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An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound


coils of non-linear orthotropic material
F R de Hoog1 , W Y D Yuen2∗ , and M Cozijnsen2
1
CSIRO Mathematical and Information Science, Canberra, Australia
2
Research Department, BlueScope Steel Limited, Port Kembla, Australia

The manuscript was received on 1 June 2007 and was accepted after revision for publication on 23 August 2007.
DOI: 10.1243/09544062JMES749

Abstract: Extensive study of stresses induced during and after winding of coils has led to sig-
nificant improvements to the processing of web-like materials for the packaging industries and
consumer goods. The current paper presents an inverse solution for the prediction of the winding
tension profile required to satisfy a specified residual stress distribution in the coil, for non-linear
material properties (in the radial direction), with allowance for large strain and large deformation
in the coil. The inverse solution approach has advantage over the forward solution approach by
directly determining the winding tension profile, which can be readily controlled in a processing
line, once the desired residual stresses in the coil are known. The current paper, together with
several recently published ones, completes the study of stresses in the winding of coils using the
inverse solution approach.

Keywords: winding stresses, winding, coil collapse, coiling, non-linear material, large
deformations

1 INTRODUCTION roll/coil is removed from the mandrel/former, which


are caused by the unfavourable residual stresses in the
Web-like material is most efficiently stored in the form coil after the release of the radial pressure (applied by
of a roll or coil during its processing and manufac- the mandrel during winding). Typical of these defects
ture until its final use. Examples are paper, plastic film, are the tension buckle or tight-bore collapse which
and metal strip, for the packaging, building and auto- is caused by the excessive circumferential compres-
motive industries, as well as for the manufacture of sion stress near the bore/eye of the coil, and the soft
consumer goods. One of the most common methods collapse of the coil due to inadequate interwrap pres-
to form these rolls/coils is by centre winding, whereby sure and interwrap friction to maintain the integrity
the web material is wound on a mandrel or a former (shape) of the coil under its own weight. These defects,
to build up the coil. Much care is required, however, if severe, could render the coil to be scrapped for fur-
in producing these coils. If an inappropriate wind- ther processing. Hence, the understanding of stress
ing tension profile is applied, numerous defects could buildup during winding and the resultant residual
arise during the winding process. These include bursts, stresses in the coil is crucial for defect-free processing
baggy lanes, and star defects for paper rolls, and for of web-like materials.
metal strip, scuffing (marking of the strip surface due There have been numerous studies performed on
to interwrap movement), telescoping (sliding of some the above subject, in the context of both the thin
wraps in the axial direction), or partial collapse of the film/paper and metal strip manufacturing. Owing to
mandrel (due to excessive radial pressure on the man- the difficulty in measuring stresses and strains in the
drel). In addition, various defects could occur after the coil during and after winding, most studies were theo-
retical in nature, with predictions confirmed directly or
indirectly by experiments and/or field observations. It
∗ Corresponding author: Research Department, BlueScope Steel must be emphasized, however, that the material prop-
Limited, Old Port Road, Port Kembla NSW 2505, Australia. email: erties (in particular, the radial compressibility and
daniel.yuen@bluescopesteel.com shear characteristics of the coil) must be known for

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1522 F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

