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~. PB 254 788



Volume I
Principles and Applications
2nd Edition



Urban Mass Transportation Administration

Office of Research and Development
Washington, D.C. 20590
, .


This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation
in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government and the Transit Develop-
ment Corporation, Inc. do not assume liability for its contents or use thereof.

The United States Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufac-
turers' names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the objectives of this

The preparation of this Handbook has been financed in part through a grant from the United
States Department of Transportation, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, under the
Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964, as amended.
.. ol._

Technical ~eporf Documentotion Pc:

1. Ro"ort No. 2. Governmen' ACc.slion No. 3. Rocipiont'. Cotolov No.

UMTA-DC-06-00l0-76-l PR::)I:; LL 7 R'~

. •• Titlo ond Sub'itlo

Subway Environmental Design Handbook, Vol~ I:

S. Ropor! 00'0
March 1976
6. P .,forming Organi &oti on Code
Principles and Applications, Second Edition
8. P.,'o,min, O,goniza,ion R.port No .
t .7. Author! 0) \
See Item 15
t 9. PorfoMinv Orgonioo'ion 101_0 ond Addr... 10. Work Uni' No. CTRAIS)
Transit Development Corporation, InC. OC-06-00l0
I 1730 MStreet, N.W.
Washington, D. C. 20036
11. Controc' or Gran' No.
OOT-Ul'-290 .
13. T y"o of Roport ond Poriod Co.o,.d
12• .Spon.oring Agoncy Nomo ond Addro ..
U.S. Departt'.lent of Transportation Teclmical Report
.Urban Mass Transportation Administration
2100 2nd Street, S.W. 1.. Spon.orinv Agoncy Codo
Washinllton D.C• 20590
. IS, Supplomon'ory 1010'0'
Prepared by Associated Engineers, a Joint Venture of Parsons, Brinckerhoff,
Quade & Douglas, Inc., DeLeuw, Cather &. ~any, and Kaiser Engineers
16. Abotroct
This Handbook is a guide and reference for the planning, design, constructi011 and
operation of enviroJUllenul control systems for 1.Bldergro1.Bld rapid· transit. 'rhe
Handbook follah'S the engineering sequence from criteria tQrough load analysis, and
from system conceptual design 'to selection of equipment. It covers a broad range
of parameters, including temperature, humidity, air qQality and rapid pressure
change, and, to a limited extent, noise and vibration as related to envirorunental
control equipment.
The content of the Handbook is divided into two.volumes, Volume I (this voiume) ,
Principles and Applications, encompasses all of the above subject matter so that mu(
.of the enviromnental system design can be accomplished using the techniques, COmpute
tiOns and related graphic data contained herein. Volume II comprises both the US~T'
and Progranmer's Manuals for the Subway Environment Simulation (SES) compllter progn
As a design tool. this sophisticated prograTll Cml be utilized readily by design
engineers for detailed analysis of designs and for rapid evaluation of. alternative
environiIental system concepts for extensive o~ complex configurations.
Volume II, Part I: User's Mlnual and Part II: Progranuner's t-tmual is available
through the National rectmica1 liiformation Service.
I Reproduced from
best available copy.

17. Key Word. 18. Distribution Statement

Urban Transpo:'tation Avnilable to the Public Throu~h the

Subway Railways National Technical Infon.'1:itiotl Service
Envirorunental Engineering Sp~ingfi'::ld. V1rgin~a 22161
1_ OJ --
19. S~curily Clouif. Cof ,hi. report) 20 S.~"aity C.:Ic:uH. \l'..1' .his po,_)
Unclassified 1 •



Principles and Applications
2nd Edition

Prepared by Associated Engineers - A Joint Venture

Parsons. Brinckerhoff. Quade & Douglas. Inc.
De Leuw. Cather & Company
Kaiser Engineers

Under the Direction of the



Prepared for
Urban Mass Transportation Administration
Offi'ce of Research and Development
Washington. D.C. 20590

. I





I. I. Past Practices and Concepts I-I
Early Public Transportation in London 1-1
New York City's First Subway 1-2
. Early Tests on Subway Ventilation 1-4
In Boston: The First Subway in North America 1-6
Chicago's Subways 1-7
The Toronto Transit System 1-8
The Cleveland Transit System 1-8
Summary 1-9
~.' 1.2. Contemporary Environmental Control Concepts 1-9
The PATH System 1-10
The Montreal System 1-10
The PATCO System I-II
The BART System 1-12
Newer Concepts 1-12
1.3. The Design Process 1-13
Criteria 1-13
Analysis 1-14
Control Concept Selection 1-20
Design Approach 1-21
1.4. Comparison of Alternatives 1-22
The Rapid Transit Vehicle 1-22
Alignment and Profile 1-25
Real Estate Acquisition 1-26
Vent Shafts 1-26
Space Allocations for Environmental
Control Equipment 1-27
Methodologies for Cost Trade-OtT Evaluations 1-28
References 1-29


2. I. Temperature and Humidity 2-1
Physiological Considerations of Thermal Comfort 2-3
Environmental Considerations of Thermal Comfort 2-4

. ,,-
Thennal Indices for Subway Application 2-4
Comfort Range for Relative Warmth Index 2-8
Application of Relative Warmth Index 2-9
Criteria for Temperature_ and Humidity 2-11
Application of Heat Deficit Rate 2-14
Temperature Criteria for Cold Weather 2-16
• . 2.2. Air Quality 2-16
Odorants 2-17
Particulate Contaminants 2-17
Gaseous Contaminants 2-20
2.3. Air Velocity and Rapid Pressure Changes 2-20
Maximum Air Velocities 2-20
Rapid Pressure Change 2-22
2.4. Emergency 2-23
Air Quality Criteria in Emergencies 2-24
Emergency Air Temperature Criteria 2-26
Emergency Air Velocity Criteria 2-26
References 2-27


3.1. Design Strategies to Achieve Air
TemPerature Criteria 3-1
Heat Gains 3-3
Removal and Addition of Sensible Heat by
Ventilation 3-22
Removal and Addition of Sensible Heat by
Heat Sink 3-51
Underplatform and Related Exhaust Systems 3-54
Isolation of Heat Sources and Sinks 3-57
Reduction of Heat At Its Source 3-60
Removal and Addition of Sensible Heat by
Mechanical Equipment 3-63
3.2. Air Velocity Control 3-65
Fundamentals of Air Flow in Stations 3-66
Control of High Air Velocity by Use of
Blast Shafts 3-70
Control of High Air Velocity by Changes
in Station Geometry 3-73
Changing the Air Velocity in the Tunnels 3-73
Isolation of High Velocity Air 3-74
3.3. Air Quality Control 3-75
Choice of Air Intake Types and Location 3-75
Maintenance of Air Passages 3-76
Air Fihration 3-76
3.4. Air· Pressure Control 3-77
Fundamentals 3-78
Train Speed Restriction 3-88
Tunnel Venting 3-94
Changes in Tunnel Structure 3-102
Isolation 3-105
3.5. Environmental Control for Emergencies 3-105
Direction of Air Flow During Emergencies 3-106
Limiting Smoke Concentration 3-108


Limiting Air Temperature 3-109

3.6. Strategies for Multiple Criteria 3-112
Basic Steps 3-114
Examples of Multiple Criteria 3-116
References 3-122


4.1. Environmental Control Systems 4-1
Ventilation Systems 4-1
Cooling Systems 4-6
Heating Systems 4-14
Air Distribution Systems 4-16
Isolation Systems 4-17
Trackway Exhaust Systems 4-19
4.2. Environmental Control Equipment 4-22
Fans and Air-Handling Units 4-22
Water Chillers 4-25
Direct Expansion Equipment 4-32
Condensers 4-35
Condenser Water Cooling Equipment 4-37
Evaporative Air Cooling Equipment 4-40
Instrumentation and Controls 4-41
Piping 4-44
Ductwork. Air Outlets and Accessories 4-47
Heating Equipment 4-49
Miscellaneous Equipment 4-51
4.3. Vehicle Air Conditioning 4-56
Loads 4-56
Equipment 4-68
References 4-78


A.I. Scope of Research A-I
Scale-Model Testing A-I
Full-Scale Testing A-2
A.2. Basic Research Program A-2
Experimental Program A-2
The VICS-70 Facility A-3
The VICS-120 Facility A-3
Theoretical Program A-4
A.3. Applied Research Program A-5
The VST Facility A-5
The SAT Facility A-6
A.4. Resistor Grid Tests A-9
A.5. Tunnel Field Tests A-ll
References A c l2


B.I. Scaling Laws B-2
Principles of Similitude B-2
Derivation of Similarity Laws B-6
Examples of Application of Scaling Laws B-8
B.2. Scale Model Experimentation B-IO


Experimentation Related to Subway

Environmental Research Program B-IO
Experimentation Related to General
Subway Design B-14
B.3. Design and Construction of
Scale Models B-14
Level of Geometric Detail B-14
Construction Materials and Techniques B-15
B.4. Testing Methodology B-23
VST Facility Highlights B-23
SAT Facility Highlights B-27
B.5. Semi-Empirical Data Output B-30
VST Highlights B-30
SAT Highlights B-34
References B-41


C.l. Toronto Transit Commission (TIC) C-I
Tunnels C-I
Stations C-2
Trains C-2
Environmental Control System C-2
Cleanup C-3
Environmental Conditions C-3
C.2. Montreal Urban Community Transit
Commission (MUCTC) C-4
Tunnels C-4
Stations C-5
Trains C-5
Environmental Control System C-5
Environmental Conditions C-6
C.3. Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) C-7
Tunnels C-7
Stations C-7
Trains C-8
Environmental Control System C-8
Environmental Conditions C-8
C.4. Port Authority Trans-Hudson
Corporation (PATH) C-9
Tunnels C-9
Stations C-IO
Trains C-IO
Environmental Control System C-IO
Environmental Conditions C-ll
C.5. Massachusetts Bay Transportation
Authority (MBTA) C-ll
Tunnels C-ll
Stations C-12
Trains C-12
Environmental Control System C-12
Environmental Conditions C-13
C.6. Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation
Authority (SEPTA) C-13
Tunnels C-14


