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Response of Structures

Different types of failure in RC buildings:

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

(a) Flexural failure (b) Flexural-shear (c) shear failure with masonry

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

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Response of Structures

Parameters:

-3 important parameters that describe the behaviour of structures and their

foundations when subjected to earthquakes are:

Stiffness

Strength (Capacity)

Ductility

Response of Structures

Dr. Mohammad Al Amin Siddique CE, BUET 30

Response of Structures

Stiffness:

-is the ability of a component or an assembly of components to resist

deformations when subjected to actions/forces

-if increments or first derivatives of actions and deformations are used, the

ensuing stiffness is the tangent value

-If total actions and deformations are used, the ensuing stiffness is the

secant value

Response of Structures

Stiffness:

-member stiffness is a function of section properties, length and boundary

conditions

- system stiffness is primarily a function of the lateral resisting mechanisms

utilized, e.g. moment resisting frames, braced frames, walls or dual

systems

-relationships between geometry, mechanical properties, actions and

deformations can be established from principles of mechanics

Response of Structures

Factors influencing Stiffness:

o Material properties: E & G, E/γ

Response of Structures

Factors influencing Stiffness:

o Section properties: A, I, and J

-A & I primarily influence the axial, bending & shear stiffness of the system

-For metal structures, A & I do not change with types and levels of applied

loads

-For masonry and RC, properties are a function of the loading and

boundary conditions

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

oMember properties:

-Lateral stiffness depends on the type of structural members

utilized to withstand EQ loads

-Structural walls are much stiffer in their strong axis than columns

dimensions, height and aspect ratio influence horizontal shear and

flexural stiffnesses

deformations for relatively slender structural components

rectangular sections of columns is less than 3-4

Dr. Mohammad Amin and

SiddiqueH/h are greater than 4-5

CE, BUET 36

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Connection properties:

- influence lateral deformation of structural systems

-20-30% of the horizontal relative displacement between adjacent floors

caused by panel deformations

-Pinned connection are inadequate for unbraced frames

-Rigid or semi-rigid connections can be used for both braced and unbraced

frames

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

o System properties:

the distribution of member stiffness, type of horizontal diaphragms

connecting vertical members

-MRF more flexible than braced frames, structural walls are stiffer than all

types of frames, frames with rigid connections exhibit higher stiffness than

that of semi-rigid connections

prevent localization of high seismic demand

Response of Structures

Effect on Actions and Deformations:

-Inertial forces caused by earthquake motion are distributed among lateral

resisting systems in the elastic range as a function of their relative stiffness

and mass

-The higher the stiffness, the higher the load attracted for a given target

deformation

-Stiffer elements and structural systems will reach their capacity earlier than

their flexible counterparts

-Significant reductions of the initial (elastic) stiffness may occur in

construction materials, structural members and connections, when they are

subjected to increasing loads

-Repeated and reversed loading also reduces effective stiffness; an

observation termed ‘stiffness degradation’

Response of Structures

The lateral deformability

of structural systems is

measured through the

horizontal drift

Δ are the absolute

displacements of any

floor relative to the base,

while inter-storey drifts δ

define the relative lateral

displacements between

two consecutive floors

Response of Structures

Inter-storey drift =

Response of Structures

Relative stiffness between beams and columns

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Relative Stiffness between Beams and Columns

Response of Structures

Relative Stiffness between Beams and Columns

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Strength:

-the capacity of a member or an assembly of member to resist forces

resistance and the ability to endure deformation or deformation capacity

- axial, bending and shear resistances are utilized to quantify the capacity

of structures and their components in earthquake structural engineering

(i) the randomness in material properties, especially strength parameters,

(ii) geometric properties, e.g. section and member size,

(iii) construction quality

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Ductility:

-ability of a material, component, connection or structure to undergo

inelastic deformations with acceptable stiffness and strength reduction.

quantity and the same quantity at the yield limit state

Response of Structures

Ductility:

-The following types of ductility are widely used to evaluate structural

response:

sections

(iii) Member (rotation) ductility ( μθ ) quantifies plastic rotations that can take

place in structural components such as beams and columns.

- This type of ductility is often also used for connections between structural

members.

inelastic performance of structural sub - assemblages or systems subjected

to horizontal loads.