meaningful predictions using the theoretical models. at a residual stress distribution which is considered to
Nevertheless, the measurements of these properties be acceptable.
are relatively straightforward [1]. In the inverse solution approach, the target resid-
The most popular method in analysing the stresses ual stresses in the coil are specified and the winding
and strains in winding of a coil is the accretion model. tension profile to achieve these stresses is to be deter-
In this approach, the web material is modelled as a mined. It has been shown that inverse solutions, which
series of prestressed rings (the level of prestress is given do not involve trial-and-error or iterations, can be
by the applied winding tension), successively applied derived for the above problem. In the previous stud-
onto the coil (with the stress and strain distribu- ies, small deformation with linear material properties
tions, hence the outer coil diameter on which the new was first explored [22], followed by small deforma-
layer is laid, calculated for each additional ring/layer). tion with non-linear material properties [23], and large
This approached was pioneered by Altmann [2], who deformation with linear material properties [24]. The
derived the well-known Altmann integrals for the solu- current paper completes the series of inverse solu-
tion of the stresses in the coil. Since then, many tion development for this problem by considering the
enhancements and extensions have been proposed. winding regime requiring large deformation analy-
Examples are considerations of effects associated with sis with non-linear material properties. Although the
high speed winding, such as centrifugal force [3–5] solution procedure is more involved due to the need
and air entrapment [6–8], large deformation for soft to consider the deformation field of the coil accurately,
materials [9–11], relaxation of the winding mate- it will be shown that simplifying assumptions can be
rial [12–14], non-linear material behaviour [15, 16], made for most applications and the resultant solution
and three-dimensional effects [17–20]. More details is still significantly faster than the forward solution
may be found in a recent comprehensive review by approach. In addition, the required winding tension
Good [21]. profile can be determined directly, rather than using
On the other hand, depending on the operating the trial-and-error method as in the forward solution
regime of interest, certain simplifications may be approach.
employed. For materials which offer little radial com-
pliance, small deformation analysis may be adopted.
Conversely, for materials that are very compliant in the 2 PROBLEM FORMULATION
radial direction, non-linear large deformation theory
must be used (for example, see Benson [9]). Simi- Because winding of the coils is under tension (pre-
larly, when the winding tension is relatively low such stressed), the definition of coordinates requires some
that the radial pressure is small, the material char- care. First, a computational domain is defined Rc 
acteristics in the radial direction can be regarded to r  R  R0 where Rc is the undeformed radius of the
be linear (i.e. radial stress proportional to the radial core (the former and/or mandrel) and the radial coor-
strain), otherwise non-linear material properties need dinate r defines a particular wrap (Figs 1 and 2).
to be included in the formulation. Hence there are Specifically, r denotes the [(r − Rc )/h]–th wrap, where
four combinations for the assumptions: small/large h is the wrap thickness in the unstressed state. Note,
deformation, together with linear/non-linear material however, that r is not the radial position in the phys-
properties (all of them refer to the radial direction). ical coil, which is deformed. In fact, the radius of
In a recent series of papers [22–24], the authors have the [(r − Rc )/h]-th wrap is r + u(r, R) and this may be
developed inverse solutions to solve the above prob- significantly different to r for large deformations. Simi-
lem. These inverse solutions have distinct advantages larly, the current coil consists of (R − Rc )/h wraps while
over the traditional forward solutions. In the forward the completed coil consists of (Ro − Rc )/h wraps.
solutions, the winding tension profile is assumed, from
which the stresses in the coil during winding, and the
postwinding residual stresses are calculated. In addi-
tion, for the accretion models, the stresses have to be
calculated as each additional layer/wrap is added to
the coil, making the computation relatively expensive
for thin materials and large coils (which could consist
of thousands of layers) – although this constraint can
be somewhat relaxed by considering the coil as a con-
tinuum, but with anisotropic material properties [25].
These calculated stresses are then assessed, based on
certain criteria [1, 26], for their likelihood of generat-
ing defects in the coil. The winding tension profile is
then adjusted, by a trial-and-error approach, to arrive Fig. 1 Schematic of centre winding

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An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils 1523

This leads to the boundary conditions

σ̄r (R, r) = Ec (f (σ̄r (R, r), σ̄θ (R, r)) − f (0, σ̄w (r)))
at r = Rc
σ̄r (R, r) = 0 at r = R
(6)

Here

σ̄w (R) = σ̄θ (R, R) (7)

is the winding stress, which is related to ρ(r) when


r = Rc via
Fig. 2 Schematic of completed coil removed from
mandrel Rc − ρ(Rc ) = ρ(Rc )f (0, σw (Rc )) (8)

