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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 1 of 16

CONSERVATION OF
MASS AND ENERGY

Substance are composed of molecules, the total mass is the sum of the individual masses of all the molecules. Mass does not
change with position, nor is it affected by pressure, temperature or motion (unless the velocity approaches the speed of light – Einstein’s
theory of relativity). If a solid is heated until it burns, the mass appears to change, as the pile of ash left is much less than the original
substance. What is happening here is that much of solid matter is converted to gas, but the total mass does not change.

Conservation of Mass
But the mass in region III at time t and the mass in region I at
The law of conservation of mass states that “mass time t +Δt is zero.
cannot be created nor destroyed.” The total mass is a mIIItt  mIt  mIItt  mIIt  m Itt mIt  0
constant. As with all laws, this is a deduction of experimental
evidence; it can be demonstrated, but not proved, to be true. dividing the whole equation by Δt and taking the limit as Δt
approaches zero,
mIIItt  mIt m  mIIt m m
lim  lim IItt  lim Itt It  0
t  0 t t  0 t t  0 t
dmIII dmII dmI
  0
dt dt dt

The negative sign is due to the fact that m It  t mIt is


decreasing, or negative term physically. As Δt approaches
zero, the change in mass of region I and III represent the
mass entering and leaving the control volume, respectively.
 dm  dmCV  
mout  CV  min  0   min  mout
For a steady, one dimensional flow, where the fluid dt dt
enters at state i and leaves at state o,  

mCV    m in  m out  dt
CV  
At some time t a given mass will occupy the control
volume. This will be a mass of fixed identity. After a time Δt, It is also possible express the conservation of mass, in
some of the mass in the control volume has moved across terms of area, velocity and density, all measurable quantity.
the control surface. This is represented as the system dmCV d  
boundary at time t+Δt, The control surface boundary and
mCV    dV
CV

dt
    dV 
dt CV 
the system boundary are coincident at time t. 
m     n dA
The regions of space that the mass occupied at time t
and t + Δt may be visualized as three regions, I, II, II. The mass on the control volume may now be written as
Since the system mass is constant with time, we may write d
mIt  mIIt  mIItt  mIIItt   dV  A   n dAin A   n dAout
dt CV
mIItt  mIIt  mIIItt  mIt  0 (UNSTEADY FLOW SYSTEM)

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 2 of 16

For a steady flow, the change in mass within the forms of energy: “one form of energy may be converted into
control volume is zero; thus the mass flow rates in and out another.”
are identical:
From Physics, the mechanical energy is expressed as,
 
A
n dAin     n dAout
A dE  F dx
(STEADY FLOW SYSTEM)

Classification, Forms and Types of Energy


For a steady, one dimensional flow, where the fluid CLASSIFICATION FORM TYPE
enters at state i and leaves at state o, Potential
Stored
Ai i Ao o energy
 or Ai i  i  Ao o  o Mechanical Energy
Kinetic energy Stored
vi vo
(STEADY AND ONE DIMENSIONAL FLOW SYSTEM)
Work Flow / Transition
Sensible heat Flow / Transition
Heat
From fluid mechanics the three dimensional, unsteady- Latent heat Flow / Transition
flow continuity equation of a fluid is: Chemical energy Molecular bond Stored
     Molecular
  u   v   w  Internal energy
motion
Stored
 x y z  t
Electrical Current flow Flow / Transition
Nuclear Energy Atomic bond Stored
Relativistic mass:
m
mrel 
1 v  c2
STORED ENERGY
Stored energy is a property, whereas transferred energy is
where c is the speed of light, 299,792,458 m/s
not. This means that whenever heat flows or work is done, the
amount transferred depends on the method or process of
transfer as well as the end state. On the other hand, stored
Conservation of Energy
energy has a value that is independent of the process.

Energy may be defined as the capacity to do work or


1. POTENTIAL ENERGY (PE)
to cause heat to flow. In system term, energy may be
Gravitational potential energy is the energy possessed by
defined as that property of a system that changes by an
a mass due to the force of attraction of earth when the mass is
amount equal to the work or heat transferred across the
located at some height above any arbitrary datum. PE = f (z)
system boundary. The total amount of energy that a system
mgo z
contains cannot be determined. We are accustomed PE 
gc
therefore to measuring energy above some arbitrary datum.
Energy is a scalar quantity with no direction relative to the mg o mg o
d PE   
2
dz  PE  dz
frame of reference. It can exist in different form, in principle, gc gc 1

all form of energy are mutually convertible. There is a


transfer or flow of energy when a change in form takes PE 
mgo
z 2  z1 
gc
place.
Potential energy is often relatively small magnitude compared
First Law of Thermodynamics with other energy forms, and can be neglected. However, it is a form of
energy that stores very well and does not degrade with time.
The law of conservation of energy states that “energy
can neither be created nor destroyed.” It is a law based 2. KINETIC ENERGY (KE)
on physical observation and is not subject to mathematical Kinetic energy is energy due to motion or velocity of the
proof. Historically, the first law of thermodynamics stated object (mass). KE = f (ν)
that work and heat are mutually convertible, but the m 2
tendency now is to broaden the statement to include all KE 
2gc

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 3 of 16

m  d  the energy it takes to convert water to steam by overcoming the


d KE   dz   d
ma m
dz  
gc g c  dt  gc attractive force of the liquid molecules.
m 2
KE 
gc   d
1

KE 
m
2gc

 22   12 

Like potential energy, kinetic energy may not be of great


significance in thermodynamics unless there is a large mass-
flow rate or velocity change in the system (such as in jet
engines and rockets) and it can often be neglected. Unlike
potential energy, however kinetic energy does not store very
well since the frictional losses that usually occur with motion
degrade it.
Modes of storing internal energy in a
3. INTERNAL ENERGY (U) diatomic molecule
The sum of the internal kinetic energy and internal
potential energy is called the internal energy, which is  u 
CV   
energy stored within a body or substance by virtue of the  T V
activity and configuration of its molecules and of the
vibration of the atoms within the molecules.
The specific heat at constant volume (CV) is equal to the
Internal Kinetic Energy (for diatomic molecules)
partial derivative of the specific internal energy with respect to
the absolute temperature at constant volume process. In
(a) Translational kinetic energy – this is associated with the
general, the internal energy of the fluid is expressed as,
translational motion of the molecules.
(b) Vibration energy – the back-and-forth movement of the   P  
du  CV dT  T    P  dV
atom in the molecules, toward and away from one another   T V 
(c) Rotational energy – a pair of atoms are visualized as
rotating around their center of mass, and this is the “first” For ideal gas (with equation of state : PV = mRT)
kind of rotational energy. The atom may rotate around their
center of mass, and this is the “second” kind of rotational du  CV dT
energy. As the number of atom in the molecules increases,
du  u   CV dT  CV T2  T1 
2 T2
the complexity of the rotational energy increases.  1 T1

