)
- TT[L;/(sin WI • tan WI) + LV(sin W2 . tan (2)] (3.2.153)
Since blast furnace gas is considered to be a gas mixture of CO, COb
H 2, H 20 and N 2, the average heat content may be expressed as follows,
by component addition:
cg = LI(Cp)iY;!LIMYi (3.2.154)
The average heat content of the solid stream is also defined in the
same way:
where the specific heat for each component has been given in previous
literature. 20, 81
The longitudinal distribution of process variables can thus be
estimated from the above kinetic model together with boundary
conditions which have been determined previously in Sections 3.2.2 to
To illustrate the procedure for estimating the situation in a blast
furnace, a schematic profile of the furnace is shown in Fig. 3.2.6. It is
assumed that the rate of dust elutriation from the furnace throat and its
composition (4) remain unchanged, and that the ratios of steam injection
and of oxygen enrichment per unit volume-flow rate of blast are held
Suitable values for the temperatures of hot metal and of slag (5) and
for the concentrations of C, Mn and Si in hot metal (6) are selected on
the basis of the results of practical operations. The operating variables
Volume rate of flow and temperature of blast, oil ratio, 1:1:1
steam ratio and enrichment of oxygen in blost

Pressure of top gas

I W Composition and diameter of charge materials ~
£:\ Discharge rote of dust and its composilion
I & Temperature of pig iron and slag

&, Composition of pig iron

l,b "I:l
(]) Mass rate of flows of pig iron and slag
® Mass rate of flow of charge materiols
H ~
(]) Volume role of flow and composition of lop gas o
@ Temperature of gas at top level of the burden bed s::
@ Temperature of solid particles at top level of the burden bed
1t @ Volume rate of flow of gas and its composition ot tuyere level
Temperature of gas and coke or molten materials at tuyere level ~
© o
@ longitudinal distribution of process variables

D Operating condition. o Calculated value 8o

L::, : Assumed value m
Fig. 3.2.6. Schematic profile of blast furnace to illustrate the computation procedure. 19

contained in the model are top pressure (2), blast volume, temperature
of blast, oil ratio, steam ratio, oxygen enrichment (1), compositions of
solid particles fed into the furnace, and the diameter and fractional
pre reduction of iron ore (3). Boundary conditions at the top level of
burden bed (8, 11) and those at tuyere level (12, 13) can be determined as
shown in the previous section, and the values of mass-flow rates of iron
ore, coke and limestone in the charge materials (8) (We, We> Wj) are
given arbitrarily.
Under the boundary conditions at the top level of burden bed (2, 3, 8,
9, 10, 11), ten ordinary differential equations, (3.2.137)-(3.2.146), and
three algebraic equations, (3.2.147)-(3.2.149), are solved simultaneously
on a digital computer. The Runge-Kutta-Gill method is employed in
obtaining the numerical solutions for the model. In this way, the
longitudinal distribution in process variables (14) can be determined.
If the values of Tg , T" Fg , Yeo and YH2 at tuyere level thus obtained in
(14) agree with those obtained in (12) and (13) within the limit of
allowable errors, and the conditions offs = 1,j; = 1, andYeo2 = YH20 = 0
are satisfied, then the given values of WQ) We and WI in (8) and the
longitudinal distributions of process variables obtained as (14) can be
considered to be valid. But, if satisfactory agreement between them is
not obtained, then the preceding values of We, We and Wj are modified
and the same computation is carried out repeatedly until good
agreement is found.

3.2.8. Effect of Various Operating Conditions on Productivity and

Situation in Blast Furnace
In order to promote the production rate of pig iron and to decrease the
carbon ratio, various operating techniques such as elevating the top
pressure, charging small diameter of iron ore, using high-temperature
blast, and enriching the oxygen in the blast have been applied. In
addition, prereduction of the iron ore as charge materials has attracted
attention for high productivity.
In order to illustrate some model predictions for these cases,
computed results on the production rate of pig iron, the carbon ratio,
and the internal situation in a blast furnace under a wide range of
operating conditions are presented. High-pressure operation

Calculated results for the longitudinal distributions of process variables
for the case of high-pressure operation are shown in Fig. 3.2.7. In this

1.14 P Ikg/Nm:ll 1.?? 1.26 130 134

0[, ~ 1/\ V 1 I

Po kg/m 2
2.033)( 10' §
---- 5033x1O'


400 SOO 1200 1600 2000

Til' Ts l O K I !
, ! 1100 ! ,
l~OO! Pb Ikg/m3lbedll 1300

0.2 f" f, I 0j4 0.6 O.S I 0 I V, 1m secl
I ! P/l04(kg'm~) I
oI 02 yco, Yco, [_I 0.3 04
2~3 21,4 2.15 2'.6 2 '7 ~
FI( / 10 5lNm 3 /minJ o
Fig. 3.2.7. Longitudinal distribution of process variables in blast furnace (A) for the case of high-pressure operation
(do = 19·35 mm, F b = 2942·2 N m 3/m in, T
b = 1366° v w = 23·2 g/Nm3,x0 2
"'''''st = 0)· 19

figure, top pressure is the only parameter changed and predictions for
the two pressures under consideration are shown as either solid or
dashed lines.
From Fig. 3.2.7 it is clear that the variations in the distributions of
temperatures for gas and solids are not large, although the distributions
shown by the dashed lines in the shaft and belly are lower than those
shown by solid lines. That is, an increase in the feed rate of solid
particles caused by an elevation in gas pressure in the furnace brings
about a decrease in the temperatures of the gas and the solid
As the top pressure becomes higher, the molar fraction ofC02 ,Yeo2,
increases and that of CO,Yeo, decreases. It is especially noteworthy that
in the case of the dashed line, i.e. high top pressure Y C02 shows a larger
value than that of Yeo at the furnace top.
The fractional reduction of iron ore in the case of higher pressure is
lower than in that of lower pressure, but the former proceeds more
rapidly as the solids approach tuyere level. Furthermore, the elevation
of top pressure leads to lower linear velocity of gas and to less pressure
Variations in the production rate of pig iron, Wp , and the carbon
ratio, Cn accompanying the change in top pressure are illustrated in
Fig. 3.2.8. This figure shows that the increase in Wp and the decrease in
Cr caused by the elevation of top pressure are comparatively large in the
range of top pressure below about 4 atm within the range 3000-
3500 Nm3/min in blast volume.
Generally, the driving force for indirect reduction of iron ore
increases with increase in top pressure, and this increase in reduction
rate of ore leads to better productivity. However, if the top pressure
exceeds about 4 atm, then the value of CO/C02 comes to thermodynamic
equilibrium with the reduction of iron oxide, so that improvements in
productivity cannot be expected from elevating the top pressure more
than about 4 atm. Diameter of iron are

Decreasing the diameter of iron ore fed to the furnace shortens the time
for complete reduction and hence an increase in Wp and a decrease in Cr
may be expected. But a very small diameter of iron ore exerts a bad
influence on the pressure drop through the burden bed. Neglecting this
effect on pressure drop, and only considering the reduction rate
influence, the changes in Wp and Cr caused by the change in diameter of


-- ---
\ Wp

\ /
,- ""

\ ,/
Fb Nm 3/min
450 ~
~ .z
-'= \ 2942.2 Q
~ \
0. 170 \ 3500 440 =

S \
"" 430

150 420

140 410
1 2 3 4 5 6
Po X 10- 4 Ikg/m')

Fig. 3.2.8. Effect of the top gas pressure, Po, on the production rate of pig iron,
Wand carbon ratio, e p in blast furnace (A) (do = 19·35 mm, Tb = 1366°K,
W st = 23·2 g/Nm ,x~ = .
3 0) 19

iron ore have been estimated under steady-state operations. These

results are shown in Fig. 3.2.9, where a considerable increase in Wp and a
remarkable decrease in Cr caused by the decrease in iron ore diameter
can be found. The diameter of iron ore which is used commonly in the
practical operation of a blast furnace is about 20 mm on average, but if
the diameter were to be decreased down to about 15 mm, then better
productivity could be expected. Volume-jlow rate of blast

It is well known from the results of practical operations that Wp is
increased with increasing blast volume. However, blast volume cannot
be increased indefinitely, because very high blast volumes sometimes
cause unfavorable conditions in the furnace, such as extreme increase
in pressure drop, by-passing of the furnace gas and flooding. Neglecting
the effect of blast volume on these phenomena, the variations in Wp and
Cr caused by increasing the blast volume have been evaluated and the
calculated results are shown in Fig. 3.2.10.
From Fig. 3.2.10, it is clear that both Wp and Cr increase as a linear
function of volume-flow rate of blast. Since the heat input is intensified

and the reducing capacity of gas is increased by increasing the blast

volume, Wp increases. However, the utilization of CO maybe decreased
by a decrease in the residence time of gas in the furnace under these
conditions, and consequently the carbon ratio, Co also increases.
Comparing the calculated results shown by the solid lines with those
indicated by the lines in Fig. 3.2.10, the rate of increase in Wp is slightly
larger in the case of higher pressure operation than that of lower
pressure operation, but, conversely, the rate of increase in Cr for high
pressures is somewhat lower. From these results it is clear that elevation
of the top pressure is favorable when blast volume is increased.

200 480
- - Po = 2033 xl 0' kg/m'
--- Po=4.033x 10'
180 460

~ E-
160 440 g
140 420

-- --
...- /"

120 400
10 15 20 25 30
do Imml

Fig. 3.2.9. Effect of the diameter of iron ore, do, on the values of Wp and Cr in
blast furnace (A) (Fb = 2942·2 Nm 3/min.j Tb = 1366°K, wst = 23·2 glNm 3,
x0 2 = 0).1

300 500

? 200

100 ~-----L------L-----~----~400
2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Fb IN m3/ minl

Fig. 3.2.10. Effect of the blast volume, F b , on the values of Wp and C r in blast
furnace (A) (do = 19·35 mm, Tb = 1366°K, wst = 23·2 g/Nm 3, x0 2 = 0).19

For operation with high blast temperatures, an increase in Wp and a
decrease in Cr are also expected, since intensification of capacity for
melting the iron ore and an increase in the rate of indirect reduction of
the ore are caused by an increase in blast temperature. Figure 3.2.11
gives a computed result for the condition where blast temperature is
elevated but the other operating variables remain unchanged. As is
shown in the figure, the rate of increase of Wp is significant and Cr
decreases markedly for blast temperatures below about l430 0 K
However, for temperatures over 1430°K, the rate of increase in Wp
becomes small and the decrease in Cr remains slight. These results may
be explained qualitatively as follows. In these calculations, the blast
temperature is elevated, but the molar flow rates of CO and H2 supplied
to the furnace (the reducing capacity of the gas) do not change. In
addition to this, the utilization of CO increases with temperature rise in
the range under 1430 0 K but in the range above l430 0 K the value of
CO/C02 approaches thermodynamic equilibrium in coexistence with
iron and iron oxide.
It was reported by Flierman et al. 16 that decrease in coke ratio caused
by a blast temperature increase of lOO°C was 26 kg(coke)/t(pig) at
800°C, while Agarwal et al. 8? reported values of 26 kg/t between blast
temperatures of 540°C and 760°C and 20 kg/t between 760°C and
980°C. Yamada et al. 88 used a corrected value of 18 kg/t for estimating a
coke ratio within the blast temperature range 700-1040°C. For the case
where blast temperature is changed from 1366°K to l466°K, a
calculated value of 26·1 kg/t is obtained as the decrease in Cn and the
increase in Wp from Fig. 3.2.11 is evaluated as 8·48%.


155 C, 450 E-
.<: ~,
; 150 425

145 400
1366 1416 1466
Fig. 3.2.11. Effect of the blast temperature, T b , on the values of Jfj, and C r in
blastfumace(A)(Po = 1·433 X l(f kg/m2,do = 19·35 mm,Fb = 2942·2 Nm3/min,
w st = 23·2 g/Nm 3, XC>:! = 0).19
GLOBAL FORMULATION 157 Oxygen enrichment

In oxygen enrichment operations, the amount of coke which bums in
front of the tuyere increases on account of the increase in the
concentration of oxygen in the blast. Thus the generation of heat and of
CO gas may be promoted according to the following reaction:

2C + O2 = 2CO
dB -52·85 kcal/mol(02) (3.2.156)

Therefore an increase in production rate of pig iron may be expected,

but it may also be considered that the carbon ratio value is affected by
the fractional utilization of CO generated by the combustion of coke.
The situation in a blast furnace estimated for 7% oxygen enrichment of
the blast is shown by the solid lines in Fig. 3.2.12. In this figure, the
longitudinal distribution of process variables for no oxygen enrichment
is also illustrated using dashed lines.
Comparing these results, the concentration of CO in the case of
oxygen enrichment is much higher than that in the case of non-
enrichment at any level in the furnace. Consequently, at the top of
burden bed, the fractional utilization of CO for oxygen enrichment
becomes much lower than that for no enrichment. Although the
distribution of temperatures expressed by solid lines is comparatively
lower than that for dashed lines, the reduction of iron ore in the former
proceeds at a greater rate owing to the high concentration of CO gas.
However, the fractional decomposition of limestone expressed by the
solid line holds a lower position than that by the dashed line due to the
lower temperature. The fractional reduction of iron ore expressed by the
solid line is slightly lower. This may be caused by the overall effects of
an increase in the charging rate of iron ore, a change in the value of
CO/C02 due to enriching oxygen and a decrease in temperature. As a
consequence, heat is utilized sufficiently but the fractional utilization of
CO in the top gas becomes worse during oxygen enrichment.
Calculated values of Wp and Cr are shown againstxo)n Fig. 3.2.13. As
can be seen, Wp increases markedly with increase inxo2' and Crchanges
only slightly in the range of oxygen enrichments below about 5% but
increases considerably in the range over 5%. The rate of increase in Wp
has been observed in practical operations, and 5·4% and 5·6% per 1% of
oxygen enrichment were reported by Hasegawa et al. 89 and Kitagawa et
al. 90 respectively. The result calculated here indicates 5·45%, which is
clearly in good agreement with the observed data.
1,14 P [kg Nm 3 ].18 1 ?? 1 26 1.30 1.34
01 i ..................... -___ III ....... Ii III

X 0,
\ 007
\ ~
] vI \\ \ f, ~
I, "
121- --\-_':;-!{ . . . . .
..... ~­

16 ::r:

500 Tg L, [OKI
90U 10uU 1100 fJ b [kg m 3 (bed)) 1200 1300 ~
05 I" I, I " 1.0 P /10 4 [kg m 2 )

U,U4 U,05 Y r-, I I 0,06 V'1. 1m 'secl

I ! I
o1 0.2 Y (', I , 0.3 0.4

o1 02 03 Y CO I I 04 05 ~
2Y 3U 3.1 32 3.3
F~ / 10 51Nm 3 hrl

Fig. 3.2.12. Longitudinal distributions of process variables in blast furnace (A) for the case of oxygen-enriched operation
(Po = 1'433 X 104 kg/m2, do = 19·35 mm, Fb = 2942'2 Nm3/min, Tb = 1366°K, W st = 23'2 glNm3, x0 2 = 0'07).19


, 500

C, ",,,,,,, " "" ~

'" '-


2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
xOz 1%1
Fig. 3.2.13. Variations of the values of Wp and C r caused by the change in the
ratio of oxygen enrichment, xo)~ in blast furnace (A) (Po = 1·433 X 104 kgfm 2,
do = 19·35 mm, Fb = 2942·2 Nm3/min, Tb = 1366°K, Wst = 23·2 g/Nm3).19 Pre-reduction of iron ore

Pre-reduction of iron ore may be expected to significantly improve the
operating results of a blast furnace. This was mathematically modeled
by assuming that pre-reduced iron ore fed into the furnace consists only
of hematite and metallic iron, and that the fractional pre-reduction can
be determined according to the mass ratio of metallic iron to the
charged iron ore. The quantity of iron ore which must be reduced in the
furnace decreases with an increase in fractional pre-reduction, and the
CO2 gas generated by the indirect reduction of iron ore also decreases.
Thus the progress of the solution-loss reaction may be suppressed by a
decrease in the rate of CO2 generation and, thereby, the heat of reaction
which would be consumed by this reaction may be also reduced. The
heat thus saved is utilized in melting the iron ore or in elevating the
temperature of solid coke. Consequently it may be considered that the
descent rate of solid particles in the furnace increases, and as a result,
Wp may increase and C r may decrease.
The situations in the furnace for the cases where the fractional pre-
reduction!.o equals 0·9 and zero are illustrated in Fig. 3.2.14 by solid and
dashed lines respectively. Comparing the results calculated under the
two conditions for!.o, great differences exist in the distribution ofTg, T"
!.,Jc, Yeo, and YC02·
-':::.~-:::.':::., Tg I
5 ......
' I Ij;1
'\ ;:
I f
/ II
/ 2
] /

BJ.[A[ Z
Tg, T,I"K[ 400 [600 800 1O~0 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
Yeo, Yeo,[' 0.1 0.2 0.3 04 ~
I ! ! ! tl
02 f" f,'. f, [. [0.6 0.8 1.0 P T 10 '[kg, m 2[ ~
I I I ! ,

2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 fg /10 5[Nm3/hcl 2.7

~--------------~------------~~! ! tTl
0.1 02 05 1.0 t"'"
fe [ [ HTR [ [
Fig. 3.2.14. Longitudinal distributions of process variables in blast furnace (A) for the case of pre-reduction of iron ore o
(standard operating conditions: Po = 2'033 X \0 4 kg/m 2, do = 19'35 mm,Fb = 2942,2 Nm 3/min, Tb = 1366°K, Wst = 23-2 g/
N m 3 ,Xo2 = 0) ,19

Meysson et al. 91 indicated qualitatively that the temperature in the

case of high fractional pre-reduction of iron ore decreases in the shaft,
but increases in the belly and bosh. The distributions of Tg and Ts in
Fig. 3.2.14 are in good agreement with these trends but, unfortunately,
relationships between the other process variables andiso have not been
Rates of increase in Wp and of decrease in Cr are shown againstiso in
Fig. 3.2.15. The dashed lines have been obtained on the basis of the
results estimated by Meysson et al. 91 From these results, it is found that
both ~p and t;c (the rates of increase in Wp and Cr respectively) in the
range of low fractional pre-reduction below O' 3 are represented as a
linear function, but they show only slight changes in the range of
fractional pre-reduction between O' 3 and O' 8 and they then increase
again in the range of high/50 above 0·8.
Calculated results obtained byYagi and Muchi l9. 20 are also shown in
Fig. 3.2.15 using solid lines. Comparing the curves estimated by the
authors with those by Meysson et al.,91 a different trend is found in the

.; p t:'

o • Woolf IS-1 Pelletl '"

tl. • Pecrt el 01 !I ..I

o t Fine el 01 III

o • Woolf IWabano orel '"

80 r-----------------------------4
Meysson et 01. Ql
Yogi end Mu::rll 14

.;: 40


0.2 04 06 0_8

Fig. 3.2.15. Rate of increase in the production of pig iron, ~p, and that in the
coke saving, (c, caused by the pre-reduction of iron ore (standard operating
conditions). 19

range ofIso above 0·3. Data observed by Woolf,92 Peart et al. 93 and Fine
et al. 94 in experimental or commercial blast furnaces are also plotted in
the figure. Comparing these observed data with the calculated curves
obtained by the experimental work, the theoretical result is slightly
larger than the experimental data in both';p and Sc. It seems that these
deviations are caused by the differences in operating conditions and in
the profiles of the blast furnace. However, the curves determined in the
work show similar variational trends with the data observed by other

3.2.9. Some Applications of the Model

Mter development of the model, some attempts were made to analyze
further specific problems on the blast furnace.
In order to increase the productivity of a blast furnace, Wakabayashi
et al. 95 analyzed high top pressure and oxygen enrichment by
considering some limiting factors such as channeling and flooding. As a
result, 2% oxygen enrichment was found to be effective for blast furnace
operation from the economical point of view.
Regarding energy savings, Yatsuzuka et al. 96 investigated the
injection of reducing gas into a blast furnace shaft. In the analysis of this

CD Dead-man zone @) Direct reduction zone

(2) Indirect reduction zone (5::1 Tuyere zone
i3) Smelting zone ® Raceway zone

Fig. 3.2.16. Schematic representation of functions in blast fumace. 99


problem, the effect of flow rate and temperature of the injected gas and
the injection level were examined through the mathematical model,
thereby clarifying their effect on the production rate and fuel ratio. A
similar analysis was also carried out by Kobayashi et al. 97 on the
injection of reducing gas produced by nuclear energy into a blast
An estimation on the lowest fuel ratio of the blast furnace was
attempted under specified operation conditions by Togino et al. 98 by
means of the mathematical model. 396· 5 kg( coke )/t(pig) was reported as
the lowest limit for the operation of the blast furnace under the specified
A slight modification of the model was made by Miyasaka et al. 99
whereby an effective cross-sectional area for gas flow was introduced in
the lower part of the furnace. As shown in Fig. 3.2.16, this modification

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Yco' yco" f, f, f I I-I
0.020.04 1""Y",01-11.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Pllotml
I I I i
2004006008001000120014001600180020002200 Tg , T, I'KI
'0 Tg

Blast vol 33041Nm 3 'mlnl

Production 3441 It/day!
Coke ratiO 534 Ikgtl
T g: Gas temperature (OK)
T5 : Solid and 'or liquid temperature lOKI
YI : Mol. fraction of gas i (-I
fs Fractional reduction of ores (-J
fc Fractional gasification of coke 1-)
f/ Fractional decomposition of limestone (--I
P Pressure lotm)

Fig. 3.2.17. Comparison between computed and obsetved distribution of

process variables.99

meant that the gas was assumed not to flow through the dead zone, and
that the molten materials formed in the melting zone, dropped only into
the dead zone. The computed distributions of pressure and temperature
under these conditions were reported to agree well with those measured
in an actual blast furnace as shown in Fig. 3.2.17. Abnormal increase in
blast pressure sometimes occurs in actual operations and this may
cause a serious decline in the state of the operation. As a result of
analyzing this abnormal situation, the increase in blast pressure was
found to be predicted by the mathematical model about 3 hours in
advance of the actual problem.
The dissection of commercial blast furnaces, of which recent
advancements are summarized in Chapter 1, has shown significant
nonuniformity of conditions in the radial direction. An attempt was

Wal l Cenler Wa ll
3 Iml




H,rohala I BF
I~ Compuled cohesive zone. Cohesive zone o blained by d,sseclionl

Fig. 3.2.18. Estimated temperature profile in the blast furnace.'oo


made by Ono et al. 100 to analyze this nonuniformity. In the analysis, the
blast furnace was divided into 20 annular elements in the radial
direction. The one-dimensional mathematical model was applied to
each annular element and numerical computation was conducted
according to the boundary conditions specified at the top from
measurements taken during actual operation. This computation gave
the radial distributions of temperature and fractional reduction as in
Figs 3.2.18 and 3.2.19. It is possible to obtain the upper shape of the
cohesive zone based on the isotherms as shown in the figures, and the
very good agreement between the calculated and observed shapes ofthe
cohesive zone shown means that the mathematical model can predict
the approximate shape and position of the cohesive zone for stationary
operation of the blast furnace.

Cenler Wall


Kukloko 4Bf H'rohala 1BF

Fig. 3.2.19. Estimated profile of fractional reduction ( - - computed;

- - -, obtained by dissection). JO()


In the steady-state operation of a blast furnace, layered ore and coke

burdens descend continuously and contact the counter-current flow of
gas in the region between the furnace top and the melting level. The
physical properties of the ore and coke layers and moreover the kind of
reactions taking place in these separate layers are substantially
different. It follows from this that at any level in the furnace the process
variables, such as temperatures of gas and solid particles, gas velocity
and composition of gas, would fluctuate periodically with the alternate
passage of the layers. This section is partly devoted to clarification of
this cyclic unsteady behavior.
Because the process variables in the blast furnace are distributed in
the radial direction, it is also important to reveal the relationship
between the operating conditions and the radial variation ofthe process
In the present section, two attempts will be made to describe the
nonuniform distributions of process variables caused by both the
layered structure of burdens and the nonuniform gas flow. The first
model 24 is based on the quasi-stationary gas flow distribution and time
dependent heat and mass transfer with chemical reactions for each
layer, while the second mode127.123 has been developed for two-
dimensional gas flow and heat transfer. Furthermore, some computed
results are given regarding the longitudinal and radial distributions of
the process variables in a blast furnace operating in Japan.