As described previously [22–24] constitutive equa- 2.1 The forward problem


tions of the following form are considered
The forward coil winding problem is to infer the wound
ε̄r = g (σ̄r , σ̄θ ), ε̄θ = f (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) (1) in stresses in the coil given the winding stress σw .
Wound-in stresses might also be required after further
where the strains are given by processing of the coil, such as removal from the man-
drel. The calculation of the wound-in stresses while
∂u r + u − ρ(r) the coil is on the mandrel requires the simultaneous
ε̄r = , ε̄θ = (2)
∂r ρ(r) solution of differential equations (4) and the boundary
conditions (5) and (6) for the unknowns ρ(r), σr (R, r)
It is important here to recognize that σ̄r and σ̄θ
and σθ (R, r). The approach here is similar to that for
are the stresses in the undeformed coordinate sys-
small deformations. First, equation (4) and the bound-
tem (known as first Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensors),
ary condition (5) can be differentiated with respect to
which are related to stresses in the deformed coordi-
R to eliminate the right-hand side in equation (4). An
nate system (known as second Piola-Kirchhoff stress
accretion approach which, in a discretized form, is
tensors) by
equivalent to constructing the coil by adding a wrap
σ̄r = (1 + ε̄θ )(1 + ε̄z )σr , σ̄θ = (1 + ε̄r )(1 + ε̄z )σθ at a time can then be applied. For large deforma-
tions, this is non-trivial since all of the variables are
Here, ε̄z is the strain in the axial direction, which will coupled (for small deformations, ρ(r) and the equa-
be zero for plain strain or if there is no Poisson effect. tions uncouple) but simple iterative schemes, utilizing
It is sometimes convenient to calculate the stresses under-relaxation as in reference [27], are possibly
from the strains and it is assumed that equation (1) has effective.
a unique inverse given by Suppose now that further processing of the coil
takes place. For the purpose of this development,
σ̄r = G(ε̄r , ε̄θ ), σ̄θ = F (ε̄r , ε̄θ ) (3) this shall be assumed to be the removal of the man-
drel as illustrated in Fig. 2. Assuming that there has
From equilibrium and compatibility (i.e. using the been no slippage of the wraps, ρ(r), the radius of the
definitions of ε̄r and ε̄θ ) respectively, one obtains (r − Rc )/h-th wrap if it were unconstrained, remains
the same but the wound-in stresses will change.
∂ Let the radial and circumferential components of
− [ρ(r)σ̄r (R, r)] + σ̄θ (R, r) = 0
∂r these stresses be denoted by σ̂r (Ro , r) and σ̂θ (Ro , r),
∂ respectively. These stresses also need to satisfy the
(ρ(r)f (σ̄r (R, r), σ̄θ (R, r))) − g (σ̄r (R, r), σ̄θ (R, r))
∂r equilibrium and compatibility conditions, thus
d
= (r − ρ(r)) ∂
dr − [ρ(r)σ̂r (Ro , r)] + σ̂θ (Ro , r) = 0
(4) ∂r

In addition, the radial stress on the outer boundary is (ρ(r)f (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r))) − g (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (R, r))
∂r
zero while, at the mandrel d
= (r − ρ(r))
dr (9)
ρ(Rc )σ̄r (R, Rc ) = Ec u(R, Rc ) (5)

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1524 F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

which are the same as equations (4). However, the σ̂r(n+1) Ro , Rc


effective modulus of the core has changed and the û(n+1) (Ro , Rc ) = ρ (n) (Rc )
Êc
boundary conditions become (n+1) (n+1)
û (Ro , r) = û (Ro , Rc )
σ̂r (Ro , r) = Êc (f (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r)) − f (0, σ̄w (r))) r
+ g (σ̂r(n+1) (Ro , η), σ̂θ (Ro , η))dη
at r = Rc Rc

σ̂r (Ro , r) = 0 at r = Ro r + û(n+1) (Ro , r)