The molecular kinetic energy of monatomic molecules is


almost wholly due to the translational motion of the molecules; u  CV T2  T1 
first, because the vibration of atoms within the molecules U  mCV T2  T1 
relative to one another is impossible since there is only one
atom, and second, because the kinetic energy of rotation is
negligible since the mass of the molecule (atom) is
States of Matter
concentrated so close to the axis of spin (that is, the moment of
inertia of the molecules with respect to the axis of rotation is
negligible). Matter may exist in any one of the three states, namely as
solid, liquid or gas. These states are known as phase and a
Internal Potential Energy change in state is known as phase change. Liquids and gases
This is the internal energy due to the relative position are known as fluids. The states of matter in terms of the
of its molecules and the attraction of these molecules for molecular model are:
one another. This force is quite large, as can be realized by

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 4 of 16

SOLIDS LIQUIDS GASES


Solids have rigidity because the Liquids are intermediate between solids and gases, the In gases the molecules are far apart
molecules are close together and molecules are free to move and are closer together than in a and the forces between them are
interlocked so that they remain in the gas yet they are not tightly packed as in a solid. The molecules negligible so that the molecules move
same relative position to one another. are said to be cohesive (stick together) but are still capable of independently of one another (except in a
In a solid, the molecules can rotate motion relative to each other. This enables liquids to flow collision). The gases acquire all the
and vibrate but there is no translation, because when liquid flows, the molecules slide over each different modes of molecular movement
so the molecules still remain the same other. In a liquid translation occurs, and the molecules may and storing internal energy, the reason for
spatial orientation relative to one move relative to one another but they do not move away from the gases to have the highest internal
another. each other, that is, they remain cohesive. energy and solids the least.

Phase Change where: CE - is the chemical energy liberated or


needed, usually heat
As energy (in the form of heat) is given to the EC - energy content such as heating value of
system, the molecules of a solid become more energetic fuel
and are eventually able to break the bonds that bind them M - mass of the system
firmly together. When this occurs, the solid starts to
become liquid. Further energy input enables the Energy is released if the reaction is exothermic, or
molecules to break completely free of each other and form absorbed if the reaction is endothermic. For example
a gas. under normal condition, water is stable. However, if energy
is added, say by electrolysis, the water molecules
dissociate into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen and
oxygen are themselves stable but may readily be
recombined by combustion into water again. During
combustion process, the same energy is released as was
originally required to separate the molecules.

2H 2O  energy  2H 2  O2
( ELECTROLYSIS )

The path may be reversed if energy is transferred 2H 2  O2  2H 2O  energy


out of the substance so that the internal energy of the ( COMBUSTION )
molecules decreases.
In general, chemical energy is expressed in term of
4. CHEMICAL ENERGY Gibb’s function
A chemical reaction occurs when the molecules of a g  h  TO s
substance dissociate or combine with other molecules to
form new substances. The regrouping of the atoms The Gibb’s function of all elements is zero at
involves energy known as chemical energy. reference conditions (25°C and 1 atm)
GProduct  GReactant 
CE  mEC  H Product  H Reactant   TO  SProduct  SReactant 

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 5 of 16

The maximum work that can be obtain is, and angular displacement is used rather than linear
Wmax  GProduct  GReactant distance. That is
2

5. NUCLEAR ENERGY
W   1
T d

Nuclear energy (sometimes called atomic energy)


results from a change in the nucleus of the atom caused
by nuclear reaction. Nuclear reactions may be exothermic
or endothermic. Exothermic reactions, which liberate
energy, may be of two types:

Fission is where the nucleus breaks down into a


number of smaller nuclei.
Fusion is where small nuclei combine to form a large
nucleus.

In all nuclear reactions, the combined law of


conservation of matter/energy applies, so that

matter  energy BEFORE  matter  energy AFTER


“The work done on a non-flow system is the area under the
PV (Pressure - volume) curve.”
where the equivalence between matter and energy is
expressed by the Einstein equation: (a) Compressed fluid (work of non-flow system)


L2
WNF  F dL
E  mc 2 L1

but AdL = dV
V2
Because the speed of light is so large a huge amount of WNF  
V1
PdV
energy is released by the conversion of all small amount of mass
(b) Surface Film
into energy. For example, the fusion reaction of hydrogen in the
    dA
A2
sun liberates about four million times the energy that would be W
A1
obtained from combustion of the same amount of hydrogen!
(c) Stretched Wire

   F dL
L2
FLOW / TRANSITION ENERGY W
L1

(d) Electrical
These are energies in motion and are not dependent
 V dc
2
upon the flow of the mass. W 
1

(e) Shaft
1. WORK (W) 2 2

The work of a force may be defined as the


W  
1
T d  
1
Fr d

displacement ds of a body (considered as a particle)


multiplied by the component of the force in the direction of 2. FLOW WORK (Wf)
the displacement. Like kinetic energy, work may be linear This is the work by the fluid to overcome the normal
or rotational. Linear work is the product of a constant force stress, that is, pressure, at the boundary. The energy
along its line of action. Mathematically: transmitted across the system boundary as a result of a
pumping process occurring outside the system, causing the
S2 fluid to enter the system. Thus there is a flow-work term
W  S1
F ds entering and leaving the system boundary.
w flow  P v
The equation for rotational work is equivalent to equation  W flow  P A dx and Adx  vdm
for linear work except that torque is used instead of force

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 6 of 16

 W flow  P v dm temperature”. This is one of the statements of the second


  
law of thermodynamics.
W flow  mPv  PV
(a) Sensible Heat - if the heat flow does cause
change in temperature without a change in phase.
The net flow work is the difference between the flow
work entering and leaving the system Q  m C T  Q  m  C dT
  
  q  C T   q  C T
 W flow  P2 V2  P1 V1   P V 
 
where : C - is the specific heat, ( kJ / kg-K )
3. HEAT (Q)
Heat is a form of energy that occurs only as a flow (b) Latent Heat - no temperature change involved
(or transfer) of energy as a result of temperature during a phase change so the equation for latent heat does
difference. This transfer of energy occurs by conduction, not include temperature term.
by convection and by radiation. “The direction of heat
flow in a substance or across a single boundary of a Q  mL
system is always from the higher to the lower

Conversion of water from ice to steam at 1 atm

British Thermal Units (1Btu) – is the amount of heat


needed by a 1 lbm of water to raise its temperature 1F°
(1R°) at 14.7 psia.