3.3.1. Radial Distribution of Flow Rate of Gas

Before constructing the first model, the following assumptions are
(1) As shown in Fig. 3.3.1, the layered coke and ore burdens charged
to the top of the furnace descend with V-shaped contours whose
apparent angles of repose are a 1 and a2, respectively.
(2) When the two adjacent layers are considered as one block, the
i-th block is a cylindrically packed bed having an average diameter R i ,
and the resistance to flow at a given dimensionless radial position
(( = r/RJ is the same in any block.
(3) Ore and coke burdens are prepared through sufficient screening,
and consequently there exist no radial distributions of the particle size
d pj and the voidage Gj in each layer.
Taking account of the radial distribution of the longitudinally

Fig. 3.3.1. Schematic diagram of blast furnace with radially distributed


averaged particle size dp and the voidage &", the Ergun equation
expressing the pressure drop of gas may be rewritten as follows:
aPiaz = (Pg/gc)[l - n01 . '1'(0 . u g (0 2/ [(j)(0 . d p (0 . &"(01 (3.3.1)
where the drag coefficient '1'(0 is defined by:
'1'(0 == 150[1 - n;)]lRep(0 + 1·75 (3.3.2)
Rep(0 == (j)(0· d p(0 . &"(0· ug(;)/v
Because the value of Rep is very large in a blast furnace, the radial
change in '1'(;) is slight even if there existed radial changes in d pj and Gj
in each layer. Consequently, it may be assumed as '1'(0 = const. == '1'.
Moreover, itis assumed that the shapefactor(j)(0 = ¢I = ¢2 == ¢ = 0·64.
Let each volume of ore and coke burdens in a block enclosed between
the radial position ; and (; + d;) be designated by VI; and V2;,
respectively. Then, n0 can be readily expressed as:
&(0 = (GI VI; + G2 V2;)/(VI; + V2;) = A + B; (3.3.3)
where the dimensionless factors, A and B, are related to the charging
conditions through the following expressions:
A 8 1VI + G2 V2 + (2/3)7TR~A(81 - 8 2)
B == -7TR~A(81 - 82)/(VI + V2), A == tan a2 - tan a I (3.3.4)

The mean particle size dp(~) should be determined so as to meet the

stipulation that the pressure drop of the gas through a certain block
having£(O anddp(O must be equated to the sum of that through each
layer in the block. This implies that ~J[2<Pdp& /3(1 - &)] is expressed as
the sum of ~/[2<Pjdpjc/3 (1 - Cj)] in each layer. Rearrangement of this
expression consequently gives:

where ~i' Ci and Di are represented by:

~i = ~l.i + ~2.i
~I.i == [VI + lTRjA(2/3 - O]/lTRr
~2.i == [V2 - lTRjA(2/3 - O]llTR~
C i == [V,/D pl + V2 /Dp2 - (2/3)lTRjf A]/lTRl
Di == fARi!Rr
f == l/DP2 - l/Dp,
Dpj == dpj ' c/(l - Cj) (j = 1,2) (3.3.6)

Substituting eqn (3.3.5) into eqn (3.3.1), we have:

ap/az = [Pg'l'/(gc<P~;)](Ci + Dl) . Ug(~)2 (3.3.7)

If the pressure gradient expressed by eqn (3.3.7) is approximately the

same at any radial position, there follows:
a(ap/az)a~ =0 (3.3.8)

On the other hand, the mass balance regarding gas gives:

= 2lTR~ fa ~. c(O . ug(O d~

Fg (3.3.9)

Combination of eqn (3.3.7) through eqn (3.3.9) yields the expression

for the radial velocity profile:

U --_.
Fg A +B~ (3.3.10)
N - 2lTR;Ei ICi + Di~
where Ei is a dimensionless factor defined as:

Ej 21JC + D j j [B(Cj + D j)2/5 + (DjA - 2BCj)

X (Cj + DJ/3 - Cj(DjA - BCJI - JC;[BCTl5
+ C(DjA - 2BCJ/3 - Cj(DjA - BCJIIIDf (3.3.11 )
Equation (3.3.11) gives the resultant radial distribution of the flow
rate of gas, when the changes in the apparent angles of repose, O/C and
coke base are caused by a different charging method.

3.3.2. Mathematical-kinetic Model of Blast Furnace

Because the apparent angles of repose of ore and coke differ from each
other, the vertical depth of each layer varies radially. Thus radial
distributions would be expected concerning not only the flow rate of gas
but also the longitudinally averaged properties such as O/C, specific
heat of solid particles, heat transfer coefficient between gas and solid,
and specific surface area.
Heat, mass, and momentum balances are considered here for the
region from; to (; + d;) where gas and solid particles are assumed to be
in piston flow. To describe mathematically the periodical changes of
process variables at any level, two adjacent layers of ore and coke are
assumed as one block which has the thickness ~j as shown in Fig. 3.3.2

S.L ~--t----\


Do Iml 7.50

D.11ml 11.20

Db Iml 10.30.

Z, Iml 17.30

Z, Iml 2.80

Z:l Iml 3.20

Z, Iml 0.61

Fig. 3.3.2. Profile of blast furnace (DII).


and moves down instantaneously after a lapse of residence time tr

(= ~JV,.i)' That is to say, a block of burdens descends periodically at
intervals of tr by distance ~i'
The chemical reactions to be considered here are the indirect
reduction of iron ore and the decomposition of limestone which take
place in an ore layer, and the Boudourd reaction in the coke layer. These
reactions may be described as follows:
(l/3)Pe20 3 + CO = (2/3)Pe + CO2 (3.3.12)
CaC0 3 = CaO + CO 2 (3.3.13)
CO2 + C = 2CO (3.3.14) Unsteady-state heat transfer in ore and coke layers

By taking account of heat-in-mass transfer, the heat of reaction and the
heat exchanges between gas and solid particles, the heat balance
equation for the ore layer in the i-th block can be expressed as
dt = a2 hg,2(Tg2 - T,2) + Co.o(dfo/dt)[Mco(cp)co - MCOz(Cp)C02]

X T,2 - Cl,o(d./i/dt)Mco2(cp)co2T,2 + Co. o(dfo/dt)( -~Ho)

+ Cl,o(d./i/dt)(-~Hl) (3.3.15)
The change in the bulk density of the ore layer caused by the progress
of the reactions can be expressed by:
Pb2 = Pb2.0 - (16Co.ofo + 44Cl,o./i) (3.3.16)
Substituting eqn (3.3.16) into eqn (3.3.15), and assuming that the gas
temperature in the ore layer maybe kept at Tg2• i during the period t" the
resultant heat transfer equation can be obtained:
dT,/dt = K 2(Tg2.i - T,2) + Ho(-~Ho) + Hl(-~Hl) + IH o[28(cp)co
- 44(c p)cOz + 16c,2] + 44Hl [C,2 - (cp)coJ I . T,2 (3.3.17)
where K2 and Hk (k = 0, 1) are defined as follows:
K2 == a2hg,2,JPb2[c,2 + Tddc,2/ dT,2)]
Hk == Ck.o(dfk/dt)/pdc,2 + T,idc'2/dTd] (k = 0,1) (3.3.18)
In an analogous manner, the heat balance equation for the coke layer

and the bulk density of its layer can be represented by eqns (3.3.19) and
(3.3.21), respectively.
dTsddt = K,(Tgl.i - T s') + He(-AHe)
+ Hcl44(cp)co2 - 56(cp)co + l2csdTs' (3.3.19)
where K, and He are defined as follows:
K, == a,hgs1.Jpbdcs' + Ts,(dcs,/dTs' )]
He == Ce.o(dfcldt)/Pb, [cs! + Ts,(dcs,/dTs' )] (3.3.20)
Pb' = Pb'.O - l2Ce.ofe (3.3.21) Overall heat balance in ore and coke layers

Integration of eqn (3.3.15) from 0 to tr with respect to t will give the
overall heat balance equation in its layer in the form of eqn (3.3.25)
described later. In carrying out the integration, the following relations
have been taken into account.
The overall heat balance on the gas side can be expressed as:

- (GgcgTg2)out] dt - 2;r(R i A 2• i«(U) fr (Tg2 - Tew) dt (3.3.22)

where the first and the second terms of the integrals in the left-hand side
of eqn (3.3.22) represent the heat amounts transferred by the heat
exchange between gas and solid particles and by the heat-in-mass
transfer, respectively. Each integral term on the right-hand side shows
the change in the heat content of the gas and the heat transferred in the
radial direction, respectively.
To estimate the value of (, an effective thermal conductivity102 has
been applied for analyzing the observed temperature distribution in a
cylindrical bed. 103 As a result, the following simple correlation has been

For the sake of further simplification, the terms involved in each

integral in the right-hand side of eqn (3.3.22) and the heats of reaction
-Il..Hk (k = 0,1), are assumed to be kept constant throughout the period
of t" namely:
-Il..Hk = -Il..Hk.i (k = 0,1)
(G gcgTg2)in - (G gcgTg2)out
Tg2 = Tg2.i (3.3.24)
Equation (3.3.22) subject to eqn (3.3.24) ultimately yields the
expression for the temperature of gas entering into the ore layer of the
i-th block as follows:
Tg1. i L2.iTg2.i + hi(1l.. 2./ Il..J(Ts2.i - M2.iTs2.i-l - Il..To.i - Il..Tl.J
+ N 2• i(Tg2.i - Tcw) (3.3.25)
Y2.i == FsPb2.iCS2.J(FgI.iPgl.iCgl.i)
L 2.i - Fg2.iPg2.iCg2.J(FgI.iPgl.iCgl.J
M 2• i - Pb2.i-l CS2.i-d(Pb2.i Cs2.J
N 2.i - 21TSRiIl..2.lU/Fgl.iPgl.iCgl,i
Il..Tk . i Ck.o(fk.i - fk.i-d(-Il..Hk.J/(Pb2.iCS2.J (k = 0,2) (3.3.26)
In eqns (3.3.25) and (3.3.26), the variables T s2 ,fb Pb2 and Cs2, with suffix
i, are defined as those values at t = t r •
The temperature of gas entering the coke layer can be likewise written
as follows:
T g2.i+l = Ll.iTgl.i + Yl.i(Il..l.i/ll..i)(Tsl. i - MuTsl.i-l - Il..Tc.J
Yu - F sPbI.i CSl'/(Fg2.i+lPg2.i+l Cg2.i+l)
Ll.i - Fgl.iPgl.iCgI.J(Fg2.i+lPg2.i+lCg2.i+l)
Mu == Pbl.i-lCsl.i-l/(PbI.iCsU)
Nu - 21TSRill..I.i~U/Fg2.i+lPg2.i+lCg2.i+l
Il..Tc.i - Cc.O(fc.i - fc.i-l)(-Il..Hc.J/(PblfSI.J (3.3.28)

In eqns (3.3.27) and (3.3.28), the variables Ts1,je,Pbl and Csl' with suffix
i, are defined as those respective values at t = t f •
It is to be noted in eqns (3.3.25) and (3.3.27) that the gas temperature in
the layered burdens case is governed by three thermal flow ratios (y, L,
M) instead of y alone for a homogeneously mixed burden. Overall mass balances in ore and coke layers

Taking the mass balance with respect to total gas during the period t"
the average flow rates of gas entering ore and coke layers of the i-th
block can be represented algebraically by, respectively:
FgJ.i = Fg2. i(l - ~ Yi. J (3.3.29)
where ~Yi.i and ~Ye.i' denoting the dimensionless volume changes of
carbon dioxide, are defined according to:
~Yk.i == 22-4Ck. o(fk.i - fk.i-l)(FJFg2.i)(~2j~J (k = 0,1)
~Yc.i == 22-4Ce.O(fe.i - fe.i-l)(FslFgI.J(~I./~J (3.3.31)
The compositions of CO gas entering into the ore and coke layers
can be obtained from the mass balances on CO, for each layer:
YCO.l.i = (YCO.2.i + ~Yo.J/(l - ~YI.J (3.3.32)
YCO.2.i+l = (Yco.J.i - 2~Ye.i)/(l- ~Ye.J (3.3.33)

Similarly, from CO 2 balances, we have:

YC02.1.i = (YC02.2.i - ~Yo.i - ~Yi.i)/(l - ~Yi.J (3.3.34)

YC02.2.i (YC02.I.i + ~Ye.i)/(l- ~Ye.J (3.3.35)

Also, from H 2 , H 20 and N2 balances, we have:
hJ.i = h 2.i(l - ~Yl.i) (h = YH2,YH20,YN2) (3.3.36)
h 2• i+ 1 = hI.i(l - ~Ye.J (h = YH2,YH20,YN) (3.3.37)
Summing up the products of density of each component of gas and its
composition represented by eqns (3.3.32)-(3.3.37), the average densities
of gas entering each layer can be expressed as follows:
PgI.i = (Pg2.i - 0·727~Yo.i - 1·977~Yl.J/(l - ~Yl.i) (3.3.38)
Pg2.i+l = (Pgl.i - 0·523~Ye.J/(1 - ~Ye.i) (3.3.39)
174 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING Pressure drop of gas flowing through ore and coke layers
The pressure drop of gas passing through each layer of burden with
thickness ~j. i, and ~Pj. i, can be evaluated on the basis of the Ergun
formula described by eqn (3.3.1). Then the gas pressure at the lowest end
of each layer is given as follows:
PI.i = P 2. i + M 2. i (3.3.40)
P2. i + 1 = Pl.i + Ml.i (3.3.41)

3.3.3. Numerical Analysis of Blast Furnace Operation Calculation procedure

The longitudinal variations of the process variables along each radial
position of the blast furnace OIl have been numerically analyzed, based
on the mathematical model developed above and the initial conditions
given at the top of the bed. B.F.(OIl) had the dimensions shown in
Fig. 3.3.2 and was used under the operating conditions listed in Table
3.3.1. Numerical data for computation are given in Table 3.3.2. The
program flowchart is shown in Fig. 3.3.3. The computation was
terminated by considering the melting positions of the ore burden to be
equal to the locations of the 1400°C isotherm. Determination of initial conditions

The initial conditions at the top of the bed are given by the radial
distributions of burden, the flow rate of gas, the gas temperature and the
gas compositions.
When the values are given for the volumes of each layer (fj), the
apparent angle of repose (aj) and the furnace diameter at the top of the
bed (R 1), the radial distribution of burden can be evaluated from eqn
(3.3.6) as the radial change in the thickness of each layer, ~j.
Furthermore, after the volume flow rate of gas flowing through the shaft
is determined from the overall mass balances over the whole furnace,
eqn (3.3.10) gives its radial distribution under given charging conditions.
Figure 3.3.4 shows the calculated radial profiles ofe, d p and UN in the
first block atthe top ofB.F.(OIl) havinga 1 = 25° anda2 = 28°. It can be
found from Fig. 3.3.4 that the respective ratios ofthe values on the center
axis to those on the peripheral wall amount to 1·07 fore, 1·22 for d p and
1·26 for UN' Accordingly, the ascending gas tends to flow through the
central zone more than the peripheral zone in the furnace.
The radial distributions of temperature and top gas composition in

an operating furnace are difficult to measure during the charging period

of each burden component (t = O-tr ). However, their values averaged
with respect to the total flow rate of gas can be measured without
difficulty and this is often done on industrial furnaces.
Thus the following procedures have been used to determine their
radial profiles at the top of the bed. First, let their mean values averaged
with respect to the total flow rate of gas be represented by eqn (3.3.42)
during the period t r • Second, typical radial profiles measured at any
moment in the blast furnace (in this case, B.F.(DII)) are applied to the
term Ao(~) in eqn (3.3.42). Third, if the value ofXo calculated from eqn
(3.3.42) differs to some extent from that observed, successive modifi-

TABLE 3.3.1
Data for numerical analysis of blast furnace (DII)

W1 (kg/ch) 38950
WI (kg/ch) 11900
V1 (m3(bed)/ch) 21'68
VI (m\bed)/ch) 17-25
d po (m) 0'0196
d pl (m) 0'0152
d pc (m) 0'0519
Fs (m3(bed)/ch) 272-5
e (h) 0·1429
Co. 0 (katm(O)/m3(bed» 26'86
Cl. O (kmol(CaCONm 3(bed» 0·1387
Cc. o (katom(C)/m3(bed» 49-44
T s1. O CC) 30a
TsI.o (0C) 30a
T g2.1 CC) 203
P2.1 (kg/m2) 14300
Yeo. 0 (-) 0'241
Ye02.0 (-) 0'190
YH20.0 (-) 0'013
YH2.0 (-) 0'036
YN2.0 (-) 0'520
Fg (Nm 3/h) 311600
U (kcal/m 2 • h· 0C) 15

aEstimated value.

Setting up initial conditions

and z

Calculation of unsteady state heat

transfer eq. (j-th layer, t=0v8)
~Ts,fk>Pb, and C s

Calculation of overall mass balance eq.

(j-th layer)
~ YCO'YC0 2 'YH 2 0'YH 2 'YN 2 ,F g' and Pg

Calculation of overall heat balance eq.

(j-th layer)
~Tg' cg

Results of i,z,T s ,T g ,fk,Pb'YCO'YC0 2 ,F g,u,
and p ____------------------~----



Fig. 3.3.3. Flow chart for computing the longitudinal distributions of process

TABLE 3.3.2
Numerical Data for Computation Based on Two-dimensional Model

Furnace geometry (m) L = 25'0, Rbe = 10'0

Volume per charge (m3(bed)) VI = 17'0, V2 = 22-0
Apparent angle of repose (-) al = 25°, a2 = 25° and 28°
Voidage of layer (-) ec = 0'45,e o = 0'4O,es = 0'35,
eM = 0'30, eR = 0'70
Particle diameter (m) d pc = 0'40
d po = dps = dpM = dpR = 0'02
Angles of internal and wall
friction of coke (-) <Pi = 40°, <Pw = 25°
Inlet mass velocity (kg/m2(bed)· s) Gc. o = 0'5 (at top)
Go. o = 1-8 (at top)
Gg. o = 1'0 (at belly)
Inlet temperature (oq Ts.o = 50, Tg.o = 1800

cations to the pattern of Ao(O are repeated until the final pattern is
obtained, neglecting the radial change in YH2.0 and YH20.0:

X-o = [27TRi f ~. uN(O . Ao(~) d~ }Fg (3.3.42)


0.6 3.2 ~.-----------, 2.4

0.5 2.2 .: "

E ""
I" 1-0 ~,

0.4 r--~~::::::::""",----_l2.0 ;;

0.3 2.0 1.8

o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 10
\" I-I

Fig. 3.3.4. Radial distributions ofe, d p and UN at the top of blast furnace (DII).

Figure 3.3.5 shows the radial profiles of the temperature and the
compositions of CO and CO2 of the top gas in B.F.(DII), determined by
the procedures mentioned above.

500 r - - - - - - - - - - - . , 0.4

400 0.3

- 300 ----..,j 0.2 ;::

.'00 0.1

I 00 '---_--'-_--L-_--'-_--"'------' 0
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 10
, I-I

Fig. 3.3.5. Radial distributions of Yeo, Yeo, and Tgl. I at the top of blast
furnace (DII).

3.3.4. Computed Results

Figure 3.3.6 shows the longitudinal distributions of the process
variables computed within the region from the furnace top to the
melting level in B.F.(DII) which presumably has horizontally layered
burden. In this figure, each value of the process variables given at every
layer outlet is successively connected by a broken line for a clear
understanding of their longitudinal variations. Some of the charac-
teristic features of the results are described below. More detailed
discussions are available elsewhere. 24. 101 Longitudinal variation of Fg , Pg , Yeo and Y eo2

In the upper part of the furnace, Fg is kept constant because only the
indirect reduction of iron ore by CO gas takes place. However, in every
ore layer,Yeo decreases and bothYeo2 and Pg increase with ascent of the
gas, and consequently they distribute stepwise in the longitudinal
direction. In the part lower than the middle level of the shaft, the
Boudouard reaction as well as the decomposition oflimestone begin to
proceed, and as a result an appreciable change in Fg appears.
1.20 P , Ikg Nm"1 1 28 1.32 1 36

0 400 T• . T, I'CI 1000 P ,I P", Ikg m'lbed)) 1600 2000

1 1 1 I I I
0.3 0 .4 0. 5
0 01
, y"" Yt'o, I )
1 I I 1 I I

0 02 0 .4 ) 10 0 1m seel 12
I", I,. f, I t: j,!
1 I I I I
05 1.0 20 2.5 3.0
I 1 I I I
2.8 29 3.1 3.2 3.3

Fig. 3.3.6. Longitudinal distributions of process variables in blast furnace (DII).

Furthermore, longitudinally oscillating patterns of Yeo, Yeo2 and Pg

emerge because the consumption of CO and the generation of CO 2 in an
ore layer are replaced by the generation of CO and the consumption of
CO 2 in the adjacent coke layer.
Because the progress of the Boudouard reaction in the lower part of
the shaft may be temporarily retarded as Yeoo approaches zero, the
amplitudes of these oscillations are suppressed. However, when the
burdens reach further downward, both the Boudouard reaction and the
indirect reduction of the iron ore become extremely fast due to
increased temperature. It follows from this that the CO 2 generated in the
ore layer may be immediately converted into CO in the following coke
layer, which again results in enlarged oscillations of Yeo, YeQz and Pg • Longitudinal variation of Tg and Tsi

In Fig. 3.3.6, the zigzag patterns of both Tg and Ts are found in the
longitudinal direction and large amplitudes of oscillations both in the
upper shaft and in the lower part of the shaft can be seen. This suggests
that the rates of heat transfer and the heat of reactions generated in the
ore layer differ from those in the adjacent coke layer.

As described above, process variables in the blast furnace oscillate in

the longitudinal direction. Amplitudes of the oscillations at any fixed
level of the furnace may also be interpreted to be caused by the layered
burdens passing through the level. Therefore it may be presumed that
the process variables oscillate periodically with comparatively large
amplitudes both in the upper shaft and in the lower part from the
bottom of the shaft. Radial distribution of temperature and melting level

Figure 3.3.7 shows the radial distribution of the time-averaged
temperature of solid particles for the case where a, = 25 ° and a2 = 28 0.
It may be found from Fig. 3.3.7 that two thermal reserve zones are
formed in the upper and lower zones of the furnace at all radial
positions except the central region. The isotherms of solid particles are
shown in Fig. 3.3.8 at intervals of 100 °C (obtained after recasting
Fig. 3.3.7).
When we assume the melting point of ore burdens as l400°C,
locations of melting down are given by the l400°C isotherm. Kanbara
Sl. 0 ~-------------,


T.l. !:-=~=-=-=~ - ---- - ---

o 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
Fig. 3.3.7. Longitudinal distributions of temperature of solid particles in blast
furnace (011).

0 51


N 14



Fig. 3.3.8. Distributions of isotherms in blast furnace (011).

et al. 104 observed the inner features of Hirohata No. 1 blast furnace
quenched by water. A number of annular layers, in which the iron ores
had been softened and partly molten, were detected over the zone from
the tuyere to the middle level of the shaft. These softening layers would
be located in the range surrounded by the isotherms of 1200°C and
1400°C in Fig. 3.3.8. The pattern of the cohesive zone illustrated in
Fig. 3.3.8 is similar to the findingsl04 in the dissected furnace and it
should be noted that the inversely V-shaped cohesive zone has resulted
from the operation with a strongly centralized gas flow both in this
calculation and in Hirohata No.1 furnace. Radial distribution of fractional reduction

Figure 3.3.9 shows the distributions of the equi-fractional reduction of
iron ore. The dashed line in this figure represents the melting level. This
figure indicates that the progress of chemical reaction as well as the
temperature field varies remarkably in the radial direction.



N 14






26 B.F. ID III fo


Fig. 3.3.9. Distributions of equi-fractional reduction in blast furnace (DII).

3.3.5. Steady-state Two-dimensional Modelling Overall continuity

From differential mass balances for reactive flows of gas (g), solid (s)
and liquid (1) phases, we obtain:

(mass flow) (reaction)
N n

divG j - Dj L"kR~ 0, L(xikMi)g,

k=t i= 1

- -
(j = g, s, 1), Dg = 1, Ds = Dt = -1 (3.3.43)

where G j = Pj Vj is the mass velocity of the j-phase. IXikl is the

stoichiometric coefficient for species i appearing in the k-th reaction,
andXik;;;' 0 for generation of species i whereas Xik < 0 for its dissipation.