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Ductility of structural systems significantly depend on the material response

Inelastic deformation requires high material ductility

Steel reinforcement can be utilized to enhance ductility in plain concrete

Confined concrete exhibits deformation 5-15 times higher than plain concrete

Response of Structures

Curvature ductility:

- ductile response of cross section of structural members subjected to bending

moment is generally measured by curvature ductility

Response of Structures

Rotation ductility:

-ductile behaviour of structural member

- directly estimated from ultimate and yield curvatures

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Inelastic response of structures subjected to earthquakes is primarily

controlled by local and global ductility

Failure of ductile structures does not correspond to the maximum resistance

or formation of first plastic hinge in structural components.

Ductility allows redundant structures, e.g. multi storey MRFs, to dissipate

energy and continue to resist seismic actions, while successive plastic hinges

are formed

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Structural Collapse Prevention:

-a fundamental objective of seismic design

-Expressed in terms of different response quantities at local strains, curvatures,

rotations and global inter-storey and/or roof drift

-Collapse implies that horizontal and vertical systems utilized to withstand

effects of gravity and earthquake ground motion

-Infilled walls, claddings and internal partitions can play important role in the

seismic response of structural members and may alter the failure mode

sequence

-To achieve an adequate control of the failure mode, non-structural components

should be accounted for in the analysis

Response of Structures

Table: Typical brittle failure modes as function of common materials of construction

Failure modes that should be avoided are those involving sudden failure

(e.g. brittle or buckling modes) and those involving total collapse due to

failure of vertical load carrying members.

Response of Structures

Overstrength :

-a parameter used to quantify the difference between the required and the

actual strength of a material, a member or a structural system

-is generally expressed by the ‘overstrength factor’

Response of Structures

The most common sources of overstrength include:

(i) Difference between actual and design material strengths, including strain

hardening;

(ii) Effect of confinement in RC, masonry and composite members;

(iii) Minimum reinforcement and member sizes exceeding design requirements;

(iv) Conservatism of the design procedures, e.g. utilizing the elastic period to obtain

the design forces and ductility requirements;

(v) Effect of structural elements not considered in predicting the lateral load

capacity (e.g. actual slab width contribution to beams, degree of interaction of

shear connectors in composite systems);

(vi) Load factors and multiple load cases adopted in seismic design including

accidental torsion;

(vii) Serviceability limit state provisions;

(viii) Structural redundancy;

(ix) Participation of non- structural elements in the earthquake response of

structures.

Dr. Mohammad Al Amin Siddique CE, BUET 69

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Damping:

-The phenomenon that the amplitude of vibration decreases gradually as

time goes on is called “damping” and its degree in usually presented by

damping ratio.

- The more damping the structure has, the less response the structure

experiences when it is subjected to excitations such as earthquake motions.

dynamic response.

-Unlike the mass and stiffness of a structure, damping does not relate to a

unique physical process but rather to a number of possible processes.

material of construction, fundamental periods of vibration, mode shapes and

structural configurations (Bachmann et al ., 1995 )

damping mechanisms Dr. Mohammad Al Amin Siddique CE, BUET 71

Response of Structures

Damping:

o Structural damping is a measure of energy dissipation in a vibrating system

that results in bringing the structure back to a quiescent state

o It is associated with absorption of seismic energy in structural components

o It also accounts for material viscosity and friction at connections & supports

o In structural components, the energy imparted by earthquakes is dissipated

mainly through hysteretic damping characterized by action–deformation

loops.

Response of Structures

Damping:

sections, members, connections or systems under alternating loads.

o For hysteretic damping, the dissipation varies with the level of

displacement, but it is constant with the velocity

o The amount and mechanisms of material hysteretic damping vary

significantly depending on whether the material is brittle, such as

concrete and masonry, or ductile, e.g. metals.

o Friction or Coulomb damping results from interfacial mechanisms

between members and connections of a structural system, and

between structural and non - structural components such as infills

and partitions.

Response of Structures

Damping:

oFriction damping is independent of velocity and displacement; its

values significantly depend on the material and type of construction

o In steel structures, the contribution of friction damping in bolted

connections is higher than welded connections

o In infilled masonry walls, friction damping is generated when cracks

open and close

o In other materials, e.g. for concrete and masonry, this type of

damping cannot be relied upon because of the degradation of

stiffness and strength under cyclic load reversals.

Response of Structures

Damping:

(i) Structural damping: due to energy dissipation in materials of

construction, structural components and their connections;

added to structural systems to increase their damping;

vibrating structure to the soil, through the foundations;

from foundations.

Response of Structures

Response of Structures

Demand:

-the action or deformation imposed on a component or an assembly of

components when subjected to earthquake ground motion

-not constant

- continuously varies as the structural characteristics vary during inelastic

response

- also varies with the characteristics of the input motion.

