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coils of non-linear orthotropic material

F R de Hoog1 , W Y D Yuen2∗ , and M Cozijnsen2

1

CSIRO Mathematical and Information Science, Canberra, Australia

2

Research Department, BlueScope Steel Limited, Port Kembla, Australia

The manuscript was received on 1 June 2007 and was accepted after revision for publication on 23 August 2007.

DOI: 10.1243/09544062JMES749

Abstract: Extensive study of stresses induced during and after winding of coils has led to sig-

niﬁcant improvements to the processing of web-like materials for the packaging industries and

consumer goods. The current paper presents an inverse solution for the prediction of the winding

tension proﬁle required to satisfy a speciﬁed residual stress distribution in the coil, for non-linear

material properties (in the radial direction), with allowance for large strain and large deformation

in the coil. The inverse solution approach has advantage over the forward solution approach by

directly determining the winding tension proﬁle, which can be readily controlled in a processing

line, once the desired residual stresses in the coil are known. The current paper, together with

several recently published ones, completes the study of stresses in the winding of coils using the

inverse solution approach.

Keywords: winding stresses, winding, coil collapse, coiling, non-linear material, large

deformations

are caused by the unfavourable residual stresses in the

Web-like material is most efﬁciently stored in the form coil after the release of the radial pressure (applied by

of a roll or coil during its processing and manufac- the mandrel during winding). Typical of these defects

ture until its ﬁnal use. Examples are paper, plastic ﬁlm, are the tension buckle or tight-bore collapse which

and metal strip, for the packaging, building and auto- is caused by the excessive circumferential compres-

motive industries, as well as for the manufacture of sion stress near the bore/eye of the coil, and the soft

consumer goods. One of the most common methods collapse of the coil due to inadequate interwrap pres-

to form these rolls/coils is by centre winding, whereby sure and interwrap friction to maintain the integrity

the web material is wound on a mandrel or a former (shape) of the coil under its own weight. These defects,

to build up the coil. Much care is required, however, if severe, could render the coil to be scrapped for fur-

in producing these coils. If an inappropriate wind- ther processing. Hence, the understanding of stress

ing tension proﬁle is applied, numerous defects could buildup during winding and the resultant residual

arise during the winding process. These include bursts, stresses in the coil is crucial for defect-free processing

baggy lanes, and star defects for paper rolls, and for of web-like materials.

metal strip, scufﬁng (marking of the strip surface due There have been numerous studies performed on

to interwrap movement), telescoping (sliding of some the above subject, in the context of both the thin

wraps in the axial direction), or partial collapse of the ﬁlm/paper and metal strip manufacturing. Owing to

mandrel (due to excessive radial pressure on the man- the difﬁculty in measuring stresses and strains in the

drel). In addition, various defects could occur after the coil during and after winding, most studies were theo-

retical in nature, with predictions conﬁrmed directly or

indirectly by experiments and/or ﬁeld observations. It

∗ Corresponding author: Research Department, BlueScope Steel must be emphasized, however, that the material prop-

Limited, Old Port Road, Port Kembla NSW 2505, Australia. email: erties (in particular, the radial compressibility and

daniel.yuen@bluescopesteel.com shear characteristics of the coil) must be known for

JMES749 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

1522 F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

meaningful predictions using the theoretical models. at a residual stress distribution which is considered to

Nevertheless, the measurements of these properties be acceptable.

are relatively straightforward [1]. In the inverse solution approach, the target resid-

The most popular method in analysing the stresses ual stresses in the coil are speciﬁed and the winding

and strains in winding of a coil is the accretion model. tension proﬁle to achieve these stresses is to be deter-

In this approach, the web material is modelled as a mined. It has been shown that inverse solutions, which

series of prestressed rings (the level of prestress is given do not involve trial-and-error or iterations, can be

by the applied winding tension), successively applied derived for the above problem. In the previous stud-

onto the coil (with the stress and strain distribu- ies, small deformation with linear material properties

tions, hence the outer coil diameter on which the new was ﬁrst explored [22], followed by small deforma-

layer is laid, calculated for each additional ring/layer). tion with non-linear material properties [23], and large

This approached was pioneered by Altmann [2], who deformation with linear material properties [24]. The

derived the well-known Altmann integrals for the solu- current paper completes the series of inverse solu-

tion of the stresses in the coil. Since then, many tion development for this problem by considering the

enhancements and extensions have been proposed. winding regime requiring large deformation analy-

Examples are considerations of effects associated with sis with non-linear material properties. Although the

high speed winding, such as centrifugal force [3–5] solution procedure is more involved due to the need

and air entrapment [6–8], large deformation for soft to consider the deformation ﬁeld of the coil accurately,

materials [9–11], relaxation of the winding mate- it will be shown that simplifying assumptions can be

rial [12–14], non-linear material behaviour [15, 16], made for most applications and the resultant solution

and three-dimensional effects [17–20]. More details is still signiﬁcantly faster than the forward solution

may be found in a recent comprehensive review by approach. In addition, the required winding tension

Good [21]. proﬁle can be determined directly, rather than using

On the other hand, depending on the operating the trial-and-error method as in the forward solution

regime of interest, certain simpliﬁcations may be approach.

employed. For materials which offer little radial com-

pliance, small deformation analysis may be adopted.