Btu Btu
CPwater  1 1
lb  F  lb  R
Kilocalorie (1 kcal) – is the amount of heat needed by 1kgm
of water to raise its temperature 1 C° (1 K°) at 1 atm.

kCal kCal
CPwater  1 1
kg  C  kg  K 

Properties of H2O at atmospheric condition (1 atm)


kJ Btu kCal  Q  T dS  m T ds
LFwater  335  144  80
kg lb kg  q  T ds
kJ BTU kCal
LVwater  2257  970.3  540
kg lb kg Sign Convention for Heat and Work
C Psteam  0.45 C Pwater
+Q : heat is added to the system (endothermic)
C Pice  0.5 C Pwater
-Q : heat is rejected by the system (exothermic)
+W : work is done by the system (work exits the system)
In general, if the process is reversible, heat is the area -W : work is done to the system (work enters the system)
under the TS (Temperature – entropy ) curve.

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 7 of 16

Modes of Heat Transfer Combined Energy Equation or Enthalpy (H)

1. Conduction is the heat transfer within a medium. In The sum of two energy properties u and Pv is called
solids, particularly metals, conduction is due to (a) the drift enthalpy. Note that u and Pv should have compatible units. At
of free electrons and (b) phonon vibration. At low times there may be a temptation to associate enthalpy with
temperature, phonon vibration, the vibration of crystalline heat or work, but enthalpy is a property having no function
structure, is the primary mechanism for conduction, and at physically other than being the sum of U and PV. The enthalpy
higher temperatures electron drift is the primary mechanism. for ideal gas equation of state is,
Regardless of the mechanism, energy is transferred from h  u  Pv
one atom or molecule to another, resulting in a flow of H   U  PV 
energy within the medium.
 h 
CP   
Conduction heat transfer follows Fourier’s Law, which
 T  P
states that “the conductive heat flow, is a product of the   v  
dh  C P dT  v  T    dP
thermal conductivity of the material, k, the area normal to   T  P 
the heat flow, , and the temperature gradient, dT/dx,
across the area. ” For ideal gas (with equation of state : PV = mRT)
 dT
Q  k A du  CV dT
dx
du  u   CV dT  CV T2  T1 
2 T2

1 T1
2. Convection is the heat transfer between a solid surface
u  CV T2  T1 
and a moving fluid. At the solid-fluid interface heat is
transferred by conduction, energy transfer resulting from U  mCV T2  T1 
molecular collisions between the solid and fluid molecules.
These collision cause a temperature change in the fluid, a
density variation is produced, and bulk fluid motion occur. COROLARIES OF THE FIRST LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
The empirical expression that describes this motion is
Newton’s Law of Cooling First Corollary of the First Law.

The first corollary of the first law of thermodynamics is the
Q  h A TS  T 
application of the conservation of energy to a closed system.
Final Energy – Initial Energy = Energy added to the system
where : h is the coefficient for convective heat transfer
TS solid surface temperature E2  E1  Q  (W )
Too fluid temperature far from the surface

where heat has been added (+Q) and work has been done to
3. Radiation is the flow of thermal energy, via
the system (-W)
electromagnetic waves, between two bodies separated by a
distance. Electromagnetic waves, which are a function of
PE2  KE2  U 2   PE1  KE1  U1   Q  (W )
body-surface temperature, transfer heat and thus constitute the work described in this system is the work non-flow
thermal radiation. The expression for radioactive heat Q  PE  KE  U  WNF
transfer from a surface is given by the expression

 
 since additional mass is not allowed to enter and leave the
Q   A T14  T24
system ΔPE = ΔKE = 0,
Q  U  WNF
where: ε -surface emissivity ( 0 for black body, 1 for white
body and between 0 – 1 for gray body ) Q  dU  WNF
σ -Stefan-Boltzman constant (5.669x10-8 W/m2-K) (NFEE)

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 8 of 16

Second Corollary of the First Law.

The second corollary of the first law of thermodynamics


is the application of the conservation of energy to the open
system.

The figure shows that steady flow work


can be found at the area behind the PV curve.

ENTROPY (S)

It is possible to consider entropy from a probabilistic


viewpoint, which leads to viewing it as a measure of disorder or
E2  E1  Q  (W ) chaos. Entropy increases for any spontaneous process, since
PE 2  KE2  U 2  W f 2   PE1  KE1  U1  W f 1   Q  (W ) it goes from a state of lower probability to one of higher
probability.

the work described in this system is the work steady flow


Entropy is a difficult concept to understand, mainly
PE2  KE2  H 2   PE1  KE1  H1   Q  WSF
because the human body cannot sense it. Basically, entropy is
Q  PE  KE  H  WSF the quantity of heat divided by absolute temperature; hence the
(SFEE) higher the temperature at which heat occurs, the lower the
entropy. What really occurs when heat energy is “used” is that
if ΔPE = ΔKE is negligible the entropy increases and heat energy becomes less useful
Q  H  WSF (the lower the entropy, the more useful the energy).
Q  dH  WSF
Entropy can also be expressed as a function
s = f (T,P) and s = f (T,v)
Combining the NFEE and SFEE,
Q  H  WSF  U  WNF
The general equation for the change of entropy is
H   U  PV  expressed as
U   PV   WSF  U  WNF dT  v  dT  P 
ds  C P  dP and ds  CV  dv
U  PV  VP  WSF  U  WNF T  T  P T  T  V

PV  VP  WSF  WNF


for ideal gas equation of state,

V2
but WNF  PdV Q q
V1 S or ds  
T T
PV  VP  WSF  PV dT
ds   C
WSF  VP T
T2 V T P
WSF    V dP
P2
S  mCV ln  mR ln 2  mCP ln 2  mR ln 2
P1 T1 V1 T1 P1
T2 V T P
s  CV ln  R ln 2  C P ln 2  R ln 2
T1 V1 T1 P1

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 9 of 16

(2) As T approaches zero, CP approaches CV.