For brevity we shall assume that the solid materials and the coexisting
liquid melt would have the same temperature and the same specific
heat. Let us call these condensed phases burden (b) in the gross bed.
Then the conservation of thermal energy of gaslburden has the form:
(mass flow) (conduction) (heat exchange) (reaction)

div(Cj1jGj) + divqj + Djhgba(Tg -Tb) -1JjL Rt(-I:1Hd = 0,

k =1
(j = g,b(= s+l», Dg = 1, Db = -1, 1Jg+1Jb = 1 (3.3.44)
where qj refers to the conductive heat flux vector with the following
component in the n direction:
qjn = -Kjn· aT/an (3.3.45)

and Kjn is the effective thermal conductivity. As for fluid flow in porous
media, this dispersion of heat stems from hydrodynamic fluctuations of
G j. Parameter 1Jj is the fractional acquisition of heat of reaction
including the extent of heat-in-mass transfer. Momentum balance

A large number of nonlinear motion equations for gas flow through
porous media appear in the literature. The Ergun equation 105 is a typical
formula for one-dimensional flow, and its vectorial form 23 described

below seems to apply successfully to the nonuniform flow of gas in the
blast furnace: 23. 28. 106-113
gradP = -(j; +hIGgl)Gg (3.3.46)
150(1 - f:)2f.lg/gcpg(tjJd p )2f:3
1·75(1 - f:)/gcPg(tjJd p )f:3 (3.3.47)
On the other hand, we have less understanding of the equation of
motion of burden materials in the furnace. A simple and probable
principle which simulates the burden flow is given by potential flow
theorf? which prescribes the irrotational movement of fluid particles

- -
and is expressed as:
ill = rot V sj = 0 (j = 0, c) (3.3.48)
This equation may be utilized whether the burden is in the form of a
solid or a liquid.

3.3.6. Governing Equations for Cylindrical Polar Coordinates

The present concern is to obtain simultaneous numerical solutions of
the differential equations which have been derived in the preceding
section. We now proceed to transform the conservation equations in
terms of an axisymmetric cylindrical coordinate system for ease of
An alternative form of the overall continuity equation, eqn (3.3.43), is
as follows:

L f3k R:

o (rGjr)/or + o(rGjz)/oz - Dj = 0,

(j = g, s, 1), Dg = 1, D5 = DI = -1 (3.3.49)
which can be satisfied by working in terms of the stream function ljIj
defined as:

Sg == f( ik~1
f3k R : ) r dr (3.3.50)

Thus, if the terms involving velocity are displaced by the stream

function, there will be no need to make any explicit expression of the
mass conservation principle.

3.3. 6.1. Gas flow

The directional components of the Ergun equation, eqn (3.3.46), can be
written as:


-(j; + 12lG g l)Ggr
-Cil + 121 Ggl)Ggz
(3.3.51 )

Gas pressure P can be entirely removed from eqn (3.3.51) by using a

mathematical relationship described as:
The resultant equation in terms of stream function ljIg (simply ljI) is as

[ 011 oljl + 011 (Oljl + S )

or or OZ OZ g

+ ![O12 Olfl + 012 (Olfl + S )

r or or OZ oz g

+h:1" _! Olfl 021f1 OSg)][(OIfl
:1 +:12+:1
S)2 (OIfl)2]
:1 + g + ur
ur r ur uZ uZ uZ


Equation (3.3.53), together with the appropriate boundary conditions,

gives the value for IfI for any point in the field, provided that the spatially
distributed flow resistance has been specified. Once the solution for IfI
has been obtained, velocity can be evaluated by eqn (3.3.50). Pressure
recovers basically through the appropriate integration of eqn (3.3.51).
However, the following numerical scheme may be advantageously
applied to avoid the accompanying integration error. That is, the
divergence of eqn (3.3.46), combined with eqn (3.3.43), yields:

02p loP 02p oW oW N

~+-~+~ = -Ggr~-Ggz~-W'f3kR:

ur r ur uZ- ur uZ L....
k =1

where W == 11 + 121G g l.
The iterative solution of eqn (3.3.54) also gives the pressure at all
points in the furnace. We usually need to know the pressure and the
temperature during the course of the solution for IfI because their
variations may affect gas density which in turn requires recasting of the
flow resistance. Burden flow

Equation (3.3.48) for irrotational field of flow can be developed as:
o~rloz - o~jor = 0 (j = 0, c) (3.3.55)

Substitution from eqn (3.3.10), noting J.j = GjPj' now yields:

+ 02lf/j _
(! +r
oln pj ) Olf/j _ olnpj Olf/j
or or OZ OZ

+ (s g
olnpj _ OSg)
oz oz = 0 (j = o,c) (3.3.56)

which gives the stream function for ore or coke flow in the domain of
interest. Domain borders on which boundary conditions should be
stipulated may comprise not only the furnace geometry but also the
contours of the stagnant coke cone and the raceway for coke flow, and
the so-called 'dry zone' in front of the tuyeres for ore flow. The velocity
field of each material can be determined also by inserting the converged
value of the stream function into eqn (3.3.50). Superimposition of the
two velocity fields obtained approximately accounts for the global flow
field of burden. Temperature
The expression of eqn (3.3.44) in angular symmetry may be derived to
(02Tj 1 OTj) o2Tj oKfr oTj oKfz oTj
+ Tr a; + ----a;- a;
e e
K jr or + -;:a;: + K jz OZ2

L R:(-!:l.Hd = 0

- f>jhgba(Tg - T b) + 1/j
k =1
(j = g, b), 1 (3.3.57)

3.3.7. Some Auxiliary Relations

In order that the mathematical problem should be completely specified,
we need some additional relations which must supplement the
governing equations. Some selected relations will be given here. Transport and thermodynamic properties

(aJ Effective thermal conductivity offluid (Kjn). This can be evaluated
from the particle Peclet number, Pejn, defined as follows:
P ejn = d p Vjz I(Kjne Ic jPj) (j = g, 1,' n = r, z) (3.3.58)

where Tjz designates the axial linear velocity of fluid. The observed
relationship I 14 between Pejn and particle Reynolds number,
Repj( = d p Tjp/J1j)' normally gives the following constant over the Repj
range possible in the blast furnace:
Peg, = 10, Pe gz = 2; Pel, = 50, Pelz = 0·5 (3.3.59)
(b) Effective thermal conductivity of burden (KD. This may be
approximated to the effective thermal conductivity of solids (K~)
because of a small hold-up in the dropping zone. Since the solid-solid
thermal conduction through the point of contact is relatively slight, K~ is
governed by the indirect and direct radiation whose mechanism was
formulated by Shotte l15 as follows:
K~ (l - 8)/(l/ks + l/k,) + 8k"
k, = 1·97 X 10- 7 dp(Ts + 273)3 (kcallm· h· 0c) (3.3.60)
(c) Interphase heat transfer coefficient (h gb). When we define hgb based on
eqn (3.3.44), we may tacitly assume Tb as representing the mean
temperature of solid particles with and without the surrounding melt.
Thus hgb should be an overall parameter involving the true gas/burden
film heat transfer coefficient (h~b) and the burden conductivity (kb). The
expression for spheres was given by Stuke l16 in the form:
l/hgb = l/h~b + (dp /lO)k b
where Bi = h~bdp/kb is the Biot number. Thermal conductivities of solids
take the values of 0·5 for coke and 1·4 for ore materials, in
kcal· m· h· °e ll7 The true heat transfer coefficient, h~b' is well
correlated by Shirai l18 according to:
8(h~bdp/kg) = 2·0 + 0·75 P r l/3 Re~!2 (3.3.62)
where 8 is the void fraction of the packed bed and Pr (= cg J1g1k g ) refers to
the Prandtl number.
(d) Specific heat ofgaslburden (Cj). The specific heat of multicomponent
gas/ore-burden can be evaluated by:
n n

(j = g,b) (3.3.63)
i =I i =I
where Ci is the specific heat of each component i, and it is expressed as a
temperature function.

3.3. 7.2. Profile of stagnant coke cone

There may exist a stagnant coke cone in the lower central part of the
furnace since coke combustion proceeds within a limited peripheral
space. The outer surface of this 'deadman' is considered to act as a wall
for coke flow. Model experimentsl19.120 indicated that the stresses
around the deadman would be passive ones. The contour of the
deadman under this passive state can be expressed by: 120
-dr/dz = cot8d
45° - A/2 + (l/2)tan-1 f.lw(r/R)
'1'1 sec ¢i [tan2¢i - f.l~(r/R)2](J.5 - tan 2¢i
f.l w == sin ¢i . sin 2(8 w+ 80)/[1 + sin ¢i . cos 2(8 w+ 80)]
80 == 45° + ¢w/2 - (l/2)cos- 1(sin ¢w/sin ¢J (3.3.64)
where 8w < 0 for shaft and 8w> 0 for bosh.
3.3. 7.3. Boundary conditions
For gas or burden (ore, coke) flow, two pairs of apertures exist. Fluid
inlets are at the tuyere nose for gas flow and the top of the bed for burden
flow. Outlets for gas, coke and ore flow are located at the top surfaces of
the bed, raceway and liquid pool respectively. In terms of the unit
-+ -+
directional vectors nand m which are respectively parallel and perpen-
dicular to the borders of interest, boundary conditions can be specified
as follows:
-+ -+
At inlets: n ·Gj = n . gradP = 0, Tj = Tj •o (3.3.65)
-+ -+ -+
At outlets: n ·Gj = n . gradP = m . gradTj = 0 (3.3.66)
-+ -+ -+
At wall: m ·Gj = m . gradP = m . gradTb = 0,
U(Tg - Tcw)
-+ -+ -+
At the others: m . Gj = m . gradP = m . gradTj o (3.3.68)

3.3.8. Numerical Solution of Two-dimensional Model Calculation procedure

The present method of solution is a finite difference one. Mter reduction
of the differential equations to a set of simultaneous, algebraic

equations, these are solved by an iterative procedure. When we compute

the values of a quantity ./\, at any nodal point in the k-th iteration, it is
successful to work with a successive substitution technique in the
where (VR is the relaxation parameter. Except for the stream function (Vj
and the gas pressure P as ./\" under-relaxation ((VR < 1) must be
A selection of computed results to be given later concerns the
simultaneous solutions of heat, gas and burden flows. A flow chart for
the computation is shown in Fig. 3.3.10. The contour of the cohesive

Input data:
1) Furnace geometries
2) Operating conditions
3) Burden distribution
4) Physical and thermal properties
of cohesive zone

Compute: Raceway size and

gas temperature in raceway

Compute: Burden flow

Preset: Cohesive zone shape

Compute Gas flow

Compute Gas and burden temperatures

Renew: Cohesive zone shape ranging from

1200°C to 1400°C isotherms of burden


Fig. 3.3.10. Flow chart for seeking the shape of the cohesive zone.

zone which may range between the isotherms of 1200°C and 1400°C
would strongly affect the gas flow patterns and temperature distribution
in the course of the iterative step. Thus a convergence criterion should
be specified with respect to the shape of the cohesive zone. The
computational grid in this calculation contained 30 X 120 points. Computed results

Numerical computation was performed for the data listed in Table 3.3.2.
In the lumpy zone, the apparent angle of repose was assumed to be
unchanged throughout. Thus the layer thickness of charged materials
varied only with the furnace geometry. In the course of computation, the
shape of the cohesive zone which separates the lumpy zone from the
dropping zone was renewed after every step of the temperature
calculation. The cohesive zone was composed of two parts having
different permeabilities. One is the softening zone (designated by suffix
S) which, in this calculation, was located between isotherms of 1200°C
and 1300°C. In another part (suffix M) having the largest resistance to
flow, temperature may vary say from 1300°C to 1400°C. The perme-
ability of the dropping zone was considered to be nearly the same as that
of the coke layer in the lumpy zone.
Figure 3.3.11 shows the calculated patterns of streamlines and mass
velocity of burdens. Before the calculation, the contour of the stagnant
coke cone was predicted by eqn (3.3.64), and this is shown in Fig. 3.3.11
by the conical shape of a dashed line in front of the raceway. It should be
noted that the apparent angle of repose ofthe 'deadman', ed, is obviously
less than that predictedl21.122 assuming an active stress state. The value of
e d in Fig. 3.3.11 varies from nearly 50 ° at the raceway depth to 25 ° on the
central axis. Coke burden descends along this deadman toward the
ceiling of the raceway. In the vicinity of a raceway, ore burden would be
molten and subsequently transported into the inner furnace regions by
the jet stream of gas to form a 'dry zone' around the raceway. Figure
3.3.11 shows that ore burden flows to the hearth, avoiding the dry zone
which is drawn by a dashed line enclosing the raceway. The existence of
such a liquid-impermeable area consequently causes an abrupt radial
change in the mass velocity of burden in the lower part of the
Figure 3.3.12 shows the computed streamlines, isobars and radial
distribution of mass velocity of gas for the case where al = 25 ° and
a2 = 28 0. Temperature fields simultaneously computed with the gas
flow field of Fig.3.3.12 are represented in Fig.3.3.13 in terms of

I (l)

4.0 ,-..
2 '"0
I (l)
I ""a
a "-tD


1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0

Fig. 3.3.11. Calculated patterns of streamlines and mass velocity of burden

together with predicted contour of deadman.

isotherms of gas and burden and radial distribution of burden

temperature. The thickness of the ore layer, which is illustrated by the
dotted area in both figures, increases gradually from the central axis to
the periphery. Accordingly, the relative resistance to gas flow and the
ore/coke ratio also increase in the same direction. The former enhances
the central gas flow and the latter reduces the thermal load in the central
region. Radial variation of the thermal flow ratio due to both effects acts
to establish an inverse V-shaped cohesive zone, and it would be this type
of situation that Hirohata No. 1 furnace experienced before its
dissection. 104

It is of interest to note from Figs 3.3.12 and 3.3.13 that the distorted
dome associated with the inner shape of the cohesive zone corresponds
to the developed outflow of gas through the coke slits in that region. This
fact underlines the important role of the slit gas flow in the construction
of the inner shape of the cohesive zone.
Figures 3.3.14 and 3.3.15 show the computed results for the case where
al = a2 = 25°. In this case, the gas flow path which minimizes the total
pressure loss between the tuyere and the top is towards the peripheral

~ (-)
....;::J ,....,
4 '"0
0..0 Q)

Ie:: 8
e; e...
"- 0.4 "-t.:J
0: CJ
1e:: 0 •3 2 110
~- C)



1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0
~ (-J

Fig. 3.3.12. Calculated streamlines, isobars and radial distribution of mass

velocity of gas (al = 25°, a2 = 28°).

wall because the global flow resistance of the lumpy zone distributes
uniformly in the radial direction. Consequently, hot blast inject from
the side wall flows towards the peripheral region of the furnace and ore
burden at that location is increasingly fused until a steady state is
Thus, an even distribution of ore/coke ratio, in contrast to the former
case, cannot suppress a preferential fusion at the peripheral part. As a
result, a V-shaped cohesive zone appears, as in Fig. 3.3.15. This must be

g (-)

P 600




1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 t.O
~ (-)

Fig. 3.3.13. Calculated isotherms of gas and burden together with radial
distribution of burden temperature (aj = 25°, a2 = 28°).

~ (-)

2 U

I (/)
,--., 0.7 a
0...0" 0.6 4 "0

Ie .D
2 '-'

e=- 0.5
, C'J

"- 0.4 ,a

5: C
Ie 0.3 2
e=- 0

0.2 a

'OF==--- - - +, O
0.0 ,,

\.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 \.0
~ (-)

Fig. 3.3.14. Calculated streamlines, isobars and radial distribution of mass

velocity of gas (al = 25°, az = 25°).

the situation experienced by Kawasaki No.3 furnace based on the

dissected furnace information. 124
As is clarified in these two examples, the radial distribution of the
thermal flow ratio drastically affects the configuration of the cohesive
zone. Thus careful attention should be paid to burden distribution at
the top of the furnace in order to control the cohesive zone.
Furthermore, it may be also necessary to proceed with more detailed
investigation regarding burden movement, particularly in the lower
part of the furnace.

~ (-)

,...., ~
r- 0

X In

0 r-


0 .0
1.0 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0
~ (-)
Fig. 3.3.15. Calculated isotherms of gas and burden together with radial
distribution of burden temperature (al = 25°, a2 = 25°).


This model is based on three fundamental equations, i.e. transfer of
momentum, conservation of mass and conservation of energy, and can
analyze flows, reactions and heat transfer for the three phases, gas,
liquid and solid. It is notable that the numerical solution in this model is
obtained by the method of characteristics.
This section will describe the general view of the model and the
simulation results concerning the axial and radial distribution of state
variables in the blast furnace.

3.4.1. General Concept of the Radial Distribution Model

Three phases exist in the blast furnace and the fundamental equations
concerning material flows, reactions and heat transfer. Equation of motion

For liquid and solid phases, the streamlines are assumed, as described
later. With respect to gas flow, a two-dimensionally expanded Ergun's
formula can be employed:\05
where a xy and /3XY are tensors which represent the permeability. Conservation of mass

Material balances are considered for each species by taking account of
the reaction rates, resulting in the following expression:

~/EjCJ + C div Vj - D e V
j 2C j = Rj(CI>"" Cn ) (3.4.2)
where subscript i denotes the chemical species and subscript j denotes
the phase, i.e. gas, liquid, or solid. Assuming steady state conditions:
-Dt = Conservation of energy

Heat balances are considered for each phase by taking account of the
heats of reaction and heat exchange, giving the following equation:
D/CjpjEj1j) . -Vj
+ CjPj1j div - ke V 2 Tj h kj (Tj
= - ,L. --g- -
Tk ) + Qj
k (3.4.3)
where k denotes the phase other than the phase j. For instance, when j
denotes gas phase, k denotes liquid or solid phase.
The material flow, reactions and heat transfer can be analyzed for the
three phases by the use of the three fundamental equations mentioned

3.4.2. Momentum Transfer Motion of gas

The behavior of gas in the blast furnace may be obtained by solving
Ergun's pressure drop equation and the mass conservation equation

simultaneously. The equation of mass conservation is written as follows

by the summation of mass fractions of each phase:

Dt J J
. -V =
+ p.J dlV J
LR.M·1 1

where the diffusion term in eqn (3.4.2) was neglected for the reason
described later.
By assuming steady state conditions, eqn (3.4.4) becomes:
The gas velocity in the axial and radial directions is obtained by using
the above equation and the stream function IjI which is defined as
follows: 125

Vgz IjI,J(pgr)
Furthermore, by using the equation of state for gas given by p = pgkTg
and (P2)", = (P2),w an elliptic partial differential equation of the second
order is obtained. This equation is solved numerically using finite
differences. The numerical solution of IjI thus obtained gives the
distribution of gas velocity in the furnace by using eqn (3.4.6), and the
pressure distribution by using eqn (3.4.1).
a xy and f3XY in eqn (3.4.1) are the tensors which characterize the
anisotropic permeability introduced for considering cross-flow, namely
the gas flow in the radial direction in the furnace. This cross-flow has
been found in the analysis of the cohesive zone in quenched blast
The tensors are determined as follows. The charged materials in the
blast furnace may be divided into ore and coke layers; by assuming
isotropic permeability in each zone, the following equations may be
In the ore layer

gradP - -
-(aopg I Vg 1+ f3o) V g (3.4.7)


In the coke layer


By the use of am Po, a e and Pc, the permeability vertical to the layer
(aJ..,p-L) and the permeability parallel to the layer (all,PII) are
approximately obtained as follows by assuming vertical flow to the layer
(VJJ or parallel flow to the layer (V;I)'
(aJ Permeability vertical to the layer. The pressure drop in the vertical
direction at the ore layer or the coke layer can be presented as
(P,i..)o = -(aOpgVJ. + Po) Vi.. (3.4.9)
(P, -t.)e = -(aePg Vi.. + PC> Vi..
Therefore, by assuming that the thicknesses of the ore layer and coke
layer are AXo and AXe, respectively, the total pressure drop vertical to
the layer at both layers is given by the following equation:
o. e (3.4.11 )
By substituting eqn (3.4.9) into eqn (3.4.10), the following equation is
AX (ai..pgVi +Pi..Vd = AXo(aopgVi +PoVJJ+Me(aePgVi +PeV-t.)
Comparison of the coefficients of Vi.. and vi leads to the following
equations respectively:
Mai.. = Moao + Meae
MPi.. = MaPa + MePe
Thus the permeabilities vertical to the layers are represented as
a..L = (Moa o + Meae}!AX (3.4.12)
P..L = (MaPa + MePe)!M

(b) Permeability parallel to the layer. Similarly the pressure drop in the
parallel direction at the ore layer and the coke layer may be given as
(P,")o = - [a opiVII)o + fio](V;I)o (3.4.13)
(P,II)c = -[acpg(V;I)c + fic](V;I)c

Moreover, by assuming both the same pressure drop and the

conservation of gas flow rate at each layer, the following relations are
(P,")o = (P,II)C = -(aIlPgV;1 + fill) V;I (3.4.14)
MV;I = Mo(V;I)o + Mc(V;I)C (3.4.15)

By substituting eqn (3.4.13) into eqn (3.4.14), the following equations

are given:
aopg(V;I)~ + fio(V;I)o = acpg(V;I)~ + fic(V;I)c = allPgV~ + fill V;I
Comparison of the coefficient of the first-order term with respect to the
gas velocity leads to the following relationship:
fio(V;I)o = fic(V;I)c = fill V;I
Substituting eqn (3.4.15) into the above equation results in the following

By elimination of (V;I)o/(V;I)c from the above equations, the following

equation is obtained:


Comparison of the coefficient of the second-order term with respect to

the gas velocity leads to the following relationship:
allV~ = ao(V;I)~ = ac(VII)~

The square root of the above equation is written as follows:

~ V;I = vIao( V;I)O = Vac( V;I)C


By substituting eqn (3.4.15) for the above equation and eliminating

(V;IV(V;I)O the following equation is obtained:
M Mo Me
- - =- -+-- (3.4.17)
~ Va: viae
By considering the effect of the layered structure and the anisotropic
characteristics of the permeability as described in the procedure
mentioned above, the burden bed can thus be treated as a continuous
medium. Motion of solid

As the theoretical equation of motion for the solid has not been fully
developed yet, the streamline of the solid is decided here as shown in
Fig. 3.4.1, under the following two assumptions:
(a) Coke which burns in the raceway flows downwards in the region
enclosed by the furnace wall and the stagnant region which has a
60° deposit angle in the central region of the furnace. In this
region coke to be consumed has a uniform velocity in the radial
(b) Ore, coke and the other auxiliary materials which diminish by
direct reduction, solution-loss reaction or melting move down-
wards as a plug flow along the furnace profile (dashed lines in
Fig. 3.4.1).
From the above assumptions the streamline of the solid is decided by
the sum of the vectors of these two velocities. Motion of liquid

According to a water model, the streamlines of the liquid near the
raceway are pushed towards the center of the furnace due to the
horizontal component of the gas flow. 126 Excluding this local
phenomenon, however, the liquid is considered to drop vertically
against the upward gas flow. In this model the liquid was assumed to
drop approximately vertically as a plug flow down the furnace profile.

3.4.3. Mass Transfer with Chemical Reactions

The diffusion term was neglected in the mass conservation law shown
by eqn (3.4.2) because of the following reason. The convection term
D(EjCJ/Dt = Vj . grad C has a value of about 3 X 10- 3 kmol/(m3 • s)
because the gas velocity in the actual furnace is about 1 mls and grad Ci

Fig. 3.4.1. Assumed streamline of solids: (__) streamline of coke consumed

in the raceway; (- _) streamline of burden consumed by reactions; (_._)
boundary line between moving and stagnant zones.

is about 3 X 10- 3 kmollm4 • On the other hand, the diffusion term

D e V 2C i has the value of about 2 X 10- 7 kmoll(m 3 • s) because the
diffusion coefficientU is about O· 74 X 10- 4 m 2/s for hydrogen and V 2 Ci
is about 3 X 10-3 kmollm 5 . This means that the diffusion term is much
smaller than the convection term by about 104 • Therefore it is not
usually necessary to consider the diffusion term unless the gas velocity
is extremely low. Thus, in this model, the analysis was carried out by
neglecting the diffusion term as a first-order approximation.
The fundamental equation for reactions is represented as follows,
using the equation of conservation of mass (3.4.2):

D (Epli)
Dt + ~iPj div --
Vj = RiM, (3.4.18)

By applying eqn (3.4.4) to eqn (3.4.18), the mass conservation

equation for each species at each phase is given as follows:
D RiMi - ?:i"TRiMi
-D ?:i = E I (3.4.19)
t jPj

This is a partial differential equation of the first order concerning ?:i.