Conversely, for materials that are very compliant in the 2 PROBLEM FORMULATION

radial direction, non-linear large deformation theory

must be used (for example, see Benson [9]). Simi- Because winding of the coils is under tension (pre-

larly, when the winding tension is relatively low such stressed), the deﬁnition of coordinates requires some

that the radial pressure is small, the material char- care. First, a computational domain is deﬁned Rc

acteristics in the radial direction can be regarded to r R R0 where Rc is the undeformed radius of the

be linear (i.e. radial stress proportional to the radial core (the former and/or mandrel) and the radial coor-

strain), otherwise non-linear material properties need dinate r deﬁnes a particular wrap (Figs 1 and 2).

to be included in the formulation. Hence there are Speciﬁcally, r denotes the [(r − Rc )/h]–th wrap, where

four combinations for the assumptions: small/large h is the wrap thickness in the unstressed state. Note,

deformation, together with linear/non-linear material however, that r is not the radial position in the phys-

properties (all of them refer to the radial direction). ical coil, which is deformed. In fact, the radius of

In a recent series of papers [22–24], the authors have the [(r − Rc )/h]-th wrap is r + u(r, R) and this may be

developed inverse solutions to solve the above prob- signiﬁcantly different to r for large deformations. Simi-

lem. These inverse solutions have distinct advantages larly, the current coil consists of (R − Rc )/h wraps while

over the traditional forward solutions. In the forward the completed coil consists of (Ro − Rc )/h wraps.

solutions, the winding tension proﬁle is assumed, from

which the stresses in the coil during winding, and the

postwinding residual stresses are calculated. In addi-

tion, for the accretion models, the stresses have to be

calculated as each additional layer/wrap is added to

the coil, making the computation relatively expensive

for thin materials and large coils (which could consist

of thousands of layers) – although this constraint can

be somewhat relaxed by considering the coil as a con-

tinuum, but with anisotropic material properties [25].

These calculated stresses are then assessed, based on

certain criteria [1, 26], for their likelihood of generat-

ing defects in the coil. The winding tension proﬁle is

then adjusted, by a trial-and-error approach, to arrive Fig. 1 Schematic of centre winding

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science JMES749 © IMechE 2007

An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils 1523

σ̄r (R, r) = Ec (f (σ̄r (R, r), σ̄θ (R, r)) − f (0, σ̄w (r)))

at r = Rc

σ̄r (R, r) = 0 at r = R

(6)

Here

r = Rc via

Fig. 2 Schematic of completed coil removed from

mandrel Rc − ρ(Rc ) = ρ(Rc )f (0, σw (Rc )) (8)

tions of the following form are considered

The forward coil winding problem is to infer the wound

ε̄r = g (σ̄r , σ̄θ ), ε̄θ = f (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) (1) in stresses in the coil given the winding stress σw .

Wound-in stresses might also be required after further

where the strains are given by processing of the coil, such as removal from the man-

drel. The calculation of the wound-in stresses while

∂u r + u − ρ(r) the coil is on the mandrel requires the simultaneous

ε̄r = , ε̄θ = (2)

∂r ρ(r) solution of differential equations (4) and the boundary

conditions (5) and (6) for the unknowns ρ(r), σr (R, r)

It is important here to recognize that σ̄r and σ̄θ

and σθ (R, r). The approach here is similar to that for

are the stresses in the undeformed coordinate sys-

small deformations. First, equation (4) and the bound-

tem (known as ﬁrst Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensors),

ary condition (5) can be differentiated with respect to

which are related to stresses in the deformed coordi-

R to eliminate the right-hand side in equation (4). An

nate system (known as second Piola-Kirchhoff stress

accretion approach which, in a discretized form, is

tensors) by

equivalent to constructing the coil by adding a wrap

σ̄r = (1 + ε̄θ )(1 + ε̄z )σr , σ̄θ = (1 + ε̄r )(1 + ε̄z )σθ at a time can then be applied. For large deforma-

tions, this is non-trivial since all of the variables are

Here, ε̄z is the strain in the axial direction, which will coupled (for small deformations, ρ(r) and the equa-

be zero for plain strain or if there is no Poisson effect. tions uncouple) but simple iterative schemes, utilizing

It is sometimes convenient to calculate the stresses under-relaxation as in reference [27], are possibly

from the strains and it is assumed that equation (1) has effective.

a unique inverse given by Suppose now that further processing of the coil

takes place. For the purpose of this development,

σ̄r = G(ε̄r , ε̄θ ), σ̄θ = F (ε̄r , ε̄θ ) (3) this shall be assumed to be the removal of the man-

drel as illustrated in Fig. 2. Assuming that there has

From equilibrium and compatibility (i.e. using the been no slippage of the wraps, ρ(r), the radius of the

deﬁnitions of ε̄r and ε̄θ ) respectively, one obtains (r − Rc )/h-th wrap if it were unconstrained, remains

the same but the wound-in stresses will change.