(10) ρ (n+1) (r) =
1 + f (σ̂r(n+1) (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r))
The stresses σ̂r (Ro , r) and σ̂θ (Ro , r) can now be calcu-
The case when there is no support at the bore (i.e. no
lated by solving the differential equation (9) subject to
core or sleeve is used, Êc = 0) is a degenerated case,
the boundary condition (10). Since ρ(r) is now known,
which needs to be treated separately. A compatibility
this is just a simple two-point boundary value prob-
condition on σ̂θ (Ro , r), namely
lem for a pair of non-linear differential equations, for
which solution techniques are well known [28].  Ro
σ̂θ (Ro , η)dη = 0
Rc
2.2 The inverse problem
The inverse problem takes, as a starting point, spec- is required and σw (Rc ), the winding stress at the bore,
ified residual stresses in a coil at some point of its needs to be specified. An appropriate modification to
winding history (which will be taken to be after it is the above iteration is given by
removed from the mandrel) and asks what winding
stress is required to produce these stresses. Actually, ρ (0) (r) = r
since the stresses cannot be specified independently, For n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
only one of these should be specified. When bore  Ro
stability is a potential issue, a target hoop stress dis- (n+1) dη
σ̂r (Ro , r) = σ̂θ (R, η) (n)
tribution σ̂θ (Ro , r) is usually specified. On the other r ρ (r)
hand, when wrap slippage is an issue, it may be prefer-
f (σ̂r(n+1) (Ro , Rc ), σ̂θ (Ro , Rc ))
able to specify a target interwrap pressure distribution
−f (0, σw (Rc ))
p̂(Ro , r) = −σ̂r (Ro , r). û(n+1) (Ro , Rc ) = Rc
First, the case is considered when a target hoop 1 + f (0, σw (Rc ))
stress σ̂θ (Ro , r) is specified. The differential equations û(n+1) (Ro , r) = û(n+1) (Ro , Rc )
(9) and boundary conditions (10) can be written as r
∂ + g (σ̂r(n+1) (Ro , η), σ̂θ (Ro , η))dη
− [ρ(r)σ̂r (Ro , r)] + σ̂θ (Ro , r) = 0 Rc
∂r
∂ r + û(n+1) (Ro , r)
(ρ(r)[1 + f (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r))]) ρ (n+1) (r) =
∂r 1 + f (σ̂r(n+1) (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r))
− g (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r)) = 1
(11) The case when a target radial stress σ̂r (Ro , r) is speci-
and fied is technically a little different. Although equation
  (11) yields a differential equation in the unknowns ρ(r)
r − ρ(r) and σ̂θ (Ro , r), the boundary conditions (12) only give
σ̂r (Ro , r) − Êc f (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r)) + Êc =0
ρ(r) a single constraint on the unknowns. Furthermore,
at r = Rc (12) the interwrap pressure is zero on the outer boundary
and thus the differential equations become singular.
σ̂r (Ro , r) = 0 at r = Ro
An additional boundary condition is not required if
These can be viewed as a standard two-point boundary Êc > 0. Imposing the condition that the solution is
value problem for the unknowns ρ(r) and σ̂r (Ro , r) [28]. bounded is sufficient. Reference [27] provides further
Alternatively, an iterative scheme such as the following information on singular boundary value problems and
could be used their numerical solution. On the other hand, if Êc = 0,
the winding stress at the bore needs to be speci-
ρ (0) (r) = r fied. Further discussion of this case is deferred until
For n = 0, 1, 2, . . . section 3, where a simple approximation is given.
 Ro Having obtained ρ(r) and the residual stresses
(n+1) dη σ̂r (Ro , r) and σ̂θ (Ro , r), the calculation of the winding
σ̂r (Ro , r) = σ̂θ (R, η) (n)
r ρ (r) stress is now considered. From equations (4), (6), and

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An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils 1525

(9), following differential equations are obtained subject to the boundary condition
∂ ρ(r) = r at r = Rc
− [ρ(r)σ̄r (R, r)] + σ̄θ (R, r) = 0
∂r σ̄r (R, r) = 0 at r = R
∂ (17)
(ρ(r)f (σ̄r (R, r), σ̄θ (R, r))) − g (σ̄r (R, r), σ̄θ (R, r))
∂r
∂ Equations (16) and (17) form a system of differen-
= (ρ(r)f (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r))) tial equations subject to boundary conditions when
∂r
σ̂θ (Ro , r) is given or a system of algebraic differential
− g (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r))
(13) equations when σ̂r (Ro , r) is given. In either case the
solution can be found by standard methods.
and boundary conditions For the solution of (16) and (17), one requires the
σ̄r (R, r) = Ec (f (σ̄r (R, r), σ̄θ (R, r)) − f (0, σ̄w (r))) winding stress at the bore σw (Rc ), which can be found
for Êc > 0 by solving
at r = Rc (14)
Êc f (0, σ̄w (Rc )) = Êc f (σ̂r (Ro , Rc ), σ̂θ (Ro , Rc )) − σ̂r (Ro , Rc )
σ̄r (R, r) = 0 at r = R
(18)
Since ρ(r), σ̂r (Ro , r), and σ̂θ (Ro , r) are known, this is a
two-point boundary value problem that can be solved When Êc = 0, an arbitrary winding stress may be
by standard techniques [28] to obtain σ̄r (R, r) and specified at the bore.
σ̄θ (R, r). The winding stress is now calculated from Further simplification is possible if additional
σw (R) = σ̄θ (R, R) and the process can be repeated for assumptions are made about the constitutive rela-
different values of Rc  R  Ro to obtain the winding tion (1). Specifically, almost all cases considered in
stress at different points. the literature assume that ε̄r = g (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) = g (σ̄r ), from
which it follows that the first and second equations in
(16) uncouple when σ̄r (Ro , r) is specified. It should be
3 FURTHER APPROXIMATIONS noted, however, that