Therefore this can be solved numerically by the so-called method of
characteristics, described later, in which integration is carried out along
the streamline of the material of each phase.

3.4.4. Heat Transfer

Strictly speaking the fundamental equation of heat transfer should
include a conduction term. However, heat transfer by conduction k e V 2Tg
has a value of about 4 X 10- 3 kcall(m 3 • s), because the thermal

conductivity k e of gas at 1000°C is 1·9 X 10- 5 kcallm 2 • s . °C and the

average value of V 2Tg is about 200°C/m2. On the other hand, heat
transfer by the gas flow CgpgV g . gradTg becomes about 12 kcall(m 3 • s)
because V g is about 1 mis, CgP g is about 0·0755 kcallm 3 and the average
gradTg at the top of the furnace is about 160°C/m. Therefore heat
transfer by conduction is much smaller than heat transfer by gas flow,
by a factor of 103, and for this reason, in this model, the following heat
transfer equation is adopted as a first-order approximation:

By applying eqn (3.4.4) to eqn (3.4.20) by the same method as in the

case of reactions, the heat transfer for each phase is given as


This equation is the partial differential equation of the first order

concerning cJj which is of the same type as the mass conservation
equation given by eqn (3.4.19). Therefore the temperature distribution
in the furnace can be calculated by integration along the streamline of
each phase.

3.4.5. Input Conditions Reaction rate equations

The following reactions are considered in this model:
(a) Indirect reduction of the iron ore by H2 and CO is assumed to be
expressed by the topochemical progress of two interfaces
(FeP3 - FeO _ Fe) which is introduced by Chon et al. 22
Therefore four kinds of reaction rate equations are employed.
(b) Direct reduction of molten wustite by solid coke. 127
(c) Decomposition of limestone.127
(d) Solution-loss reaction.127
(e) Reaction between coke and steam.127
(f) Water gas shift reaction.127
It is worth notice that the number of reactions could be easily
increased if the method of characteristics were applied in the numerical
analysis. Heat transfer coefficients

For the calculation of heat transfer it is necessary to use three kinds of
heat transfer coefficients, i.e. between solid and gas, solid and liquid,
and liquid and solid. However, empirical formulae have been
established only for a solid-gas case and simple fundamental equations
are developed below for the other systems.
(a) Heat transfer coefficient between solid and gas. The heat transfer
coefficient between solid and gas in the furnace is basically obtained by
Ranz's formula which is shown by eqn (3.4.22):
Nu = 2·0 + 0·6(Prg )I/3(9Re g )1/2 (3.4.22)
hgs = yhgso , hgso = Nu kgld (3.4.23)
The hgso calculated by this equation, however, has to be modified in
order to agree with measured results obtained from quenched or
operating furnaces. For this purpose the introduction of a modification
coefficient y is necessary as shown in Fig. 3.4.2.
The intrinsic reason for needing the modification is not clear and is
left for future study. However, it may be considered difficult for gas to
pass through the cohesive ore layer, and this maldistribution of the gas
may cause the heat transfer coefficient between solid and gas to



o 1000 2000
Solid temperature lOCI

Fig. 3.4.2. Temperature dependence of heat exchange coefficient between gas

and solid; hgs = rhgso, where hgso is the heat exchange coefficient derived from
eqn (3.4.23).

(b) Heat transfer coefficient between solid and liquid Heat exchange
between the dripping liquid and the solid surface can be basically
divided into two portions: heat transfer in the liquid and conduction in
the solid.
The heat transfer coefficient for the solid is obtained by averaging the
integrated results of unsteady state heat conduction in the solid when
the liquid is in contact with the surface of the solid:
hs = 2 (ksCcPs Vi) 1/2 (3.4.24)
TTds l
The heat transfer coefficient for the liquid is obtained by modifying
the forced convection heat transfer equation: 128

hI = 0·664 kl l/3 l
d PrI Re I !2 (3.4.25)

Therefore the overall heat transfer coefficient becomes:

hsl = l/hs + l/hl
(c) Heat transfer corifficient between gas and liquid. Similarly the overall
heat transfer coefficient between the gas and the liquid may be given by
the following equation:

It should be noted that these overall heat transfer coefficients will be

refined in accuracy hereafter by using operational results. By using
them the ratio of the liquid volume to the void volume was determined
to be about 1 X 10- 4 when the actual hot metal temperature was in good
agreement with the calculated results.
GLOBAL FORMULATION 205 Conditions at the raceway

Since the focus in Section 3.4 is on the overall behavior of the blast
furnace, O 2, H 20 and heavy fuel oil are assumed to decompose
immediately into CO and H2 in the raceway region which is based on
the observed results by Inatani et al. 129 Gas composition, gas temperature,
and flow rate after combustion were the input data.

3.4.6. Method of Analysis

As mentioned above, both reactions and heat transfer can be
represented by partial differential equations of the first order and can be
easily solved numerically by using the method of characteristics, that is,
for steady state conditions, the characteristic curve is given by the
following equation:

Therefore, as a partial differential equation of the first order becomes an

ordinary differential equation on this characteristic curve, the results
may be obtained by solving the ordinary differential equations
concerning reactions and heat transfer along the streamline given by
eqn (3.4.28).
The conservation of mass for each specific species can be represented
as follows:
-RiMi + ~i~RiMi

-RiMi + ~i~RiMi

Also, the conservation of energy can be represented as follows:


d -~hdT
k J J
- Tk)/f> + Q.J - c.r.~R·M
J J ill
dz (CjIj) = E (3.4.32)
Here the denominators in eqns (3.4.29)-(3.4.32) represent the mass'flow
206 BLAST FURNACE PHENOMENA AND MODELLING Calculation of temperature distribution

In order to decrease the time for the numerical calculation, the mesh
distance is taken to be I m in this model. The following analytical
solution is employed for the calculation of heat transfer to minimize the
error originating from the mesh distance and to obtain good convergence.
That is, as the general form of eqns (3.4.31) and (3.4.32) is given by the
following equation, the solution is obtained by integrating this equation
over the mesh distance, i.e. from x = 0 to x = Ax:

pV~(cT) = -h(T-T')+Q (3.4.33)

where hand T' are given by the following equations when calculating
heat transfer:
By assuming that T' is linear with respect tox, T' may be represented by:
In addition, by assuming that c is constant over one increment, Ax,
the solution of eqn (3.4.33) may be represented as follows:
Tx ~ I'u = Q/h + T~ ~ I'u - bcp V/h + (Tx ~ 0 - Q/h - T~ ~ 0
+ bcp V/h )e- hl'u/(cpV) (3.4.36)

By using this equation, good convergence was obtained even when the
larger mesh distance was employed. Calculation of distribution of mass fractions

The distribution of the mass fractions was obtained by integrating eqn
(3.4.29) or eqn (3.4.30) along the streamline of each phase by the use of
the modified Euler method. Flow chart of calculation

The flow chart of calculation in this model is shown in Fig. 3.4.3. The
furnace profile and the operational conditions, i.e. blast volume, blast
temperature, moisture, o/e and so on, are given as input data. Table
3.4.1 shows the input data used.

First of all, the gas streamline and pressure distribution are

calculated by the gas flow model based on the assumed distribution of
temperature and particle size in the furnace.
Secondly, reactions and heat transfer in the gas phase are calculated
along the gas streamline from the tuyere to the top of the furnace. The
streamline of the solid is assumed and the calculation is carried out
from the top to the lower part of the furnace. At this stage, as the quantity
of dripping liquid is obtained by the previous calculation, the
calculation of reactions and heat transfer of the liquid phase may be


Blast furnace profile

Gas flow model

Gas reaction and temperature

Solid reaction and temperature

Liquid reaction and temperature


Fig. 3.4.3. Flow chart of calculation; T is the temperature of gas, solid, and
liquid; IjI is the stream function of gas.

TABLE 3.4.1
Blast Furnace Profile and Operating Conditions

Blast furnace profile Operating conditions

Diameter of throat 9'8m Blast volume 5 l74 N m 3/min

Diameter of belly 14Am Blast temperature I 100°C
Diameter of hearth l3Am Humidity 5'1 g!Nm 3
Height of tuyere 5'2m Oil injection 160 kg/min
Liquid level 3'7 m Top pressure 0'258 MPa
Length of shaft 16'5 m Ore by coke 3-8
Length of belly 3'Om Coke 34 t/charge
Length of bosh 3'4m Fe in ore 0'579
Length of hearth 5'8 m C in coke 0'916

undertaken from the dripping layer to the liquid surface at the

The above procedure is iterated for each phase. The gas streamline is
continuously modified by the gas flow model, using the determined
distribution of temperature and compositions of the gas and the solid.
The calculation is iterated until the results satisfy the convergence

3.4.7. Simulation Results

On the basis of the input conditions and the calculation procedure
described in Section 3.4.6, the distribution of the temperature, com-
positions and reaction rates of each phase can be obtained. In this
section simulation results will be described. Streamline and pressure distribution of gas

Figure 3.4.4 shows the streamline and the pressure distribution of the
gas calculated by this model. Owing to the introduction of the
anisotropic parameter for permeability described in Section 3.4.2, the
isobar lines do not always cross the streamlines at right-angles and this
tendency is especially noticeable at the cohesive zone near the center of
the furnace.
Also, the isobar lines are close together below the cohesive zone
because the void ratio at the cohesive zone above 1000 DC is assumed to
be 0'1, and it is also reduced to O' 3 at the dripping zone in order that the
calculated pressure distribution agrees with the measured values at the
furnace wall. At the cohesive zone the streamlines show the flow toward
the furnace wall from the center of the furnace.
P- Po

Fig. 3.4.4. Streamline (--) and isobarline (- - -) of gas; (_. -) completion

line of melting down. Velocity distribution of burden descent

Figure 3.4.5 shows the burden descent velocity distribution. The solid
lines and the dashed lines show the mass velocity and the volumetric
velocity, respectively, of the descending burden at various levels. Here,
the volumetric velocity is calculated from the mass velocity using the
void ratio distribution of the charged materials in the furnace. Figure
3.4.5 reveals the following facts:
(a) The descent mass velocity near the top of the furnace closely
depends on the distribution of O/C at the top of the furnace.
(b) By assuming the void ratio in proportion to O/C, the volumetric
velocity distribution varies less than the mass velocity distribution.
This corresponds qualitatively with the fact that a coherent layer
structure remains in the shaft as proved by quenched blast
furnace investigation.

0.1 m/min

I kg/sec. m2

Fig. 3.4.5. Descending velocity (- - - _) and mass flow rate ( _ ) of solid in

the blast furnace; (_. -) boundary between moving and stagnant zones. Liquid flow rate distribution at dripping zone

Figure 3.4.6 shows the liquid flow distribution below the cohesive zone.
It is shown that the liquid flow distribution is proportional to the mass
velocity distribution of descending solids. Temperature distributions of gas and solid

Figure 3.4.7 shows the temperature distributions of gas and solid in the
furnace, and from this the following conclusions may be drawn:
(a) The temperature distribution at the top of the furnace is almost
the same as that at the actual furnace.

Fig. 3.4.6. Mass flow rate of liquid in the blast furnace.






Fig. 3.4.7. Temperature distribution of gas (- - -) and solid (--) in the blast
furnace; (_. -) boundary line between moving and stagnant zones.

(b) The temperature distribution at the upper part of the shaft is

influenced by the Ole distribution at the top of the furnace, with
the temperature increase becoming small in the high mass
velocity zone of burden descent.
(c) The isothermal line of 1400 0 e is a so-called inverted V-shape
and this nearly corresponds with the cohesive zone shape which
has been elucidated by the investigation of quenched furnaces.
(d) The factors which determine the shape of the cohesive zone are
considered to be the ole distribution and the corresponding
descent velocity distribution of the burden. Furthermore the
following factors should also be taken into account. As the solid
movement is negligibly small and the temperature is kept at a
high level in the stagnant region, the center of the furnace works
as a kind of heat reservoir. Therefore the temperature of the gas
flowing out of this region is high and this promotes smelting of
the ore. Thus the shape of the cohesive zone is markedly
influenced by the shape of the stagnant region at the center ofthe
furnace and has a tendency to adopt the inverted V-shape. Temperature distribution of dripping liquid

Figure 3.4.8 shows the temperature distribution of the dripping liquid.
As is obvious from the figure, the temperature of the dripping liquid
near the center ofthe furnace is higher than that near the furnace wall.
This is due to the long distance of dripping near the center of the furnace
which has a high temperature as mentioned above.




Fig. 3.4.8. Temperature distribution of liquid in the blast furnace.

GLOBAL FORMULATION 213 Distribution of Fe2D3' FeD and Fe

Figure 3.4.9 shows the distribution ofFeP3 and Fe and Fig. 3.4.10 shows
that of FeO. The distribution of Fe203 at the upper part of the shaft is
W-shaped owing to the effect of the O/C distribution. However, the
distribution of FeO and Fe becomes inverted V-shaped owing to the
delay of the reduction reaction, because the solid temperature is
relatively low near the furnace wall as is obvious from the temperature
distribution shown in Fig. 3.4.7.

Fig. 3.4.9. Mass fraction of Fe203 and Fe in the blast furnace; (_._)
boundary line between moving and stagnant zones. Distribution of gas components

Figure 3.4.11 shows the distribution of CO and CO 2in the furnace. The
gas distribution is also influenced by the O/C distribution at the top of
the furnace and the fraction of CO 2 tends to become high at the
intermediate part of the furnace where the O/C ratio is high. The
distribution of the CO/C0 2 ratio has almost the same pattern as that
observed for an operating furnace.

I '

\ o

Fig. 3.4.10. Mass fraction of FeO in the blast furnace; (_. -) boundary line
between moving and stationary zones.



The finite element method is a numerical technique which solves

partial differential equations, and which is attractive for integration
domains having a complicated structure. 130- 132 Therefore the method
seems to be useful for describing the internal situation of a blast furnace
which has a complicated shape and internal structure.
A two-dimensional gas flow analysis will be described, taking into
account the layered structure of coke and iron ore and the existence of
the raceway and the cohesive zone by using the finite element method.
Subsequently, a numerical technique for the simultaneous analysis of
gas flow and heat transfer will be given using the same finite element as
a basis.

4tj° pg

"- ,,

\ \


Fig. 3.4.11. Mole fractions of CO (--) and CO 2 (- - -) gas in the blast furnace;
average CO/C02 of top gas = 1·02.

3.5.1. Flow Analysis of Gas

The vectorial form of Erg un's equation is given by eqn (3.5.1), which was
obtained by expanding the original one-dimensional Ergun's equation lOS
expressed by eqn (3.5.2) into two dimensions. The two-dimensional

form is used as the fundamental equation for computing the pressure
distribution in a blast furnace:

-grad(p) = (f, +f2IG g l)G g (3.5.1 )

150 (l - £)2J1 G + 1.75 (l - £) G2 (3.5.2)
~z gc(¢d p )2£3 pg g gc(¢dp )£3 pg g

Equation (3.5.1) is a nonlinear equation with respect to the velocity
vector G g. It is therefore linearized as eqn (3.5.3) for convenience of

G is assumed to be
numerical analysis. This means that the change in g
negligible in the small region:

- grad (P) = G glao (3.5.3)

where ao = lI(}; + h IG g i)

The equation of continuity is expressed by eqn (3.5.4), and eqn (3.5.5)
is derived by combining eqns (3.5.3) and (3.5.4):
div (G g) = Qrn (3.5.4)
The functional for eqn (3.5.5) is written as eqn (3.5.6) in the cylindrical
coordinate system assuming axis symmetry:

x = 2TT JJ [~aol(oPlor)2 + (oPlozfl -

QrnPjr dr dz - fs
qrnP ds
where q rn denotes mass velocity of gas flowing through the outer surface
into the furnace.
According to the variational principle, the solution of eqn (3.5.5) can
be obtained by minimizing the functional X given by eqn (3.5.6). The
finite element method is the method which finds numerically the
function to make the functional X a minimum. In accordance with the
method, eqn (3.5.6) can be eventually rearranged to a set of linear
algebraic equations with respect to the pressure Pi at the i-th node. That
is, the pressure at the arbitrary point in any local element is given by eqn
(3.5.7), using the area coordinates (natural coordinates) M as the
interpolation function (shape function):
where the repeated index, i, in eqn (3.5.6) which is often called a dummy
index, implies summing according to the range of the index. This
notation is used throughout this section. The interpolation function is
defined by eqn (3.5.8) which is the function of nodal coordinates alone:
A, = r2 z3 - r3z 2, A2 = r3z, - r,z3, A3 = r,z2 - r2 z,
B, = Z2 - Z3, B2 = Z3 - Z" B3 = Z, - Z2
C, = r3 - r2, C 2 = r, - r3, C 3 = r2 - r,

2~ det

and (r" Zj), (r2' Z2), and (r3' Z3) denote the coordinates of the nodes 1,2,
and 3.
In order to derive the global finite element equation on gas flow, eqn
(3.5.6) is integrated after substitution of eqn (3.5.7). Equation (3.5.10) is
derived from the equation thus obtained together with eqn (3.5.9) for
minimizing X:

o (3.5.9)

where superscript e indicates a local finite element. The signs [ ] and ( )
designate matrix and vector, respectively. The matrix and the vectors in
eqn (3.5.10) are defined as follows.
Vector for the pressure of nodel points (P)":
(p)e = (Ph P2 , P3 )T

Stiffness matrix [H]e:

BjB j + CjC j B jB 2 + C jC 2 B jB 3 + C jC 3
[H]e aoV B 2B j + C 2 C j B2B2 + C 2C 2 B2B3 + C 2C3
~~+~~ ~~+~~ ~~+~~

Source vector (FbY:

(r j - 7)2 + (r2 - 7)2 + (r3 - 7)2
(r j - 7)(Zj - z) + (r2 - r)(z2 - z) + (r3 - r)(zj - z)
r = (r j + r2 + r3)/3
Z = (Zj + Z2 + z3)/3
V = TTr/2~

Inflow vector (Fs)": suppose that the gas flows in with mass velocity
qrn between the nodes i and j; thus we have:
2rj + rj

A set oflinear algebraic equations with respect to the nodal pressure is
obtained as given by eqn (3.5.11) by summing eqn (3.5.10) for the whole
[H](P) - (Fs) - (Fb) = 0 (3.5.11 )
The pressure gradient can be obtained by differentiating eqn (3.5.7)
and substituting it for eqn (3.5.3), which gives the following equation:

e = -a'
e = _ ~IB'
2.6. C,
B2 B3 t (p)e
C2 C3 f
This equation gives the distribution for the mass velocity of gas. Since a o
depends on the velocity vector Gg, the same computation is repeated
after the recalculation of a o on the basis of the previously computed
value of Gg • The computation is assumed to be convergent if the
maximum change in the mass velocity before and after the trial
computation becomes smaller than a specified value (10- 4 in relative

TABLE 3.5.1
Operating Conditions of the Blast Furnace28

Top gas pressure 0·275 MPa

Blast volume 93·75 Nm3/s
Blast pressure 0·321 MPa
Weight of sinter per charge 1·152 X 105 kg/charge
Weight of coke per charge 0·277 X lOS kg/charge
Number of charges 1·395 X 10- 3 1/s
Top gas temperature 386 K
Blast temperature 1545 K
Temperature of pig iron 1792 K
Production rate of pig iron 99·97 kg/s
Discharge rate of slag 300 kg/t(pig)
Surface angle of sinter 28-32°
Surface angle of coke 33-37°

In the gas flow analysis, both the computation condition and the
structure of the bed are given on the basis of the operating conditions
listed in Table 3.5.1 and of the profile shown in Fig. 3.5.1 for a large blast
furnace operating in Japan. Characteristic values for the four different
kinds of elements which are used for numerical computation are given
in Table 3.5.2 and the essential conditions for the numerical computation
are summarized in Table 3.5.3.

TABLE 3.5.2
Properties of the Layers28

Layer Particle diameter (m) Shape factor (-) Voidage (-)

Ore layer 0·021 4 0·84 0·36

Coke layer 0·0477 0·90 0·45
Cohesive layer 0·021 4 0·84 0·10
Raceway 0·0477 0·90 0·80
Dead zone for gas 0·047 7 0·90 0·10


OC 1=
25 73.4°


E 15


o 5 10
r (m)
Fig. 3.5.1. Profile of the blast furnace. 28
TABLE 3.5.3 tv
Characteristics of the Case Studies for Gas Flow Analysis28

No. Surface angle Ergun's equation Remarks

coke 35° _(oP/or) = ~1+/2IGgrl
ore 30°
o )( Ggr ) ~
oP/oz 0 II + 121 Ggz I Ggz
-+ -+
coke 35°
2 - grad P = (fl + h IG g I) G g ~
ore 30°
coke 30° ."
3 _( oPjor) ~I + ~IGgrl o )( G gr ) ::t:
ore 35° oP/oz Ji+hlGgzl Ggz tT1
coke 30° _( oP/or) ~I +~IGgrl o )( G gr ) tT1
4 Cohesive and raceway zones set up z
ore 35° oP/oz 11+/21Ggzl Ggz >
coke 30°
_( oP/or) ~I + ~IGgrl o )( Ggr) tl
5 Roots of cohesive layers do not contact wall
ore 35° oP/oz Ji+hlGgzl Ggz ~
coke 30° _(oP/or) = ~I +hlGgrl t""
6 o )( Ggr ) Gas does not flow into dead zone t""
ore 35° oP/oz 0 II + 121 Ggz I Ggz Z
coke 30° -+ -+ Different shape of cohesive zone 0
7 - grad P = (fl + h IG g I) G g
ore 35°
coke 30° -+ -+ Higher top gas pressure
8 - grad P = (fl + 121 G g I) G g
ore 35°

3.5.2. Computed Results for Gas Flow

Prior to the computation of gas flow and pressure distribution, the bed
structure in the blast furnace is determined by using the surface angle
and the distance between the surface of the bed and the nominal
stockline measured by sounding-rod on the assumption that the volume
of a layer is unchanged with the descent of the bed.
The surface angle of the bed observed in a 1/1 scale model experi-
ment 133 without gas flow is adopted in case (1). Since the inclination
angle of the bed has been found previously to reduce as burden
descends, the larger inclination angles for the iron ore and coke layers
are decreased linearly with burden descent to the middle level of the
shaft (18 m from the bottom) so as to be the same inclination angle as at
that level. In the lower region of the shaft (between 18 and 10 m from the
bottom), the inclination angle of both layers was decreased linearly and
horizontal layers were assumed for the furnace region below the 10 m
level. The dividing boundaries of 10 and 18 m from the bottom mentioned
above were selected by referring to dissection investigations. 134
Figure 3.5.2 illustrates the gas flow pattern computed for case (1). In
this case, alternate layers of iron ore and coke were assumed throughout
the furnace without cohesive zone and raceway regions as part of the
bed structure. In addition, a linear temperature distribution was also
assumed between the top and the bottom without a radial temperature
distribution. Zig-zag flow of gas appeared in the shaft region due to the
different permeability of the iron ore and coke layers, and also to the
inclination angle of the layers. In the top region of the bed, preferential
flow was found in the central portion despite the thicker layer of iron
ore, which has higher flow resistance.
In case (2), a slightly modified form is used for the mul~imensional
Ergun's equations as shown in Table 3.5.3. In this case, 1G g 1was given
by J Gir + G~ instead of the respective values ofl Ggr 1and 1Ggz 1which
were used as the approximation in case (1). Almost the same flow
pattern was obtained for case (1) and case (2), with a slight difference
found in pressure loss (about 10 kPa).
In case (3), the surface angles for ore and coke layers were changed,
thereby giving a layer structure having a large amount of coke in the
central core. This agrees with the dissected results of quenched
furnaces,135. 136 measurement 137 of surface angle for the charged material
with gas flow, and the fluidization mechanism of coke in the central
region. 138
Figure 3.5.3 illustrates the gas flow pattern for such a bed structure.