Specific Heat (C)
Specific heat of a substance is defined as the amount (3) For all known substances, P v T  0 , and v T P 2  0 ,
of heat required to change the temperature of unit mass hence C P  CV .
through one degree. In dimension form,
Very often it is possible to consider solids and liquids as
C
Q, heat incompressible substances. When this is the case the
m, mass x T , change of temperature  difference between the specific heat is zero and
q Q CP  CV  C .
C 
 T m T
Constant Volume Specific Heat
In accordance with the kinetic molecular theory of gases,
 U   u 
CV      which you studied in physics, the specific heats of gases in
 T V  T  v
absence of vibration of atoms have the following values:
Constant Pressure Specific Heat
Monatomic 3 5
 H   h  CV  R CP  R k  1.667
CP    gases
 T  P  T  P
2 2
5 7
Specific Heat Ratio Diatomic CV  R CP  R k  1.4
2 2
C
k  P , C P  CV Polyatomic
CV CV  3R CP  4R k  1.333
gases
Specific Heat Difference SHD  C P  CV

SIGNIFICANT ENERGY_CONVERSION MECHANISM


In general the specific heat difference of the gas is
Conversion process Conversion Mechanism
expressed as
mechanical → heat friction (mechanical or fluid)
2
  v    P  heat → mechanical heat engine
CP  CV   T      
  T  P   v  T heat → electrical MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics)
mechanical → electrical electric generator
Mechanical → fluid power pump, compressor, fan
the simplified relation for ideal gas equation of state is
turbine, fluid motor, wind vane, wave
CP  CV  R fluid power → mechanical
vane
electrical → heat induction or resistance heater
where R is the gas constant, kJ/kg-K or Btu/lb- electrical → mechanical electric motor (rotary or linear)
Electrolysis, or charging storage
R
R Electrical → chemical
battery
MW
Solar → heat solar collector or absorber
solar → electrical Solar cell (photo-voltaic cell)
 kJ ft  lb f 
Universal gas constant,  8.31451 , 1545  solar → chemical photosynthesis or photolysis
 kgmol  K lbmol  R 
R chemical → heat combustion and food digestion
 kg lb 
Molecular weight ,  ,  fuel cell, or discharging storage
 kgmol lbmol  Chemical → electrical
battery
nuclear → heat Nuclear reactor

Three conclusions follow form applying


experimental observations to the equation of specific heat Conversion
difference. 1 BTU = 1.055 kJ = 778.16 Ft –lbf
1 CHU = 1.8 BTU (CHU is Calorie heat unit)
1 kCal = 4.187 kJ
(1) Since v T P is very small for liquids and solids, the
1 PS = 0.736 kW (PS is metric horsepower)
specific heat difference is essentially zero; only one specific heat 1 HP = 0.746 kW = 33,000 ft-lbf/min = 550 ft-lbf/sec
for liquid or solid is usually tabulated with designation of constant
1 HP = 2545 BTU/HR = 42.4 BTU/min
pressure or constant volume.
1kW = 3413 BTU/HR

MIT-School of Mechanical Engineering 


THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 10 of 16

SAMPLE PROBLEMS Solution :


(a) change in kinetic energy
2.1 Two gaseous streams enters a combining tube and
KE 
m

 22   12 
leave as a single mixture. These data apply at the entrance 2g c
sections: For one gas, A1 = 75 in2, v1 = 500 fps, v1 = 10 2 2

ft3/lb; for the other gas, A2 = 50 in2, ρ2 = 0.120 lb/ft3 and a


KE 
3,000lbm
60 2
 15 2 
mi 2  5280 ft   1hr 
   
 lb  ft  hr 2  1mi   3600 s 
2 32.174 2m 
mass flow rate of 60,000 pounds per hour. At the exit, v3 =  s  lb f 
 
350 fps, v3 = 7 ft3/lb. Find (a) the velocity at section 2 (b) the KE  338,472.06 ft  lb f
flow rate, area at the exit section.
(b) unbalance force
Solution :.
ma m   f   o 
F   
g c g c  t 

 
  60  15 mi
 3,000lbm  hr  5280 ft  1hr 
F     
lb  ft 10 s  1mi  3600 s 
 32.174 2m 
 s  lb f 
 
F  615.404 lb f
(c) work done of the unbalance force
 ma   22   12 
W   F ds  Fs     
m
 22   12  
 g c  2a  2 g c
W  KE  338,472.06 ft  lb f
(a) velocity at section 2

(d) answers on (a) and (c) will not change

m 2  A2 2  2  2 
m2 ma m   f   o 
A2  2 F   
gc g c  t 

 lb 
 60,000   
 hr   hr  144in 2    60  15 mi
2      400 fps  
 lb   3600 s  ft 
2
F 
3,000lbm hr  5280 ft  1hr 
50in 2  0.12 3     
lb  ft 60 s  1mi  3600 s 
 ft   32.174 2m 
 s  lb f 
 
(b) flow rate, area at the exit F  10.26 lb f
 ft 
75in 2  500 
 A  s   ft 2  lb 2.3 Work is done by a substance in a reversible non-flow
m1  1 1  3
   26.0417
2 
v1
10
ft  144 in  s manner in accordance with PV=100, where P is in psia and V
lb
is in cubic feet. Evaluate the work done on or by the substance
mass in = mass out
as the pressure increases from 10 psia to 100 psia.
   lb  hr  lb
m 3  m 2  m1  60,000    26.0417 Solution :
hr  3600 s  s
 lb WNF   PdV
m 3  42.70833
s but V
100
 dV  
100
dP
lb  ft 3  P P2
 42.70833  7 
s  lb   144in 2
A3 3   100 
 

W NF   P   2 dP   100 
m 3 v3 100 psia dP
m3   A3     , psia ft 3
v3 3 ft  ft
2
  P  10 psia P
350

A3  123in 2
s
WNF   100 ln P10 psia , psia ft 3
100 psia
 
 100  lb 3  144in 
2
W NF  100 ln  2 , ft  
 10  in  ft
2
2.2 A mass of 3,000 lb is accelerated uniformly along a 
horizontal plane from 15 mph to 60 mph in 10 sec. Find (a) WNF  33,157.225 ft  lb f
the change In kinetic energy, (b) the unbalanced force
required, (c) the work done by the unbalanced force during 2.4 During a particular process involving 1 lbm of fluid, the
this interval (d) if the time interval is 1 min instead of 10 sec, enthalpy decreases by 75 BTU, the initial volume of 10 ft3 is
solve part (a), (b), (c) and compare answers.