Stations C-14
Trains C-14
Environmental Control System C-14
Environmental Conditions C-IS
C.7. Port Authority Transit Corporation· (PATCO) C-IS
Tunnels C-16
Stations C-16
Trains C-16
Environmental Control System C-16
Environmental Conditions C-17
Co8. Cleveland Transit System (CTS) C-17
Tunnel C-17
Station C-17
Trains C-17
Environmental Control System C-17
Environmental Conditions C-18
Co9. New York City Transit Authority (NYCTA) C-19
Tunnels C-19
Stations C-19
Trains C-19
Environmental Control System C-19
Environmental Conditions C-20
C.IO. Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) C-21


Tabular Data 0-2
Notes 0-28





Fig. 1.4 SES-Computed Rush-Hour Average Air

Temperature Distribution 1-20

Fig. 1.5 SES-Computed Instantaneous Air Flows and

Train Situations 1-21

Table 2.2 Metabolic Rates for Various Activities 2-5

Table 2.3 Insulating Effect of Clothing at Various

Activity Levels 2-6

Fig. 2.2 Comfort Clothing as a Function of t,

M and V 2-6

Fig. 2.3 Standard Value for Ia vs. Velocity of Air 2-7

Table 2.4 ASHRAE Comfort Classification and Cor-

responding Relative Warmth Index 2-8

Fig. 2.4 Percentage of People Who Want a Cooler

Environment in Summer 2-8

Table 2.5 Numerical Values Used in Calculating

Relative Warmth Index for Existing
Rapid Transit Agencies 2-9

Fig. 2.5 Relative Warmth Indices 2-10

Fig. 2.6 Relative Warmth Values in Subway Systems 2-12

Fig. 2.7 Heat Deficit Rate and Cumulative Heat

Deficit 2-16

Table 2.8 Representative Limits for Particulate

Contaminants Generated in Subway
Environment 2-19

Table 2.9 Contents of Some Inert Dusts 2-19

Table 2.10 Representative Threshold Limits for

Gaseous Contaminants in Subway
Environment 2-20

Table 2.11 Optimum Air Velocity as a Function of

Metabolic Rate and Humidity at I04F 2-21

Table 2.12 Acceptable Air Velocities Directed at

Workers 2-21

Important Figures and Tables

Table 2.13 Beaufort Scale 2-22

Table 2.14 Ear Sensations at Various Levels of

Pressure Change 2-23

Table 3.1 Heat Gains and Losses in a Subway System 3-1

Fig. 3.1 Subway System Heat Balances With Design

Temperatures Below and Above Ambient 3-2

Table 3.2 Example Subway System for Analysis 3-3

Fig. 3.3 Typical System Speed vs. Distance Data 3-4

Fig. 3.4 Relative Magnitude of Subway Heat Sources 3-4

Table 3.3 Relative Magnitude of Heat Sources in a

Subway Station and its Adjacent Tunnels 3-5

Table 3.4 Summary - Subway Heat Loads 3--6

Fig. 3.6 Deceleration Resistor Temperature History 3-9

Table 3.5 Approximate Heat Release From Resistor

Grids Under Nonequilibrium Conditions 3-10

Fig. 3.7 Transition Speeds of Cam-Controlled Rapid

Transit Motors 3-11

Fig. 3.8 Air Conditioner Power Requirements 3-14

Fig. 3.9 Distribution of Braking Energy Along Track 3-18

Fig. 3.10 Detail of Temperature and Heat Rejection of

Dynamic Braking Resistor Grids at
Thermal Equilibrium 3-19

Table 3.7 Spatial Distribution of Heat Released From

Carborne Air Conditioner Condensers of
Example Train 3-20

Fig. 3.11 Distribution of Vehicle Air Conditioner

Reject Heat Along Track 3-20

Table 3.8 Location of Heat Sources in a Subway

Station and its Adjacent Tunnels 3-21

Table 3.9 Spatial Distribution of All Heat Release

in Example Subway System 3-21

Fig. 3.12 Relative Magnitude of Subway Heat Flows 3-21

Table 3.10 Spatial Distribution of Heat Release -

Preliminary Design Values 3-22

Important Figures and Tables

Fig. 3.13 Effect of Ventilation Air on Heat Balance 3-23

Fig. 3.14 Friction Factors as a Function of Reynolds

Number and Relative Roughness 3-25

Fig. 3.15 Circular Equivalent of a Rectanguhir Duct 3-26

Fig. 3.16 Effect of Internal Ribbing on Pipe Flow

Friction Factor 3-27

Table 3.11 Surface Roughness of Various Typical

Materials of Construction 3-28

Table 3.12 Theoretical Tunnel Friction Factor 3-28

Table 3.13 Loss Coefficients for Area Changes 3-29

Fig. 3.19 Head Loss for 90" Rectangular Miter Turns 3-30

Fig. 3.21 Head Loss Through Variable Area Miter 3-31

Fig. 3.27 Vent Shaft Flow Analysis - Inflow 3-37

Fig. 3.28 Vent .Shaft Flow Analysis - Outflow 3-38


Table 3.14 Inflow· Driving Pressure Coefficient in a

Tunnel-Vent System 3-39

Table 3.15 Outflow Driving Pressure Coefficient in a

Tunnel-Vent System 3-39

Fig. 3.30 Tunnel Pressure Drop Across Vent Shaft.

Air Flowing In 3-41

Fig. 3.31 Effect of Tni.1n Characteristics on Drag 3-42

Fig. 3.32 Piston Action Flow 3-43

Table 3.16 Sensitivity of Ventilation Rate to Changes

in Subway System Variables 3-47

Fig. 3.38 Vent Shaft Parameter Interaction - Inflow 3-50

Fig. 3.42 Efficiency of Underplatform Exhaust Systems

Based on the Toronto Subway Tests 3-56

Fig. 3.44 Train Kinetic Energy vs. Speed 3-60

Fig. 3.45 Temperature Distribution in Air-Conditioned

Station 3...65

Table 3.20 Representative Cooling .Loads 3-65

Fig. 3.49 Subway System Air Flow Rates 3-70

Fig. 3.50 Air Velocities in Station 3-70

Important Figures and Tables

Fig. 3.51 Blast Shaft Mass Flow Ratio 3-71

Fig. 3.52 Relationship Among Train Speed. Blast

Shaft Location. and Blast Magnitude 3-72

Table 3.21 Relationship Between Blockage Ratio and

Velocity Ratio for Constant Vent-
Shaft Area 3-74

Table 3.22 Effect of Various Air Flow Parameters on

the Air Velocity in the Station 3-74

Table 3.23 Possible Accumulation From Brake and

Wheel Wear 3-77

Table 3.24 Definition of Pressure Coefficients 3-78

Table 3.25 Viscous Equivalents 3-80

Table 3.26 Inertial Equivalents 3-80

Table 3.27 Reflection and Transmission of Pressure
Waves 3-81

Table 3.28 Portal Entry Pressure Transients Process

Equations 3-82
Table 3.29 Post Entry Pressure Transients Process
Equations 3-84

Table 3.30 Vent Passage Pressure Transients Process

Equations 3-85

Table 3.31 Portal Exit Pressure Transients Process

Equations 3-86
Table 3.32 Train Passage Pressure Transients Process
Equations 3-87
Fig. 3.58 BART Lead car Interior Pressure Transients 3-100
Fig. 3.59 BART Wayside Pressure Transients 3-101

Table 3.47 Combustion Constants 3-110

Fig. 3.69 Fires in Tunnel of 210 sq ft Cross

Sectional Area 3-111

Fig. 4.1 Basic Geometry of a Vent Shaft 4-2

Fig. 4.2 Vent Shaft With Side Inlet 4-2
Fig. 4.3 A Complex Vent Shaft Configuration 4-3