N 10

... . , ....
.::: ;;: -: ~

o 5 10
Fig. 3.5.2. Gas flow vector (G, mass velocity of gas) computed for case (1).28

Compared to case (I), case (3) shows significant preferential flow in the
central core at the top of the bed. These results indicate that the
difference in permeability of the layers and the inclination angle of the
burden principally cause nonuniform gas flow in the upper part of a
blast furnace.
For the approach to the real internal state of the working blast
furnace, cohesive and raceway zones were assumed in cases (4), (5) and
(6). Figure 3.5.4 gives the shape and position of the cohesive and
raceway zones for case (4). Case (5) has the same bed structure as case (4)
except that the cohesive layers contact the furnace wall (termed the
cohesive zone 'roof), while case (5) does not have such wall contacts of
cohesive layers. The bed structure for case (6) is also similar to that for
case (4). In case (6), however, the dead zone occurs which has high
resistance to gas flow. Figures 3.5.5 to 3.5.7 show the computed results
for case (4), indicating that the velocity vector is principally governed by
the bed structure. It is easily understood from the figures that the
cohesive layers playa role as gas distributor.
35 ... 5(kg/m Zsl




N 10

o 5 10
Fig. 3.5.3. Gas flow vector (G, mass velocity of gas) computed for case (3).28





N 10

0 5 10
Fig. 3.5.4. Schematic representation of the bed structure and finite elements for
case (4).28

4- S(kg/m 2.s1
30 II I!\'r'/I\
,!, ',', ~: ",', \.
I': ~'j r ~ ',', \.

25 ,,!~ 'j~: '.'1 \.

j', r \. 'j j ~ ',', ~
'~!~~ !r !j'l~~,
' ~ " ! ~ "~ :,',!
\ j • 'I

20 ~!~~:~~:!,:,

~l 1r«;\
N 10
:: ~ :~~:
" ''-

5 ~~~
·..··. . , ....
' ,.

.. .,.,, ..
o ·.

o 5 10
Fig. 3.5.5. Contour lines of Gz computed for case (4).28

Figure 3.5.8 shows the pressure distributions along the furnace wall
for cases (4), (5) and (6) as shown in Table 3.5.3. No difference was found
in the upper part of the cohesive zone, but a small deviation was
observed in the lower part of the zone. This means that the change in
bed structure affected the gas flow only upstream of the change.
Figure 3.5.9 shows a different bed structure, where the cohesive layers
were assumed to be wider. Computed results corresponding to this bed
structure are represented in figs 3.5.10 and 3.5.11. Compared to case (4),
this case gave exactly the same flow pattern downstream of the cohesive
layers, but significant influence of the cohesive layers upstream.
Increase in the volume of the cohesive layers may therefore lead to
increase in pressure loss. Figures 3.5.12 and 3.5.13 illustrate computed
results for the case of higher top pressure in the same bed structure.
These results show almost the same flow pattern, but considerable
decrease in pressure loss.




N 10

0 5 10
Fig. 3.5.6. Gas flow vector (G, mass velocity of gas) computed for case (4).28





N 10 0.230

P(M Po)
I [ I [

Fig. 3.5.7. Isopressure lines computed for case (4).28



I ~ II a
Cohesive lie,s (Cases 4 and 6)
<- Wall ""-;;._~-:-
c.. 023
::::0: .
.-- .. ~:....,..

!" 0.22 .------ Case 4

- - Case 5
~ 0.21 -._- Case 6
20 30 40 50 60
Number of layer

Fig. 3.5.8. Pressure distribution along the blast furnace wall.28





N 10

0 5 10
r (m)

Fig. 3.5.9. Schematic representation ofthe bed structure and finite elements for
case (7)?8


"~~!! :,:, lL,


N 10 J r.- .... ';
5 ,!!HH~

o 5 10
r (ml

Fig. 3.5.10. Gas flow vector (G, mass velocity of gas) computed for case

o 5 10

Fig. 3.5.11. Isopressure lines computed for case (7).28



I I I! ~ !'
30 :~~~\~!!/
,,:, I~!!~\
, 't I ~, ~ I : ••



.5 N
5 l [:;~ :~iti

o 5 10
r i m)

Fig. 3.5.12. Gas flow vector computed for case (8).28





.--,_.___, 0.314
N 10
1---_..-< 0.333


Fig. 3.5.13. Isopressure lines computed for case (8).28


3.5.3. Simultaneous Analysis of Gas Flow and Heat Transfer

It is necessary to obtain the temperature distributions of gas and solid
together with the distribution of gas flow in order to estimate the thermal
condition in a blast furnace. Vectorial forms for the heat balance
equations on gas and solid under steady conditions described below are
used to compute the temperature distribution:


V(csGsTs) + V(-K~V(Ts)) +Ah(Ts - Tg) - Qs =0 (3.5.l4)

where Ah = hgs [6(1 - t:)]!¢dp.
Three different types of boundary conditions are set up for these
governing equations as follows:
Boundary 8 0 : Temperature of gas or solid is given on the boundary 8 0
(gas temperature at tuyere, solid temperature at the top
of the bed).
Boundary 8 1 : Heat flux is specified on the boundary 8 1 (discharged
gas at the top of the bed and imaginary outlet of solid at

Boundary 8 2 :
the tuyere):
q3 -
= -n K~V(Ts)
Heat flux is proportional to the temperature difference

(heat loss through the wall):
-n K~ V(Tg - Ta) hg(Tg - Ta)
-n K~V(Ts - Ta) hs(Ts - Ta)
The temperature distributions for gas and solid can be computed by
solving the finite element equations derived from eqns (3.5.l3) and
(3.5.l4) according to the Galerkin method together with the above
boundary conditions. Both the finite elements and the interpolation
function for the temperature equations are the same as for the gas flow
analysis. Accordingly, the temperature distributions in a local finite
element are expressed as follows:

Combining these equations with eqns (3.5.13) and (3.5.14), and also
with the boundary conditions, weighted residuals are obtained
according to the Galerkin method. Equations (3.5.l5) and (3.5.16) are

derived by equating the sum of the weighted residuals for each term in
eqns (3.5.13) and (3.5.14) to zero:

Tgi r[( :iJ G V(NJ~

J cg + Tg g + K~V(Ni)V(~) + AhNi~ ] dv

- Tsi J1AhN.~ dv + f q2Aj ds + f hg(TgiN. - Ta)Aj ds

- JrQgAj dv = 0
v SI ~


Tsi Jr[( s + Ts :~J OS V(N.)Aj + K~V(N.)V(Aj) + AhNiAjJ dv


- Tgi Jf A hNNj dv + f q 3~ ds + f hs(TsNi -

v SI 52
Ta)Ni ds


Mter some mathematical manipulation, eqns (3.5.15) and (3.5.16) are

converted into:

where - (T Je = (Tgj, TsY

The following global finite element equation can be derived by

- - -- -
summing eqn (3.5.17) over the whole range:
[Hij](T i) + [F ij](T i) + (b j) =0 (3.5.18)
where i and j are changed from 1 to the number of the nodal points.
Since the terms in regard to physical properties of gas, liquid and
solid are nonlinear with respect to temperature, numerical computation
is conducted iteratively. The computation is considered to be in
convergence if the maximum temperature change before and after one
iterative computation becomes less than a specified value (10- 3 relative
In order to solve the heat balance equations given by eqn (3.5.18), the
solutions not only for gas flow but also for solid flow are required. Here,
potential flow is assumed for the solid movement. Therefore the
equation of motion is expressed by eqn (3.5.19) and the equation of

continuity which is also necessary for the flow analysis on solid is
represented by eqn (3.5.20):

- grad (c/>s)
div (V s)
= V./a s
= Vsm

where as designates the permeability of the solid.


Solid flow in the blast furnace was investigated by Nishio et al. 138 on
the basis of the data obtained by dissections. Their results support the
appropriateness of potential flow in the stack region. Further research,
however, is required on solid flow in the lower part of a blast furnace.

3.5.4. Computed Results on the Simultaneous Gas Flow and Heat Transfer
A set of computed results obtained by the simultaneous analysis of gas
flow and heat transfer are shown in Fig. 3.5.14. In the analysis, the same
configuration of finite elements for gas flow analysis was used.
However, a dead zone for solid flow was set up additionally as
illustrated in Fig. 3.5.14(a). It should be noted that allowances have not
been made for the heat sink accompanying the fusion of iron ore and
also the heat generation associated with the combustion of coke in the
raceway region for the case shown in Figs 3.5.14, 3.5.17,142 and 3.5.18. 143
These results, however, show the significant interaction between gas
flow and heat transfer. Figure 3.5.14 gives the computed results for
uniform particle size and uniform voidage in both the ore and coke
layers. The flow vectors for gas and the pressure distribution illustrated
in Fig. 3.5.14(b) and (c) demonstrate essentially similar patterns to the
results obtained by gas flow analysis alone. During computation of
simultaneous heat transfer and gas flow, the temperature distribution
computed successively was used as the temperature distribution
required for the computation of the physical properties such as density,
viscosity, heat capacity and so on. Figure 3.5.14(d) gives the flow vectors
for solid movement showing that the movement is principally governed
by the furnace shape. This is the behavior of solid particles which are
governed by the potential flow assumption without consideration of the
effect of gas flow and temperature distribution, and where the only solid
disappearance is through discharge at the tuyere. Figure 3.5.14 (e) and
(f) illustrate that the temperature distributions of the gas and the solids
are represented by almost uniform profiles in the upper part of the
cohesive zone, while in the lower part the temperature distributions are
governed principally by the shape of the cohesive zone. Accordingly,

35 35 "Slkg/m 2 s) 35

30 3D \'\\,1 1, 30
25 25
))~M;' 25
II 11\\

20 20 20

15 15 15 0.235

11/1'mIl' '
NIO :; 10 -;; 10

.... n~,'-~

5 5 5

o 0 0

o 5
10 0 5 10 0 5
(a) Fonite element r"presen- Ib) Gas flow vectorlG 'mass Icl isopressure lines
lotIon velOCity of gosl

35 35 35

30 30 30

25 25 25

20 20 20

15 15 15

~ E
N 10 -;; 10

5 5 5

o 0 0

o 5 10 0 5 10 0 5 10
rim) rim) rim)
I d I Sol id ftow vectorlV : lin- Ie) isother ms of go s (I) Isotherms of solid
ear velocity of solId)

Fig. 3.5.14. Results obtained by the simultaneous analysis of gas flow and heat
transfer in the blast furnace (uniform size and voidage in ore and coke layers,
respective! y).

IAI Type 139,140

8 \, IBI Type

"'- "-, Coke



2 '-

--..::::.. - -
- ---

OL-____- L____ ~ ______ ~ ____ ~ ____ ~

o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Dimensionless radius (~)

Fig. 3.5.15. Radial distribution of particle diameter. 113

IAI Type
\ IBI Type
0.55 '\
'\ ,
'" Coke layer

-'\----~~,~-=- ----.=-
u 0.50

. . ___ _
Ore layer

0.45 -=-=- =-=-=.:~

\ Average
o 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Dimensionless radius (-)

Fig. 3.5.16. Radial distribution of voidage. 1I3


35 35 -5IKG/M'S)
30 30

25 25

_ 20

N 15 N 15

5 5
o o

o 5 10 o 5 10

35 P 35

30 30

25 25

_ 20 _ 20
I: I:

15 0196 N 15
10 10

5 5

0 0 - 0.1!'

o 5 10 o 5 10
A 1M) A (M)

35 TG(Kl 35 T5(K)

30 30

25 25

_ 20 _ 20

N 15

N 15

10 10
5 1795 5

0 o

o 5 10 o 5 10
R (Ml R (M)


Fig. 3.5.17. Results computed from the simultaneous analysis of gas flow and
heat transfer (particle size distribution, type (A)).

the result shows that the shape of the cohesive zone dominates the gas
flow pattern and the gas flow markedly affects the temperature
Regarding the radial distribution of temperature, the computed
results show an almost uniform distribution in radial direction in the
shaft region, whereas actual measurements of temperature in operating
blast furnaces and dissection investigations 134 often gave significant
nonuniformity in temperature distribution. Since bed structure exerts a
great influence not only on gas flow but also on the temperature
distribution as already described, radial distribution of the particle size,
as well as the void fraction distribution, may play an important role for
the internal situation of a blast furnace.
According to the paper by Yamada et al., 139 the void fraction depends
on the particle size and its distribution in sinter and coke beds,
respectively. Empirical equations were derived by them representing
the relationship between void fraction and particle size on the basis of
the experimental data. Simplified expressions were obtained from the

35 35 - 5(KG/M' S)
COKE •\~!!,
30 30 ""I,

25 25
_ 20
20 11\ \ \ \ \ \ .
III \\ \\\
I: I: lr\\\
IS ~~4~\
l rIW-f!~'

10 10

o 0

0 5 10 0 5 10
R (M I R ( M)

35 P



_ 20

10 0205

o 5 10 o 5 10
R (M I R (M)

3S TG(K) 3S TS(K)

30 30

2S 25

~ 20 ~ 20

10 1600 10
8 160
5 1795 5 1780

0 0

0 5 10 0 5 10
R (M) R (M)
Fig. 3.5.18. Results computed from the simultaneous analysis of gas flow and
heat transfer (particle size distribution, type (B)).

equations for estimating the void fraction distribution for the averaged
size of sinter and coke as described below.
For sinter layer:
For coke layer:
e = 0·153 log de + 0·724 (3.5.22)
where do and de have the dimension of m.
Regarding the radial distribution of particle size, it is very difficult to
measure the size distribution of particles at the top of an operating blast
furnace. Some observed data were, however, reported by using a full-
scale charging model without gas flow or by sampling from a real blast
furnace, also without gas flow, at the time when it was packed just before
starting up. The two types of observed distribution of particle size are
shown in Fig. 3.5.15. 142 The average diameter for both distributions is
shifted to the value specified in the figure. Figure 3.5.16 143 gives radial
distributions of void fraction computed from eqns (3.5.21) and (3.5.22)
for the particle size distribution shown in Fig. 3.5.15.

Figure 3.5.17 and 3.5.18 demonstrate the internal state of the blast
furnace computed from the mathematical model applying both (A) and
(B) type particle size distributions. In both cases, the same bed structure
and same finite element configuration were used. Each finite element in
the same layer was, however, assigned a different permeability due to
different particle size and void fraction. This gives rise to marked
nonuniform gas flow even in the shaft region as shown in Figs 3.5.17 (B)
and 3.5.18(B). Figures 3.5.l7(D) and 3.5.18(D) provide a clearer
representation on this nonuniformity of gas flow where, in Fig. 3.5.18(D),
preferential flow of gas is found in the central zone in the shaft region
and, in Fig. 3.5.18(D), the intermediate region has higher resistance for
gas flow caused by size distribution. Therefore the main flow of gas is
still in the central region but a considerable gas flow occurs in the
peripheral region. The temperature distributions for gas and solid are
illustrated in Figs 3.5.17 (E) and (F), and Figs 3.5.18 (E) and (F) show
the corresponding gas flow patterns. These results are quite realistic in
terms of real furnace operation compared to the results obtained for the
case of uniform size distribution given in Fig. 3.5.14. It can therefore be
inferred that the temperature profile is governed mainly by the gas flow
distribution and that the bed structure, including size distribution of the
particles, is a predominant factor governing gas flow. It may consequently
be understood that the charging method and the profile of the cohesive
zone are the principal important factors for estimating the static
performance of the blast furnace.



As a result of blast furnace dissection studies134-136.144-151 it has been

confirmed that cohesive layers exist in the furnace, and it has
subsequently been made clear that the cohesive zone has a close
connection with the thermal efficiency, permeability and reducibility of
the furnace. In particular, it has been established that coke slits in the
cohesive zone play a role in the distribution of gas, which is an
important factor in determining the radial distribution of gas in the
lumpy zone.
A mathematical model was developed to estimate the gas flow
distribution at each coke slit and the gas pressure distribution at the wall
of the lumpy zone when the profile of the cohesive zone was assumed,

and thereby to make clear the functions of the cohesive zone for blast
furnace operation, and further to investigate the desired profile of the
zone in furnace operation. 40 It has become clear from the results of an
investigation during the test operation of a blast furnace 152 that the
desired profile of the cohesive zone is such that the inside boundary of
the zone (i.e. the starting line of melting down) should be as close as
possible to the dead man of the furnace in order to optimize the furnace
stability, reducibility and thermal efficiency.
For analyzing blast furnace operation in terms of the cohesive zone,
it becomes necessary to estimate the profile of the zone and the gas flow
distribution in operating furnaces. However, at present a mathematical
model for estimating the profile of the whole cohesive zone is
unavailable. Therefore the aforementioned mathematical model will be
modified to obtain a model for estimating the profile of the cohesive
zone and the gas flow distribution at each coke slit with the use of gas
pressures at the wall of the furnace (hereinafter referred to as shaft gas
pressures). The results will be checked against data obtained in blast
furnace operation, and the blast furnace operation will be analyzed
using the estimated results.

3.6.1. General Description of the Mathematical Model Basic concepts

It can generally be guessed, through close technical investigation of the
cohesive zone of dissected blast furnaces, that ores in the cohesive layer
melt together in a deformed condition, thereby producing a large
increase in the flow resistance of gas at the cohesive layer.40 The gas
generated in front of the tuyere is distributed to the lumpy zone from a
coke column (dropping zone) in the radial direction through coke slits
between cohesive layers at the lower portion of the furnace. Therefore
the volume of gas passing through coke slits depends on the cross-
sectional area ofthe slits and their length. In addition to this the gas is so
distributed that the gas flowing through the dropping zone has higher
pressure than the gas going up in the lumpy zone.
When the profile of the cohesive zone is changed (leading to a
difference in the slit length and cross-sectional area), the volume of gas
to be distributed to each coke slit changes accordingly, resulting in
variation of shaft pressure distribution at the furnace wall. In other
words, variation in shaft pressure distribution is a manifestation of
difference in the profile of the cohesive zone. This may mean that the

profile of the cohesive zone can be obtained from the shaft pressure
For obtaining the profile of the cohesive zone based on the above
principle, two methods are available:
(1) Method using a mathematical model (static pressure model)
(2) Method using the analogy of gas flow to electrical conductivity
with the use of electrically conductive paper
In these two methods, when the whole profile of the cohesive zone is
given, both the volume of gas distributed to the coke slit layers and the
pressure distribution at the inside and outside boundaries of the
cohesive zone can be obtained.
Methods (1) and (2) differ in the following respects. Using method (I),
the profile can be changed relatively easily, and the error between
calculation results and data acquired by actual measurement can be
verified readily; further, the relevance of the equations available for
estimation can be improved with experience. On the other hand,
method (2) is time-consuming since the profile of the cohesive zone has
to be measured by physically making the zone configuration with
conductive paper. However, it is possible to easily understand the gas
flow and pressure distributions in a locally unusual profile which is
difficult to express by numerical equations, e.g. a profile with no zone
apex or root.
This section takes method (1) as the main subject, and a few remarks
are also made about the principle of method (2).
Figure 3.6.1 shows the principles associated with measurements
made using conductive paper,153. 154 where (a) is a method available for
obtaining the pressure distribution and (b) for obtaining the gas flow
In the pressure model the cohesive layers are represented by cutting
out the conductive paper, whereas in the flow model the conductivity is
raised by applying a silver paint. The gas flow lines and pressure
distribution can be obtained by measuring the voltage distribution
while applying a constant voltage to the conductive paper. However, it is
clear that this measurement is made on the basis of two-dimensional
potential flow, and this is appreciably different from the actual flow
in a three-dimensional situation.
It is to be understood from Fig. 3.6.2 that when comparing profile E,
where the inner side profile has protruded inward, with the profile of the
cohesive zone A, the ratio of the pressure drop in the lower part of the


101 Pressure model Ibl Flow model

111 Eleclric conducting ,heel

121,131 Eleclrtc pole ISilver po,nll
141 ConSloni pOlenl'ol generator
151 Amperemeler
161 Dlgltol.voltmeler
171 Probe
c:J Hole
_ Silver po,nl

Fig. 3.6.1. Schematic diagram of electroconducting paper method with

pressure distribution (a) and streamlines (b).

furnace to the total pressure drop is considerably decreased and the

pressure at the wall is increased in profile A more than in E.
Provided that gas pressure distribution at the actual blast furnace
wall is already known through measurement a profile of the cohesive
zone conforming to this gas pressure distribution may be obtained.
However, the method will encounter difficulty in obtaining a profile of
the cohesive zone according to the pressure distribution.
Method (1) gives mathematically the profile of the cohesive zone and
is a method which gives the furnace gas pressure distribution under the
assumed profile of the cohesive zone. By reducing the difference from
the measured pressure distribution progressively by changing the
assumed profile of the cohesive zone, the model yields a profile of the
cohesive zone equivalent to the actual pressure distribution.

02 04 0_6 08 I0
p . I-I

X Rb Profi le
H'b 1.73
W, 0. 17
0.32 A
0.67 £

Fig. 3.6.2. Relation between profiles of cohesive zone and pressure distribution.

Figure 3.6.3 shows a calculation flow diagram for computing the way
in which gas is distributed to the coke slits at the cohesive zone once the
profile of the cohesive zone is provided.
Usually pressure loss is determined by the gas flow rate. However, in
this model it has been taken that the flow rate depends on the pressure
loss. That is, gas flow is produced at the coke slit layers according to the
difference in pressure between the coke column inside the cohesive
zone and the lumpy zone.
The calculation is performed as follows using a trial-and-error
method. First, a certain proportion of the gas flow is allocated to the
lowest coke slit layer, whereby pressure at A-B, A-a and a-b can be
Gas flow rate at the second-stage coke slit layer from the bottom may
be obtained from the difference in pressure between Band b with the
above assumption. The gas flow rate at the next coke slit layer can also
be obtained in a manner similar to that used in the above discussion.
During iterations in which pressure inside the cohesive zone
becomes lower than the pressure at the same level in the lumpy zone, the
calculation is suspended and the flow rate has to be set again to a new
value at the bottom stage of the calculation.

The calculation is repeated until the volume of gas passing through

the top-stage coke slit layer accords with the pressure difference across
the layer. The calculation then yields results for a profile of the cohesive
zone which gives the gas pressure distribution on the inside and outside
ofthe cohesive zone, and the volume of gas flowing through the coke slit
layers. Therefore this model makes it possible to assess the profile of the
cohesive zone in the actual blast furnace through comparison of the
pressure distributions. That is, the profile of the cohesive zone
providing the best fit between the actual measured pressure distribution
in the furnace and the predicted gas pressure distribution pattern may
be obtained by using the trial-and-error method shown in Fig. 3.6.3
Generally, the profile of the cohesive zone varies depending on the
furnace operation modes adopted.
As a premise, an inverse V-shape profile of the cohesive zone having
a high coke column has been assumed. This zone type is deemed to have
a desirable profile at present and, besides the intention of operators to
form this profile in the furnace, the calculation time using this
assumption is reduced as far as possible.
Sel calculating co"dillOn
. Furnoce profile
. CP', Cpo
,p•• VT


Fig. 3.6.3. Schematic diagram and calculation flow chart of gas volume rate
distribution by cohesive zone (C~, C position and thickness of cohesive layer;
PA, Pdp PLu, pressure in front oflowest coke slit, at dropping zone, and at lumpy
zone; Pn , pressure at next coke slit; lJ.Pi, pressure drop at i-th coke slit; Vb, lowest
coke slit gas volume rate; V", coke slit gas volume rate; Vd, calculated total gas
volume rate; VT , total (bosh) gas volume rate).