Supply:

-the action or deformation capacity of a component or an assembly of

components when subjected to earthquake ground motion

-represents the response of the structure to the demand

-continuously vary as the structural characteristics change during

inelastic

-also varies with the characteristics of the input motion

Dr. Mohammad Al Amin Siddique CE, BUET 77

Response of Structures

Effects on Load path:

-Earthquake-resistant structures should be provided with lateral and vertical

seismic force–resisting systems capable of transmitting inertial forces from the

location of masses throughout the structure to the foundations

Siddique BUET and horizontal loads 78

Response of Structures

LoadDr.path in building

Mohammad structures

Al Amin Siddique CE, BUET 79

Response of a SDOF System

the displaced positions of all the masses relative to their

original position is called the number of degrees of freedom

(DOFs) for dynamic analysis

Dr. Mohammad Al Amin Siddique CE, BUET 80

Response of a SDOF System

Fig. Models for a single degree of freedom (SDOF): (a) spring-mass-dashpot system;

and (b) idealized single frame

Assumptions:

1. Mass of the columns<< slab, concentrated on slab level

2. Beam/slab infinitely rigid, entire deformation is due to col. flexural deformation

Under the influence of lateral loads, a SDOF system shown in (a) is analog

for the response of portal frame (b)

Response of SDOF System

The parameters of discrete model are related to the physical system (portal frame)

as:

mass M is the total mass of the beam & slab and serve as the storage for kinetic

energy

spring of stiffness K represents the combined stiffness of two columns for lateral

deformations and store the internal strain energy due to column deformations

dashpot with damping coefficient C represents the energy dissipation due to

various sources

the excitation force P(t) is the lateral force applied on the portal frame

Dr. Mohammad Al Amin Siddique CE, BUET 82

Response of SDOF System

the inertia force is included in the free body diagram

FI + FD + FS = P(t)

Response of SDOF System

Response of SDOF System

Response of SDOF System

Response of SDOF System

Response of SDOF System

Response of SDOF System

Response of a SDOF System

Types of dynamic loadings:

Response of SDOF System

Types of dynamic loadings:

Free Vibration Response of SDOF System

The term undamped implies that there is no damping or energy

dissipation present in the dynamic system

that occur at time zero and consist of an initial displacement and/or an

initial velocity

frequency of the system

Free Vibration Response of SDOF System

Free Vibration Response of SDOF System

A, ωn and ϕ are constants

of the motion

The constant A is called

amplitude of the motion,

which is the maximum

displacement of the particle

In either a positive or

negative x-direction.

•The constant angle φ is called the phase constant (or phase angle) acting

along with the amplitude A which can be determined uniquely by the initial

displacement and initial velocity of the particle

•The function x is periodic and repeats itself when ωnt increases by 2π rad

•The period T of the motion is the time it takes for the particle to complete

one full cycle

Dr. Mohammad Al Amin Siddique CE, BUET 94

Free Vibration Response of SDOF System

T = The time required for the undamped system to complete one cycle of free

vibration is the natural period of vibration of the system

is called frequency (f) of

the motion

• It represents

the number of oscillations

that a particle makes per

unit time

The unit of frequency (f) is cycles/s or hertz (Hz). The angular frequency is:

Free Vibration Response of SDOF System

Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System

If some form of energy dissipation such as viscous damping is

introduced into the dynamic system

cycle of free vibration or in a cycle of forced harmonic vibration

• The damping ratio—a dimensionless measure of damping-is a

property of the system that also depends on its mass and stiffness

Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System

Damping is subcritical/underdamped when 0 < ξ < 1

Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System

Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System

If ζ < 1, the system

oscillates about its

equilibrium position

with a progressively

decreasing

amplitude

If ζ = 1, the system

returns to its

equilibrium position

without oscillating

system does

not oscillate

and returns to

its equilibrium

position, as in

the ζ = 1 case,

but at a slower rate

Dr. Mohammad Al Amin Siddique CE, BUET 100

Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System

Damping is said to be critical when ξ = 1

the natural frequency from

ωn to ωD and lengthening

the natural period from Tn to TD

damping ratios below 20%,

a range that includes most structures

are approximately equal to the undamped properties

ωn and Tn, respectively

Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System

Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System

Decay in Motion:

Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System

Decay in Motion:

Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System

Decay in Motion:

ratio, called the logarithmic

decrement, δ:

Damped Free Vibration of SDOF System

Decay in Motion:

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