∂ Let the radial and circumferential components of

− [ρ(r)σ̄r (R, r)] + σ̄θ (R, r) = 0

∂r these stresses be denoted by σ̂r (Ro , r) and σ̂θ (Ro , r),

∂ respectively. These stresses also need to satisfy the

(ρ(r)f (σ̄r (R, r), σ̄θ (R, r))) − g (σ̄r (R, r), σ̄θ (R, r))

∂r equilibrium and compatibility conditions, thus

d

= (r − ρ(r)) ∂

dr − [ρ(r)σ̂r (Ro , r)] + σ̂θ (Ro , r) = 0

(4) ∂r

∂

In addition, the radial stress on the outer boundary is (ρ(r)f (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r))) − g (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (R, r))

∂r

zero while, at the mandrel d

= (r − ρ(r))

dr (9)

ρ(Rc )σ̄r (R, Rc ) = Ec u(R, Rc ) (5)

JMES749 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

1524 F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

effective modulus of the core has changed and the û(n+1) (Ro , Rc ) = ρ (n) (Rc )

Êc

boundary conditions become (n+1) (n+1)

û (Ro , r) = û (Ro , Rc )

σ̂r (Ro , r) = Êc (f (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r)) − f (0, σ̄w (r))) r

+ g (σ̂r(n+1) (Ro , η), σ̂θ (Ro , η))dη

at r = Rc Rc

(10) ρ (n+1) (r) =

1 + f (σ̂r(n+1) (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r))

The stresses σ̂r (Ro , r) and σ̂θ (Ro , r) can now be calcu-

The case when there is no support at the bore (i.e. no

lated by solving the differential equation (9) subject to

core or sleeve is used, Êc = 0) is a degenerated case,

the boundary condition (10). Since ρ(r) is now known,

which needs to be treated separately. A compatibility

this is just a simple two-point boundary value prob-

condition on σ̂θ (Ro , r), namely

lem for a pair of non-linear differential equations, for

which solution techniques are well known [28]. Ro

σ̂θ (Ro , η)dη = 0

Rc

2.2 The inverse problem

The inverse problem takes, as a starting point, spec- is required and σw (Rc ), the winding stress at the bore,

iﬁed residual stresses in a coil at some point of its needs to be speciﬁed. An appropriate modiﬁcation to

winding history (which will be taken to be after it is the above iteration is given by

removed from the mandrel) and asks what winding

stress is required to produce these stresses. Actually, ρ (0) (r) = r

since the stresses cannot be speciﬁed independently, For n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

only one of these should be speciﬁed. When bore Ro

stability is a potential issue, a target hoop stress dis- (n+1) dη

σ̂r (Ro , r) = σ̂θ (R, η) (n)

tribution σ̂θ (Ro , r) is usually speciﬁed. On the other r ρ (r)

hand, when wrap slippage is an issue, it may be prefer-

f (σ̂r(n+1) (Ro , Rc ), σ̂θ (Ro , Rc ))

able to specify a target interwrap pressure distribution

−f (0, σw (Rc ))

p̂(Ro , r) = −σ̂r (Ro , r). û(n+1) (Ro , Rc ) = Rc

First, the case is considered when a target hoop 1 + f (0, σw (Rc ))

stress σ̂θ (Ro , r) is speciﬁed. The differential equations û(n+1) (Ro , r) = û(n+1) (Ro , Rc )

(9) and boundary conditions (10) can be written as r

∂ + g (σ̂r(n+1) (Ro , η), σ̂θ (Ro , η))dη

− [ρ(r)σ̂r (Ro , r)] + σ̂θ (Ro , r) = 0 Rc

∂r

∂ r + û(n+1) (Ro , r)

(ρ(r)[1 + f (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r))]) ρ (n+1) (r) =

∂r 1 + f (σ̂r(n+1) (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r))

− g (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r)) = 1

(11) The case when a target radial stress σ̂r (Ro , r) is speci-

and ﬁed is technically a little different. Although equation

(11) yields a differential equation in the unknowns ρ(r)

r − ρ(r) and σ̂θ (Ro , r), the boundary conditions (12) only give

σ̂r (Ro , r) − Êc f (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r)) + Êc =0

ρ(r) a single constraint on the unknowns. Furthermore,

at r = Rc (12) the interwrap pressure is zero on the outer boundary

and thus the differential equations become singular.