To this point, the analysis has been kept quite general ∂φ(σ̄r , σ̄θ )
g (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) =
but substantial simplification is possible by mak- ∂ σ̄r
∂φ(σ̄r , σ̄θ )
ing further appropriate assumptions. In practice, the f (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) =
azimuthal strains are small because they are limited by ∂ σ̄θ
(19)
the ratio of the yield stress to the effective azimuthal
and axial moduli. On the other hand, the radial strains where φ(σ̄r , σ̄θ ) is the strain energy density. Thus,
may be substantial, since the effective elastic modu- g (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) = g (σ̄r ) implies that f (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) = f (σ̄θ ) from
lus in the radial direction can be very much less than equation (19). This constraint is not always respected,
the elastic modulus of the coil material. Therefore, it an example being the widely used model of Hakiel
is assumed that ε̂θ (R, r), ε̄θ (R, r), and ε̄z (R, r)  1 from [15] that requires the specification of a ‘tangential
which it follows that modulus’ as a function of the interlayer pressure.
r + û(R0 , r)
ρ(r) = 4 RESULTS AND APPLICATIONS
1 + ε̂θ (R0 , r)
≈ r + û(R0 , r) (15)
To illustrate the results, the same constitutive relation
This approximation, along with the equilibrium as that in Benson [9], is used, specifically
equation, can be used to determine the residual
σ̄θ = Eθ ε̄θ
stresses and ρ(r) to an accuracy that is sufficient to
account for the change in geometry due to the large p̄ = −σ̄r = α[(1 + ε̄r )−β − 1]
(20)
deformations (i.e. sufficient for utilization in equation
(13)). Note, however, that the accuracy is not sufficient where α and β are the interlayer compression modulus
to determine the azimuthal strain (which has been and interlayer springiness, respectively, and p̄ is the
neglected in the derivation). Specifically interwrap pressure. Alternatively, it can be written as
 
dρ(r)
− g (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r)) = 1 1 − σ̄r −1/β
dr ε̄r = g (σ̄r ) = −1
α

− [ρ(r)σ̂r (Ro , r)] + σ̂θ (Ro , r) = 0 σ̄θ
∂r εθ = f (σ̄θ ) =
Eθ (21)
(16)

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1526 F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

