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12

YEAR

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MATHEMATICS
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STANDARD 2
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CambridgeMATHS
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STAGE 6

GK POWERS

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University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom

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Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge.
It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit

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of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence.

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www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781108448079

E EC © Powers Family Trust 2018


This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without the written
permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 2018
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Cover and text designed by Sardine Design
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Printed in China by C & C Offset Printing Co. Ltd.
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A catalogue record for this book is available from the National Library
of Australia at www.nla.gov.au
ISBN 978-1-108-44807-9 Paperback
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Additional resources for this publication at www.cambridge.edu.au/hotmaths


Reproduction and Communication for educational purposes
The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of
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one chapter or 10% of the pages of this publication, whichever is the greater,
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Contents

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About the author vii
Introduction viii
Acknowledgements xii

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1 Rates and ratios 1 M7

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1A Rates and concentrations 2
1B Heart rate 8
1C Energy rate 12

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1E
1F
1G
1H
Fuel consumption rate
Calculations with ratios
Dividing a quantity in a given ratio
Scale drawings
Plans and elevations
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21
24
27
30
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1I Perimeter, area and volume 38
Chapter summary 44
Multiple-choice 45
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Short-answer 46
Extended-response 48
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2 Network concepts  49 N2.1, N2.2


2A Networks 50
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2B Travelling a network 55
2C Drawing a network diagram 60
2D Eulerian and Hamiltonian walks 70
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2E Network problems 75
2F Minimal spanning trees 79
2G Connector problems 84
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2H Shortest path 87
Chapter summary 92
Multiple-choice 93
Short-answer 94
Extended-response 96

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3 Investments and loans 97 F4
3A Future value 98
3B Investment graphs 103
3C Appreciation and inflation 108
3D Shares and dividends 112
3E Declining-balance depreciation 116

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3F Reducing-balance loans 120
3G Credit cards 126
3H Credit card statements 130

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3I Fees and charges for credit card usage 134
Chapter summary 137

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Multiple-choice 138

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Short-answer 139
Extended-response 140

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Practice Paper 1

Non-right-angled trigonometry
4A Right-angled trigonometry
4B Angles of elevation and depression
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153
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4C Compass and true bearings 158
4D Trigonometry with obtuse angles 163
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4E Area of a triangle 166


4F The sine rule 169
4G The cosine rule 175
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4H Miscellaneous problems 180


4I Radial survey 185
Chapter summary 189
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Multiple-choice 190
Short-answer 191
Extended-response 192
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5 Simultaneous linear equations 193 A4.1


5A Linear functions 194
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5B Linear models 200


5C Simultaneous equations – graphically 205
5D Simultaneous equations – algebraically 209
5E Simultaneous equation models 213
5F Break-even analysis 217
Chapter summary 221
Multiple-choice 222
Short-answer 223
Extended-response 224

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6 Bivariate data analysis 225 S4
6A Constructing a bivariate scatterplot 226
6B Using a bivariate scatterplot 230
6C Pearson’s correlation coefficient 236
6D Line of best fit 241
6E Interpolation and extrapolation 247

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6F Statistical investigation 252
Chapter summary 257
Multiple-choice 258

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Short-answer 259
Extended-response 260

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Practice Paper 2 261

7 Annuities 267 F5

E EC 7A Annuity as a recurrence relation


7B Using Excel to model an annuity
7C Using a future value table
7D Using a present value table
7E Use of annuities
268
274
280
286
292
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Chapter summary 297
Multiple-choice 298
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Short-answer 299
Extended-response 300
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8 Non-linear relationships 301 A3.2


8A Exponential functions 302
8B Exponential models 306
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8C Quadratic functions 309


8D Quadratic models 314
8E Reciprocal function 320
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8F Reciprocal models 324


8G Inverse variation 329
8H Miscellaneous problems 333
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Chapter summary 337


Multiple-choice 338
Short-answer 339
Extended-response 340

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9 The normal distribution 341 S5
9A Normally distributed data 342
9B The 68–95–99.7 rule 347
9C z-scores 354
9D Converting z-scores into actual scores 358
9E Using z-scores to compare data 362

