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L2-TF1-TRAP- AERO GAS TURBINES

AIR CRAFT
PROPULSION
IN 1940s

COURTESY: BOEING
MUSEUM/SEATTLE/WA
PURPOSE OF GAS TURBINE

EXTRACTION OF FLUID POWER FROM ENERGETICALLY


FAST MOVING FLUIDS AS THRUST/SHAFT WORK

TYPES POWER GENERATION


STEAM TURBINE
WATER TURBINE
WIND TURBINE

GAS TURBINE

AIRCRAFT AND MARINE PROPULSION


TURBO-GENERATOR

INDUSTRIAl GAS TURBINES


RR MT30 25 MW MARINE GAS
AIR CRAFT GAS TURBINES TURBINE (8700 mm long)
HELICOPTOR GAS TURBINE

MARINE GAS TURBINES


GAS TURBINE DEFINITION

A GAS TURBINE IS A COMBUSTION TURBINE BASED ROTARY ENGINE THAT EXTRACTS ENERGY
FROM EXPANSION AND EJECTION OF HOT GAS
T-08-GE400-TURBOSHAFT ENGINE
MT30 RR MMARRINE GAS TURBINE
WIND TURBINE
AN INDUSTRIAL LAND BASED GAS TURBINE(IGT)
Power Generation

Single Shaft
Output
Turbine Engine Shaft Power

3)Expansion
(Turbine)

2) Combustion

1) Compression

Two Shaft
Output Turbine Engine
Shaft Power
Mechanical Drive
10
LAND-BASED POWER GENERATION
HISTORY OF GAS TURBINES
• Invented in 1930 by Frank Whittle
• Patented in 1934
• First used for aircraft propulsion in 1942 on Me262 by
Germans during second world war
• Currently most of the aircrafts and ships use GT
engines
• Used for power generation

• Manufacturers: General Electric, Pratt &Whitney,


SNECMA, Rolls Royce, Honeywell, Siemens –
Westinghouse, Alstom

• Indian take: Kaveri Engine by GTRE (DRDO)


PRINCIPLES OF
OPERATION

Intake
Slow down incoming air
Remove distortions
Compressor
Dynamically Compress air
Combustor
Heat addition through chemical reaction
Turbine
Run the compressor
Nozzle/ Free Turbine
Generation of thrust power/shaft power
EXAMPLE OF MILITARY ENGINE:
TURBOJET OR LOW-BYPASS RATIO TURBOFAN
Extreme Temperature Environment

Compressor Combustor Turbine Afterburner


Simplistic Gas Turbines Working Principles

1-2 Isentropic compression (in a compressor)


2-3 Constant pressure heat addition (in a combustor)
3-4 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine)
4-1 Constant pressure heat rejection
AN AEROGAS TURBINE ENGINE ASSEMBLY

Combustor

Inlet Compressor Turbine Nozzle

1
5
2
3 4
FUEL CONSUMPTION TREND
• U.S. airlines, hammered by soaring oil prices, will spend $5
billion more on fuel this year or even a greater sum,
draining already thin cash reserves
• Airlines are among the industries hardest hit by high oil
prices, which have jumped 38 percent in just 12 months.
• Airline stocks fell at the open of trading Tuesday as a spike
in crude-oil futures weighed on the sector
Fuel Burn

JT8D

JT9D PW4084
Future
Turbofan
PW4052

NOTE: No Numbers

1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020


Year
A MODERN GAS TURBINE
Compressor
Nozzle
Fan

Turbine

Inlet Combustor

CUT AWAY VIEW OF GE 90-115B


FUTURISTIC GAS TURBINE FOR AIRCRAFT PROPULSION
COMPONENTS OF A GAS TURBINE
LOCATION COMPONENT T in Deg C MATERIAL CLASS AERO-GAS TURBINE
MATERIALS
Compressor inlet blade -30 to +45 PH Steels
ROTOR SHAFT IS
Vane -30 to +45 MAR STEEL
GENERALLY
disk -30 to +45 HSLA PRECIPITATION
HARDENED STEEL
Compressor outlet blade 450-600 Ti based alloy
834/829 MODERN TURBOFAN
vane 450-600 Ti based alloy ENGINE IS
834/829 ATTEMPTING TO USE
C-C COMPOSITES
disc 550 Ti-alloy 685
INCREASED TURBINE
combustor combustor 800 Ni-Superalloy
TEMP To 1650 K WILL
Transition duct 800 Ni-Superalloy RESULT IN A TEMP
RISE OF 200 degC
Turbine inlet blade 1200-1600 Ni-superalloy with MORE.
coating
NORMAL THERMAL
vane 1200-1600 Ni-superalloy with
BARRIER IS YSZ
coating
COATING.
disk 450-650 12 Cr Steel
ENNVIRONMENTAL
Turbine exit blade 500-600 Ni-Superalloy BARRIER CONTAINS
vane 500-600 Ni-Superalloy MULTI-LAYERED
ARCHITECTURE FOR
disk 450-550 12 Cr Steel HIGHER TEMP DROP

Outer casing Outer casing Upto 550 0.5Cr 0.5Mo 0.25V


STEEL
EXAMPLES OF GAS TURBINE COMPONENTS
Example of Film-Cooled
1st Turbine Blade

Cooling
Holes

• Why film cooling?


– Turbine inlet temperatures > melting temperatures of turbine blade materials
• Air provides a thin, cool, insulating blanket along external surface of turbine blade
AERO ENGINE TBC LOCATION
Thermal Protection to Hot Section
Components by Thermal Barrier Coating

YSZ TBCLAYER(250µm)

TGO LAYER(0.1 -10µm)


∆T=130-150 deg C
MCrAlY BOND COATLAYER(100µm)

Search for superior


next generation
INCONEL thermal barrier to
have ∆T=200 deg C

ENHANCING THERMAL EFFECTIVENESS BY NANO-STRUCTURING/ MULTI-LAYERING


COLUMNAR TBC
ENVIRONMENTAL BARRIER COATINGS (EBC)

PURPOSE TO PUSH THE GAS TURBINE OPERATING TEMP BEYOUND 1950 K


NEXT GENERATION GAS TURBINE COATINGS
A TYPICAL EBC ARCHITECTURE

MULLITE:
ALUMINA + SILICA

BSAS: BaO-SrO-Al2O3-SiO2
Issues and Opportunities in AEROGAS
TURBINE

THERMAL PROCTION OF HOT SECTION ROTATING

COMPONENTS/VIBRATION/FATIGUE/ LIFE TIME EVALUATION- APPLICATION


OF DAMAGE MECHANICS

HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION OF INCONEL AND OTHER NICKEL BASE


ALLOYS

WEAR PROTECTION AND WEAR MODELLING OF COLD SECTION


BLADES/BEARINGS/EROSIVE IMPACTS

THERMAL MODEL FOR TEMPERATURE DROP

COMPUTATION OF LONG TERM OXIDATION


PROCESS RELATED RESEARCH

COMBUSTION DYNAMICS OF REACTING FLOWS

PRESSURE AND TRMPERATURE TRANSIENT

DROPLET COMBUSTION DYNAMICS

COMBUSTION STRATEGY FOR NOx EMISSION


ABATEMENT

CMAS PARTICLE INDUCED TBC EROSION


SURFACE ENGINEERING ISSUES IN VARIOUS GAS TURBINES

Application Oxidation Hot corrosion Interdiffusion Thermal


Area fatigue

Aircraft Severe Moderate Severe Severe


Land-based
Power Moderate Severe Moderate Light
Generator
Marine Engines Moderate Severe Light Moderate
THANK YOU ALL FOR YOUR ATTENTION