MIT-School of Mechanical Engineering 


THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 11 of 16

halved, and the pressure remains constant at 50 psia. Solution:


Determine the change of internal energy.
Solution: Required U 238 per annum
CE mEC Power T Power 
   mU 235 
H  U  PV   U  PV  VP T T  EC
 lb f  144in 2    24hr  3600 s  MJ 
 75 BTU  U  50 2 (10  5) ft 3  
1BTU   0 365days  1000 
    s 
 778.16 ft  lb f  1day 1hr
2
 in  ft  mU 235   876 kg U 235
 U   121.263 BTU  MJ 
0.4 90 x10 6 
 kg 

2.5 A cast-iron saucepan of mass 1.4 kg is filled with 5 L of mU 238 


876 kgU 235
 1,233.80 kgU 238
water at 15°C, placed on an electric hotplate, and brought 0.71
up to boiling point. What is the cost of energy used if
electricity costs 10 cents per kW-Hr and the hotplate has an equivalent mass of black coal (assuming same efficiency)
efficiency of 70%. (CP of cast iron is 0.42 kJ/kg-C°) CE  mEC  for Uranium  mEC  for black coal
Solution :  MJ 
876 kg  90 x10 6 
mEC  for Uranium  kg 
m BC  
Heat needed by the water and cast iron saucepan EC BC 30
MJ
Q  Qci  Qw  mci C Pci Tci  mwC PwTw kg
mBC  2.628 x10 9 kg
assume Tci  Tw
 kJ  2.7 A fluid at 100 psia, with a specific volume of 4ft3/lb and a
Q  1.4kg  0.42 100  15C 
 kg  C   velocity of 600 ft/s, enters a device. Heat loss from the device
 kg  kJ  by radiation is 10 BTU/lb. The work done by the fluid is 200
 0.005 m 3 1000 3  4.187 100  15C 
 m  kg  C   BTU/lb. The fluid exits at 20 psia, 15 ft3/lb and 1100 ft/s.
Determine the change in specific internal energy.
Q  1829 .455 kJ Solution:
 hr 
Q  1829 .455 kJ    0.50818 kW  Hr
 3600 s 

Heat needed by water and cast iron including the losses


Q Q 0.50818
  OUT  QIN  OUT 
QIN  0.7
  0.72597 kW  Hr

Electricity Cost
 cents  Energy in = Energy out
Cost  2.68947 kW  Hr  10   7.3 cents
 kW  Hr  PE1  KE1  U1  W f 1  PE2  KE2  U 2  W f 2  Q  WSF

2.6 A nuclear power station has a power output of 1000 since no elevation is given, PE1  PE2
MW. Nuclear fission of 1 kg of U 235 releases 90x106 MJ. U
KE1  U1  W f 1  KE2  U 2  W f 2  Q  WSF
235 is about 0.71% of natural uranium U 238. The power

operates at full capacity for a year and has an efficiency of


40%. Determine (a) how much natural uranium is required Energy expressed in a per unit mass basis (specific)
per annum (b) if the combustion energy content of black ke1  u1  w f 1  ke2  u 2  w f 2  q  wSF
coal is 30 MJ/kg, how much coal would be required to u  u 2  u1  ke1  ke2   w f 1  w f 2   q  wSF
produce the same power output by combustion (assuming
u 
 1
2
 2
2

 P1v1  P2 v2   q  wSF
the same efficiency) 2gc

MIT-School of Mechanical Engineering 


THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 12 of 16

600  ft
2
kN
2
 1100 2 500
s  2BT `U 
 m 2
0.60 2  0.15 2 m 6
u    562.5 kJ
20.15m 3 
 778.16 ft  lb  WNF
 lb  ft   
2 32.174 2m  f

 s  lb 
 f 

lb f  ft 3  144in 2   (b) the force of the spring is directly proportional to the square
 1004  2015
BTU
   
in 2  lbm  ft 2  778.16 ft  lb f 

root of the displacement
F F
 10
BTU
 200
BTU F x  F a x  a 1  2
lbm lbm x1 x2
BTU where a is the proportionality constant
u   208 .47
lbm
The volume at a given instant can be expressed as V  A x ,
2.8 A piston cylinder contains air at a pressure of 500kPa. since A is constant for a cylindrical object.
The piston movement is resisted by a spring and
V  A x  dV  A dx
atmospheric pressure of 100Kpa. The air moves the piston
and the volume changes from 0.15m3 to 0.60m3. Determine
F  PA
F
WNF     Adx   1 a x dx  a 1
2 2 2
the work when (a) the force of the spring is directly x dx
1
 
A
proportional to the displacement; (b) the force of the spring 2
ax 2 
 
3
is directly proportional to the square root of the 3 3 3
WNF   ax2 2  ax1 2
displacement. 3  2
2 1
Solution:
WNF 
2
3

ax2 x2  ax1 x1   2
3

F2 x2  F1 x1 
(a) the force of the spring is directly proportional to the 2 V   V 
displacement WNF  P2 A 2   P1 A 1  
2
P2V2  P1V1 
3  
A  
A 3
F F
Fx  F ax  a  1  2 but F1 F2 P1 A P2 A
x1 x2 a   
x1 x2 V1 V2
where a is the proportionality constant A A
The volume at a given instant can be expressed as P1 P2 V2
 and P2  P1
V  A x , since A is constant for a cylindrical object. V1 V2 V1