Important Figures and Tables

Fig. 4.4 Vent Shaft With Side Inlet, 45° Offset,

Miter Tum and Storm-Water Sump 4-3

Fig. 4.5 Types of Intersection Configurations Used

for Vent Shafts and Tunnels 4-3

Fig. 4.7 Inlet of Vent Shaft With Emergency Fan 4-5

Fig. 4.8 Types of Outlet Configurations Used for

Vent Shafts 4-6

Fig. 4.9 Typical Subway Station Cooling Load Cycle 4-7

Fig. 4.15 Capacity Ranges for Direct-Expansion

Systems 4-12

Fig. 4.16 Capacity Ranges for Chilled Water Systems 4-13

Fig. 4.17 Warm-Air System for Snow Melting at Subway

Entrances 4-15

Fig. 4.18 Schematic of Train Screen's Control of

Station Environment 4-18

Fig. 4.20 Underplatform Exhaust with

Supply 4-21

Fig. 4.21 Trackway Exhaust System 4-21

Fig. 4.22 Capacity Ranges for Fans and Air-Handling

Units 4-22

Fig. 4.23 Simplified Model of a Typical Water Chiller 4-26

Fig. 4.24 Capacity Ranges of Water Chillers 4-26

Fig. 4.25 A Representative Equipment Room Layout at

Platform Level 4-27

Fig. 4.26 A Typical Platform Level Equipment Room 4-27, 28

Fig. 4.27 A Representative Equipment Room Layout at

Mezzanine Level 4-29

Fig. 4.28 Elementary Direct-Expansion Cooling System 4-32

Fig. 4.29 Capacity Ranges for Direct-Expansion

Equipment 4-32

Fig. 4.30 Capacity Ranges of Condensers 4-35

Fig. 4.11 Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower Configura-

tions 4-38

Important Figures and Tables

Fig. 4.32 Capacity Ranges for Mechanical Draft

Cooling Towers 4-38

Fig. 4.33 Capacity Ranges for Evaporative Air

Cooling Equipment 4-40

Fig. 4.34 Basic Block Diagram for Central Control

Systems 4-42

Fig. 4.35 Recommended Equipment Vibration Criteria 4-53

Table 4.3 Guidelines for 'Selection of Vibration

Isolator Deflection 4-54

Table 4.4 Air-Conditioned Subway Car Characteristics 4-56

Table 4.5 Thermal Conductivities and Conductance of

Materials 4-61

Table 4.6 Surface Conductances and Resistances for

Air 4-61

Table 4.7 Thermal Conductances of a Plane Air Space 4-62

Table 4.8 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients,

U, for Vertical Flat Glass 4-63

Table 4.9 Conversion Table for U Coefficients

for Various Wind Velocities 4-63

Table 4.10 Transmission Gains Through Various Subway

Car Components 4-64

Fig. 4.38 Component System With Overhead Air

Distribution 4-74

Fig. 4.39 Undercar Self-Contained Unit 4-74

Fig. 4.40 Typical Duct Installation for Undercar

Self-Contained System 4-76


This Handbook is a valuable guide and reference for the to those responsible for making some of the early decisions
planning, design, construction and operation of in regard to. the overall rapid transit system concepts. It
underground rapid transit systems. The bulk of the will also benefit those readers who do not normally go
material presented herein has been prepared for those through the entire design process, criteria-analysis-
primarily responsible for environmental control. control, in detail, but who require generalinfoI1I1ation and
Therefore, the Handbook follows the logical flow path data on the subject of environment. Information
from criteria through load analysis, and from system contained in Part I will be sufficient to identify some of
conceptual design to selection of equipment. It covers a the major basic environmental considerations, such as
broad range of parameters, including temperature, preliminary sizing and spacing of ventilation shafts, or
humidity, air quality, air velocity and rapid pressure early evaluation of climatological data for the purpose of
change, and, to a limited extent, noise and vibration, as formulating environmental criteria and control concepts.
related to environmental control equipment. Different
values and design guides have been established for Consideration of environmental control in rapid transit
different areas in a subway system, such as stations, systems involves the identification and understanding of
tunnels (including ventilation shafts), vehicles and various three major topics: criteria, analysis, and control, which.
miscellaneous structures contiguous to a subway system. are addressed in Parts 2,3 and 4 of Volume I. These parts
of the book are written primarily for environmental design
The content of the Handbook is divided into two volumes. engineers concerned with environmental design
Volume I, Principles and Applications, addresses all of the methodologies and techniques.
above identified subject matter so that most
environmental system designs can be accomplished The environmental design engineer will derive the greater
utilizing the techniques described in this volume, and more direct benefit from the Handbook, because it is
including the manual computations and related graphic written in the language of his profession.
data. These design methodologies will permit basic
engineering decisions to be made with confidence. These Planners will be able to use the Handbook as a general
decisions influence environmental design requirements for reference. They may find Part 1, Digest, especially useful.
such items as station structure configurations and vent Subway and transit agencies also will find the Handbook
shaft sizes and locations. In most cases, selection of one useful. They may be particularly interested in Part 2,
desirable environmental system concept from several Human Environmental Criteria, which will enable them
alternatives can be effected. to establish general guidelines to be followed in the design
of environmental control systems. Design engineers, who
Volume II contains both the User's and Programmer's size and select environmental control equipment, will
Manuals for the Subway Environmental Simulation (SES) benefit from all parts of the Handbook. These engineers
computer program. This analytical design tool, developed must first compute cooling, ventilating, and heating loads.
as part of the research program leading to this book, made Consequently, their attention will be focused primarily on
possible the formulation of many of the manual Part 3, Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design
computation techniques and data contained in Volume I. Strategies. Also, equipment manufacturers will find useful
As a design tool, the computer program can be readily information in the Handbook, though they may be
utilized by environmental design engineers for "fine primarily concerned with Part 4, Application of
tuning" designs developed by the methodologies described Equipment and Structures for Environmental Control.
in Volume I, and for rapid evaluation of alternative Part 4 will enable them to appraise the unique demands
environmental system concepts for extensive or complex made on environmental control systems and equipment
transit system configurations. that are to operate and maintain a controlled environment
in subway systems.
Part 1, Digest, of Volume I provides the reader with an
overview of the subject and enables those who may not In addition to Volumes I and II, more than 40 technical
be directly concerned with the details of environmental reports containing detailed output from various phases of
design to obtain sufficient information for their purposes the Subway Environmental Research Project are available
about the subject and its interaction with other major from the National Technical Information Service. These
elements of a rapid transit system, such as transit vehicles reports are included in the Bibliography, Appendix E of
and the system civil structures. This Digest will be of value Volume I.


The Handbook treats environmental control of rapid operating experience and observations in existing subway
transit subway systems as part of an integrated system. systems. However, all technical aspects of the subject
Users of this Handbook are urged to adopt this systems matter have been identified and addressed. In instances
approach early in a rapid transit system's concept and where precise data are not available, ranges of values are
planning stage. provided which reflect the best judgment of the authors,
such as data primarily associated with the performance
This Handbook may differ somewhat from other of various control system concepts.
engineering handbooks, which usually contain data and
information derived from proven theories previously The preceding paragraphs summarize the scope and
documented, various text books, and other published utility of the Handbook, reflecting the best environmental
source references. At the outset of the research and system performance data currently available. New
development project which resulted in this Handbook, experiences, additional data collection and knowledge
there were very limited published data available in the acquired from further study and testing will be reflected
field of subway environmental control. in future editions of the Handbook to advance the state-
Consequently, the information contained in this
Handbook is primarily based on results from
mathematical modeling, field tests, model tests, and


After publication of the first edition of this Handbook, a revised to present a more accurate analysis of pressure
significant field test program was undertaken to validate waves, and Appendix C - Survey Results, has been ex-
many of the theories presented in the Handbook and to fill panded to include the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid
critical knowledgegaps identified during the development Transit District (BART).. In addition, numerous
of th(;: first edition. This field test program was accompa- revisions to Volume I have been made to further define the
nied by an intensive effort to solicit the comments and intent and application of the myriad analytical tools. Also,
suggestions of Handbook users in order to produce a Appendix E - Bibliography, has been updated to reflect
second edition of improved clarity and usefulness. recent contributions to subway environmental analysis
and control.
The major revisions incorporated in the second edition of
Volume I include Section 3.1, Design Strategies to The findings of a thorough field validation program con-
Achieve Air Temperature Criteria, which has been ducted in the Montreal Subway are detailed in Volume II
changed to reflect the findings of a field test of underplat- of the Handbook. With regard to Volume I, these valida-
form exhaust system performance conducted in the To- tion tests confirmed the analyses of subway aerodynamics
ronto subway. Section 3.4, Air Pressure Control, has been and thermodynamics presented herein.


The material presented in this Handbook was derived research, engineering development utilizing academic
from a research project extending over a three and one- disciplines, scale model experimentation and analysis, and
half year period. It was sponsored jointly by the Urban the high-speed calculation abilities of modern computers.
Mass Transportation Administration (UMTA) of the
United States Department of Transportation, and by In 1970, thirteen rail transit agencies·, through the IRT,
operating transit agencies in the United States and applied to UMTA for a research grant. Processing the
Canada. The project has been directed by the Transit application was made possible by contributions from each
Development Corporation (TDC), the research arm ofthe of the transit agencies in the form of funds and services.
operating transit agencies, from January 1973 to the date In addition, it incorporated a unique' management
of publication of this Handbook. Prior to that date, it was structure featuring an Advisory Board comprised of
directed by the Institute for Rapid Transit (IRT), utilizing transit industry management personnel and technical
the same management structure. specialists.

The need for a coordinated research and development One of the important direct functions of this group was
program for the purpose of furthering the state-of-the-art the establishment of management policy in conjunction
of subway environmental design was recognized by the with UMTA. Another important function was to provide,
Tet:hnical and Operations Committee of the IRT. These when necessary, the services of specialists from the transit
objectives coincided in part with the goals of the Southern agencies. In addition, it was perceived at the outset that
California Rapid Transit District (SCRTD) in furthering the Advisory Board could provide individual assistance
their studies for a rapid transit system in the Los Angeles in certain test programs to be conducted on transit
metropolitan area. The objectives of the Committee were operating systems. And, finally it was perceived that
to provide a forum for technical dialogue in order to Advisory Board participation, through periodic meetings
improve upon the limited knowledge concerning the with the project staff, would make possible the timely
interaction of environmental control systems with all dissemination of project results to the ultimate users,
other features of a modem rapid transit system. namely, the transit agencies designing and building new
systems. This management concept has been most
Subway designers had struggled over the years in repeated successful in blending together the diverse talents found
efforts to optimize environmental control systems with in the transit industry, with those of consultants,
widely varying degrees ofsuccess. They were handicapped academicians, and those in the aerospace industry.
by an incomplete knowledge of the complex interaction
between the various elements of the subway system which The basic research, applied research and engineering
affect temperature, air velocity, pressure and humidity. development leading to the publication of this Handbook
For example, before the advent of this project, there was were undertaken concurrently, contrary to the traditional
a g·reat deal of uncertainty about the criteria for sizing and sequencing process. In spite of the inherent risks, such an
locating ventilation and blast shafts. There was, however, approach was necessary in order to complete the research
a wealth of operating experience in the existing rapid effort, including the computer program, and to produce
transit agencies and in the design and fabrication of the Handbook within the short time established by TDC
hardware for subway systems. This information, as and UMTA to meet the urgent needs of the transit
evaluated by experienced environmental engineers, industry.
formed a sound foundation upon which to identify the
nature of the environmental problems. On the basis of
these evaluations, the scope of the required research and
development activities necessary to solve these problems 'Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART); Chicago Transit Authority, (CTA);
could be formulated. Cleveland Transit System, (CTS); Mass Transit Administration, Md.,
(MTA); Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, (MBTA);
Montreal Urban Community Transit Commission, (MUCTC); New
Realization of the above problems and recognition of the York City Transit Authority, (NYCTA); Port Authority, Trans-Hudson
fact that ventilation and station air-conditioning costs Corporation (pATH); Port Authority Transit Corporation, (PATCO);
Southern California Rapid Transit District, (SCRTD); Southeastern
could comprise as much as eight to 10 percent ofthe total
Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, (SEPTA); Toronto Transit
cost of subway construction encouraged the IRT to Commission, (TTC); Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority,
formulate a detailed program of basic and applied (WMATA)


The engineering development was performed by the Laboratories at the California Institute of Technology.
Associated Engineers,. a joint venture of Parsons, The project participants, the TDC staff and the TDC
Brinckerhoff, Quade & Douglas, Inc.; DeLeuw, Cather Advisory Board benefited greatly from the administrative
& Company; and Kaiser Engineers. The applied research and technical guidance of UMTA's Office of Research
was primarily performed by Developmental Sciences, and Development and by the Department of
Inc., and the basic research by the Graduate Aeronautical Transportation's Transportation Systems Center.