To estimate the profile of the cohesive zone in the furnace during
operation, the following assumptions are made:
(1) The profile of the cohesive zone maybe expressed by an equation
y = ayX and as shown in Fig. 3.6.4. The coefficient a is given at the
upper and lower parts of the inner boundary and the upper and lower
parts of the outer boundary respectively, with origins initially provided
between the apex and the root of the cohesive zone. This profile is drawn
approximately by a curve of y = ayX according to the results of
dissection studies of the Hirohata No.1 blast furnaceY4
(2) The profile of the dead man is obtained by using the equations
established by Miyasaka et al. 99 and Shimizu et al. 155 It is also assumed
that no gas flows through the dead man, as discussed in detail below.
(3) The gas temperature is set as shown in Fig. 3.6.4, i.e. the
temperature at the burden surface and the theoretical flame temperature

Burden surface
(TOP gas temperature)

Upper leve I of apex

Lower level of

ori gin of inner side Origin of outer side

Inner side of
softening - melting
zone (iSOOOC)

U ppe r level of root

Lower leve I of root

Tuyere center level (Theoretical

flame temperature)

Fig. 3.6.4. Determination of the profile of the softening-melting zone and gas
temperature in the furnace.

at the tuyere centre line. The inner and outer boundaries of the zone are
assumed to lie at l800°C and 1000°C respectively. The gas temperature
in the intermediate regions is linearly approximated according to the
height. Temperatures at the inner and outer boundaries of the cohesive
zone are determined based on the values calculated by another
mathematical modeU 8 These temperatures will be re-defined in future
when the softening and melting properties of burden are made clear.
(4) The gas viscosity is kept at a fixed value regardless of gas
composition and temperature. Gas density is also maintained at a fixed
value irrespective of gas composition, and change by gas temperature
only is taken into account.
(5) The gas pressure at the tuyere center is set to 0·9 times the blast
(6) Taking account of the volume change of burden as a function of
height, the bulk densities of ore and coke are provided by the following
equations according to the dissection studies of the Kukioka No.4 blast
furnace: 145
Po 1·90 + 1·3x (3.6.l)
Pc 0-45 + 0'3x (3.6.2)
where Po and Pc designate the bulk densities (tlm 3) of ore and coke, and
x is the dimensionless height from burden surface to tuyere center. Calculation procedure of model

As shown in Fig. 3.6.4, the profile of the cohesive zone can be
determined by providing five points, i.e. the upper level of the apex, the
upper and lower levels of the root and the origins of the inner and outer
boundaries. The lower level of the apex can be determined automatically
by ore layer thickness provided that the upper level of the apex is fixed.
In the model, the shaft gas pressure distribution is calculated by
providing initial values of the five positions respectively, and the five
positions are moved so that the sum of squares of the difference between
the calculated and measured values at the installed shaft pressure
measurement position becomes a minimum. The method of calculation
for setting the profile of the cohesive zone is the same as that already
reported,40 i.e. the alteration sequence of the five position parameters
was examined and the sequence of parameter change was selected so
that the zone profile parameters with the greatest effect on the shaft gas
pressure distribution are changed first. Moreover, alteration in height is
made by single layer units corresponding to the respective layers

divided according to the ore and coke bases. Thus the following
parameter adjustment sequence is fixed: height oflower level of root_
Height of origin - Inside radius at origin _ Height of upper level of
apex - Height of upper level of root - Outside radius at origin.
With the first parameter changed, calculation is continued while the
sum of squares of the difference between the calculated and the
measured values is decreasing, and when the sum commences to
increase the calculation is transferred to the next parameter. On
completion of the calculation, made by changing the final parameter,
the profile of the cohesive zone which gives the minimum value for the
sum of squares of the difference between the calculated and measured
values is found. Mter that, a second calculation is made by changing
from the first parameter once again with this profile adopted as the
initial value. As a result of the second calculation, the profile of the
cohesive zone which yields the minimum sum of squares of the
difference can be obtained. This minimal sum of squares of difference is
taken as the minimum value in the calculation process, and no
restrictions are placed on its absolute value.
The profile of the cohesive zone obtained by the above procedures is
not computed through every alteration sequence of the five parameters,
and therefore it cannot be said, in the strict sense, that the sum of
squares of difference is kept absolutely at a minimum. However, it may
be considered to approximate a very exact solution in view of the fact
that the results of verification of the model stated later are satisfactory,
and the procedures described above take account of savings in
calculation time. Investigation in preparation of model

the major assumptions which provide the premises for the model
discussed above are summarized hereunder.
Figure 3.6.5 shows a comparison between the estimated results
obtained for the case in which the gas is isothermal and at low
temperature and that in which the distribution of gas temperature is
determined as stated in paragraph (3) above. As can be seen, when cold
gas flows, the gradient of gas pressure in the upper part of the furnace is
steep and the difference between the calculated gas pressure at the
burden surface and the measured top gas pressure is large. It is therefore
reasonable to assume that the gas temperatures change in the simple
linear way indicated. In an investigation of the model40 developed
previously, it was found that there is no big difference in the gas

- pressure distribution in
\ the case that gas
2 \
\ temperature is decided
\ by simple linearization
\ ---- pressure distribution in
6 \ the case that cold gas
\ flows
E 8 \ • Measured shaft pressures
\ used in the mode I

10 \
CD \ Measured top pressure
> \
.!! 12 \
0 14 ~
II> \

E \

CD \
c 20 \
0 \
·0 22




30 2.5 3.0 3.5

Gas pressure (kg Icm 2 )

Fig. 3.6.5. Effect of gas temperature on the profile of the softening-melting


distribution at the coke slits regardless of gas temperature. However,

there is clearly a need to use gas temperatures which approximate those
in the operating furnace for estimating the profile of the cohesive zone
using the shaft gas pressure distribution in the furnace.
Figure 3.6.6 shows a comparison between the estimated results for the
cases where gas does and does not flow through the dead man. As can be
seen in Fig. 3.6.6, a large pressure drop is found in the vicinity of the
upper level of the cohesive zone root. This is because the root does not
allow gas to pass through even slightly, and the pressure at the wall at
root level is therefore the same as the pressure of gas flowing in the

dropping zone. Slightly above the root, however, gas flows towards the
wall through the bottom coke slit and this results in a sudden pressure
Based on the following three points, it was judged that better results
are ensured in the case where no gas flows through the dead man:
(1) Only a slight difference between the calculated and measured
shaft gas pressure at the bottom level is found for the assumption
of zero gas flow through the dead zone.
(2) Since the radial gas temperature distribution obtained with a
shaft probe shows a low temperature at the wall, it is guessed that

a u
o -pressure distribution in the
case that gas doesrft flow
2 1000 CD
through dead man
- --Pressure dist ribution in
4 500 "0
~ the case that gas flows
0- through dead ma n
CD • Measured shott pressures
used in the model
8 o ® Measured shaft pressure
at the lowest level
CD 10
E 16

...e 18
0 20
--------- ...
.... ...
24 \

26 ,

28 \

30 2.5 3.0 3.5

Gas pressure (kg Icm 2 )

Fig. 3.6.6. Effect of dead man on the profile of the softening-melting zone.

the cohesive zone root exists at quite a low level in the

(3) The difference between the calculated and measured values of
shaft gas pressures is small.
Furthermore, from calculation results obtained by a two-dimensional
gas flow model,28 the gas volume passing through the dead man is small,
and it may be assumed that there are no real problems involved in the
cohesive zone profile estimation on an operating blast furnace by
assuming no gas flow through the dead zone.
Figure 3.6.7 shows the estimated results obtained for the case where
the vertical gas temperature distribution in the furnace is provided by
0 ~------'500 oU
- - pressure distribution in the
250 ~ case that gas temperature
i'=me:~~:ct ;;;J \ is decided by use of radial
f-----~ 0 ~ \ temperature distribution
,Temperature ., \
4 \ obtained with top probe
distribution ~ \

6 obtained with ~ \ ---- pressure distribution in the

top probe \ case that gas temperature
\ is decided by simple

\ linearization
E \
\ Measured shaft pressures

\ used in the mode I
Qi \
II> 12 \
0 14


c 20




30 2.5 3.0 3.5

Gas pressure (kg/cm2 )
Fig. 3.6.7. Effect of determination of gas temperature on the profile of the
softening-melting zone.

the exponential function given by eqn (3.6.3) taking the gas temperature
distribution obtained with the top probe as the initial value. This case,
which takes the averaged radial temperatures calculated from the
equation at each vertical level, is compared with the simple linear
temperature distribution given earlier in the figure.
where Tg designates gas temperature caC), db d 2 and d 3 are constants,
and z is the distance (m) from the burden surface.
It can be said that the difference between the calculated and
measured values of shaft gas pressure is made smaller by predicting the
gas temperature more accurately using the above equation, and the
estimation accuracy of the profile of the cohesive zone has thereby been
improved. However, since there is no substantial difference in the
estimated results of the profile, it is preferable to use the simple
temperature prediction method. Verification afthe model

In order to verify the accuracy of the cohesive zone profile estimated by
the model, the results have been compared with data obtained from
other instruments installed in an operating blast furnace.
A mathematical model has been developed for obtaining temperature
distributions of gas and solid in the radial and vertical directions in the
blast furnace using the radial gas temperature and composition distri-
butions obtained with a top probe (or shaft probe) taken as initial
values.42 It has been assumed in the calculation that the isothermal line
of solid temperature at 1000°C is relatively in accord with the starting
line of softening given by the results of dissection studies of the Kukioka
No.4 blast furnace.
Figure 3.6.8 shows both the isothermal line of solid temperature at
1050°C calculated by this temperature distribution model using shaft
probe data, as well as the outer boundary of the cohesive zone estimated
by the present pressure tapping based model. As can be seen in Fig. 3.6.8,
both are in reasonable agreement except near the wall.
In large blast furnaces, the charging ratio of ore and coke (O/C) at the
wall has been raised by means of a burden distribution apparatus
(movable armor, etc.) to control gas flow. When O/C is low, the
resistance to flow is small and, as a result, gas volume is large and gas
velocity is high. Consequently the temperature of the solids is raised
before reduction occurs fully and, as a result, the softening of solid is


o 14

E 16

Q) 18

I II 20

center wall
Fig. 3.6.8. Comparison of the results estimated using the model with those from
another mathematical model.

started earlier. If ole is high, the temperature of solid is not raised so

quickly and reduction progresses more fully, resulting in softening of
solid at temperatures higher than 1050°C. The reason why the
isothermal line of solid temperature has been set at 1050 0e is that it is
supposed that the reducibility of ore has been improved in comparison
with values at the time of the dissection of the Kukioka No.4 blast
furnace. Thus the remaining FeO around 10000e has reduced and the
starting temperature of softening attributable to the remaining FeO has
risen. For these reasons, the temperature distribution model tends to
predict inaccurate results at the wall.
As part of the presently developed model, the gas volume coming out
of each coke slit is estimated. By taking 30% of the flow area adjacent to
the wall, the gas flow from the coke slits in the peripheral region may be
calculated. In Fig. 3.6.9 this peripheral gas volume is contrasted with
the values obtained with the top probe and with stave temperatures.

_ 0 50 . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
E! ~ (a )
'&e ( b)
1! ..
.~ e /.
'50.. 60

~. ..
X 40 :.
.. 0. ~:
.c 0
.: =i

.. .
"- "j
!' 0:."

30 .~.; 55
~ '0
" " /- ~.E
~o..&>~ :s-g
: .~
E 0 "o 0
20 '--------""--_-'-_ _l-.._......J ~"Oo 50 '---_---L_ _- ' -_ _'---_--'
50 60 70 80 90 0 ~ 50 60 70 80 90
o '"
'" E Gas flow in Ih. peripheml region (Nm 3/s) Gas flow in Ihe peripheral region "(Nm3/s)

o ~-
_0 \
~ 60 ,-----------;(c-:C~) " ,,110
0: ~ <.>

5~ " 0

~.~ g~
"0 "
.c 40 ---.--:~ • ~.
<.> - ~ CP 90
-" "
.. 0 1;;-
..5 -
~ ~
~ e. ~
o ~
20 ~ 70

-~ "~
8.1! o L-_---L_ _- ' -_ _' - - - _ - '
x. :;

Al1aehed level of Ihermoeouples
2. 50 '--_...L.I..._ _- ' - _ - - '_ _- '

" -
E - 50 60 70 80 90 17 18 19 20 21
.... 0
Gas flow in Ihe peripheral region (Nm3/s) Dislane.of upper level of rool from slack level (m)

Fig. 3.6.9. Relation between the results estimated using the model and data
obtained with other instruments in the furnace"

As can be seen, the gas temperature in the peripheral region obtained

with the top probe rises as the gas volume in the peripheral region
increases. Also, the CO gas utilization (Tlco) in the peripheral region, as
measured by the top probe, assumes a maximum value as the peripheral
gas volume is increased. When the gas volume is high, the gas velocity is
too great and, conversely, ifthe volume is low, insufficient heating of ore
will result. In both cases this will lead to a decrease in Tlco. Further, as
the gas volume in the peripheral region increases, the stave temperatures
in the upper region of the shaft rise whereas in the lower region of the
shaft, when the estimated position of the upper level of the root
approaches the installed position of the stave thermocouple from
beneath, the stave temperature rises under the influence of the cross-
flow of gas coming out of the coke slits.
As will be apparent from the above discussion, the estimated results
are, in great measure, in conformity with the data obtained from other

instruments in the furnace, from which the inside phenomena of the

blast furnace can be understood well. Furthermore, the results are
extremely helpful for the analysis of blast furnace operation in terms of
the cohesive zone profile and, at the same time, they have testified to the
fact that the estimation accuracy of this model is high.

3.6.2. Relation between Indices Estimated Using the Mathematical

Model and from Blast Furnace Operation (Cohesive Zone Analysis
with 4000 m3 Class Blast Furnace)
In the operation of a blast furnace, it is essential to derive various
indices representing the operational state of the furnace and control
them in turn. In this section, a detailed description ofthe various indices
that can be derived based on the estimated results of the model is given,
and these are compared with blast furnace operation and evaluated as
control indices.
As shown in Fig. 3.6.10, the following parameters are taken as the
appropriate indices: (i) volume oflumpy zone; (ii) volume of dropping

volume of
droppi nil zone Cross section of co~e sli Is
ot inner side of softeni ng-
melting zone

The shortest distan ce

between inner side of
sofleninll- melting zone
and dead man

Fig. 3.6.10. Indices representing the operation state in the furnace.


zone; (iii) cross-section of coke slits at inner side of cohesive zone;

(iv) shortest distance between inner boundary of cohesive zone and
dead man (hereinafter referred to as f:l.L).
Figure 3.6.11 shows the relationship between the volume of the lumpy
zone and blast furnace operation. As the volume of the lumpy zone

(.) (a )




• .~
~ 80
1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800

Volume of lumpy zone ( m3 )


0 50
• •
0 •
, •••

• • •

• • •
48 •


1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800

Volume of lumpy zone ( m3 )

Fig. 3.6.11. Effect of volume of lumpy zone on the furnace operation.


increases, greater heat exchange between gas and solid occurs and, as a
result, the average top gas temperature decreases. However, the average
TJco in the top gas remains almost constant and this may be because
reduction does not occur below a certain temperature or because the
effect of radial gas flow distribution in the lumpy zone is equally as
important as the volume of the lumpy zone.
Analysis results, including those gained in the operational test of the
Kimitsu No.3 blast furnace with low fuel ratio in 1975, have revealed
that there is a favourable correlation between gas utilization ratio (TJ",)
and lumpy zone volume. It has been discovered that increasing the
lumpy zone volume greatly contributes to improvement in furnace
Figure 3.6.12 shows the relationship between dropping zone volume
and blast furnace operation. Since the quantity of heat transferred from
the gas to the molten metal becomes greater as the volume of the
dropping zone increases, the molten metal temperature rises and the
retention time of liquids becomes greater, thus resulting in an increase
in the Si content in the molten metal. The Si content in the molten metal
shows a fixed value for dropping zone volumes below a critical value,
and in this range the chief reaction is between SiO gas and metal at a
high rate. When the dropping zone volume increases beyond the above
range, the contribution to hot metal Si of the slag-metal reaction
becomes great. The mechanisms for these reactions are currently under
It is to be understood from the description given above that the
volume of the lumpy zone is a useful index representing the thermal
efficiency and reducibility of the blast furnace, while the volume of the
dropping zone is a useful index for representing molten metal
It is found from Fig. 3.6.13 that the permeability resistance index, K,
in the blast furnace rises as the gas flow per unit cross-section of coke
slits at the inner side of the cohesive zone increases. It is surmised that
this is because the total cross-section of the slits reduces as the apex of
the cohesive zone becomes lower, and this results in an increase in gas
K = (P~ - p?)/BG17 (3.6.4)
where P b and PI are blast pressure and top gas pressure (g/cm abs), and

BG designates volume of gas generated in the raceway (Nm3/min)

(hereinafter referred to as bosh gas volume).

1540 r------------------------------------------------------,
( 0)



• •
• •




...,rc •
E 1510

500 550 600 650 700 750

Volume of dropping zone (m 3 )


';;; ---.
Q) •
..., 0.40
.<:: •



- . •
,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __eo_.




500 550 600 650 700 750

Vol ume of dropping zone (m 3 )

Fig. 3.6.12. Effect of volume of dropping zone on the furnace operation.


2.6 r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,




2.4 .1 •


0.. /.

1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4

Gas flow per unit cross section of coke slits at

inner side of softening - melting zone (Nm 3 15·m 2 )

Fig. 3.6.13. Effect of gas flow per unit cross-section of coke slits at inner side of
softening-melting zone on permeability index of gas.

Figure 3.6.14 shows the relation between slip frequency X 5 + drop

frequency (times/day) (slip is the instantaneous descent of more than
1 m of burden surface; drop is that ofless than I m) taken as the index
representing unusual descent of burden and I':!.L. As viewed from
Fig. 3.6.14, unusual descent of burden becomes heavy as I':!.L narrows,
and this is thought to be due to unsteady supply of coke to the
In 1975, successive slips occurred during the operational test of the
Kimitsu No.3 blast furnace with low fuel ratio, as shown in Fig. 3.6.15.

20 .---------------------------------------~

"0 15
• •

10 •



___________ .--------
>< 5


. .
1.3 14 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

The shortest distance between inner side of

softening - melting zone and dead man (m)

Fig. 3.6.14. Effect of the shortest distance between inner side of softening-
melting zone and dead man on descent of burden.

This phenomenon is traceable to variations in the amount of coke

supplied to the raceway via the region between the cohesive zone and
the dead man. Although it seems that there are many sources of this
problem, it is clear that such problems will occur if this clearance (ilL)
is small. However, these successive slip periods were obviated by
adjusting the movable armor to transfer the cohesive zone inner
contour towards the wall, taking action which allowed gas to pass
smoothly to the wall and enhancing the strength of sintered ore.
The indices thus derived based on the estimated results by the model
have proved to be very informative as those representing the operational
state of the blast furnace. Further work is required to establish the
method of control of these indices during furnace operation.

Norma! stole Stale in succe~sive slIps


Stagnanr zone
Ibl Movemenl af sound,ng

Fig. 3.6.15. Successive slips in operational test of the Kimitsu No. 3 blast
furnace with low fuel rate.

3.6.3. Analysis of Operation with Decrease in Production

From the estimated results using this mathematical model based on
data obtained during periods of decreased production, it has been made
clear that, in general, the level of the apex lowers and the level of the root
rises as a result of bosh gas volume reduction. Therefore attention has
been directed to the change in the level of the apex and the root with
changing profile of the cohesive zone, and the operational factors which
have an effect on these levels.
As indicated in Fig. 3.6.16(a), the level of the apex rises as the gas flow
per unit cross-section of the furnace increases. It is assumed that this is
because apex formation is enhanced by the greater quantity of heat
transferred to the ore as the gas volume increases. However, the apex
level ceases to rise at around 18 m. Also, if the level of the apex rises
excessively, the volume of the lumpy zone decreases and this reduces
the working efficiency of the blast furnace.

It may be considered therefore that the cessation of the rising trend

results from actions taken to suppress the central gas flow. Also, when
the ore base per charge is high (encompassed by short dashes as data in

~ 20 r-------------------------(-a--,)
o •
a. .---~-------.,--~.~---.~.----

o •
o •
.!! E 16

CI) ...

_ ~ 14

.... II)
!~. 12 L-_ _ _ ~ ____ ~~ _________ L_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ ______ ~

1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35

Gas flow per unit cross section of the furnace
(Nm3/S m2 )

II) 20.------------------------;l~--~(-b~)1

a. 18

o • ••
~ ..... ••• •

.!! E
CI) ...
a. ....

_ u
II) 14

.... II)

.~ ~
! ~ I~IOOO 12000 13000 14000 15000 16000

Kinetic energy of blast (kg·m/s)

Fig. 3.6.16. Effect of gas flow and kinetic energy of blast on the level ofthe apex.

high coke base in Fig. 3.6.l6(a», the level of the apex is decreasing
despite a constant gas flow. This is supposed to be because of a delay in
the heating of ore inside the thick ore layer.
Further, when Fig. 3.6.l6(b) is prepared by taking only the data
enframed by the rectangle in Fig. 3.6.16(a), it is found that, the larger
the kinetic energy of the blast flowing through the tuyere (hereinafter
referred to as a tuyere energy), the higher the level of the apex even
though the gas flow is the same. This is because the depth of the raceway
becomes larger and more gas flows toward the central region as tuyere
energy increases.
Thus, the greater the bosh gas volume per tuyere, the lower the level of
the root, as shown in Fig. 3.6.17(a). The reason for this is the same as the

above, namely that, the greater the gas flow, the deeper the raceway and

'0 o~ 4.0 r-,-------------------------,

~ E (a)

~:; 3.0 (0'

~ u " -I ~ ••

~ ~

1\ , :----
Q) 2.0 1\
J \
Data in high coke base __ - - i
1.0 '---_ _--'---_ _--'-_ _'-=L::..-"--_-L.
(0 0
0 o~~~~
_ _----'=--_ _...L.-_ _.....J

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270

Bosh gas volume per tuyere (Nm 3/min· tuyere )


~ E (b)

o ~ 3.0

... -..
-- -------------
(J 2.0

~ Q)

o ~

:c Q)
1.0 ' - - - - - - ' - - - - - - ' - - - - ' - - - - - - - - - '
13000 14000 15000 16000 17000
'" 0>
Q) .0
::c c Kinetic energy of blast (kg' m Is )
Fig. 3.6.17. Effect of bosh gas volume and kinetic energy of blast on the level of
the root.

the more gas flows towards the central region. As bosh gas volume
decreases, the raceway depth becomes less and this results in more gas
flowing in the peripheral wall region. Consequently the root is melted
more rapidly and the level of the root goes up.
Further, when the ore base per charge is high (encompassed by short
dashes as data in high coke base in Fig. 3.6.17(a)) despite gas flow being
the same, heat transfer to the root interior is delayed and the level of the
root is lowered. In addition, when Fig. 3.6.17(b) is prepared by taking
only the data encompassed by the rectangle in Fig. 3.6.17(a), it is found
that, the greater the tuyere energy, the lower the level of the root, even
though the gas flow is the same. The reason for this is that more gas
flows toward the central region when tuyere energy is higher and gas
volume in the peripheral region decreases. Also, for operation with low
fuel rate, the volume of gas for melting the root decreases and, as a result,
the root level lowers.
The mechanism of descent in the apex and ascent in the root for
decreased production operations, based on the above results of
investigation, is as shown in Fig. 3.6.18. However, the extent of the

IEer.a.. in production

Oecreo.. in volume Of} ... Decreall in volume of gal
bosh gas per un it croll section of

the furnace
Decrease in kinetic
energy of blaB' I Oecreo.e in volume of I I ,,~.,'.. '" .~~
~I reduction in volume
bosh gal per
r race way

r Increas. in ore baSI r

Descent in apex I

4,",~. ". . ",. ;, ,".~ .";.,;, "..

lower region of the furnace the roof of
m.. "
Ascent in root I
melting zan. Acceleration

I Oecreas. in are bale I

I ncnose in fuel rat.

Fig. 3.6.18. Change of the blast furnace condition with a decrease in the
production of the furnace.

change in the levels of the apex and the root differ according to whether
reduction has occurred through change in tuyere energy, gas flow per
unit cross-section of the furnace, and bosh gas volume per tuyere when
bosh gas volume decreases owing to operation with decrease in
production, ore base per charge and change in 'fuel rate.
Also, with regard to blast furnaces having the same inner volume, it
can be said that the rate of change in the levels of the apex and the root
for decreased production operations is less in a blast furnace with fewer
tuyeres or a smaller belly diameter.

3.6.4. Future Direction

The accuracy of this mathematical model developed for estimating the
profile of the cohesive zone and gas flow in the blast furnace in
operation has been confirmed to be satisfactory, and it has been shown
that the model is very useful for deriving indices which represent the
operation state in the furnace in terms of the cohesive zone profile.
Although the present model has been developed following the
concept that it is intended to estimate the profile of the cohesive zone
and the corresponding gas flow distribution in the operating blast
furnace, it has been simplified using many drastic assumptions. To
further improve the estimation accuracy, it will be necessary to develop
a method for detecting the cohesive zone directly, and this is a problem
to be analyzed in the future.