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9F Further applications of normal distributions 367
Chapter summary 373
Multiple-choice 374

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Short-answer 375
Extended-response 376

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10 Critical path analysis 377 N3
0A Introduction to critical path analysis
1 378

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activity chart
10C Dummy activities
10D Forward and backward scanning
10E Float times and the critical path
384
389
395
400
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10F Minimum completion time 406
10G Network flow problems 411
Chapter summary 419
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Multiple-choice 420
Short-answer 421
Extended-response 422
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Practice Paper 3 423

Formulae and data sheet 429


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Glossary 433
Answers 445
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About the author

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Greg Powers is currently the Head of Mathematics at Cabramatta High School
and the coordinator of the Mathematics Head Teacher Western Network. He is
an experienced classroom teacher, having taught for over 30 years in a range

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of different schools. Greg has been a senior marker for the HSC, educational
consultant for the Metropolitan South West Region and presented at numerous

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MANSW inservices. He has also enjoyed several curriculum roles with the
Department of Education and Training. Greg is an experienced author who has
written numerous texts on mathematics and technology.

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Introduction

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CambridgeMATHS Mathematics Standard 2 Year 12 provides complete and close coverage of the
NSW Stage 6 Mathematics Standard 2 Year 12 syllabus to be implemented in 2019 including the
November 2017 syllabus update.

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Now part of the CambridgeMATHS series, this resource is part of a continuum from Year 7 through to 12.

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The series includes advice on pathways from Stage 5 to Stage 6. The Year 12 resource gives access

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to selected previous years’ lessons for revision of prior knowledge.
The four components of Mathematics Standard 2 Year 12 — the print book, downloadable PDF textbook, online

E EC Interactive Textbook and Online Teaching Resource — contain a huge range of resources available to schools in
a single package at a convenient low price. There are no extra subscriptions or per-student charges to pay.
Interactive Textbook powered by the HOTmaths platform – included with the print book or
available separately (shown on the page opposite)
The Interactive Textbook is an online HTML version of the print textbook powered by the HOTmaths
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platform, completely designed and reformatted for on-screen use, with easy navigation. Its features include:
1 Most examples have video versions to encourage independent learning.
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2 All exercises including chapter reviews have the option of being done interactively on line, using
workspaces and self-assessment tools. Students rate their level of confidence in answering the
question and can flag the ones that gave them difficulty. Working and answers, whether typed or
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handwritten, and drawings, can be saved and submitted to the teacher electronically. Answers displayed
on screen if selected and worked solutions (if enabled by the teacher) open in pop-up windows.
3 Teachers can give feedback to students on their self-assessment and flagged answers.
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4 The full suite of the HOTmaths learning management system and communication tools are included in
the platform, with similar interfaces and controls.
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5 Worked solutions are included and can be enabled or disabled in the student accounts by the teacher.
6 Interactive widgets and activities based on embedded Desmos windows demonstrate key concepts
and enable students to visualise the mathematics.
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7 Desmos scientific and graphics calculator windows are also included.


8 ‘Knowledge check’ revision of prior knowledge using selected HOTmaths Year 10 lessons is included.
9 Every section in a chapter has a Quick Quiz of automatically marked multiple-choice questions for
students to test their progress.
10 Definitions pop up for key terms in the text, and are also provided in a dictionary.
11 Each chapter has a Study Guide – a concise summary in PowerPoint slides that can be used for
revision and preparation for assessment.
12 Literacy worksheets can be accessed via the Interactive Textbook, with answers in the Online
Teaching Suite, providing activities to help with mathematical terminology.
13 Spreadsheet questions with accompanying spreadsheet files.

Downloadable PDF textbook (shown on the page opposite)


14 The convenience of a downloadable PDF textbook has been retained for times when users cannot go online.
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INTERACTIVE TEXTBOOK POWERED BY THE HOTmaths PLATFORM

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Numbers refer to the descriptions on the opposite page. HOTmaths platform features are updated regularly.