The non flow work of a compressed fluid is W NF 


2 
 P1
3 
V2 
V1  2 1 1

V  P V   2 P1 V 3 2  V 3 2
 3 V1
2 1  

WNF   PdV
V2
 kN 
V1 2 500 2 
 m  
 0.60 2  0.15 2  m 2  350 kJ
3 3 9
W NF 
V  A x  dV  A dx 3 0.15 m 2 
3  
 
and F  PA
2
2 F  ax 2 
WNF     Adx   axdx  a  xdx 
2 2
 2.9 During a reversible change of state by a system, the
1
 A 1 1 2 1
entropy and temperature vary according to S = 0.75 + 0.0005
WNF 
1
2

ax2  ax1 
2 2
 1
2
F2 x2  F1 x1  T, BTU/°R. How much heat was required to increase the
temperature of the system from 40°F to 540°F
1 V   V 
WNF  P2 A 2   P1 A 1  
1
P2V2  P1V1  Solution :
2  A  A  2 S  0.75  0.0005 T  dS  0.0005 dT
Q
 S  dQ  TdS
but F F P1 A P2 A T
a 1  2  
x1 x 2 V1 V2 dQ  T 0.0005 dT   0.0005 T dT
A A
P1 P2 V2 T1  40  460  500 R and T2  540  460  1000 R
 and P2  P1
Q  0.0005  TdT  0.00025 T 2
T2 T2
V1 V2 V1
T1 T1

WNF
1  V  
  P1 2 V2  P1V1 
P

 1 V2  V1
2 2
 
Q  0.00025 1000 2  500 2  187.5 BTU 
2  V1   2V1

MIT-School of Mechanical Engineering 


THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 13 of 16

2.10 A certain system whose mass is 10 lb undergoes a capacity of 3.4 kJ/kg and a density of 0.90. Determine the
process wherein its temperature changes from 100°F to increase in temperature of the liquid per minute during mixing if
200°F. Assuming the specific heat of the system to be a : (a) there is no heat loss from the mixing tank (b) the heat loss
function of the temperature only, determine the heat from the tank is 40% of the input energy. (a. 0.1863 °C, b.
absorbed during this process if the specific heat-Fahrenheit- 0.1118°C)
temperature relation is (a) C = 0.3 + 20/(t+150) (b) 0.1 e 0.01 t
, BTU/lb-°F (05) Determine the work done by a 1 lb fluid system as it
Solution : expands slowly with in a piston-cylinder arrangement from an
(a) Q  20  initial pressure and volume of 80 psia and 1 ft3, respectively, to
C  dQ  mCdT  m 0.3  dt
m T  t  150  a final volume of 4 ft3 in accordance with the following defining
 20  t2  20  equations: (a) P = C (b) PV = C (c) PV1.4=C (d) P = - 20V + 10,
dQ  m 0.3  dt  m   0.3  dt
 t  150  t1
 t  150  psia for V ft3. (e) PV2 =C. (a. 44.5, b. 20.56, c. 15.7, d. 27.8, e.
dQ  m0.3t  20 ln t  150 t12 11.1 BTU)
t

  200  150 
Q  10 0.3200  100   20 ln    367 .294 BTU (06) How high would a mass have to be lifted in order to
  100  150 
expend the same amount of energy as be required to heat an
(b)
equal mass of water through 1 C° (Think about the answer; it
dQ  mCdT  
m 0.1e 0.01t dt  gives insight as to why a small amount of energy can perform a
200

dQ  100.1 e 0.01t dt 
1 0.01t
0.01
e 
1
0.01

e 2  e1  great deal of mechanical work.) (426.957m)
100

Q  467.077 BTU (07) A 14 grams aluminum beer contains 375 mL of beer. How
much ice at 0°C will have to melt in order to cool 24 full cans
from 25°C to 2°C? The specific heats of beer and aluminum
EXERCISES are 4.0 and 0.88 kJ/kg-C°, respectively, and the relative density
of the beer is 0.985. (2.45kg)
(01) A fluid moves in a steady flow manner between two
sections in a flow line. At section 1: A1=1 ft2, v1=1000 fpm, (08) In an ice making plant, ice at - 5°C is produced from water
v1=4 ft3/lb. At section 2: A2=2 ft2, ρ2=0.20 lb/ft3. Calculate (a) at 20 °C. What is the refrigeration capacity (heat removal
the flow rate (lb/hr) and (b) velocity at section 2. (a.15,000 capacity) of the plant per hour if the plant can produce 6000 kg
lb/hr, b. 10.42 fps) of ice in 8 hour shift. (321.9 MJ/hr)

(02) Two gaseous streams containing the same fluid enters (09) During the execution of a reversible non-flow process
a mixing chamber and leaves as a single stream. For the the work is -148.1 BTU. If V1 = 30 ft3. and the pressure
first gas the entrance conditions are A1=500 cm2, v1=130 varies as P= - 3V+100 psia, where V is ft3, find V2. (approx. 10
m/s, ρ1=1.60 kg/m3. For the second gas the entrance psia)
conditions are A2=400 cm2, m2=8.84 kg/s, v2=0.502 m3/kg.
The exit stream conditions is v3=130 m/s and v3=0.437 (10) The energy content of black coal (by combustion) is about
m3/kg. Determine (a) the total mass flow leaving the 30 MJ/kg. How much black coal would need to be burnt to
chamber; (b) the velocity of the gas. release the same amount of energy as the conversion of a 1 kg
mass of this coal into energy? (3.0x1012 kg)
(03) The mass of an elevator system without counterweight
is 6,000 lb. Determine its upward uniform velocity and (11) The flow work of 5 cu. ft. of fluid passing a boundary to a
kinetic energy when the driving motor is developing 15 HP. system is 80,000 ft-lb. Determine the pressure at this point.
Consider all losses as being negligible and let the local
gravity acceleration be g = 31.95 fps2. (1.383 fps, (12) A reversible non-flow process occurs from which the work
178.7 ft-lb)
is 9.4 BTU. If the pressure varies as P  V 2  100 psia
V
(04) In an industrial process, a mixer transfers energy at a (where V is in cu. ft.), and P1=46 psia, find P2 and V2. (9 psia)
rate of 5 kW into 500 L of liquid, which has a specific heat