σ̂r (Ro , r) = 0 at r = Ro

An additional boundary condition is not required if

These can be viewed as a standard two-point boundary Êc > 0. Imposing the condition that the solution is

value problem for the unknowns ρ(r) and σ̂r (Ro , r) [28]. bounded is sufﬁcient. Reference [27] provides further

Alternatively, an iterative scheme such as the following information on singular boundary value problems and

could be used their numerical solution. On the other hand, if Êc = 0,

the winding stress at the bore needs to be speci-

ρ (0) (r) = r ﬁed. Further discussion of this case is deferred until

For n = 0, 1, 2, . . . section 3, where a simple approximation is given.

Ro Having obtained ρ(r) and the residual stresses

(n+1) dη σ̂r (Ro , r) and σ̂θ (Ro , r), the calculation of the winding

σ̂r (Ro , r) = σ̂θ (R, η) (n)

r ρ (r) stress is now considered. From equations (4), (6), and

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science JMES749 © IMechE 2007

An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils 1525

(9), following differential equations are obtained subject to the boundary condition

∂ ρ(r) = r at r = Rc

− [ρ(r)σ̄r (R, r)] + σ̄θ (R, r) = 0

∂r σ̄r (R, r) = 0 at r = R

∂ (17)

(ρ(r)f (σ̄r (R, r), σ̄θ (R, r))) − g (σ̄r (R, r), σ̄θ (R, r))

∂r

∂ Equations (16) and (17) form a system of differen-

= (ρ(r)f (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r))) tial equations subject to boundary conditions when

∂r

σ̂θ (Ro , r) is given or a system of algebraic differential

− g (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r))

(13) equations when σ̂r (Ro , r) is given. In either case the

solution can be found by standard methods.

and boundary conditions For the solution of (16) and (17), one requires the

σ̄r (R, r) = Ec (f (σ̄r (R, r), σ̄θ (R, r)) − f (0, σ̄w (r))) winding stress at the bore σw (Rc ), which can be found

for Êc > 0 by solving

at r = Rc (14)

Êc f (0, σ̄w (Rc )) = Êc f (σ̂r (Ro , Rc ), σ̂θ (Ro , Rc )) − σ̂r (Ro , Rc )

σ̄r (R, r) = 0 at r = R

(18)

Since ρ(r), σ̂r (Ro , r), and σ̂θ (Ro , r) are known, this is a

two-point boundary value problem that can be solved When Êc = 0, an arbitrary winding stress may be

by standard techniques [28] to obtain σ̄r (R, r) and speciﬁed at the bore.

σ̄θ (R, r). The winding stress is now calculated from Further simpliﬁcation is possible if additional

σw (R) = σ̄θ (R, R) and the process can be repeated for assumptions are made about the constitutive rela-

different values of Rc R Ro to obtain the winding tion (1). Speciﬁcally, almost all cases considered in

stress at different points. the literature assume that ε̄r = g (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) = g (σ̄r ), from

which it follows that the ﬁrst and second equations in

(16) uncouple when σ̄r (Ro , r) is speciﬁed. It should be

3 FURTHER APPROXIMATIONS noted, however, that

To this point, the analysis has been kept quite general ∂φ(σ̄r , σ̄θ )

g (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) =

but substantial simpliﬁcation is possible by mak- ∂ σ̄r

∂φ(σ̄r , σ̄θ )

ing further appropriate assumptions. In practice, the f (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) =

azimuthal strains are small because they are limited by ∂ σ̄θ

(19)

the ratio of the yield stress to the effective azimuthal

and axial moduli. On the other hand, the radial strains where φ(σ̄r , σ̄θ ) is the strain energy density. Thus,

may be substantial, since the effective elastic modu- g (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) = g (σ̄r ) implies that f (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) = f (σ̄θ ) from

lus in the radial direction can be very much less than equation (19). This constraint is not always respected,

the elastic modulus of the coil material. Therefore, it an example being the widely used model of Hakiel

is assumed that ε̂θ (R, r), ε̄θ (R, r), and ε̄z (R, r) 1 from [15] that requires the speciﬁcation of a ‘tangential

which it follows that modulus’ as a function of the interlayer pressure.

r + û(R0 , r)

ρ(r) = 4 RESULTS AND APPLICATIONS

1 + ε̂θ (R0 , r)

≈ r + û(R0 , r) (15)

To illustrate the results, the same constitutive relation

This approximation, along with the equilibrium as that in Benson [9], is used, speciﬁcally

equation, can be used to determine the residual

σ̄θ = Eθ ε̄θ

stresses and ρ(r) to an accuracy that is sufﬁcient to

account for the change in geometry due to the large p̄ = −σ̄r = α[(1 + ε̄r )−β − 1]

(20)

deformations (i.e. sufﬁcient for utilization in equation

(13)). Note, however, that the accuracy is not sufﬁcient where α and β are the interlayer compression modulus

to determine the azimuthal strain (which has been and interlayer springiness, respectively, and p̄ is the

neglected in the derivation). Speciﬁcally interwrap pressure. Alternatively, it can be written as

dρ(r)