A number of basic phenomena in a blast furnace have been gradually

clarified through experimental and theoretical investigations using
analyses of actual operations. It is therefore very important to develop
mathematical simulation models in order to summarize these results
for the better understanding and improvements of blast furnace
operations. Although many trials have been performed,19, 32,156-159 further
investigations should be conducted using electronic computers and
more precise up-to-date information now being obtained on the
phenomena occurring in the blast furnace,
In this section a mathematical simulation model describing the
dynamic behavior of blast furnace operations is described not only for
the case of step changes in blast and charge parameters but also for
unsteady state blast furnace operation, such as the shutdown, the blow-
in and the blow-out.

3.7.1. Outline of Mathematical Simulation Model

The blast furnace process is a continuous counter-current process
involving heat and mass transfer; it is also one of the most complicated
processes in the metallurgical industry. A schematic diagram of the
mathematical simulation model describing the process is shown in
Fig. 3.7.1, and an outline of the model is as follows.

in ut variables out ut
Volume flow rate
Chemical compositions (Burden) (Top Gas)
Physical properties. Temperature
(Diameter ,DensitY,etc.) Compositions

(State variables)
( Parameters)
Geometric profile 'Heat exchange
. 1--- Compositions
Rate parameters
'Heat loss. Packing condition

in ut variabl es out ut

Blast volume rate, Productivity

temperature ,etc.
Oi I, Tar injection ( Raceway)

Fig. 3.7.1. Schematic diagram of the blast furnace simulation model. State variables

The state variables are assumed to be uniformly distributed in the radial
direction ofthe blast furnace. The state variables in this model are those
for the gas and solid states listed in Table 3.7.1, while the liquid state is
not taken into account. Transport phenomena

The transport phenomena considered in the model are listed in Table
3.7.2. The rates oftransport phenomena are represented as a function of
the state variables as follows.

TABLE 3.7.1
State Variables in this Model

Solid state (Y,) Gas state (Yg)

Ts Temperature CK) Tg Temperature (OK)

Us Descending velocity (m/h) Wg Mass flow rate (Nm/h)
Wst Moisture (-) p Pressure (kg/cm2)
rl Liquid ratio (-) Yeo CO in gas (-)
YFe203 Fe20l in ore (-) Yeo2 CO 2 in gas (-)
YFeO Fe in ore (-) YH2 H2 in gas (-)
Yslg Gangue in ore (-) YHp H 20 in gas (-)
Zc Carbon in coke (-) YN2 N2 in gas (-)
Zash Ash in coke (-)
do,dc Diameter of ore and coke (m)
Pbo, Pbc Bulk density of ore and coke
(kg/m l )

(a) Reduction of iron oxide by the gas: Rt, Ri, Rj, Rt (kmol/ml . h). An
unreacted core model with two reaction interfaces is adopted for the
reduction of iron oxide by the gas as follows:

a ( ----
UPl·X22 - UP2 ·X12
(i = 1,3)
o 22.4R T pO X ll X 22 - X l2 X 21

R*1 a (----
o 22.4R T pO X ll X 22 - X l2 X 21
(i = 1,4)

XII = Drl + Djl + D:;,! + Rhl

X 22 Drl + Djl + R~l
X l2 = X 21 = Drl + Djl
UPl = (KHW.J'j - h)/(l + K HW)
UP2 = (KWFjYj - Yk)/(l + K WFj )
(j = CO, k = CO2for CO reduction, j = Hb k = H 20 for H2 reduction)
where UPl and UP2 represent potentials for reductions from Fe 20 l to
FeO and from FeO to Fe. Drl, Djl and D:;,l show resistances for gas
diffusion through the gas film, Fe phase and FeO phase respectively.
Rbi and R~l are resistances for reductions from Fe20l to FeO and from

TABLE 3.7.2
Transport Phenomena in this Model
R(: Fe203 + CO _ 2FeO + CO2
R1: Fe203 + H2 - 2FeO + H 20
Rj: FeO + CO _ Fe + CO 2
Rt: FeO + H2 - Fe+H20
Rt; FeO + C _ Fe+CO
Rt: HP + CO - H2 + CO 2
Rr: C + CO2 - 2CO
Rt: C + HzO - CO + H2
R~: Evaporation of moisture

Rio: Melting of reduced ore

Heat exchange between gas and solid
qe = ahgsCTg - Ts)
Heat loss through the wall
qloss = TTDhwCTg - Twa)
Pressure drop in gas flow
dP 2 3
- = FkCl - €)GgPoTg/(gc€ dpPgPTo)

FeO to Fe either by Hz or CO. Dr\ Di l , D~I, R;;I andR~1 are written as

Dr = lTd~kfi
Dj lTdodwDsF/(do - dw)
Dw lTdwdhDsW/(dw - d h)
R HW lTd~kHF(1 + l/KHw )
RWF lTd;"kwF(l + l/KWF )
where kr (m/h) is the mass transfer coefficient through the gas film, DsF
(m 2/h) and Dsw (m 2/h) are effective diffusion coefficients of gases in the
Fe phase and in the FeO phase, k HW (m/h) and kWF (m/h) are rate
constants for the reactions, and do (m), d w (m) and d h (m) are the
diameters of the particle, the FeO interface and the Fe20 3 interface.

These values could be given as follows:

= Di(2
+ 0·55 Reog 5S CgO.333)

DsF = k et:;(Tj296Y75
Dsw = ket:~T,/296)175
(k e = 0·0677 for CO reduction and 0·0298 for Hz reduction)
k HW. CO = 20100exp(-14000/RTs), k HW. Hz = 107 exp(-30000/RT.)
k WF . CO = 2600 exp(-14 OOO/RTs), k WF . Hz = 106 exp(-30 OOO/RTs)

where Di (m 2/h) is a molecular diffusion coefficient, Reg and SCg are

Reynolds and Schmidt numbers, t:h (-), t:w (-) and t:i (-) are the
porosities of the Fe203 phase, the FeO phase and the Fe phase, and Vh
(m 3), Vw (m 3) and Vi (m 3 ) are the volumes of Fe203, FeO and Fe in an ore
particle. Porosities and volumes are given by assuming that the density
of atomic Fe is constant before and after the reaction as follows:
t:w = 0'8l29t:h + 0'1871, t:i = O' 5l44t:h + O' 4856
159·6 YFe203 71·8 YFeO 55·8 YFe
Vh = - ---- V = - ---- v· = - --
5·171-t:h' w 5'71-t: w ' 1 7'01-t:i
(b) Reduction a/liquid FeD by carbon: Rt (kmol/m 3 • h). This reduction
is regarded as proceeding in proportion to the square of the thickness of
FeO in liquid and is represented as follows:
Rt = aek5(YFeOrl)2
where ae (m 2/m 3) is the specific surface of the coke bed and k5 (kmol/h) is
the rate constant. The rate constant is expressed as follows:
k5 = 4·66 X lO"exp(-53 300/RTs)
(c) Water gas shift reaction: Rt (kmol/m3 . h). This reaction is regarded
as taking place on the particle surface in proportion to the deviation of
the gas components from their equilibrium and is shown as follows:

Rt = ak6
( 22-4R Ts pO
ro P)2 (YCOYH20 - Yco:J!H/K6)

where a (m 2/m 3 ) is the specific surface of the bed, K6 is the equilibrium

constant and k6 (kmol/h) is the rate constant represented as follows:
k6 = exp(l5 - 27 9001RTs)
(d) Carbon solution loss by the gas: Rj, Rt (kmollm 3 • h). The formulas
proposed by Hatano et al. 159 are adopted as follows:

Rj k7J (1 + 0'237ln~) In(l- We)PbcYe

1 + YH/YH 20 • k72 2·598 In(l - w~) 12

Rt = kS1 (1 + 0'237ln~) In(l - WJPbeYc

1 + Y CO IY C02' kS2 2·598 In(l - w~) 12
where u g (m/s) is the velocity of gas, We and w~ are the reactivity
parameters of coke and its standard value (0'253), and k7l, 72 ( - ) and
ks!. S2 ( - ) are rate constants for the solution loss reaction by CO
described as follows:
kS1 = exp [252de + 4·42 - (227 OOOde + 15 950)ITsl
kS2 = exp [-652d e + 16·93 - (17 870 - 648000dc)/Tsl
(e) Evaporation of moisture in the burden: Rt (kg/m3 • h). The
evaporation of moisture in the burden is assumed to proceed above
100°C by the rate of heat input under the condition that the burden
temperature is kept constant at 100°C:
R* = Heat input to burden
9 Latent heat of evaporation
(f) Melting of ore: Rto (kg/m 3 • h). The melting of ore is assumed to
proceed at the melting point of ore by the rate of heat input under the
condition that the solid temperature is kept constant until ore is melted
Heat input to ore
Rto =
Latent heat of melting
The liquid is assumed to move with coke and unmelted ore at a descent
velocity us.
(g) Heat exchange between gas and solid: ahgs (kcallm3 • h . 0q. The
formula by Tate et al. 156 is used for the evaluation of the coefficient of
heat exchange as follows:

38 .7 PgUgCg a

where Pgis the density, cgis the specific heat coefficient of gas and Reg is
the Reynolds number. Here a is introduced to correct the heat exchange
parameter in the case of the existence of liquid phase as follows:
Heat capacity of coke and un melted ore
a = Heat capacity of coke, un melted ore and liquid
(h) Heat loss coefficient: hw (kcal/m2 . h . DC). The heat loss through the
blast furnace wall proceeds in proportion to the temperature difference
between the inside and outside of the wall. The coefficient of heat loss is
estimated as follows:
h = kb
w lb
where kb (kcal/m· h . DC) is the heat conductivity of the lining brick and
lb (m) is the thickness of the furnace wall. Input variables

The input variables are the geometric profile of a blast furnace, the rate
parameters and the controllable parameters in the blast furnace
operation; these are listed in Table 3.7.3.
The transitional behavior in a blast furnace may be expressed as a set
of partial differential equations for each state variable as follows:
oY oY
at + Uj oz = f(Y,t,z) (3.7.1)

Here the time dependent term in the differential equations for gas can
be neglected because of the short passing time of gases through the blast
oYg _ I
;;- - ~ fg(Yg , t, z) (3.7.2)
uZ ug
On the other hand, the differential equations for solid may be
rewritten in the form of total differential equations since they have a
unique solution as follows:
dYs = oYs dt + oYs dz
at oz
Therefore eqn (3.7.1) for solid can be transformed into a set of
ordinary differential equations as follows:
dYs dz
dt = fs(Y" t, z) and dt = Us (3.7.3)

TABLE 3.7.3
Input Variables in this Model

Charge parameters Blast parameters

Mass of burden charged at the same time Blast volume

Ore/coke ratio Temperature
Composition of ore Moisture
(Fe203' FeO, Fe, gangue, water) Pressure
Composition of coke (carbon, ash, water) Injection rate of heavy fuel oil
Physical properties of ore and coke Injection rate of tar
(diameter, density, void ratio) Oxygen enrichment
Nitrogen enrichment

In this way the differential equations for gas and solid states may be
written as follows:

Density of ore: Pbo

Density of coke: Pbe

dt Pbe =
Liquid ratio: rl

Components of ore: Yi = YF"2OJ'YFeO,YFe,Yslag

Components of coke: Yj = Ye, Yash


Temperature of solid: Ts
d 1
dt Ts = Phe~Yn(dTs' csn/dTs) + Phe~ Yn.(dTs· csn,/dTs)

X [ahsg(Tg - Ts) - ; hw(Ts - Twa) + l2 b..Hk • R~

- Ts(:~:; cn~mk,n
n k
. R~ + ~ cn,~mk,n" R~)l
k 0 1

Position: z
Descending velocity of solid: Us

iJus = _ !(u !!..A + A Rro)

iJz A s dz Pho

Mass flow rate of gas: Wg

iJz =
--g ~~m
1 k k, 1

Gas components: Yi = Yco,YCC}z,YH2,YH20,YN2

iJiJz Yi = wIg (-Yi~n ~mk,n
. R: + ~mk,i . R:)

Gas temperature: Tg

- Tg~Cl'
Gas pressure: P

~P = (1'75 + 150 I-S)(l-e)G~TgPO

iJz Reg ges3 dp PgToP
where mk, n ( - ) is a stoichiometric constant, Cgn (kcal/N m3 • C) and Csn 0

(kcal/Nm3 • 0 C) are specific heat coefficients of gases and solids,


respectively, D (m) is the diameter of the blast furnace, e is the void ratio
of packed bed, Reg is the Reynolds number, and gc is the gravitational
conversion factor.

3. 7.1.4. Calculations
In solving the differential equations it is convenient to rewrite eqns
(3.7.2) and (3.7.3) in finite-difference forms. Here, the space difference
(Az) and the time difference (At) are given as follows.
The content of the blast furnace is divided into finite layers as small
as the space difference. One unit layer is made of burden and coke
charged at the same time.
The time difference is evaluated such that the blast rate over this time
supplies the necessary quantity of oxygen for the consumption of
carbon in the unit layer at tuyere level. Although this is about 10 min or
so, it may be subdivided into a half or a quarter of the required time
when it is too long to obtain accurate simulation results.
At the start of the calculation, the solid state variables must be set as
an initial condition. The boundary condition for gas at the tuyere level
and the time difference are calculated from the input blast conditions.
Then the differential equations are integrated from the tuyere level to
the top of the layers to give the new state variables. The new positions of
each layer are calculated with their new volumes based on the geometric
profile of the blast furnace.
If the height of the top of the layers is lower than stock level at the
particular time, one or some charges are made to fill the space between
the top of the layers and the stock level.
Behavior of the blast furnace in any operation can be simulated by
iterating the calculation steps mentioned above. An example of the
calculated results for the steady state operation of a blast furnace of
1350 m 3 in inner volume is shown in Fig. 3.7.2.

3.7.2. Applications to Blast Furnace Operations Dynamic response obtained by the model

The dynamic responses of the blast furnace to step changes in the blast
or charge parameters are now described for the blast furnace of3000 m 3
inner volume. It is very important to clarify the effect of heavy oil
injection on blast furnace operation, because the injection rate of heavy
Fig. 3.7.2. Calculated results of heat and components profile for the steady
state blast furnace operation.

oil is one of the main control parameters for the furnace heat condition,
namely the hot metal temperature (H.M.T.).
The simulated result shown in Fig. 3.7.3 has a good agreement with
the actual result in Fig. 3.7.4. It takes rather a long time to reach the new
steady state in the case of heavy oil injection. This also occurs for change
in ore/coke ratio, oxygen enrichment and blast volume rate, but the time
is smaller for blast temperature and blast moisture change as shown in
Fig. 3.7.5. Applications of the model to special operations

No trial had been made on the application of mathematical simulation
models to special blast furnace operations such as shutdown, blow-in
and blow-out. However, it is very important and attractive to apply a
mathematical simulation model to special operations with precise
knowledge of its limitations.
(aJ The shutdown ofthe blastfurnace. The most significant parameter in
studying the shutdown is the coefficient of heat loss through the wall
and through the bottom of the blast furnace, these having been
evaluated through the monitoring of heat flux in the actual operation.

Oi I injection +37.5Kg/min (75Kg/H.MTon)

+20 H. M.T.
+20 T.G.T

2 Reduction (+4.IKmol/min)
Total Reductionn-----(-5.5Krnol/min)
- 2 CO Reductio n (- 3.4 KmoVm in)
-2 O'irect Reduction (-3.5Kmol/min)
0 5 10 15 20 25
Fig, 3.7.3. The simulated result of the dynamic response to the change in heavy
oil injection by 7'5 kg/H.M. ton for the blast furnace of 3000 m 3•

Oi I injection CB 13.5kg/min (5kg/H.M.Ton)


Hot metal
+ 30



(-1.5 Kmol/ min)

I ---......... ....... - ...."...-- ..........
( - 2. 0 K mo I / min )

- I
- 2
- 3
....... _--
D i rec t Reduction

o 2 4 6 8 /0 /2
( Hou r)
Fig. 3.7.4. The experimental result of the dynamic response to the chanSe in
heavy oil injection by 5'0 kg/H.M. ton for the blast furnace of 1850 m .

0) Blast temperature -50°C b) Blast volume rote -2CONmtmin

o~-------- (+29°C)
-10 H.MT
-20 (- 2~'5°C )
_ _ CO/C02
-005 CO/C02
O~-===~--------- T.G.T (tI4°C)
-10 TG.T (-1°C)

o K======~(r::I_II.::i3I1(;Km;;:;;o:;[;V;;:;;min)
- 2 Total Reduction
O~==== ____,-=-;~~~
- 2 (-O.2Kmol/min)
CO Reduction
- °+--C====~r-:;-;-~~
2I . (-I. I Kmol/min)
Direct Reduction Direct Reduction
o 5 10 15 20 25 () 5 10 15 20 25

Time (hr.) Time (hr.)

c) Blast moisture +IOQ'i Nm3 Ore/Coke - O. I

o -----
- 20
- 30 (-330C)

Toto I Reduction
-4 ( -'52 Kmo !;min)
-2 (-3.1 Kmo!;min)
H2 Reduction CO Reduc-:ti~on::--~'::':';-
°k:===="I(r:-vi'l'~.6:1<Kmrncoor;l;;;;m:J;;-in ) -2 -----r:z-T Kmol/m in)
- 2 Direct Reduction -4 Direct Reduction
o 5 10 15 20 25 0 5 10 15 20 25

Time (hr. ) Ti me (hr.)

Fig. 3.7.5. The simulated results of the dynamic response of blast furnace to the
step change in (a) BT from 1250°C to 1150°C, (b) BY from 4850 Nm 3 to
4650 Nm 3, (c) BM from 10 g!Nm 3 to 20 g/Nm 3, (d) Ore/coke ratio from 4·1 to 4'0,
for the furnace of 3000 m 3 volume.

It was assumed that the decrease of descent velocity at the top of the
furnace for an hour or two after the shutdown is brought about by the
scaffold formation caused by resolidification of the melting zone during
the shutdown, and that subsequent slipping is caused by remelting of
this solidified scaffold. Therefore, in the simulation, no charge is made
until this scaffold has remelted. The time required for the remelting is
given by the mathematical model itself. The result of the simulation is
shown in Fig. 3.7.6 where the blast and charge parameters were input


1550 H.M.T. (OC)

J\ fl.
\:i \ I

O/C 3.4
25 I


1.2 CO/C02
(-) 1.1
12 o 12 0 12 o
Time( hr)
Fig. 3.7.6. Simulated results of blast furnace operation before and after
shutdown for the furnace of 4200 m3 .

a) 4
(OC) 15O'Jt--"-- t--c-f"'~LT9>'-- - - - - -


30 O/C 40

(OC) 1::Yv\.'I--~~ --+--+---,1- 7'7£---"H".M'.t - -

-20 -10 20 30
c) -16hr -9hr-3IT1 ~.~~______~O~/~C~

1550 3.2
H. M. T __ ;::::::==-
( 0C) 1500+---~"'---+- +---,...7",,'7-'7-

1450 H.M.T

-10 20 30

Fig. 3.7.7. Calculated results of the effects of (a) the inteIVal shutdown, (b) the
change in orelcoke ratio (O/C) before shutdown, and (c) the change in OIC after
shutdown on the recovery of H.M.T. for the blast furnace of 4200 m 3 inner
3500 20
3000 0;,
(Nm' )
~n 2000
rate profi Ie
1000 12aa
sao 5
0 I-----J

40 400
eo}%) o /
.. ~

10 /
~'" T.G.T (Oe) o. Actual
~ ........ = Calculated
____________________________________ ~r

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Time (hr.)
Fig. 3.7.8. Simulated results of the blow-in operation for the blast furnace of
3600 m 3.

- - schedu led
[ _ _ actual

____~B~last temp~________~~====~

Stock level

Coke only~I (41)


lJ-t"'=----- - - - H . M.T.
(Ton) Water sprinkled

(%) IO~ \~
o C02(%) ~ ~
o 4 8 12. 16 20 24
Time (hr.)
Fig. 3.7.9. Results of blow-out operation with the decrease of stock level for the
blast furnace of l350 m 3.

from the actual operation. The effects of the interval of shutdown and
changes in the charge parameter (ore/coke ratio) have been studied as
shown in Fig. 3.7.7, through which the schedule of controlling ore/coke
ratio should be optimized in order to get smooth recovery of the blast
furnace after the shutdown.
(b) The blow-in ofthe blastfurnace. The initial condition of solid in the
furnace can be given from the actual results of filling of coke and
burden before the blow-in. Then the blow-in operation can be
simulated according to the schedule of the increase in blast rate and
blast temperature. One of the simulated results is shown in Fig. 3.7.8.
The adequacy of the model for the application to the planning of the
blow-in of the blast furnace was confirmed.
(c) The blow-out of the blast furnace. An example of the simulated
results is shown in Fig. 3.7.9, where a blast furnace of 1350 m 3 in inner
volume was blown out with the decrease of stock level from the top to the
upper bosh under the schedule predicted by this mathematical model.
The actual results are in good agreement with the schedule and the
predictions by the mathematical model until the top of the burden
reached a height around half the hearth diameter above tuyere level.