Many persons in the engineering profession and from ** Norman H. Danziger

governmental and operating transit agencies have Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade & Douglas, Inc.
contributed to advancing the state-of-the-art of subway New York, New York
environmental control. Significant contributions, either
through authorship or through support and William D'Ambrosio
encouragement to the authors, have been made by all of Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade & Douglas, Inc.
those shown below, and especially those on the TDC New York, New York
Advisory Board.
Bain Dayman, Jr.
Deane N~ Aboudara California Institute of Technology
Transit Development Corporation, Inc. Pasadena, California
Washington, D.C.
* George Donato
* Bernard Adler Montreal Urban Community Transit Commission
New York City Transit Authority Montreal, Canada
New York, New York
* Richard Gallagher
Roy H. Anderson Southern California Rapid Transit District
DeLeuw, Cather & Company Los Angeles, California
Chicago, Illinois
* Clarence Generette
** Allen G. Behring Cleveland Transit System
Deleuw, Cather & Company Cleveland, Ohio
Chicago, Illinois
* Bernard Goldentyer
* Robert C. Belfi City of Philadelphia
City of Philadelphia Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Herbert H. Gould
Paul F. Brautigam United States Department of Transportation
Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade & Douglas, Inc. Transportation Systems Center
New York, New York Cambridge, Massachusetts

* Robert Bretz Fred S. Greene

Cleveland Transit Systems Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Cleveland, Ohio New York, New York

* James E. Busch Seymour S. Greenfield

Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade & Douglas, Inc.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania New York, New York

Joseph S. Busch * Marshall E. Greenspon

Kaiser Engineers Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
Oakland, California Washington, D.C.

** Barbara Cohrssen ** Gordon Harris

Kaiser Engineers California Institute of Technology
Oakland, California Pasadena, California


** Woodrow W. Hitchcock Edward J. Murphy

Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade & Douglas, Inc. City of Philadelphia
New York, New York Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

* John F. Hoban ** James A. Murray

Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Kaiser Engineers
New York, New York Oakland, California

* Frank Hoppe * Robert J. Murray

Mass Transit Administration Toronto Transit Commission
Baltimore, Maryland Toronto, Canada

* Charles E. Keiser * Paul O'Connell

Chicago Transit Authority Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
Chicago, Illinois Boston, Massachusetts

James J. Kirk * Evan E. Olmstead

Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Chicago Transit Authority
New York, New York Chicago, Illinois

** William A. Kumpf * John T. O'Neill

Kaiser Engineers New York City Transit Authority
Oakland, California New York, New York

* Norman I. Lesser * W. Howard Paterson

Port Authority of New York and New Jersey Toronto Transit Commission
New York, New York Toronto, Canada

** Graeme J. MacKeown William J. Reinhardt

Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade & Douglas, Inc. Transit Development Corporation, Inc.
New York, New York Washington, D.C.

Franklin T. Matthias * Neil Richards

Kaiser Engineers Southern California Rapid Transit District
Oakland, California Los Angeles, California

* Wilmot R. McCutchen Farrel L. Schell

San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District Kaiser Engineers
San Francisco, California Oakland, California

Frederick S. Merritt ** Gerald R. Seemann

Consulting Editor Developmental Sciences, Inc.
Syosset, New York City of Industry, California

** Werner W. Metsch * Joseph M. Sockle

Parsons, BrinckerhofT, Quade & Douglas, Inc. Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority
New York, New York Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Jeffrey G. Mora * Morris Solomon

United States Department of Transportation Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority
Urban Mass Transportation Administration Atlanta, Georgia
Washington, D.C.


Francis E. Therrien * Edmond J. Whitaker

Montreal Urban Community Transit Commission Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
Montreal, Canada Boston, Massachusetts

Herbert A. Thomas, Jr. * John I. Williams

Kaiser Engineers Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority
Oakland, California Boston, Massachusetts

** Alfred F. Tyrrill * Donald R. Wolfe

Kaiser Engineers Port Authority Transit Corporation
Oakland, California Camden, New Jersey

Kenneth S. Voigt
Transit Development Corporation, Inc.
Washington, D.C.

Harry P. Watson * TDC Advisory Board Member

DeLeuw, Cather & Company
Chicago, Illinois ** Co-author


Air Resistance: resistance inhibiting train motion as a Fume: disperse suspension of particles in the air.
result of the drag of air flow past the moving train. This
resistance increases in proportion to the square of the train Headway: the scheduled time interval between the arrival
speed. (See also Davis Equation.) in a station of two successive trains travelling in the same
BART (also SFBARTD): San Francisco Bay Area Rapid
Transit District. Line Section: the length of trainway between two
adjacent branched junctions Qr between a branched
Bernoulli Effect: static regain. The conversion of velocity junction and a portal.
pressure to static pressure when an air stream enters an
enlarged cross-sectional area with an attendant reduction MARTA: Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit
of average air velocity. Authority.

MBTA: Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority.

Blast: sudden atmospheric pressure changes caused by air
rushing into a subway station, tunnel or shaft as a result Mechanical Resistance: resistance inhibiting train motion
of piston action generated by an approaching train. as a result ofjournal-bearing and flange friction and other
mechanical factors. (See also Davis Equation.)
Blast Shaft: a shaft located in the approach tunnel of, and
immediately adjacent to, a subway station specifically for MTA: Mass Transit Administration - Maryland
the purpose of relieving blast effects. Department of Transportation.

Blockage Ra.tio: ratio of the cross-sectional area of the MUCIC: Montreal Urban Community Transit
train to the cross-sectional area of the tunnel. Commission.

Braking Resistors: see Resistor Grids NYCIA: New York City Transit Authority.

Branched Junction: location in a subway tunnel or station PATCO: Port Authority Transit Corporation (Phila.).
at which air flow divides into two or more streams.
PATH: Port Authority Trans-Hudson - The Port
Chimney Effect: the tendency of heated air to rise due Authority of New York and New Jersey.
to its lower density (buoyancy). Also called stack effect.
Piston Action: the effect of a moving train on the air in
clo: unit of clothing insulation. (See also Physiological a tunnel; analogous to a piston pushing air ahead of it as
Principals, Comfort and Health in ASHRAE Handbook it moves through a cylinder. Also called piston effect.
of Fundamentals.)
Porosity: the ratio of the total free area of the wall
openings to the gross area of a dividing wall between two
CIA: Chicago Transit Authority.
adjacent subway tunnels.
CIS: Cleveland Transit System. Portal: the interface between a subway tunnel and the
Davis Equation: empirically quantifies the resistance
offered by a train to motion along a track in terms of Resistor Grids: during braking, the traction motors are
pounds of resistance per ton of train weight. A brief electrically reversed, causing them to behave as
discussion of this equation may be found in Mark's generators. The electrical ener!! y thus generated is
Mechanical Engineers Handbook under the subject dissipated through resistors inserted into the motor circuit
headings of Railway Engineering and Train Resistance. and is released as heat to the surrounding air. This process
is called dynamic braking. The resistors are generally
Dwell Time: the time, in seconds, a train is stopped in located beneath the train and are arranged in one or more
a station. braking or decelerating resistor grid(s).

Dynamic Braking: see Resistor Grids. With cam-type propulsion control, the current through


the traction motors during train acceleration is controlled Starting Resistors: see Resistor Grids.
by inserting resistors into the motor circuit. This second
array of resistors is also located beneath the train and is Subway: a rapid transit system, or part thereof, which
arranged in starting or accelerating resistor grid(s). With operates in a covered structure below grade.
chopper-type control, no accelerating resistor grids are
Trainway: as used in the context of this Handbook,
SCRTD: Southern California Rapid Transit District. train way describes the track on which revenue trains
SEPTA: Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation
TIC: Toronto Transit Commission.
Shaft: any structure provided for the purpose of
exchanging air between a subway system, or any part Underground: see Subway.
thereof, and the atmosphere.
WMATA: Washington Metropolitan Area Transit
Slippage: a bypassing of air that is not pushed ahead of Authority.
a train moving in a tunnel, but instead is deflected by the'
front of the train and "slips" to the rear of the train. * Additional terms used in this Handbook and not listed herein are
defined in ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, Chapter 27 -
Stack Effect: see Chimney Effect. Terminology.