− g (σ̂r (Ro , r), σ̂θ (Ro , r)) = 1 1 − σ̄r −1/β

dr ε̄r = g (σ̄r ) = −1

α

∂

− [ρ(r)σ̂r (Ro , r)] + σ̂θ (Ro , r) = 0 σ̄θ

∂r εθ = f (σ̄θ ) =

Eθ (21)

(16)

JMES749 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

1526 F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

Table 1 Material constants used in the calculations Note, however, that only one of these stresses can be

for paper speciﬁed – the other stresses and ρ(r) are calculated

as described in section 3. These stresses will be used

Radius of the bore Rc 25 mm

Outer radius of coil Ro 100 mm to calculate the winding stress proﬁle based on the

Elastic modulus of mandrel Ec 6 GPa inverse solution.

Elastic modulus of the coil in the Eθ 4 GPa The radial compression of the coil after its removal

tangential direction

Interlayer compression modulus α 40 kPa from the mandrel is shown in Fig. 4, for material prop-

Interlayer springiness β 25 erties typical of paper and steel (given in Tables 1 and 2,

Initial winding stress σw (Rc ) 20 MPa respectively). In the calculations, large deformation

analysis resulting in the residual stresses shown in

Values of the interlayer compression modulus and Fig. 3 was used for paper, while for steel, a constant

interlayer springiness used in this section are given in winding stress of 100 MPa was used. Figure 4 shows

Table 1. They are based on the values used for paper that, for paper material, there has been substantial

material in Benson [9], which in turn are based on deformation of the coil – a reduction in the outer radius

experiments reported in Olive [29]. of nearly 10 per cent when compared to the nominal

For the illustrative example, a roll of paper that has radius. As might be expected, this can have a substan-

been wound on a mandrel and then removed from the tial effect. If, for example, the target hoop stress was

mandrel as illustrated in Figs 1 and 2, shall be con- speciﬁed and the small deformation approximation

sidered. It is assumed that the roll has no former. The was used

target residual stresses in this coil are shown in Fig. 3. ∂

− [r σ̄r (R, r)] + σ̄θ (R, r) ≈ 0

∂r

to estimate the interwrap pressure, a substantial devi-

ation as shown in Fig. 5 would be obtained, where the

radial pressures calculated from large and small defor-

mation analyses are compared for the hoop/tangential

stress proﬁle shown in Fig. 3(b). On the other hand,

when the interwrap pressure is speciﬁed, the hoop

stresses calculated on the basis of large deformation

or small deformations are quite similar.

Figure 4 also shows the deviation of ρ(r) from its

nominal value for material properties typical of steel.

(For this calculation the constitutive relations for steel

described in reference [23] were used.) As can be seen

the deviation for steel is very small, indicating that the

small deformation theory is largely valid for materi-

als such as steel. Furthermore, corresponding results

for aluminium and polymer ﬁlm are also included

in Fig. 4. In these calculations, an Eθ of 72 GPa and

a constant winding stress of 50 MPa were used for

aluminium, while material properties and winding

conditions similar to those assumed by Hakiel [15]

were adopted for polymer ﬁlm. It can be seen that the

deviations of ρ(r) from their nominal values are very

small for both aluminium and polymer ﬁlm, indicating

small deformation analysis is suitable for these materi-

als. The somewhat different behaviour of the polymer

Fig. 3 Target stresses after removal from mandrel used ﬁlm from paper material is due to its higher value of Er

for calculating the large deformation winding (around one to two orders of magnitude higher than

stress shown in Fig. 6. All other parameters are that of paper), despite similar values of Eθ for the two

given in Table 1. Included is a comparison with materials.

the stresses calculated from the forward solution. Having analysed the target residual stresses, one

The speciﬁed winding stress used for the calcu- can now ﬁnd the required winding stress that will

lation is the large deformation winding stress of result in the target residual stresses. As explained

Fig. 6 (as described in section 4). (a) Large defor- previously, this is achieved by the numerical solu-

mation radial pressure and (b) target tangential tion of the differential equations (13) subject to the

stress boundary conditions (14). The required winding stress

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science JMES749 © IMechE 2007

An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils 1527

Fig. 4 Comparison of nominal and actual radius after removal from the mandrel for a variety of

materials. The large deformation winding stress of Fig. 6 and parameters listed in Table 1

were used for the comparison for material properties typical of paper. For material proper-

ties typical of steel a constant winding stress of 100 MPa and the parameters listed in Table 2

were used. For aluminium, a constant winding stress of 50 MPa and an Eθ of 72 GPa were

used, while for polymer ﬁlm, those assumed by Hakiel [15] were adopted

for steel

Outer radius of coil Ro 750 mm

Strip thickness h 0.3 mm

Elastic modulus of mandrel Ec 100 GPa

Elastic modulus of the coil in the Eθ 200 GPa

tangential direction

Gap thickness (at zero pressure) l0 7.485 µm

Elastic modulus of the coil in the radial Eg 10 MPa

direction

Poisson ratio of the coiled material ν 0

lated from the inverse solution for large defor-

mations and those for small deformations for

material properties typical of paper. The target

tangential stress used for the calculations and

corresponding radial pressure are shown in Fig. 3.