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 14 of 16

(13) The work and the heat per degree change of to the sphere diameter. Determine the work done by the gas.
temperature for a system executing a non-flow process are (7.7 kJ)
given by dW/dt = 75 watt-sec/ºF and dQ/dt = 12 cal/ ºF,
respectively. Determine the change of internal energy for the (21) Five people must be lifted in an elevator a distance of 100
system as its temperature increases from 150 ºF to 250 ºF. m. The work is found to be 341.2 kJ, and the gravitational
acceleration is 9.75 m/s2. Determine the average mass per
(14) The internal energy of a certain closed system is given person? (70 kg)
by U = A + BPV. Show that if it undergoes a reversible non-
flow process with Q = 0, the relation between P and V is
(22) The current used by a device of a constant voltage of 120V
PVk=C, where C is some constant and k=(B+1)/B.
varies with the time according to i=6e- t/60, where i is in amperes
and t is in seconds. Calculate the work for the first minute.
(15) A fluid system undergoes a non-flow frictionless
(27.3 kJ)
process from V1=4.5 ft3 to V2=1.5 ft3 in accordance with the
defining relation P=(60 / V)+30 psia, where V is ft3. During
(23) A 4 mm diameter steel wire with young’s modulus (E) of
this process the system rejects 20 BTU of heat. Determine
material equal to 2.067x108 kPa, has a length of 4m and is
the change of enthalpy.
gradually subjected to an axial force of 5,000 N. Determine the
work done.
(16) Five pounds per second of fluid enter a steady flow
system with P1=100 psia, ρ1=0.2 lb/cu.ft., v1=100 fps,
(24) A soap bubble with a 15 cm radius is formed by
u1=800 BTU/lb. and leave with P2 = 20 psia, ρ2=0.05 lb/cu.ft,
blowing through a 2.5 cm diameter wire loop. Assume that all
v2=500 fps, and u2=780 BTU/lb. During passage through the
the soap goes into making the bubble. The surface tension of
open system, each pound rejects 10 BTU of heat. Find the
the film is 0.02 N/m. Find the total surface work required to
work in horsepower. (168 HP)
make the bubble. (-0.0056J)

(17) A closed gaseous system undergoes a reversible


(25) The specific heat at constant pressure of Octane is
process during which 25 BTU are rejected, the volume
described by the equation CP = 0.290 + 3.97X10 – 3 T, where CP
changes from 5 to 2 ft3 and the pressure remains constant
is in kJ/kg-K and T is in K scale. What is the change in enthalpy
at 50 psia. Find the change of internal energy.
if the temperature changes from 80ºC to 200ºC. (231.5532
kJ/kg)
(18) A fluid enters a steady flow system with an initial
pressure of 690 kPa, density of 3.2 kg/m3 and internal
(26) One half kilogram of a gas is held in a rigid tank. An
energy of 2000 kJ/kg. It leaves at 172 kPa, ρ = 0.64 kg/m3
external motor does 50kJ/kg of work on the gas by means of an
and u = 1950 kJ/kg. The heat loss and work done to the
impeller while the stored energy of the gas increases from
system are 18.6kJ/kg and 32.725kJ/kg, respectively.
120kJ/kg to 160kJ/kg. Determine the heat transfer in BTU.
Determine the initial and exit velocity if the exit velocity is 40
m/s more than twice the initial velocity. ( 60 and 160 m/s)
(27) A semi-elastic spherical ball is dropped from a height of
30m above the ground. Determine the change in the
(19) Air and fuel enters a furnace used for home heating.
temperature of the ball after the 21st bounced if the coefficient
The air has an enthalpy of 302 kJ/kg and fuel an enthalpy of
of restitution is 0.8 and the specific heat of the ball is 1.2kJ/kg-
43,027kJ/kg. The gases leaving the furnace have an
K. The amount of energy absorbed by the floor and transferred
enthalpy of 616kJ/kg. There is 17 kgair/ kgfuel. Water
to the surroundings is 20% of the energy change in the ball.
circulates through the furnace wall receiving heat. The
house requires 17.6 kW of heat. What is the fuel
(28) A closed system containing a gas expands slowly in a
consumption per day? (21 kg/day)
piston-cylinder from 650 kPa and 0.12 m3 to a final volume of
0.55 m3. Determine the work done if the pressure distribution is
(20) An elastic sphere of 0.5 m diameter contains a gas at
determined to be P = - 350V + 625, where V is in m3 and P in
115 kPa. Heating of the sphere causes it to increase to
kPa.
0.62m and during this process the pressure is proportional

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 15 of 16

(29) A piston-cylinder contains gas initially at 3500 kPa with mixture is increased to 90C. Determine, approximately, the
a volume of 0.03 m3. The gas is compressed during a volume of the two containers in liters.
process where PV1.25=C to a pressure of 8500 kPa. The
heat transfer from the gas is 2.5kJ. Determine the change in (37) The internal energy and enthalpy of a gas is 436
internal energy, neglecting changes in kinetic and potential kJ/kg and 614 kJ/kg, respectively. Determine the pressure
energies. of the gas if the density is 0.98 kg/m3. (25.31 psia)

(30) A gas expands in a piston device from 0.010 to (38) A fluid enters a steady flow system with P1=95 psia,
0.030m3, the processing being described by P=aV-1+b, ρ1=0.23 lb/ft3., u1=807 BTU/lb. and leave with P2 = 30 psia,
where P is in bar and V is in m3. If a=0.060 bar–m3 and the ρ2=0.06 lb/ft3, and u2=763 BTU/lb. During passage through the
measured work done by the gas on the piston face is 0.106 open system, each pound rejects 15 BTU of heat. Find the
bar-m3, evaluate b.. work in BTU/lb if the total potential and kinetic energy is
decreased by 1500 ft-lbf/lb. ( 14.84 BTU / lb )
(31) A gas is compressed in a cylinder so that the pressure
rises linearly from 100 to 600 kPa (abs.) while the volume (39) The specific heat of a certain ideal gas at constant volume
falls from 0.06 to 0.02 m3. Calculate the work done. is described by the relation CV = 0.190 - 0.098 T - 1 + 6.37x10 –
7 T 2 where CV is in kJ/kg-K and T is in K scale. What is the