This part of the Handbook provides the reader with an traces that told of man's innate desire for mobility. Soon,
overview of the history and development of environmental primitive man learned to drag loads upon sledges; then,
design for subways and identifies the interaction of in 4000 B.C. in Mesopotamia, man invented the wheel;
environmental control with the other major subsystems and the two-wheel cart quickly followed. Although man's
in a rapid transit system past and present. early wheels were broad to carry heavy loads, man soon
noticed the need for harder and smoother surfaces upon
Section 1.1 contains a condensed history of subway which to roll. As the loads became heavier, man turned
development and of the early consideration toward to four wheels, and the tracks he now made upon the earth
environmental control. It identifies a compendium of became straighter and harder and covered longer
subway environmental design experience that was distances. These tracks eventually evolved into rail transit
available prior to the preparation of this book. It as first inaugurated in London, England. The following
documents the approaches, methodologies and paragraphs trace the history of this evolution with
techniques, or lack thereof, for solution of subway primary emphasis on the ventilation aspects of subway rail
environmental problems. Thus the Handbook user might transit systems.
be better prepared to appreciate the complexities relating
to the extension or modification of existing systems, in
light of these experiences. Section 1.2, entitled Early Public Transportation in London
Contemporary Environmental Control Concepts,
identifies and highlights the methodologies currently Hackney carriages were introduced in London in 1625;
employed in the planning, design and construction of new four-wheeled "growlers" were introduced in 1805. The
systems. It relates the principles of mechanical control Shillibeer horse omnibus came in 1829 and the horse train
systems concepts that are utilized today. A description of in 1861. Although many persons consider traffic problems
the Design Process, Section 1.3, furthers an understanding exclusive to the twentieth century, it was during the 1850's
of the fundamentals of the design process performed by that over 750,000 commuters entered and left London
the environmental design engineer based on the material daily, either by mainline railways or by road. The streets
printed in this Handbook. It is essential that those who of London were literally blocked for miles by the great
are involved in preliminary planning of the major variety of iron-tired vehicles of the day, all taking their
subsystem concepts (station, line section and vehicle toll on the frayed nerves and tempers of the frustrated
design, and train operations, etc.) have an awareness of London commuter. The London press of the day featured
the total design process' so that the impact of the front page articles telling of the "scandalous state of
environmental control systems on the other major London's transportation facilities," at the same time
subsystems can be evaluated appropriately. affording space for comment on grandiose schemes for
relieving the streets of much of their traffic by going
To illustrate the need for trade-off evaluations, Section 1.4 underground with railway transportation (Ref. I).
provides guidance on alternative system concepts. This
section includes a consideration of alternative mechanical It was during the 1850's that the cities of the world proved
environmental control system concepts and economic that mass transportation and individual transportation
trade-off benefits associated with different types of could not mix successfully in urban areas. Yet, when
vehicles, operating concepts, and construction railways offered separate mass transportation systems, the
configurations as influenced by the environmental control cities' commuters were reluctant to use them. Many
systems. It also includes information to aid the reader in municipalities insisted on railway stations being kept
defining and quantifying the overall energy requirements beyond their city boundaries.
for a rapid transit system.
The first urban penetration by a railway, and also the
world's first underground line, the Metropolitan, opened
on January 10, 1863, in London. Although trains ran
1.1 Past Practices and Concepts underground, they were pulled by steam locomotives. In
spite of the unpleasant conditions created by the smoky
engines traveling the subsurface route, the Metropolitan
The tracks of primitive man wound across the continent was an instant success. It was so successful that London
of Africa and zigzagged their way through Europe leaving began building an extensive network of subsurface lines

1-2 Digest

extending to the rapidly expanding suburbs. temperature caused by this higher energy output. The
greater heat load, together with increased passenger
Londoners can also claim priority in both tunneling under haulage, created an intolerably stifling condition within
a river and in constructing the first tube railway. A the London subway.
vehicular tunnel was opened between Rotherhithe and
Wapping on March 25, 1843. In 1869, when the London, In 1915, the British had an opportunity to devise new
Brighton and South Coast Railway used the tunnel for solutions to the ventilation problems when they
train service from their mainline at New Cross, it became constructed new tunnels between Finsbury Park and
the first under-river train crossing. A year later in 1870, Bounds Green on the Cockfosters extension. Three l2-ft
the English opened the world's first tube railway solely diameter construction shafts were retained to serve as
for passenger transportation when they constructed the exhaust air ducts. They were connected by short, 12-ft
tubes under the Thames from Tower Hill to Vine Street, diameter extensions to the train tunnels, which, at these
a distance of one-quarter mile. points, were enlarged sections. To assist the flow of air,
the shafts were designed with generous radii and
At first it was suggested that the trains for this new tube deflectors at their tops and bottoms to guide air flow.
be run on the pneumatic principle. The cars would be
"blown" through the tunnels by compressed air generated Centrifugal fans generally were used to move air through
in compressors at each end of the line; in fact, a narrow the shafts. These fans were placed in fan houses .above
gauge railway of this type materialized in London in 1863 ground. However, axial flow fans were installed in an
for conveying parcels underground from the North underground plant near Finsbury Park Station. At station
Western Post Office on Seymour Street to London's Chief sites, construction shafts were retained to serve as air
Post Office in the City. The trains carrying the mail were intake shafts. Undesirable rapid air movement down
literally "sucked" or "blown" backward or forward by escalators and shafts was avoided with air distribution
compressed air, but success was shortlived because the air through multiple channels.
leaked continuously through the tunnel joints. The project
was soon abandoned. Outside air entered the stations through intake shafts. At
the bottoms of these shafts were ducts which conveyed the
Initially, ventilation of the London Metropolitan was air beneath side-platforms to smaller, vertical duct
provided by grating-covered "blow-holes" to give some branches that terminated at grilles set high in the station
comfurt to the passengers. Years later, the Central walls. From these grilles, air was discharged across the
London Tube Company installed so-called ozonizers (air platform. Although the early London subways did not
purifiers). These devices sucked fresh air into the stations, have such elaborate provisions for ventilation, they
but they charged the incoming air so highly with ozone nevertheless attracted the interest of railroaders from
that an odor of ozone clung to the passengers. The other countries.
installation of these devices was shortly abandoned.

More recent practice in London is to exhaust air from the New York City's First Subway
tunnels by powerful fans discharging into specially
designed ducts. Fresh air is admitted through station Many years before construction began on New York
entrances, staircases and vent shafts. In addition, air City's first subway in 1901, Broadway and other major
movement produced by trains within the tunnels is used thoroughfares had become unsafe for pedestrians and
as prime ventilation. To augment this "piston-action" something had to be done. Rivalry between omnibus
ventilation, fresh air is blown through shafts enclosed in drivers was so keen that they frequently injured
staircase wells and special air shafts before being pedestrians in their haste to pick up fares. At that time
distributed to station platforms. there were two potential solutions to the problem; one was
the use of elevated steam railways, and the other, the
The Metropolitan, which later became known as the subway transit system. Both concepts were in competition
London Underground rapid transit, encountered a new set in New York City in the mid-1800's. One of the early New
of environmental problems when electric motors came York proponents of the subway approach was Alfred Ely
into use. As electric motors on the trains were made more Beach.
powerful, they gave off more heat. Fresh air had to be
injected forcibly by fans into the tunnels as well as onto Beach, the 44-year old publisher of Scientific American
station platforms to prevent a progressive rise of magazine and avid part-time inventor, submitted a
Past Practices and Concepts 1-3

petition in 1868 for a postal dispatch charter in the City ventilation through pipes running up from the tunnels to
of New York. The charter which Beach had been granted hollow gas lampposts erected on the street surface at the
was for the purpose of developing a pneumatic dispatch edge of the sidewalks. The lampposts were to be placed
tube for transport of mail and possibly passengers. As it 100ft apart on each side of the street under which the
turned out, Beach proceeded to build the tunnel so that subway was to run (see Fig. 1.1).
it could later be subdivided into two smaller tubes for mail
and parcel delivery. He also used the tunnel in 1870 to However, many years passed before Willson's proposal for
demonstrate the feasibility of passenger transport in New York City became reality. It was not until 1901 that
subways. Its site was 21 ft beneath Broadway, between General William Barclay Parsons. a consulting engineer,
Warren and Murray streets. The tunnel itself was nine ft completed the plans for the first New York City rapid
in diameter, 312 ft long, and held one cylindrical car transit subway using electric-powered trains. General
capable of going about 10 mph. A giant, lOO-hp blower Parsons, as well as many other prominent persons at the
propelled the vehicle along a track until it reached the far time, believed that the objection to steam propulsion in
end, where the fan, reversed by a trip wire, slowed the car an underground system had killed earlier subway plans
to a stop and then pulled it back the other way. and that the development of the electric traction motor
now opened the way for construction of the first subway
Beach's greatest contribution to the technology of tunnel in New York. (History shows. however, that it was the
construction was his shield, hydraulically driven, which fight for franchise rights which caused postponement of
was propelled by pistons that drove it through the earth. the construction of the New York City subways, not the
Dirt removal and bricklaying went on inside the shield, trains' power source.)
affording the workers complete protection against cave-
ins. The elevated railway concept gained favor and that, When subway construction began in New York in 1901,
combined with the financial crisis of the late 1870's, no special consideration had been given to mechanical
resulted in Beach's terminating his pioneering efforts. ventilation of the tunnels and stations. Grating-covered
sidewalk openings were provided for ventilation in
In 1912, workmen digging a new BMT system tunnel conjunction with the piston-type action of trains on tunnel
unexpectedly broke into Beach's subway and found the air. The designers believed that sidewalk openings would
little car sitting on its tracks, the whole tunnel still provide sufficient supply of fresh air to the subway system.
remarkably intact. Today the Beach tunnel is part of the
BMT's City Hall station, where a plaque commemorates In October 1904, operation of New York's first subway
Beach's pioneering achievement. began. It ran from south of City Hall to 145th Street and
Broadway in Manhattan. The trip covered 10.5 miles and
Another railroader, Hugh B. Willson, from Michigan, took 26 minutes. During the summer of 1905, less than
who had been in London during the construction of the a year after the subway opened, the system developed a
London Metropolitan and who was present at its opening high temperature problem within its tunnels because the
in 1863, was so impressed with its merits that he conceived number of ventilation openings to the surface proved
the idea of building the same kind of steam underground inadequate. To increase tunnel ventilation, more grating-
transportation system for the City of New York. covered openings were provided in the roofs of the subway
Unfortunately, Willson's project was not received with stations, and fan chambers and flues were built between
enthusiasm by the New York State legislature. The bill stations. Central exhaust fans for moving tunnel air, when
was shelved in the Railroad Committee where it necessary, were installed in the fan chambers. Fan
subsequently expired. Railroad Committee opposition capacity for this additional ventilation varied from 21,000
stopped rapid transit for the time, but the fight for rapid to 110,000 cfm. The fan motors ranged from 15 to 50 hp.
transit for New York City began and was to be waged with Automatic louvers were fitted in the flue openings. The
ever-increasing fierceness. louvers were automatic in the sense that they were
counterbalanced, or weighted, to open when exhaust
The concept proposed by Willson is of historical interest tunnel air was forced through the tunnel by the piston
because it contains the first record of environmental action of trains. After a train passed. the louvers closed
consideration given in the design of an early subway by gravity action, thus preventing the exhausted air from
system. It includes a ventilation concept developed by returning to the tunnel.
A.P. Robinson, an American engineer, who in 1864 drew
the orginal plans for the New York City steam Later, when the Interborough Rapid Transit (IRT) line
underground railroad. Robinson planned to obtain was extended, six rapid-transit tunnels were built under
1-4 Digest