All other parameters are given in Table 1

hoop stress given in Fig. 3(b). Again the deviation is

substantial though, as previously, the deviation is sub-

Fig. 5 Comparison between the radial pressure calcu- stantially smaller when the target interwrap pressure

lated for large and small deformations for mate- is speciﬁed.

rial properties typical of paper. The same target In order to validate the inverse solution for large

tangential stress, shown in Fig. 3(b), was used deformations, the following comparison has been

for both solutions. All other parameters are given made. Using the forward solution, which has been

in Table 1 extended from the small deformation theory [25], the

residual stresses were calculated for a speciﬁed wind-

ing stress proﬁle. The winding stress proﬁle of Fig. 6,

distribution is then calculated from σw (R) = σ̄θ (R, R). obtained from the inverse solution for large deforma-

Figure 6 shows, for material properties typical of paper tion, was used as the speciﬁed winding stress proﬁle

(based on parameters given in Table 1), the winding for the forward solution. The residual stresses (after

stresses calculated under the assumption of small mandrel removal) from the forward solution were then

JMES749 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

1528 F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

compared with the target stresses used for calculating a smaller area than that with respect to the unde-

the winding stress from the inverse solution. Figure 3 formed system, i.e. the radial pressure will be higher

shows the results of the comparison for material prop- for the deformed coordinate system, compared with

erties typical of paper (given in Table 1). As can be the undeformed coordinate system. This explains the

seen, the agreement between the inverse and forward higher radial pressure calculated for Benson’s model

solution is excellent. compared to the model described in the current paper.

Benson [9] has also developed a forward solution for It is straightforward, however, to transform either

the case of large deformations and non-linear mate- result into the other form by taking into account the

rial properties and applied it to calculate stresses for strain/deformation ﬁeld in the coil after winding.

materials such as paper. He further validated his solu- In addition, in the model of this paper (as well as

tion by comparing the calculated radial pressures with in Hakiel’s model [15]), it is assumed that the tension

experiments (shown in Fig. 7 of reference [9]). A com- of the outermost wrap is equal to the applied tension,

parison between his results (digitized Figs 5 and 4 of whereas Benson’s model allows for a slight reduction

reference [9]) and the forward solution for large defor- in the tension of the outermost wrap [9]. This differ-

mation is shown in Fig. 7. As can be seen there is ence partially offsets the effect of the difference in the

reasonable agreement for the case of the radial pres- coordinate systems.

sure and good agreement for the tangential stress. Now that models for all four regimes have been

Differences between the two results can be attributed developed (small deformation theory for both linear

to slight differences in the model formulations such as and non-linear material properties, as well as large

the ones described below. deformation for linear and non-linear material prop-

The stresses in a coil can be deﬁned with respect erties), the applicability of these regimes for different

to the deformed (or actual) coordinate system, as pre- types of materials shall be investigated. Those stud-

sented by Benson [9] or to the undeformed coordinate ied include metals, such as steel and aluminium, as

system, as used in the model formulation presented in well as polymer ﬁlms and paper. Typical properties of

this paper. Hence the radial force with respect to the these materials can be found in references [9], [15],

deformed coordinate system will effectively be over [17], [23], and [30]. It is found that for all materials

considered, non-linear material properties need to be

employed for accurate stress predictions. To illustrate

this, a comparison of the stresses calculated from the

small deformation theory using non-linear and lin-

ear material properties for both paper and steel is

shown in Figs 8 and 9, respectively. In order to make

these comparisons, the equivalent material param-

eters for the linear case have to be deduced from

those of the non-linear material parameters listed in

Tables 1 (for paper material) and 2 (for steel). The

adopted method for the material properties of paper

is described in reference [24] and a similar method is

used for the material properties of steel. The mate-

rial properties for paper listed in Table 1 and the

calculated winding stress (from small deformation

theory) of Fig. 6 are used for the comparison shown

in Fig. 8. As can been seen, there is a very large dif-

ference in the radial pressure calculated using linear

material properties as well as a signiﬁcant difference

in the tangential stress. A constant winding stress of

30 MPa and the material properties listed in Table 2

have been used for the comparison for steel. As can

be seen from Fig. 9(a), the radial pressure calculated

using linear material properties differs from that for

non-linear material properties even for low winding

stresses.