Table 1 Material constants used in the calculations Note, however, that only one of these stresses can be
for paper specified – the other stresses and ρ(r) are calculated
as described in section 3. These stresses will be used
Radius of the bore Rc 25 mm
Outer radius of coil Ro 100 mm to calculate the winding stress profile based on the
Elastic modulus of mandrel Ec 6 GPa inverse solution.
Elastic modulus of the coil in the Eθ 4 GPa The radial compression of the coil after its removal
tangential direction
Interlayer compression modulus α 40 kPa from the mandrel is shown in Fig. 4, for material prop-
Interlayer springiness β 25 erties typical of paper and steel (given in Tables 1 and 2,
Initial winding stress σw (Rc ) 20 MPa respectively). In the calculations, large deformation
analysis resulting in the residual stresses shown in
Values of the interlayer compression modulus and Fig. 3 was used for paper, while for steel, a constant
interlayer springiness used in this section are given in winding stress of 100 MPa was used. Figure 4 shows
Table 1. They are based on the values used for paper that, for paper material, there has been substantial
material in Benson [9], which in turn are based on deformation of the coil – a reduction in the outer radius
experiments reported in Olive [29]. of nearly 10 per cent when compared to the nominal
For the illustrative example, a roll of paper that has radius. As might be expected, this can have a substan-
been wound on a mandrel and then removed from the tial effect. If, for example, the target hoop stress was
mandrel as illustrated in Figs 1 and 2, shall be con- specified and the small deformation approximation
sidered. It is assumed that the roll has no former. The was used
target residual stresses in this coil are shown in Fig. 3. ∂
− [r σ̄r (R, r)] + σ̄θ (R, r) ≈ 0
∂r
to estimate the interwrap pressure, a substantial devi-
ation as shown in Fig. 5 would be obtained, where the
radial pressures calculated from large and small defor-
mation analyses are compared for the hoop/tangential
stress profile shown in Fig. 3(b). On the other hand,
when the interwrap pressure is specified, the hoop
stresses calculated on the basis of large deformation
or small deformations are quite similar.
Figure 4 also shows the deviation of ρ(r) from its
nominal value for material properties typical of steel.
(For this calculation the constitutive relations for steel
described in reference [23] were used.) As can be seen
the deviation for steel is very small, indicating that the
small deformation theory is largely valid for materi-
als such as steel. Furthermore, corresponding results
for aluminium and polymer film are also included
in Fig. 4. In these calculations, an Eθ of 72 GPa and
a constant winding stress of 50 MPa were used for
aluminium, while material properties and winding
conditions similar to those assumed by Hakiel [15]
were adopted for polymer film. It can be seen that the
deviations of ρ(r) from their nominal values are very
small for both aluminium and polymer film, indicating
small deformation analysis is suitable for these materi-
als. The somewhat different behaviour of the polymer
Fig. 3 Target stresses after removal from mandrel used film from paper material is due to its higher value of Er
for calculating the large deformation winding (around one to two orders of magnitude higher than
stress shown in Fig. 6. All other parameters are that of paper), despite similar values of Eθ for the two
given in Table 1. Included is a comparison with materials.
the stresses calculated from the forward solution. Having analysed the target residual stresses, one
The specified winding stress used for the calcu- can now find the required winding stress that will
lation is the large deformation winding stress of result in the target residual stresses. As explained
Fig. 6 (as described in section 4). (a) Large defor- previously, this is achieved by the numerical solu-
mation radial pressure and (b) target tangential tion of the differential equations (13) subject to the
stress boundary conditions (14). The required winding stress

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An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils 1527

Fig. 4 Comparison of nominal and actual radius after removal from the mandrel for a variety of
materials. The large deformation winding stress of Fig. 6 and parameters listed in Table 1
were used for the comparison for material properties typical of paper. For material proper-
ties typical of steel a constant winding stress of 100 MPa and the parameters listed in Table 2
were used. For aluminium, a constant winding stress of 50 MPa and an Eθ of 72 GPa were
used, while for polymer film, those assumed by Hakiel [15] were adopted

Table 2 Material constants used in the calculations


for steel

Radius of the bore Rc 250 mm


Outer radius of coil Ro 750 mm
Strip thickness h 0.3 mm
Elastic modulus of mandrel Ec 100 GPa
Elastic modulus of the coil in the Eθ 200 GPa
tangential direction
Gap thickness (at zero pressure) l0 7.485 µm
Elastic modulus of the coil in the radial Eg 10 MPa
direction
Poisson ratio of the coiled material ν 0

Fig. 6 Comparison between the winding stress calcu-


lated from the inverse solution for large defor-
mations and those for small deformations for
material properties typical of paper. The target
tangential stress used for the calculations and
corresponding radial pressure are shown in Fig. 3.
All other parameters are given in Table 1

deformations and large deformations with the target


hoop stress given in Fig. 3(b). Again the deviation is
substantial though, as previously, the deviation is sub-
Fig. 5 Comparison between the radial pressure calcu- stantially smaller when the target interwrap pressure
lated for large and small deformations for mate- is specified.
rial properties typical of paper. The same target In order to validate the inverse solution for large
tangential stress, shown in Fig. 3(b), was used deformations, the following comparison has been
for both solutions. All other parameters are given made. Using the forward solution, which has been
in Table 1 extended from the small deformation theory [25], the
residual stresses were calculated for a specified wind-
ing stress profile. The winding stress profile of Fig. 6,
distribution is then calculated from σw (R) = σ̄θ (R, R). obtained from the inverse solution for large deforma-
Figure 6 shows, for material properties typical of paper tion, was used as the specified winding stress profile
(based on parameters given in Table 1), the winding for the forward solution. The residual stresses (after
stresses calculated under the assumption of small mandrel removal) from the forward solution were then