·:~·:.~·.·V··~.o.:·" •."'••.:"'"


Fig. 1.1. Section of Subway Tunnel Showing Subsurface Structures and Ventilation
(as conceived by A. P. Robinson in 1864)

the East River. Ventilation plants for each pair of these performed in October 1911 and gave special consideration
tunnels were provided on both sides of the river. They had to tunnel air, its resistance to train motion and its use as
the capacity to renew the tunnel air once every 15 minutes, a ventilating force. The tests took place on the tracks of
independent of train movement. The plants were equipped the Hudson and Manhattan (H&M) Railroad connecting
with centrifugal fans that discharged fresh air into a Manhattan Transfer and the Church Street Terminal, a
plenum where the air was diverted into the tubes by means distance of 40,454 ft. For a distance of 13,400 ft, the H&M
of electro-pneumatically operated dampers. Fans had railroad ran through both iron-tubular and concrete-lined
capacities of 45,000 to 70,000 cfm and were driven by 75 construction tunnels under the Hudson River. The
to 82-hp motors. remainder was surface track.

The experiments were conducted from 1:20 a.m. to 5:00

Early Tests on Subway Ventilation a.m. to ensure that virtually no other traffic would be
using the tunnels. Six tests were performed, four to
In the early days of subway design, little research had been evaluate air inertia characteristics within a tunnel as a
done on tunnel ventilation. The first significant test from train entered, and two to evaluate air velocity
which engineering data were gathered on subway trains characteristics as a train traversed a tunnel. These velocity
was conducted by J. V. Davies and was reported in a tests were made to measure air slippage within tunnels.
paper, "Air Resistance to Trains in Tube Tunnels" (Ref. (Slippage refers to air that is not pushed forward by a train
2) presented to the American Society of Civil Engineers but instead remains at rest or is deflected by the front of
on May 15, 1912. The tests reported therein were the train and passes to the rear of the moving mass.)
Past Practices and Concepts 1-5

Most noticeable from the tests was a significant and resistance to the flow of air, since the pressure necessary
sudden increase in air pressure when the train entered the to force air through a tube depends to a great extent on
tunnel. The column of moving air in front of the train the relative smoothness of its interior. But the cost of a
was approximately 6,000 ft long. It was determined that smooth lining to reduce total resistance was considered
the column of air in front of the train, 90 sq ft in cross- unwarranted.
section or 540,000 cu ft in volume, would weigh
approximately 41,000 lbs and would require a force of Increase in tunnel cross-sectional area was deemed the
19,200 lbs to be accelerated to 15 ft per sec (10 mph). controlling factor in the air resistance offered to a train.
With an increase in cross-sectional area the tunnel
From these tests, Davies concluded that during the day, resistance would decrease and would approach that found
when tunnel traffic is heavy, the impact pressure would in open air. In multi-track tunnels, air resistance would
not be as high as found during these tests, for the tunnel be materially reduced, but the piston-action ventilation
air would already be in motion from the passage of the would be adversely affected, because the rate at which air
other trains, and the force necessary to overcome air is expelled would be reduced and air would instead be
inertia would therefore depend on the traffic density. (As buffeted from track to track. This recirculation of air
a train enters a tunnel, it is resisted by two aerodynamic would retain large amounts of train heat in the tunnel and
forces: impact upon the slower moving or stationary air, would cause an increase in tunnel temperature.
and air friction in the annulus. Impact is a function of
train speed and is independent of tunnel length. Total Based on the 1911 tests, Davies determined that piston-
frictional resistance varies with the length of the moving action ventilation of two- or four-track tunnels, in which
air column. Therefore, in long tunnels, the total resistance trains operate, in opposite directions, is virtually
due to the train motion does not depend on train speed ineffective. He explained that ventilation of such tunnels
alone.) must depend on independently operated fans to remove
air at specified rates. Davies concluded that in single-track
The velocity tests determined that the volume of slip tunnels the enormous volume of air displaced by piston
increased very rapidly with train speed. This observation action of a train would ensure adequate ventilation if the
was confirmed by the pressure difference between the tunnel were properly vented at certain points (Ref. 2).
front and rear of a train; as train speed increased, the
pressure at the front of the train increased and the Similar tests were conducted by George Gibbs in 1912 in
pressure at the rear of the train decreased. For an average the Pennsylvania Railroad Tunnels to investigate
train speed of 24 mph through tunnels with iron liners, ventilating conditions caused by train' movement. The
a steady slippage of 254,000 cfm developed. purpose of these tests was to determine whether trains
operating at high speed would produce sufficient piston
The 1911 tests suggested five methods for decreasing air action to give satisfactory ventilation. The conditions in
resistance in long unvented tunnels: provision of fans, the tunnels of the two railroads, tested by Davies and
multiple moving trains within a tunnel, wind shields on Gibbs respectively, were quite similar, except that
trains, smooth tunnel linings and larger tunnel cross- portions of the Hudson and Manhattan Tunnels were not
sectional areas. It was concluded that supply fans could concrete lined. The presence of exposed cast-iron segment
be provided at one end of a tunnel and exhaust fans at the flanges caused considerable air friction. In the tests by
other end, to move the air within a single-track tunnel in Gibbs, air columns moved by trains at various speeds
the same direction in which the trains are moving. attained velocities offrom three-fourths to two-thirds that
However, costs were considered prohibitive at that time. of the trains, depending on train speed. The average speed
It was reasoned that multiple trains moving in the same of the air column for the entire time the train was in the
direction within a tunnel would produce a resultant total tunnel was about one-half the train speed.
pressure which would not, however, increase in
proportion to the number of trains. Though the impact Gibbs' tests indicated that after a train left a tunnel, the
on entry into the tunnel would be the same on each train, column of air in the tunnel remained in motion for about
the total resistance on each train would decrease with an five minutes but at a constantly decreasing velocity. Gibbs
increase in number of moving trains. estimated that a train of six to eight cars replaced half the
volume of air in a tunnel with fresh air drawn from portal
Wind shields on trains would reduce both impact and air and vent shafts.
resistance, but the volume of air dispelled by train piston
action, and therefore the ventilation rate, would be During rush-hour traffic, a complete renewal of tunnel air
reduced. Smooth-lined tunnels would tend to reduce the was required every 20 minutes. If the movement of one
1-6 Digest

train renewed one-half the air in the tunnels, the passage keeping the air pure and wholesome during the autumn
of a train every 10 minutes would produce satisfactory and winter seasons..." These conclusions were supported
ventilation. However, rush-hour service required a train in 'the fourth annual Boston Transit Commission report
frequency of 2.5 minutes; therefore, it was reasoned at the by carefully maintained dry bulb and wet bulb
time, four times the required ventilation would be temperature and humidity charts in which subway and
produced by train movement without the aid of outside air conditions for the first full year of operation
ventilating fans during this period of heaviest traffic. In were compared. For example, these charts indicate that
summary, Gibbs' test showed that satisfactory ventilation on an abnormally warm day in October, when the outside
in the Pennsylv~nia Railroad Tunnels would be provided air was 83F db and 71F wb, the air in the subway was 67F
by piston-action ventilation alone. db and 65F wb. In the following summer, the subway dry-
bulb and wet-bulb temperatures were within
approximately three degrees of the outside air
In Boston; The First Subway in North America temperatures. Subsequently, fans in a capacity range of
30,000 to 40,000 cfm were installed and, in addition to
A subway had already been operational for over a decade temperature, the purity of the air in the Boston subway
in Boston when tests were made by Gibbs and Davies. A was closely monitored. The fifth annual report by the
Rapid Transit Commissioner had been appointed in June Commission concluded from samples taken in January
1891 to provide proposed solutions to the problem of rapid and February 1899 that "the air taken at the busiest hour
transit in the City of Boston. In August 1894, the Boston in the most crowded station in the subways is superior to
Transit Commission was organized and subsequently the that usually provided in halls, theatres, churches, schools,
Green, Blue, Orange and Red Lines were constructed. On etc."
September I, 1897, the first half-mile section of the
subway from the Boston Public Garden portal to Park In May 1900, construction was begun on the East Boston
Street Station (the first subway built in North America) tunnel, which was to be ventilated by a duct in the crown
was opened for operation. of the tunnel (see Fig. 1.2), extending from Webster Street
in East Boston under the harbor to the Atlantic Avenue
Even in those early days of subway planning an awareness station. The duct had a cross-section of about 48 sq ft, and
of the need for providing patrons with a suitable was formed by means of a diaphragm one in. thick, made
environment was evident. In fact, the first report of the of expanded metal enclosed in cefIlent mortar. A partition
Boston Transit Commission, dated August 15, 1895, midway between the two ends divided the duct in two
acknowledged, if only as an economic factor, "... the cost portions. On each side of the partition, 14 openings, each
of pumping, ventilating and lighting and the expense of four ft long and 17 in. wide, were provided to serve as
maintaining stations." This report describes a ventilation exhaust air intakes.
concept which provides that "... fresh air will be drawn
in at the stations, and will flow in each direction to the
:ventilating fans, where it will be exhausted through special
openings at the side." The report concluded, from a
comparison with the old tunnels in London, that "it will
be easy to secure pure air by artificial ventilation in a
subway operated and lighted by electricity." It was
correctly surmised even then that "The question of
temperature is connected with that of ventilation, and if
the air in the subway is frequently changed, the difference
in temperature between it and the outside air will be ,".: ~ ...:
- :U~)J-!:~. --_._- ,e,'>._
small." :am"....
Evidently the fans referred to in the first report were not ..
: ,"',:.'
:",': :",.;
installed initially as planned. A letter by the Boston
"...",.1....,. .•: ~ ':;: ~.:
Transit Commission, dated January 18, 1898, "begs to call
to the attention" of the Boston Elevated Railway
Company that "in the hot summer days fans may be
imperative for a proper equalization of the temperature"
even. though after "the short experience of four and a half
months it does not appear that fans are essential for Fig. 1.2. East Boston Tunnel
Past Practices and Concepts 1-7