10 Pop-up definitions 9 Quick quizzes

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5 Worked solutions

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(if enabled by teacher) 7 Desmos
calculator
windows

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1 Video
worked
examples
6 Interactive
Desmos
widgets
2 Answers
displayed on
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screen
12 Printable
Literacy
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worksheet

2 Interactive
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exercises with
typing/hand- 11 Study Guides
13 Spreadsheet
writing/drawing
entry showing question and 8 Revision of prior
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working files 4 Tasks sent by teacher 10 Dictionary knowledge


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PDF TEXTBOOK
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DOWNLOADABLE
14 Included with
Interactive Textbook Search
functions

Note-taking

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Online Teaching Suite powered by the HOTmaths platform (shown on the page opposite)
The Online Teaching Suite is automatically enabled with a teacher account and appears in the teacher’s
copy of the Interactive Textbook. All the assets and ersources are in one place for easy access. Many of
them are opened by clicking on icons in the pages of the Interactive Textbook. The features include:
15 Editable teaching programs with registers, a scope and sequence document and curriculum grid.
16 Topic test worksheets A and B – based on the knowledge, skills and understanding gained in each chapter,

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and Revision Quiz worksheets provide HSC-standard questions for further revision for each topic, with
worked solutions. NESA requirements for problem-solving investigative tasks will also be addressed.
17 A HOTmaths-style test generator provides additional multiple-choice questions, as well as digital

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versions of the multiple-choice questions in the test worksheets
18 The HOTmaths learning management system with class and student reports and communication tools

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is included.
19 Teacher’s lesson notes – pop-up text boxes containing lesson notes and additional examples that can be
used in class, also available as editable PowerPoint slides which can be given to students as tutorials.

E EC Content features of the textbook


Working mathematically is integrated into each exercise using three levels.
• Level 1 – questions to develop understanding, fluency and communication. These questions are basic and
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straightforward in style to ensure early success. Level 1 caters for a student working at bands 1 to 3.
Students going on to do HSC Standard 1 should do Level 1 questions, and Level 2 at the teacher’s discretion.
• Level 2 – questions to develop problem solving, reasoning and justification. These questions extend
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and broaden students understanding of the concepts of the section. Level 2 caters for a student
working at bands 4 to 5.
• Level 3 – questions to challenge the knowledge and understanding of the top students. Level 3 caters
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for a student working at band 6.

Other features:
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20 The Year 11 Chapter 1 Preliminary preparation covering basic skills is accessible in the Interactive Textbook
to Year 12 students. It could also be used for review during the course.
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21 The textbook is divided into smaller manageable topics to assist teaching.


22 Syllabus topic focus and outcomes are listed at the beginning of each chapter.
23 Each section and exercise begins at the top of the page to make them easy to find and access.
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24 Exercises are differentiated into three levels to allow teachers to assess students abilities.
25 Each exercise develops student’s skills to work mathematically at their level.
26 Step-by-step worked examples with precise explanations (and video versions for most of them)
encourage independent learning, and are linked to exercises.
27 Important concepts are formatted in boxes for easy reference.
28 Spreadsheet activities are integrated throughout the text, with accompanying Excel files in the
Interactive Textbook.
29 Chapter reviews contain a chapter summary and multiple-choice, short-answer and extended-response
questions.
30 A comprehensive glossary and HSC formula sheet are included.
31 There are three complete HSC practice papers.

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ONLINE TEACHING SUITE POWERED BY THE HOTmaths PLATFORM
Numbers refer to the descriptions on the previous page. HOTmaths platfrom features are updated regularly.

16 Printable
test and
19 Teacher’s

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quiz sheets
lesson notes
(Indicated by T icon in
teacher’s interactive 15 Teaching

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textbook) programs
18 Class reports

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17 Test 18 Student
generator results
Teacher’s copy

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of interactive
textbook
18 Tasks sent to
students
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PRINT TEXTBOOK
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24 Exercises
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21 Smaller 29 Chapter
manageable Review
topics
30 Glossary
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to assist
teaching Answers

31 HSC
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practice
Icons indicate papers
digital assets

26 Step-by- 26 Questions
step worked linked to
examples examples
with precise
explanations

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Acknowledgements

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The author and publishers wish to thank Rebecca Lovelock for advice in preparing the networks and
critical path analysis chapters.

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