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1528 F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

compared with the target stresses used for calculating a smaller area than that with respect to the unde-
the winding stress from the inverse solution. Figure 3 formed system, i.e. the radial pressure will be higher
shows the results of the comparison for material prop- for the deformed coordinate system, compared with
erties typical of paper (given in Table 1). As can be the undeformed coordinate system. This explains the
seen, the agreement between the inverse and forward higher radial pressure calculated for Benson’s model
solution is excellent. compared to the model described in the current paper.
Benson [9] has also developed a forward solution for It is straightforward, however, to transform either
the case of large deformations and non-linear mate- result into the other form by taking into account the
rial properties and applied it to calculate stresses for strain/deformation field in the coil after winding.
materials such as paper. He further validated his solu- In addition, in the model of this paper (as well as
tion by comparing the calculated radial pressures with in Hakiel’s model [15]), it is assumed that the tension
experiments (shown in Fig. 7 of reference [9]). A com- of the outermost wrap is equal to the applied tension,
parison between his results (digitized Figs 5 and 4 of whereas Benson’s model allows for a slight reduction
reference [9]) and the forward solution for large defor- in the tension of the outermost wrap [9]. This differ-
mation is shown in Fig. 7. As can be seen there is ence partially offsets the effect of the difference in the
reasonable agreement for the case of the radial pres- coordinate systems.
sure and good agreement for the tangential stress. Now that models for all four regimes have been
Differences between the two results can be attributed developed (small deformation theory for both linear
to slight differences in the model formulations such as and non-linear material properties, as well as large
the ones described below. deformation for linear and non-linear material prop-
The stresses in a coil can be defined with respect erties), the applicability of these regimes for different
to the deformed (or actual) coordinate system, as pre- types of materials shall be investigated. Those stud-
sented by Benson [9] or to the undeformed coordinate ied include metals, such as steel and aluminium, as
system, as used in the model formulation presented in well as polymer films and paper. Typical properties of
this paper. Hence the radial force with respect to the these materials can be found in references [9], [15],
deformed coordinate system will effectively be over [17], [23], and [30]. It is found that for all materials
considered, non-linear material properties need to be
employed for accurate stress predictions. To illustrate
this, a comparison of the stresses calculated from the
small deformation theory using non-linear and lin-
ear material properties for both paper and steel is
shown in Figs 8 and 9, respectively. In order to make
these comparisons, the equivalent material param-
eters for the linear case have to be deduced from
those of the non-linear material parameters listed in
Tables 1 (for paper material) and 2 (for steel). The
adopted method for the material properties of paper
is described in reference [24] and a similar method is
used for the material properties of steel. The mate-
rial properties for paper listed in Table 1 and the
calculated winding stress (from small deformation
theory) of Fig. 6 are used for the comparison shown
in Fig. 8. As can been seen, there is a very large dif-
ference in the radial pressure calculated using linear
material properties as well as a significant difference
in the tangential stress. A constant winding stress of
30 MPa and the material properties listed in Table 2
have been used for the comparison for steel. As can
be seen from Fig. 9(a), the radial pressure calculated
using linear material properties differs from that for
non-linear material properties even for low winding
stresses.
Fig. 7 Comparison of stresses calculated using the As discussed in reference [24], differences between
large deformation forward solution for non-linear the large deformation and small deformation theory
material properties with Benson’s results (Figs 4 are likely for cases for which ρ(r) differs significantly
and 5 of reference [9]). (a) Radial pressure and (b) from r. Hence for very compressible materials
tangential stress (i.e. materials with very small values of Er ), such as

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An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils 1529