In addition to the far-sighted planning and provisions for mathematical analyses of piston action of trains within
ventilation, the rather satisfactory quality of Boston's tunnels. Therefore, Brock found it necessary to develop
subway environment was attributed to larger entrances formulas applicable to the Chicago subway in advance of
and exits in closely spaced stations. Also, the trains' its construction and without the benefit of preliminary
average speed was higher than that of subway trains in tests.
other cities at the time, resulting in purging greater
volumes of air. For example, Boston subway trains Chicago subways were designed for an anticipated
averaged 17 to 25 mph whereas N ew York subway trains ultimate peak of 40 trains per hour per track. A
averaged 20 mph for express trains with 11 cars and 16 subsequent mathematical formulation of piston-action air
to 18 mph for local trains with eight cars. movement of trains in a single tube of the Chicago subway
suggested that, with air vents at sufficiently close
Vent-shaft spacing in Boston varies from 300 to 1,400 ft. intervals, the tubes would have ample ventilation. The
Vent-shaft gratings are located in sidewalks, roadways, formulation also made it clear that such vents were
parks and cemeteries, Grating areas vary from 60 sq ft to required to avoid excessive air velocities on passenger
210 sq ft. A tunnel temperature range from 38F to 96F platforms and in escalators and stairwells.
with a relative humidity range of 58 to 86 percent is
generally maintained. The system currently operated by Brock demonstrated that vents placed at 450-ft intervals
the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority relies were essential if the air velocities through stair and
almost entirely on piston-action ventilation during normal escalator wells, sidewalk gratings and on station platforms
operation. Fans are used mainly in an emergency when were to be kept within limits so as not to be felt
piston action ceases and contaminated air has to be objectionable. Fans installed in the tunnels were generally
purged. designed for emergency use only. In the Loop area, piston
action was not as effective as elsewhere, because of slow
train speeds, double-track tunnel configuration and large
Chicago's Subways platform areas.

In Chicago's subways, environmental control In setting up a heat balance for a subway, Brock
considerations were employed from the start. In 1943, its considered the cumulative effect of the heat generated, the
first subway system was completed. Ventilation of the daily and annual tunnel wall temperatures and the soil
system was based on concepts developed by Edison Brock temperature, as well as the air changes necessary to
in a paper he prepared for the Journal of the Western maintain an acceptable environmental condition within a
Society of Engineers, entitled "Development of Formulae subway tunnel. Brock's analysis showed that the heat
for Calculating Ventilation for The Chicago Subway" produced from the rolling stock in summer would exceed
(Ref. 3). In the paper, Brock stated that the heat the tunnel wall absorption capacity during the peak hour
generated by. the train motors and electric lighting, of subway operation. As a result, he predicted the average
together with body heat from passengers, was so great that temperature within a tunnel would rise above the
excessive temperatures would prevail in summer unless a prevailing outdoor temperatures.
volume of air in excess of that required for breathing were
supplied. Therefore, it was necessary to set up heat Brock came to this conclusion by formulating
balances and to develop methods and formulas for accumulative heat-effect equations for the subway walls
calculating piston effects of the trains. and surrounding soils for both annual temperature cycles
and average daily temperature cycles based on
The Chicago subways,. except in the downtown Loop area, corresponding atmospheric temperature cycles for
have separate tubes for each track. It was evident that Chicago. He plotted curves that showed the variation in
venting had to be provided for each tube if air velocities concrete and soil temperatures at various distances from
generated by piston action were to be kept within the tunnel wall surface. He then determined the
acceptable limits. Since single-track tubes were then a accumulative effect for each cyclic temperature condition.
departure from existing practice, it was necessary to pick Application of the findings to the design of the Chicago
out and isolate comparable construction in other cities for subways resulted in a system with adequate ventilation
preliminary mathematical formulation. The author had and acceptable temperatures practically year-round.
previously conducted numerous tests, but he believed that
the air-resistance formulas he developed from this Chicago's average temperature is 50F with a relative
previous work were not applicable to single-track tunnel humidity of20 to 98 percent. Its annual temperature range
operation. A survey of existing data did not disclose any is -16F to +98F. In spite of the possibilities of high
1-8 Digest

temperatures and high humidities in combination, The heat sink effect helps to maintain acceptable
Chicago's subway stations are not air conditioned and rely temperatures during the late afternoon peak traffic hours.
on piston action for all of the ventilation. Using this
method, the stations maintain an average temperature Toronto's average temperature is 47.7F with a relative
range of 40F to 75F with a relative humidity of 40 to 80 humidity of 60 to 78 percent. Its annual temperature range
percent. is -14F to + 107F. In spite of the possibilities of high
temperature coincident with high humidity, Toronto's
Vent shafts are spaced 450 ft apart for intake and exhaust subway stations are not air conditioned. Stations and
of air. Vent-shaft gratings are located in sidewalks and tunnels rely entirely on piston action for ventilation. Vent-
within parking areas. Grating areas average 100 sq ft net shaft gratings are located in roadways, sidewalks and
area each. There are four tunnel air changes per hour. The public plaza areas. Gratings vary from 100 to 200 sq ft.
earth temperature around the tunnels averages 50F. As a result, subway temperatures range from 28F to 87F
Under these conditions, tunnel temperatures range from with a relative humidity of 13 to 68 percent.
40F to 87F with a relative humidity of 20 to 80 percent.

The Cleveland Transit System

The Toronto Transit System
The Cleveland Transit System was completed in 1955. It
The environmental progress of Chicago's subways led consisted primarily of a surface operation until 1968. At
other cities, such as Toronto, which were planning rapid that time, it was extended westward to the Cleveland
transit systems, to seek environmental control solutions Hopkins Airport, where the final 1,670 ft extends
in the early design stages. The Toronto system, which underground into a two-track tunnel ending near the
began operation in 1954, was based on the Chicago design. airport lobby, thereby becoming the first transit operation
However, it had a major environmental problem in the in the United States offering rail service to a major airport.
form of high air yelocities, with corresponding pressure
and shock waves to the system's stairwells, platforms and Piston-action ventilation, similar to that in Boston,
patrons. Chicago and Toronto, could not be used for the subway
in Cleveland. Because the tunnel entrance speed is limited
In the Chicago subway design, vent shafts were placed 450 to 15 mph and because the tunnel dead-ends at the airport,
ft on centers. The cost of such construction proved there exists virtually no piston-action ventilation. This is
prohibitive for Toronto, and the problem of finding vent due primarily to two factors: first, as the train enters the
outlet locations was a major one. Because of these facts, tunnel it is in a constant state of deceleration from 15 mph
Toronto engineers decided to increase vent-shaft spacing to zero; and secondly, because of the very low blockage-
to an average of 1,500 ft. This large spacing, coupled with ratio (0.22), an insignificant air column is pushed ahead
the fact that the train's blockage ratio was a massive 67 of the train. There is no noticeable air movement on any
percent (compared with 50 percent for Chicago's trains), portion of the platform.
produced high pressures and velocities.
Ventilation for this tunnel was provided by a 20,000 cfm,
These adverse effects were corrected to acceptable levels axial-flow supply fan located 680 ft from the far end of
by two methods. One method was to terminate the the platform and approximately 990 ft from the tunnel's
dividing wall between the box-tunnel sections 100 ft from portal. This fan affords one and one-half air changes per
the station portal. The resultant widening provided a hour, is single-speed, nonreversible and manually
pressure relief as well as a means for the air to exhaust controlled. During winter months, the airport station and
into ventilation shafts at the tunnel entrance. The second pedestrian tunnels are heated by a 50-kw-capacity, 2,000
method was to taper the roof of the tunnel in the station cfm, forced-air system. In addition, two infrared heaters,
approaches to provide a diffusion effect and thus a of 1,000-watt capacity each, are located above doors to
smoother airflow into the vent shafts. offset heat loss by infiltration..There is also a similar
installation over the doors leading from the pedestrian
In the Toronto system, prolonged high ambient tunnel to the platform proper for the same purpose.
temperatures necessitate occasional running of fans
during the four hours at night when the subway is not in In spite of its high annual temperature variation (-2F to
operation. Fans are operated to cool the tunnel walls and + 101F), Cleveland's one underground station is not air
surrounding earth and to restore their value as heat sinks. conditioned and relies for its ventilation on the 20,000 cfm
Contemporary Environmental Control Concepts 1-9

exhaust fan. The annual average temperature range in the or construction stages is under way in Toronto, Montreal,
station is about 42F. (Relative humidity has never been Mexico City, Vienna, Munich, Frankfurt, Budapest,
measured.) Caracas, Hong Kong, and Sao Paulo; transit studies are
being performed in Singapore; Japan is planning to
practically double its existing 132 km of rapid transit in
Summary Tokyo, Osaka, and Kobe; and Brussels, Helsinki, Turin,
and Amsterdam are among the European cities that are
Past practices of subway environmental control were planning entirely new rapid transit systems. The
limited to natural (piston-action) ventilation, augmented population growth in urban areas demands a greater
with forced mechanical ventilation often as a last resort frequency of rapid transit service at higher speeds. Since
after painful trial-and-error periods. In many existing the increase in power to provide faster and more frequent
subways, the benefits that can be derived from retrofitting train service (which is ultimately all converted to heat
the ventilation systems have already been exhausted. New unless -energy regeneration is employed) varies as the
subways should embody provisions for adequate square of the increase in speed, requirements for
environmental control from their inception, or else they environmental control in vehicles, subway stations and
will be outdated before operations begin. tunnels are expected- to increase at an equal rate.