(32) In a steady-flow system, the mass-flow rate is 12 change of enthalpy of the gas if the temperature changes from
kg/min and the net heat flow is 85 kW into the system. The 97ºC to 317ºC. Also determine the change in the enthalpy of
gain in specific enthalpy of the working substance is the gas in kJ/kg if the system change in flow energy is - 14.61
200kJ/kg. Neglecting potential energy and kinetic energy kJ/kg. ( 74.61 kJ/kg, 60 kJ/kg )
changes, calculate the power output from the system.
(40) The enthalpy of an open system is given by
(33) During a steady flow process, the pressure of the P3 .
working substance drops from 200 to 20 psia, the speed h   
v
increases from 200 to 1000 ft/s, the internal energy of the
Show that if it undergoes a reversible process with Q=0, the
open system decreases 25 BTU/lb, and the specific volume 1
increases from 1 to 8 Ft3/lb. No heat is transferred.  P2 4
Determine the work per lb. relation between P and v is; C  P 2   1 , where
 v2 
(34) An unknown mass of a certain solid, initially at 60C, is C, α, and β are constants.
heated at a uniform rate. After 4 minutes the solid reaches
(41) An elastic sphere of 0.25 m diameter contains a gas at 107
its melting point of 80C, and it remains at that temperature
kPa. Heating of the sphere causes it to increase to 0.73 m, and
for 3 minutes of heating, the resulting liquid is at 100C. If
during this process the pressure is proportional to the square of
the specific heat capacity of the substance in the solid state
the surface area of the sphere and inversely proportional to its
is 2kJ/kgC, find the heat of fusion of the substance and its
volume. Determine the work done by the gas. Also, determine
specific heat capacity in the liquid state.
the heat added to the system if the internal energy of the
(35) Determine the thermal conductivity of a material that
system is increased by 27 kJ. (47.0739, 74.0739 kJ)
uses a 2m2 test panel, 25mm thick with a temperature
difference of 10.8 F between the surfaces. During the 5
(42) Two streams of water enter a mixing chamber and exit as
hours test period, the heat transmitted is 200 kJ. (kW/m-
one stream. The first stream is 2.0 lb/s at 120°F and the
C). second stream is 3.0 lb/s at 105°F. Determine the temperature
of the exit stream, if 55 7BTU/s of heat is rejected by the
(36) Two container of unknown volume are filled with water system due to heat transfer. (Assume atmospheric condition)
at 70C and 20C, respectively. When half of the volume on (100°F)
each container was mixed together with 0.5kg of ice at -4C
the resulting temperature of the mixture is 10C. And, when (43) A gas in a piston cylinder assembly expands from 0.05m3
the remaining volumes of water are mixed to the first mixture and 400 kPa to 0.20m3 and 150 kPa according to the relation
with 0.5 kg of steam at 100C the temperature of the

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THERMODYNAMICS-I : Conservation of Mass and Energy chapter II - 16 of 16

P
a

b , where a and b are constant. (44) Compute the (49) Determine the work required to accelerate a 1000 kg car
V V2 from 10 to 80 km/hr on a hill where the elevation increases by
reversible work done by the system and the heat transfer 35m. (-586kJ)
rate, if the internal energy of the gas decreases by 15kJ.
(36.21kJ, 21.21) (50) Determine the time to accelerate a 1000 kg automobile
from rest to 80 km/hr if it has an engine rated at 90kW. (2.74s)
(45) A 40cm x 65cm wall is to be constructed from material
which has an average thermal conductivity of 1.25 W/m-C°. (51) An electric water heater consists of a 4cm diameter pipe
The two sides of the wall are maintained at 110°C and containing a resistance electric heater. Cold water enters the
60°C, respectively. Determine the required thickness of the pipe at 10˚C with an enthalpy of 42 kJ/kg and leaves at 50˚C
wall in mm, if the heat transfer rate is 0.70 kW. (23.2) with an enthalpy of 209 kJ/kg. The water flow rate is
20liters/min, and its density is 1000kg/m3. Determine the rating
(46) A gas expands in reversible non flow system according of electric resistance in kW and the velocity of water in the pipe.
to the PV relation P=aV3+bV+c, where P is in kPa, V in (55.6kW, 0.265m/s)
m3.and a, b, and c are constants.
(a) Derive the formula of the work done by the gas (52) An industrial furnace has a 10cm thick, 15m2 brick wall.
using a, b, c, V1 and V2. (Wnf = 0.25a(V24-V14)+0.50b(V12- The brick have a thermal conductivity of 0.2W/m-K and have a
V22)+c(V2-V1)) uniform and steady temperature on one surface of 1000˚K and
(b) Determine the value of c if the work done by the on the other of 1300˚K. Determine the heat transfer through the
gas is 35 kJ from an initial volume of 0.20m3 to 0.45m3 and wall.
the values of a and b are 16.7 and -76.80, respectively.
(164.3019) (53) A surface of 5ft2 with an emissivity of 0.85 emits thermal
radiation. Find the radiant heat emitted for surface temperature
(47) A steady flow system receives 1 kg/s of a substance of 77˚, 277˚, 577˚F. (8424Btu/hr)
with u1=1000kJ/kg, P1=500kPa, v1=1.2m3/kg, and v1=50m/s.
There is a heat loss of 1000kJ/kg, and the fluid exits at (54) Determine the time to accelerate a 1ton automobile from
v2=150m/s, v2=0.8m3/kg, P2=100kPa and h2=1000 kJ/kg. rest to 60mph if it has an engine rated at 60hp. (7.29s)
Determine the power and the exit specific internal energy.
(490kw, 920kJ/kg) (55) Refrigerant flows through a 6ft, 0.5 in diameter tube and
evaporates at a constant temperature of 0˚F. The tube’s
(48) The torque of an engine is found to be surface temperature is constant at 10˚F, and the unit
T=200sin(πω/2000) J, when ω varies between 500 and convective coefficient is 350 Btu/hr-ft2-F. Determine the rate of
1000RPM and (πω/2000) is in degrees. Determine the convective heat transfer from the refrigerant to the tube
power at these two RPM’s (5.17 kW, 17.99 kW) surface.

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