Fig. 8 Comparison of stresses calculated using the small Fig. 9 Comparison of stresses calculated using the small
deformation forward solution for non-linear and deformation forward solution for non-linear and
linear material properties typical for paper. The linear material properties typical for steel. A con-
small deformation winding stress of Fig. 6 was stant (low) winding stress of 30 MPa was used for
used for the calculation. All other parameters the calculation. All other parameters are given
are given in Table 1. (a) Radial pressure and (b) in Table 2. (a) Radial pressure and (b) tangential
tangential stress stress

be expected to be largely valid for these types of


paper, there is a large difference in ρ(r) resulting in materials as well.
large differences between the calculated radial pres-
sure for large deformations compared with that of
small deformations, as illustrated in Figs 4 and 5. 5 CONCLUSION
For the case of metals such as steel, even though the
radial pressure for high winding stresses can be sig- The current paper presents an inverse solution for
nificantly higher than those for the examples given for the stresses induced during and after winding of a
paper, the effective radial elastic modulus for steel Er is roll/coil, considering large strains and the non-linear
much larger than that for paper. Hence, as illustrated material behaviour in the radial direction. This analy-
in Fig. 4, the deviation of ρ(r) from r is much smaller sis completes the recent series of papers by the authors
for steel than for the case of paper (even for very large on the inverse solutions for the wound-in stresses
winding stresses). Aluminium also has large values of in coils, covering combinations of both small and
Er compared to the radial pressure and hence the devi- large deformations, and linear and non-linear material
ation of ρ(r) from r is also very small for this material. properties.
For these cases, small deformation theory would be In addition, it is shown that for most practi-
adequate. cal applications with common materials used for
Even though materials such as polymer films have packaging and consumer products, non-linear mate-
similar values of radial pressures (for typical wind- rial properties should be considered. However, small
ing stresses) to those typical for paper (and similar deformation theory is sufficient for relatively ‘rigid’
values of Eθ ), their effective values of Er are again sig- material such as metal strip (steel and aluminium)
nificantly higher than those typical of paper. Hence and polymer films. For relatively ‘soft’ materials,
the deviation of ρ(r) from r for these materials is such as paper, large deformation theory needs to be
again small. Thus the small deformation theory can employed.

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1530 F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 18 Cole, K. A. and Hakiel, Z. A nonlinear wound roll stress


model accounting for widthwise web thickness nonuni-
The authors wish to thank the management of CSIRO formities. In Proceedings of Web Handling Symposium,
ASME Applied Mech. Div., AMD-Vol 149, 1992, pp. 13–24.
and BlueScope Steel Research for permission to pub-
19 Hakiel, Z. On the effect of width direction thickness
lish the material contained in the current paper.
variations in wound rolls. In Proceedings of 2nd Inter-
national Conference on Web Handling, Oklahoma State
University, May, 1992, pp. 79–98.
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APPENDIX
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nonlinear finite difference approach. Trans. ASME, E.,
J. Appl. Mech., 1988, 55, 365–371. Ec effective modulus of core
17 Zabaras, N., Liu, S., Koppuzha, J., and Donaldson, E. (former and mandrel)
A hypoelastic model for computing the stresses in center- Eg modulus of gap
wound rolls of magnetic tape. Trans. ASME, E., J. Appl. Eθ azimuthal modulus of coiled
Mech., 1994, 61, 290–295. material

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An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils 1531

f (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) stress strain function Sm strain energy in the mandrel


F (ε̄r , ε̄θ ) stress strain relation u = u(R, r) radial displacement
g (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) stress strain function
G(ε̄r , ε̄θ ) stress strain relation α interlayer compression
h0 thickness of unconstrained modulus
wrap β interlayer springiness
p̂ target interwrap pressure ε̄r = ∂u/∂r radial strain
p̄ interwrap pressure ε̄θ = (r + u − ρ)/ρ azimuthal strain
r radial coordinate ε̄r = g (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) stress strain relation
r +u radius of the (r − Rc )/h0 wrap ε̄θ = f (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) stress strain relation
R outer radius of coil during ε̄z axial strain
winding ρ radius of the (r − Rc )/h0 wrap
(r − Rc )/h0 wrap number, Rc  r  R if it were unconstrained
(R − Rc )/h0 number of wraps in coil σ̄w (R) winding stress
Rc radius of the core (former and σ̂r target stress
mandrel) σ̂θ target stress

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