A domain for plane integration

(r-z plane) (U)
Ab effective area for heat transfer to
particles in a large bell (U)
Ac effective surface area of coke for
reaction (U)
Ai cross-sectional area of an annulus
in i-th block (L)
Aw inner surface area between top level
of burden bed and tuyere level (U)
A z cross-sectional area at z (U)
a specific surface area of particle (U/U)
ac , ao specific surface area of coke
and ore (U/U)
aj specific surface area of j-th layer (L2/U)
C i concentration of i-th component (kmol/U)

CeO, ChO , CIO , CoO initial concentrations of coke, hematite,

limestone and oxygen combined with
iron (kmol/U)
C r carbon ratio (-)
(c p);, (c s); specific heat of i-th component of
gas and solid (L2/fT)
CO average specific heat of dust (L2NT)
Cj average specific heat of j-th phase
U = g, s, 1) (VNT)
Cgw average specific heat of wet blast (L2/fT)
Cm specific heat of cooling water (VNT)
csp, Css specific heat of hot metal and slag (L2NT)
De effective diffusivity (Vlt)
Do,Db,Dh inner diameters of throat, belly and
hearth (L)
D h, diameter at bottom of a large bell
hopper (L)
D; diffusion coefficient of i-th
component in blast furnace gas (Vlt)
Dij equimolar counter-diffusion
coefficient in two-component
system (L2/t)
Ds"Dss intraparticle diffusion coefficients
of CO and H2 in reduced iron
phase (Vlt)
Ds2 , Ds4 , Dss intraparticle diffusion coefficients
of CO2 in coke, CO 2 in CaO, and
H 20 in coke (Vlt)
D sM , Dsw, DsF intraparticle diffusion coefficients
of CO in magnetite, wustite and
iron layer (Vlt)
Dz inner diameter of furnace at z (L)
d diameter of packed materials (L)
d p average diameter of any solid
particle (L)
do,d L average diameters of iron ore and
limestone (L)
de,de1 average diameters of coke in blast
furnace and at tuyere level (L)

dh, d w interface diameter of boundaries

between hematite and wustite, and
wustite and iron (L)
E j Eg = 8(1 - 8\), Es = 1 - 8, E\ = 88\ (-)
E r, E; effectiveness factors of solution-
loss reactions by CO and H2 (-)
Eri eddy diffusion coefficient in radial
direction for i-th component (U/t)
Fg , Fo, F\ volume flow rates of gas at any
level in furnace, at top level of
burden bed, and at tuyere level (U/t)
F b, Fw blast volume in dry base and in
wet base (L3/t)
Fi volume flow rate of i-th component
of gas (U/t)
F OJ. volume flow rate of enriched
oxygen (L3/t)
FmAo,FmD.o molar flow rates of oxygen in ash
and dust (kmol/t)
FmD.c, FmL.c, Fmc.c molar flow rates of carbon in dust,
limestone and coke (kmol/t)
F ms. i molar flow rate of i-th component (kmol/t)
F ms. wus. io F ms. wus. d molar flow rates of wustite to be
reduced indirectly and directly (kmol/t)
FM , FSL , Fw volume flow rates of hot metal,
slag and wustite (U/t)
Fr Froude number (-)
Fs volume flow rate of particle bed (U/t)
!c fractional conversion of coke (-)
Ji fractional decomposition of
limestone (-)
j.,fsO overall fractional reduction and
fractional prereduction of iron ore (-)
j.HM,j.MW,j.WF,j.HW fractional reduction for each reduction
step from hematite to magnetite,
magnetite to wustite, wustite to iron,
and hematite to wustite (-)
fo fractional conversion of iron ore (-)
Ji ,h viscous and inertial terms for

Ergun's equation (1/t), (VIM)

Gg,Gs total mass velocities of gas and
solid (MIVt)
Gg;, Gsi mass velocities of i-th component
of gas and solid (MIVt)
g gravitational acceleration (Lie)
ge gravitational conversion factor (-)
H distance between top of burden bed
and tuyere level (L)
6.H; heat of reaction of i-th reaction (MU;e·kmol)
6.He , 6.H" 6.Ho heat of reaction of solution-loss
reaction, decomposition of
limestone, and indirect reduction
of iron ore with CO (MU;e·kmol)
HTR ratio of heat flow (= csGJcgGg) (-)
hkj heat transfer coefficient between
phases k and j (M/fT)
hj forced heat transfer coefficient at
phase j (j = g, s, 1) (M/fT)
hw heat transfer coefficient for heat
loss through wall (M/fT)
K" effective thermal conductivity (MLlfT)
K"K4 ,K5 equilibrium constants of indirect
reduction of iron ore by CO,
decomposition of limestone, and
indirect reduction of iron ore by
H2 (-), (MILe), (-)
KHM,KMW,KWF equilibrium constants of reduction
steps from hematite to magnetite,
magnetite to wustite, and wustite
to iron (-)
KHW,KWF equilibrium constants of reduction
steps from hematite to wustite and
wustite to iron (-)
kj thermal conductivity at phase j
(j = g, 1, s) (ML/fT)
k HM , k MW , kWF rate constants of chemical reaction
for each reduction step of iron
oxide (Lit)

k HW , kWF rate constants of reduction steps

from hematite to wustite and
from wustite to iron (Lit)
kb k2' k3' k4' ks, k6' ks rate constants of i-th chemical
(Lit), (L 3/Mt), (L4/kmol· t), (kmol!LIt), (Lit), (U/Mt), (Lit)
kSb kS2 rate constants of forward and
reverse reaction for solution-loss
reaction by CO 2 (-)
ke effective thermal conductivity (MLlfT)
keL effective thermal conductivity of
porous CaO (MLlfT)
kf}, kf2' k f4 , k fS , k f6 gas-film mass transfer coefficients
in i-th chemical reaction (Lit)
L domain for linear integration
(r-z plane) in Section 3.5; height
from top of burden bed to bottom
of furnace in Section 3.3 (L)
L t diameter of tuyere (L)
L., L b, Ls heights of belly, bosh and shaft (L)
Lsb = La + Ls (L)
Lso height of throat (L)
(Lr)i heat of fusion for i-th component (ML2!fkmol)
I, 10 height of particle bed on large bell
and that in simplified model (L)
Ib thickness of lining brick of blast
furnace (L)
Mi molar mass of i-th component (M/kmol)
~i molar flow rates of i-th component
at phase j (j = g, s, 1) (kmol!t)
me mass of single coke particle (M)
m~ initial carbon content in coke (-)
mk, n stoichiometric constant of n
component in k reaction (-)
~ shape function at i-th node (-)
No, N e, NL numbers of iron oxide, coke and
limestone particles in unit volume
of bed (l/U)
Ngi diffusive flux of i-th component
in radial direction (kmol!Ut)

N FeO corrected molar fraction of FeO

in slag (-)
Nu Nusselt number (= hdlk) (-)
ni molar numbers of i-th component (kmol)
P, P' total pressure of gas (MILe)
po, Po total pressure of gas at standard
state and at top of burden bed (M/Lt2)
Pd CO2 pressure for decomposition
of limestone (MILe)
Pi pressure at i-th node (M/Lf)
Pj partial pressure of j-th component (MILe)
Prj Prandtl number in phase j
(= fJ-jC/k j ) (-)
Qj heat of reaction in phase j
(j = g, s, 1) (MIVt)
Qh, Qm sources of heat and mass (MIVt)
Q" Qw heat of slag formation and heat
loss through wall (MIUf)
Q~ heat loss through furnace wall
calculated from eqn (3.2.100) (MIUf)
qh,qm fluxes of heat and mass (MN), (MIUt)
% actual velocity of phase j in bed in
y-direction (Mit)
R radius of furnace in Section 3.3 (L)
R, R gas constant
I (MUNT·kmol)
Ri mean radius of i-th block in blast
furnace in Section 3.3 (L)
Ri reaction rate with respect to
species i in Sections 3.1 and 3.4 (kmol/Ut)
RT,R{,Rj,Rt,Rt,Rt,Rf,Rt overall reaction rates per
unit volume of bed (kmol/Vt)
R i, R To overall reaction rates of
evaporation of moisture in burden
and of melting of ore per unit
volume (MIVt)
R:fM,R~w,R~,R:fw overall reaction rates for each
reaction step from hematite to
magnetite, magnetite to wustite,
wustite to iron, and hematite to
wustite per unit volume of bed (kmol/Vt)

Rc radius of dead zone at tuyere level (L)

Rep particle Reynolds number
(= d pGgI)1g) (-)
Rej Reynolds number for phase j
(j = g, 1) (-)
r radial coordinate (L)
rl liquid ratio in blast furnace in
Section 3.7 (-)
ro , ri radii of particle and reaction-
interface (L)
rj, r2, r3 radii of reaction interfaces for
reduction steps of Fe20 3 - Fe304,
Fe 30 4- FeO, and FeO _ Fe (L)
rj mass fraction of j-th component
in dust (-)
S domain for boundary integration (r-z-O coordinate)
SI mass flow rate of slag (Mit)
Sc Schmidt number (-)
Sh Sherwood number (-)
SFe, SFe203 mass fractions of Fe and Fe203 in (-)
1j temperature at phase j (j = g, 1, s) (T)
TO temperature at standard condition (T)
To,TI temperatures at top and at tuyere
level (T)
Ta ambient temperature (T)
Tb,T~ blast temperature and Tb in
practical operation (T)
Tc coke temperature at tuyere level (T)
Tcw temperature of cooling water or
vapor (T)
Tm average temperature (T)
Tsf temperature of feeding particle (T)
TI temperature of oil injection (T)
T p , Tsl temperatures of hot metal and of
discharged slag (T)
T st temperature of injected water (T)
T t theoretical flame temperature (T)
Tw blast temperature in wet blast (T)
Twa wall temperature (T)

Twe exit temperature of cooling water (T)

t time (t)
t. mass fraction of coke in ash (-)
tr residence time of solid particles
in each block (t)
to charging interval of particles (t)
U overall heat transfer coefficient
through furnace wall based on
inner surface area (M/fT)
Uj linear velocities of phase j (Lit)
UN superficial flow rate of gas at STP (V/L2t)
UFe mass fraction of Fe in cinder (-)
~ superficial velocity of phase j
(j = g, s, 1) (Lit)
~ volume of j-th layer per charge
(j = 1, 2) (L 3)
VB bed volume (V)
Va, V; bulk volumes of ore and of total
solid particles per charge (M3)
~y superficial velocity of phase j in
y-direction (j = g, s, 1) . (Lit)
Vsm source of bulk volume of particles (V/L3)
V-L' T';I superficial velocity vertical and
parallel to layer (Lit)
VFe , VFeO mass fractions of Fe and FeO in
iron oxide (-)
We Weber number (-)
fV;" W L , W M , Wa, Weinder mass flow rates of coke, limestone,
metallic iron, iron ore,
and cinder (Mit)
WD,Wail discharge rate of dust and rate of
oil injection (Mit)
Wm mass flow rate of cooling water (Mit)
W p , W; production rate of hot metal and
discharge rate of slag (Mit)
Wto feeding rate of total particles (Mit)
W st , w~ rate of vapor addition and W st
in practical operation (M/L 3)
We reactivity of coke (-)
X functional (-)

Xi volume fraction of bulk particles

in i-th range of size (-)
M thickness of single layer (L)
x x-coordinate (L)
x~ ratio of oxygen enrichment (V/V)
Y y-coordinate (L)
Yeo, I> Yeo, 2, Yeo, 3 molar fractions of CO at each
reaction interface (-)
y~o, I> y~o, 2, y~o, 3 molar fractions of CO in equilibrium
state for each reaction step (-)
Yi'Yi,O,Yi, I>yf molar fractions of i-th component
at arbitrary position, at top of
burden bed, at tuyere level, and
in equilibrium condition (-)
Yj,o'Yj,i molar fractions of j-th component
at outer surface of particle and
at reaction interface (-)
Yl ratio of oil injection (M/V)
z z-coordinate (L)
- vector quantity

Greek letters
a apparent angle of repose (-)
aj apparent angle of repose of j-th layer (j = 1,2) (-)
ai molar fraction of i-th component in hot metal (-)
ab inclination angle of large bell (rad)
a xy , f3xy permeability in packed bed in directions
x and y (I/L, Mt/L4)
a o, f30 coefficients of permeability at layer 0 (l/L, Mt/L4)
f3a effective area for reaction per unit surface
area of coke (-)
f3b inclination angle of feeding hopper (rad)
f3c, f3H mass fractions of C and H in injected oil (-)
Yc mass fraction of C in coke (-)
8 representative length (= d/6Ej) (L)
Lli vertical depth of i-th block (L)
Ll,j, I vertical depth of j-th layer in i-th block (L)
C'CI void fraction in bed and c at tuyere level (-)
Cl ratio of liquid volume to void volume in
packed bed (-)

t:j voidage in j-th layer U = 1,2) (-)

t:pe ' t:pio t:pL porosities of coke, iron ore, and limestone (-)
t:o voidage in ore layer (-)
t:h, t: w , t:i porosities of Fe203, FeO and Fe in an ore
particle (-)
t:y, t:yL porosities of reduced iron layer and of CaO
layer (-)
~ = rlRbe (-)
~e ratio of increase in coke saving (-)
1] ratio of increase in production rate of hot
metal due to oxygen enrichment (-)
Od apparent angle of repose of dead man (-)
Ow angle between wall and vertical axis (-)
K gas constant (UNK)
J1i volume of i component in ore particle
(i = Fe20 3, FeO, Fe) (U)
J1j viscosity of phase j U = g,l) (MiLt)
J1w viscosity of water at 20°C (MILt)
J1., J1 p ' J1L viscosities of slag, hot metal and molten
materials (MiLt)
v kinematic viscosity (Ult)
( = zlRbe (-)
(i mass fraction of i-th species (-)
(p ratio of increase in production rate of hot
metal due to 1% enrichment of oxygen (-)
(pi' (e, (L labyrinth factors for reduced iron layer, coke,
and CaO layer (-)
Pj density of phase j U = g, s, 1) (MN)
P. apparent density of particle (MN)
Po, PI densities of gas at top and at bottom of bed (MIU)
Pb bulk densities of particle bed (MIU)
Pbj bulk density of j-th layer (MIU)
Pc apparent density of coke (MIU)
Pw density of wustite (MIU)
Pgw density of wet blast (MIO)
p" PP ' PL densities of slag, hot metal and molten
materials (M/L 3)
(J surface tension (MN)
¢ average shape factor of all solid particles (-)
¢i effective angle of internal friction (-)

</>j shape factor of solid particles in j-th layer (-)

</>w angle of wall friction (-)
</>0' </>c' </>L shape factors of iron ore, coke and limestone (-)
X stoichiometric coefficient (-)
l/f stream function (M/t)
l/fj velocity potential of phase j (-)
W vortICIty
WI' W 2 shaft and bosh angles (rad)

b burden
be belly
c coke
g gas
gs between gas and solid
gl between gas and liquid
in inflow
i-th component
J j = 1, 2 (1, coke layer; 2, ore layer)
k k-th reaction
I liquid
M cohesive zone (1300-1400°C)
o ore
out outflow
R raceway
r component for r-direction
,rz partial differentiation with respect to rand z
S cohesive zone (1200-1300°C)
s solid
sl between solid and liquid
wi inside wall
wo outside wall
we outlet of cooling water
x component for x-direction
,x partial differentiation with respect to x
y component for y-direction
z component for z-direction
o at top of bed or initial condition
I at tuyere level
~ II vertical and parallel to layer respectively


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2. J. M. Ridgion, J Iron and Steel Inst., 200 (1962), 389.
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5. V. R. Wartmann, Arch. Eisen h attenw., 35 (1964), 159.
6. V. R. Wartmann,Arch. Eisenhattenw., 35 (1964),174.
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Furnaces, Pergamon Press (1967).
8. C. Staib and J. Michard, J Metals, 17 (1965), 33-9.
9. C. Staib and J. Michard, J Metals, 17 (1965), 165.
10. J. Michard, P. Dancoisne and G. Chanty, Blast Furnace, Coke Oven, Raw
Mater. Comm. Proc., 20 (1961), 329-51.
11. G. V. Korshikov, Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, No.4 (1965), 8.
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80 (1960), 854.
13. A Rist and N. Meysson,J Metals, April (1967), 50-9. T. Miyashita, report
presented to meeting in Kansai branches of ISH and TIM (1973).
M. Hatano, Tekko Binran, Vol. 2 (Handbook of Iron and Steel), Iron and
Steel Inst. of Japan (1979), p. 238.
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56 (1970), 881.
15. T. Miyashita, H. Nishio, T. Shimotsuma, T. Yamada and M. Ohotsuki,
Tetsu-to-Hagane. 58 (1972), 608-23.
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(1966), Japanese translation by Iron and Steel Federation of Japan,
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Flow of Gas, Liquid and Solid

This chapter deals with the flow phenomena in the blast furnace. The
blast furnace is a counter-current reactor of rising gas and descending
liquid and solid. Since energy for reduction and heating of iron ore to
produce pig iron is supplied by the rising gas, the flows of gas and solid
in the furnace are crucial to furnace performance in both fuel rate and
productivity. While all aspects of the flows of solid and liquid in the
furnace are discussed, only a part of the interesting area of gas flow is
mentioned in the present chapter. One of the major fields of interest,
raceway phenomena, is discussed in Chapter 6. The following subjects
will be discussed:

Flow of Materials in the Upper Shaft (Section 4.1)

Among the blast furnace technologies that have been developed in
recent years, radial gas distribution control by means of burden
distribution control at the stock line is the most important for attaining
better performance. The burden distribution is characterized by the
structure of the layered bed of ore and coke. The structure is determined
by the flow of burden material at the time of charging. The flow of solid
particles at charging is explained at first in relation to burden
distribution control.

Radial Variation in Burden Descent Rate (Section 4.2)

Although the flow of charged material in the upper shaft is relatively
uniform when the furnace runs normally, the burden descent rate
varies radially across the furnace. This influences the burden distribution
and will also be considered.


Solid Flow in the Lower Furnace (Section 4.3)

The solid flow in the lower furnace is more complicated, since the coke
particles in the central region must move towards the periphery of the
furnace to be consumed in the raceway by combustion. Abnormal flow
conditions in this part of the furnace cause serious furnace problems
and the effect of flow of solids in the lower part of the furnace is

Velocity Distribution for Bulk Solid Flow (Section 4.4)

Although no kinetic theory is established to account for the velocity
distribution of the flow of bulk solid, a semi-dynamic approach has
been used in an attempt to explain the stress distribution and the
boundary of flow and non-flow regions.

Shape of the Cohesive Zone (Section 4.5)

The major objective of burden distribution control is to form a cohesive
zone ofthe shape that best suits the operational target at the time. The
shape of the cohesive zone primarily depends on the radial distribution
of gas and ore velocities. On the other hand, the shape of the cohesive
zone influences significantly the gas flow distribution in the lower part
of the furnace. The relationship between the shape of the cohesive zone
and the gas flow distribution is considered.

Gas and Liquids in the Dropping Zone (Section 4.6)

In the dropping zone that extends underneath the cohesive zone down
to the hearth, liquid metal and slag flow through a bed of coke counter-
current to rising gas. In this region the liquid and gas interact with each
other; both the liquid and gas flows will become the focus of interest.

Liquid Flow in the Hearth (Section 4.7)

Finally, the discussion is extended to the flow in the hearth. The liquid
products, slag and metal, accumulate in the hearth, and flow towards
and through the tap hole, during tapping. The flow is important in two
aspects: first, the flow conditions will determine the degree of hearth
drainage which is of crucial importance to practical furnace operation;
secondly, the flow influences the magnitude of the thermal load on the
hearth wall and the hearth bottom and hence the life of the hearth

Of the three phases - gas, liquid and solid - present in the furnace,
the flow of the gas has been most extensively investigated. Owing to

these investigations and the relatively simple kinetics of the flow in the
empirical formulation, it is now not very difficult numerically to
simulate gas flow in a packed bed of known distributions of particle
diameter, porosity and temperature, On the other hand, present
knowledge about the flows of solid and liquid in the furnace is not as
well developed. Therefore the aim of this chapter is not to present a
comprehensive account of flow in the furnace, but to give an account of
the latest knowledge. It is expected that this will give the reader a clearer
insight into the physical phenomena in the furnace. However, it must be
stressed that descriptions of the phenomena have been given quantita-
tively wherever possible.



Enormous progres.! in both theory and practice of burden distribution

control has been achieved since the discovery of the cohesive zone in
dissected blast furnaces, and the recognition of its role as a gas
Current ideas on burden distribution control are centered around the
cohesive zone. In the case of an inverted V-shape of cohesive zone,
which is regarded as a typical type, the permeability is improved and the
gas utilization decreased as the height of the cohesive zone is increased.
Therefore a compromise has to be made between good permeability
and good gas utilization by controlling radial gas distribution.
The shape of the cohesive zone is determined mainly by the radial
distribution of the thickness of the ore layer and the burden
permeability since, the thinner the ore layer and the more permeable
the burden, the more rapidly the ore is heated, and vice versa. Therefore
it is important to know the influence of burdening conditions on the
radial distributions of ore layer thickness and on burden permeability.
Since coke is larger in size than ore and about ten times as permeable,
the prevailing method of gas distribution control is through control of
the radial distribution of layer thicknesses of ore and coke.
Figure 4.1.1 shows two types of charging apparatus widely in use for
intensive burden distribution control: bell and movable armor top and
bell-less top. The layer thickness distribution is controlled by adjusting
the trajectory of burden material by use of the movable armor in the
former case, and by changing the tilting angle of the distributing chute
in the latter case.

In this section, the motion of burden material at charging and the

resulting burden distribution are discussed. Each of these two types of
furnace top has different characteristics of burden motion. Therefore
the two cases are discussed separately.

Hyd(oulic unll
Furnoce ,hell
101 Bell lOp wllh movable armor 16

Malenol flow _ --.,,,,,,,,

conlrol gOle. '1' 7
lower seol,ng J \0

fbi Bell-less lop

Fig.4.1.1. Charging equipment for blast furnace.


4.1.1. Burden Distribution of Bell Top Furnaces Trajectories of burden materials from the large bell

(aJ Phenomena. We consider burden materials present in a large bell
hopper comprised of a large bell and a large bell hopper wall, as shown
in Fig. 4.1.2. Then we imagine that the large bell lowers at a prescribed
speed from a closed position to reach a position corresponding to a
prescribed large bell stroke.

lorse bell ' ¥.........- J... O


Fig.4.1.2. Schematic drawing of a large bell and a bell hopper showing

parameters used for analysis of burden trajectories.

According to experimental results, I at an early stage of this large bell

descent there exists a period when no particles flow out. This period
lasts until the horizontal clearance at the lower edge of the hopper wall
reaches about four times the mean size of the burden to be discharged.
When the burden begins to flow out of this hopper, a dynamic arch
contacting both the hopper wall and the large bell is formed at a level
close to the edge of the hopper wall. Above the dynamic arch, particles
constituting the burden interfere with each other as they descend slowly
toward this arch. Passing through this dynamic arch, particles fall freely
till they reach and strike the large bell. Subsequently they move along
the large bell to its edge and attain an initial velocity for free fall in the
throat space. The burden materials leaving the large bell strike the

burden surface, the throat wall or the movable armor to form a burden
These four stages, as described above, are involved in the trajectory of
burden materials at the furnace throat.
(b) Formulation o/the/alling trajectory. We imagine that the large bell
lowers enough to allow the burden materials to discharge. The total
energy T of a unit volume of granular bed at level h 0 in the large bell
hopper is described as
where Pb denotes the bulk density of the bed, Vb the descending speed of
the particles,gthe acceleration due to gravity, andh o the distance from a
point made by the hopper wall and the large bell surface.
In the vicinity of the hopper exit, the area where the particles flow
downwards is approximately expressed as follows:
S = 21TR H(D H - kdp ) (DH">kdp) (4.1.2)
where RH denotes the radius of the annular hopper exit, DH the
horizontal clearance at the level h, and d p the mean size of the burden. k
is a dimensionless parameter to be empirically determined and is equal
to about 4, as mentioned previously.
The descending velocity Vb is expressed in terms of ho with the aid of
the correlation DH = he/tan 0b:
Vb = W/PbS = W/Pb21TRH(ho/tan Ob - kdp ) (h o "> kdp tan (}b) (4.1.3)
where W denotes the mass flow rate.
According to Brown's theory,2 the total energy T is dissipated by the
burden descent in the hopper attaining a minimum at the level where
the dynamic arch is formed, where h 0 is approximately equal to the large
bell opening ha:
(dT/dh)ho=ha = 0 (4.1.4)
Substituting eqn (4.1.3) into eqn (4.1.1) and defining the descending
velocity u D (= Vb) at the level of the dynamic arch h a' we may rewrite eqn
The velocity of particles u E striking the large bell surface after the free
fall from the dynamic arch is written as

where it is assumed that the average fall distance is h a!2. Assuming the
nonelastic collision of particles to the large bell surface, we obtain the
initial velocity U Esin (Jb of particles moving along this surface and the
velocity at the edge of the large bell U o:
in which 10 denotes the distance shown in Fig. 4.1.2 and /1 the friction
factor of the large bell. The free fall trajectory of particles leaving the
large bell edge is described as
If we prepare the data on large bell dimensions 10 and (Jb, friction
factor /1, mean size of particles d P' and large bell opening h a' the falling
trajectory of the burden material leaving the large bell may be
calculated with the aid of eqns (4.1.5)-(4.1.8).
The calculated results for coke and sinter are shown in Fig. 4.1.3. It

will be seen that, the lower the bell descends, the closer to the wall the

- 2.2 ~ -2.2 ~

0.1 -
-2.0 0.2 5
200mm -2.0 2 mm 0.2 5
0.3 :? 0.3 :?
-18 500mm OA·~ - 1.8 00
500 OAO'
- - 050- ~ O.5~
-1.6 700mm 0.6 - 1.6 700mm 0.6 0
- - 0.7 -- 0.7
-lA -lA
-1.2 -1.2

-1.0 - 1.0

E -0.8 -0.8
]0 E
~ -0.6 L -0.6 0
I "- OA <{
4' -OA 9
:;: -0.2 :;:
SlOm SlOm
0 0
0.2 0.2

OA 0.4
0.6 0.6

0.8 0.8
1.0 1.0
1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0
Distance from wall (m) Distance from wall Iml
laJ Coke Ibl Sinter
Fig. 4.1.3. Calculated trajectories of coke and sinter from a large bell.

burden materials fall. In this case the movable armor comes to affect the
falling trajectory at a position at least 600 mm inwards from the
(c) Burden profiles obtained by use of movable armor. Figure 4.1.4 shows
the coke layer profiles obtained for three movable armor positions:
600 mm, 800 mm and 1000 mm inwards from the furnace wall. 3 In the
600 mm case, the burden profile is similar to that obtained without
movable armor. The 800 mm position gives a typical burden profile
obtained by use of movable armor; the coke layer is thinnest at the wall,
thickest about 1· 3 m inwards from the wall, and gradually decreases in
thickness towards the center, although that is affected by the base
profile. In the 1000 mm case, such a tendency is extremely pronounced.


Fig.4.1.4. Burden profiles obtained by use of movable armor. Suiface angle of burden

Mter striking the stock surface, the burden materials move on the stock
surface toward the furnace center to form a new top layer. The surface
angle, i.e. the angle of the settled burden materials to the horizontal
plane, is one of the main factors that determine the radial distributions
of ore and coke.
(a) Suiface angle in the absence of gas flow