Fig. 7 Comparison of stresses calculated using the As discussed in reference [24], differences between

large deformation forward solution for non-linear the large deformation and small deformation theory

material properties with Benson’s results (Figs 4 are likely for cases for which ρ(r) differs signiﬁcantly

and 5 of reference [9]). (a) Radial pressure and (b) from r. Hence for very compressible materials

tangential stress (i.e. materials with very small values of Er ), such as

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science JMES749 © IMechE 2007

An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils 1529

Fig. 8 Comparison of stresses calculated using the small Fig. 9 Comparison of stresses calculated using the small

deformation forward solution for non-linear and deformation forward solution for non-linear and

linear material properties typical for paper. The linear material properties typical for steel. A con-

small deformation winding stress of Fig. 6 was stant (low) winding stress of 30 MPa was used for

used for the calculation. All other parameters the calculation. All other parameters are given

are given in Table 1. (a) Radial pressure and (b) in Table 2. (a) Radial pressure and (b) tangential

tangential stress stress

paper, there is a large difference in ρ(r) resulting in materials as well.

large differences between the calculated radial pres-

sure for large deformations compared with that of

small deformations, as illustrated in Figs 4 and 5. 5 CONCLUSION

For the case of metals such as steel, even though the

radial pressure for high winding stresses can be sig- The current paper presents an inverse solution for

niﬁcantly higher than those for the examples given for the stresses induced during and after winding of a

paper, the effective radial elastic modulus for steel Er is roll/coil, considering large strains and the non-linear

much larger than that for paper. Hence, as illustrated material behaviour in the radial direction. This analy-

in Fig. 4, the deviation of ρ(r) from r is much smaller sis completes the recent series of papers by the authors

for steel than for the case of paper (even for very large on the inverse solutions for the wound-in stresses

winding stresses). Aluminium also has large values of in coils, covering combinations of both small and

Er compared to the radial pressure and hence the devi- large deformations, and linear and non-linear material

ation of ρ(r) from r is also very small for this material. properties.

For these cases, small deformation theory would be In addition, it is shown that for most practi-

adequate. cal applications with common materials used for

Even though materials such as polymer ﬁlms have packaging and consumer products, non-linear mate-

similar values of radial pressures (for typical wind- rial properties should be considered. However, small

ing stresses) to those typical for paper (and similar deformation theory is sufﬁcient for relatively ‘rigid’

values of Eθ ), their effective values of Er are again sig- material such as metal strip (steel and aluminium)

niﬁcantly higher than those typical of paper. Hence and polymer ﬁlms. For relatively ‘soft’ materials,

the deviation of ρ(r) from r for these materials is such as paper, large deformation theory needs to be

again small. Thus the small deformation theory can employed.

JMES749 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

1530 F R de Hoog, W Y D Yuen, and M Cozijnsen

model accounting for widthwise web thickness nonuni-

The authors wish to thank the management of CSIRO formities. In Proceedings of Web Handling Symposium,

ASME Applied Mech. Div., AMD-Vol 149, 1992, pp. 13–24.

and BlueScope Steel Research for permission to pub-

19 Hakiel, Z. On the effect of width direction thickness

lish the material contained in the current paper.

variations in wound rolls. In Proceedings of 2nd Inter-

national Conference on Web Handling, Oklahoma State

University, May, 1992, pp. 79–98.

REFERENCES 20 Lee, Y. M. and Wickert, J. A. Stress ﬁeld in ﬁnite width

axisymmetric wound rolls. ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 2002,

1 Yuen, W. Y. D. and Cozijnsen, M. Optimum tension pro- 69(2), 130–138.

ﬁles to prevent coil collapses. SEAISI Q., 2000, 29(3), 21 Good, J. K. The abilities and inabilities of wound roll

50–59. models to predict winding defects. In Proceedings of 8th

2 Altmann, H. C. Formulas for computing the stresses in International Conference on Web Handling, (Oklahoma

center-wound rolls. Tappi, 1968, 4, 176–179. State University), 5–8 June 2005, pp. 1–71.

3 Yagoda, H. P. Centrifugally induced stresses within 22 de Hoog, F. R., Cozijnsen, M., Yuen, W. Y. D., and Huynh,

centre-wound rolls – part I. Mech. Res. Commun., 1980, H.-N. Predicting winding stresses for wound coils of lin-

7, 181–193. ear orthotropic material. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs, Part C:

4 Yagoda, H. P. Centrifugally induced stresses within J. Mechanical Engineering Science, 2004, 218(C1), 13–25.

centre-wound rolls – part II. Mech. Res. Commun., 1980, 23 de Hoog, F. R., Cozijnsen, M., Yuen, W. Y. D., and Huynh,

7, 233–240. H.-N. Predicting winding stresses for wound coils of

5 Olsen, J. E. On the effect of centrifugal force on winding. non-linear orthotropic material. Proc. Instn. Mech. Engrs,

Tappi, 1995, 78(7), 191–195. Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science, 2004, 218(C1),

6 Bouquerel, F. and Bourgin, P. Irreversible reduction of 27–38.

tension due to aerodynamical effects. In Proceedings 24 de Hoog, F. R., Yuen, W. Y. D., and Cozijnsen, M. An

of the 2nd International Conference on Web Handling, inverse solution for winding stresses for wound coils

StillWater, Oklahoma, June 1993, pp. 265–285. of linear orthotropic material with large deformations.

7 Jones, D. P. Air entrainment as a mechanism for low trac- Proc. IMechE, Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science,

tion on rollers and poor stacking of polyester ﬁlm reels, 2007, 221(C6), 639–652.

and its reduction. In Proceedings of Web Handling of the 25 Cozijnsen, M. and Yuen, W. Y. D. Stress distributions

ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, USA, 8–13 in wound coils. In Proceedings of 2nd Biennial Aus-

November 1992, pp. 123–131. tralian Engineering Mathematics Conference, Sydney,

8 Keshavan, M. B. and Wickert, J. A. Air entrainment dur- 15–17 July 1996, pp. 117–124.

ing steady-state web winding. ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 1997, 26 Chen, K. and Wang, Z. Investigation of buckling of coiled

64, 916–922. strip under high winding tension (in Chinese). Iron Steel

9 Benson, R. C. A nonlinear wound roll model allowing for (China), 1989, 24(11), 34–38.

large deformation. Trans. ASME, E., J. Appl. Mech., 1995, 27 Auzinger,W., Koch, O., and Weinmüller, E. B. Theory and

62, 853–859. solution techniques for singular boundary value prob-

10 Zabaras, N. A. Theory for small deformation analysis of lems. In Ordinary differential equations, parallel pro-

growing bodies with an application to the winding of cessing and applied mathematics, vol. 2328 of Springer

magnetic tape. Acta Mech., 1995, 111, 95–110. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2002, pp. 851–861.

11 Qualls, W. R. and Good, J. K. Orthotropic viscoelastic 28 Ascher, U., Mattheij, R. M. M., and Russell, R. D. Numer-

winding model including a nonlinear radial stiffness. ical solution of boundary value problems for ordinary

ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 1997, 64, 201–208. differential equations, 1988 (Prentice-Hall, Englewood

12 Tramposch, H. Relaxation of internal forces in a wound Cliffs, New Jersey).

reel of magnetic tape. ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 1965, 32, 29 Olive, G. A. A study of wound rolls during winding

865–873. and unwinding. MS Thesis, Department of Mechani-

13 Tramposch, H. Anisotropic relaxation of internal forces cal Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY,

in a wound reel of magnetic tape. ASME, J. Appl. Mech., 1994.

1967, 34, 888–894. 30 Lin, P. N. and Wickert, J. A. Corrugation and buckling

14 Lin, J. Y. and Westmann, R. A. Visco-elastic winding defects in wound rolls. Trans. ASME, E., J. Appl. Mech.,

mechanics. J. Appl. Mech., 1989, 56, 821–827. 2006, 128, 56–64.

15 Hakiel, Z. Non linear model for wound roll stresses.

Tappi, 1987, 70(5), 113–117.

APPENDIX

16 Willett, M. S. and Poesch, W. L. Determining the stress

distributions in wound reels of magnetic tape using a Notation

nonlinear ﬁnite difference approach. Trans. ASME, E.,

J. Appl. Mech., 1988, 55, 365–371. Ec effective modulus of core

17 Zabaras, N., Liu, S., Koppuzha, J., and Donaldson, E. (former and mandrel)

A hypoelastic model for computing the stresses in center- Eg modulus of gap

wound rolls of magnetic tape. Trans. ASME, E., J. Appl. Eθ azimuthal modulus of coiled

Mech., 1994, 61, 290–295. material

Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science JMES749 © IMechE 2007

An inverse solution for winding stresses in wound coils 1531

F (ε̄r , ε̄θ ) stress strain relation u = u(R, r) radial displacement

g (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) stress strain function

G(ε̄r , ε̄θ ) stress strain relation α interlayer compression

h0 thickness of unconstrained modulus

wrap β interlayer springiness

p̂ target interwrap pressure ε̄r = ∂u/∂r radial strain

p̄ interwrap pressure ε̄θ = (r + u − ρ)/ρ azimuthal strain

r radial coordinate ε̄r = g (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) stress strain relation

r +u radius of the (r − Rc )/h0 wrap ε̄θ = f (σ̄r , σ̄θ ) stress strain relation

R outer radius of coil during ε̄z axial strain

winding ρ radius of the (r − Rc )/h0 wrap

(r − Rc )/h0 wrap number, Rc r R if it were unconstrained

(R − Rc )/h0 number of wraps in coil σ̄w (R) winding stress

Rc radius of the core (former and σ̂r target stress

mandrel) σ̂θ target stress

JMES749 © IMechE 2007 Proc. IMechE Vol. 221 Part C: J. Mechanical Engineering Science

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