The rate of population growth and increasing traffic Paramount among the problems of subway environment
congestion in the major cities of the world have brought is that of heat buildup and disposal. In fact, it has been
about a demand for improved mass transit facilities and estimated that (in the United States, at least) the cost of
operations resulting in higher train speeds, shorter heat control in the subway may be as much as eight to
headways and heavier passenger loads. In a number of IO percent of the total construction cost, and that the
new and existing systems, subway car air conditioning has power consumption of environmental control systems
become a necessity. TheSe factors have contributed to a may be as much as 50 percent of that required for traction.
sizeable increase in subway heat generation, so that not
only the subway air but even the heat sinks have For example, in the WMA TA (Washington Metropolitan
experienced a rapid increase in temperature. Therefore, Area Transportation Authority) subway, about $85
a systems approach embodYing the latest available million is being expended on tunnel ventilation and station
technology for controlling subway environment should be air. conditioning, and it has been estimated that the
undertaken in the planning and design of new subway proposed Los Angeles system would have to allocate some
systems. $56 million for environmental control. Even in the San
Francisco Bay area, the so-called "naturally air-
conditioned city", the environmental controls for the
subway system, at the time it commenced revenue
operations, exceeded that of any system in the United
1.2. Contemporary Environmental States and in the world with the exception of some
Control Concepts recently air-conditioned lines in Tokyo and Osaka.

Removal of excess heat often may be as important to

The gr0wing need for rapid and comfortable urban mass subway patrons as the speed of their ride, and subway
transit is widely regarded as one of the outstanding operating agencies are discovering that the environmental
technological challenges of the last half of the twentieth conditions of subway waiting areas and transit vehicles
century. Today, more rapid transit systems involving significantly affect the level of utilization ofa facility. The
subway facilities are being thought about, planned, relative importance of providing an attractive
designed or built than ever before. It has been estimated environment for passengers may be expected to grow over
that in cities in the United States alone expenditures on the decades ahead as the riding public, increasingly
new, expanded, or improved rapid transit facilities will accustomed to environmental control in offices and
amount to $25 to $35 billion over the next IO to 15 years, homes, desires appropriate environmental conditions in
and that at least 150 miles of these lines will be in subways. their transit systems. This desire increases the
Cities expanding existing systems or planning new systems requirements for a high degree of heat removal and overall
include Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, environmental control.
Cleveland, Honolulu, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis-
St. Paul, New York, Pittsburgh, St. Louis and The expression "subway environment" generally is taken
Washington. In other countries, subway work in planning to encompass all the phenomena which affect the comfort
1-10 Digest

and well-being of patrons and operating personnel. The Ventilation is now completely by piston action. Fans and
subway temperature, humidity, and air movement are dampers for emergency conditions, however, are installed
particularly important to comfort, but the environment in all shafts.
also includes subway noise, dust, odors, and bothersome
pressure fluctuations. Air temperatures and velocities are All PATH subway cars are air-conditioned. A capacity
regulated in subways primarily by control of the design of ten tons of refrigeration is provided for each car. The
of major construction features, such as station, vent shaft vehicle air-conditioning system consists of one under-floor
and line geometrical configuration and layout, and by compressor-condenser unit per car and two evaporator
installations of environmental control equipment, such as units located in the ceiling, one at each end of the car.
mechanical ventilation and refrigeration. During the summer, conditions of 78F and 50 percent
relative humidity are maintained within the cars.
Subway spaces, with respect to environment, may be con-
sidered to comprise four distinct but related areas: the The World Trade Center terminal is the first air-
public and non-public spaces within stations, the vehicles, conditioned subway station on the North American
and the normally unoccupied trainway space. The continent. Air conditioning was installed in 1971, when
objectives to be realized in controlling the environment the Hudson Terminal station was extensively remodeled
in all such spaces are: first, to provide a suitable to become the World Trade Center station. The station
environment for patrons, as well as for operating and air-conditioning system consists of a built-up air-handling
maintenance personnel; and second, to provide for the unit containing chilled water and steam heating coils. The
removal ofa sufficient amount of the heat generated from air supply unit delivers 95,000 cfm of conditioned outside
the normal system operation so that the life expectancy air at 55F db, 53.IF wb. The total cooling load is 590 tons
of the equipment will not be diminished. In addition, per hour during the peak evening rush hour in the
positive control of haze and odors should be provided. In summer, of which about half constitutes outside air load.
the event of a fire or similar emergency, an effective means
of purging smoke and supplying fresh air to patrons and
fire-fighting personnel is mandatory. The Montreal System

All of these objectives, therefore, relate to the environment In Montreal, Canada, a new subway system commenced
of a system, e.g. the control of temperature rise and the operations in 1966. The system was the first to be installed
replenishment of air. Subway construction' initiated in North America with pneumatic rubber-tired wheels, as
during recent years has brought new experiences as well used on the Paris Metro trains and now also on the Mexico
as some new approaches in the consideration of City subway (see also discussion on The Rapid Transit
environmental control. Brief descriptions of experiences Vehicle in Sec. 1.4). In addition to noise reduction,
and recent practices in subway systems include the proponents of the rubber-tired concept believe that it can
following. also offer other advantages: (1) excellent gripping
properties allow fairly steep grades up to seven percent.
Therefore, a "humped" track profile (with tunnel-track
The PATH System elevation below station-track elevation) can be utilized to
a greater degree, which reduces energy input requirements
In 1962, Port Authority Trans-Hudson (PATH), a during acceleration and reduces excess energy discharge
subsidiary of the Port Authority of New York and New during deceleration; (2) improved riding comfort; (3)
Jersey, assumed operation and maintenance of the rail improved braking since no wheel slippage is encountered;
rapid transit system previously known as the Hudson and and (4) less maintenance required on the negative (return
Manhattan Railroad between New Jersey and New York. current) rail. But there are also disadvantages: (1) a
Outdoor temperature in the area varies from OF to 95F pneumatic tire's load-carrying capacity is smaller, (2)
and averages 54F. Summer outdoor relative humidity pneumatic tires require a guiding mechanism, (3)
ranges from 40 to 80 percent. pneumatic deflation possibilities complicate the truck
design, and (4) pneumatic tires on precast concrete rails
Initially, station entrances and exits were relied on to require more power and generate more heat in the system.
admit fresh air, except at three locations where supply fans
were provided to supplement these flow rates. PATH, Outdoor temperature in the Montreal area varies from
however, no longer employs mechanical ventilation under -17F to +97F. The estimated maximum capacity of a
normal operating conditions. Tests showed t~at fan nine-car train is 1,500 seated and standing passengers. The
operation made little difference in tunnel air flows. projected ultimate peak traffic density is 40 trains per hour
Contemporary Environmental Control Concepts 1-11

in each direction, resulting in a peak carrying capacity of the total system. Piston action rate, which the subway
60,000 passengers per hour in each direction. A total of designers originally assumed to be negligible, resulted in
369 cars was ordered initially. one to two air changes per hour at peak operation. The
retrofit increased the mechanical ventilation rate to six air
Upgrades at station approaches are utilized for reducing changes per hour. In the planned extensions, the design
train deceleration braking energy requirements and ventilation rate at peak operation of the mechanical
acceleration energy demands, and therefore overall ventilation is expected to be 12 air changes per hour. The
traction power requirements. The Montreal Metro is a retrofit program necessitated extensive investigations both
deep tunnel system for the majority of its· construction. before and after the changes were made, and much has
(Self-supporting rock tunneling in Montreal is less been learned as a result. Environmental data from tests
expensive than the conventional "cut-and-cover" or both before and after major system changes are available.
"decked roadway" method of construction used in the
United States.) Ventilation is principally by mechanical In the winter, every effort is made to keep all the heat in
means rather than by piston action alone. the subway. With fans inoperative and shafts closed and
all ventilation by piston action only, minimum platform
Originally fan shafts were placed about midway between temperature is 44F, which is considered acceptable for
stations for ventilation of the subway. No other shafts patron comfort.
were provided. Each shaft had a two-speed, reversible fan
of 45,000 cfm capacity. Fans were controlled from Because the original design of the subway assumed that
adjacent passenger stations. In the summer of 1967, piston effect would be negligible with the 30 percent
shortly after operations started, however, stations and blockage ratio, high air velocities experienced in station
vehicle interiors were uncomfortably hot. Also, high air passageways and entrances were unexpected. By not
velocities and disturbing pressure fluctuations were having blast shafts at tunnel entrances to stations, the
experienced in the station passageways and entrances. piston-action driven air could be relieved only through the
These problems were attributable to the fact that doors stations. Hence, those station passageways and entrances
had to be installed at all entrances due to the severe winter became, in effect, blast shafts, and excessively high air
climate. The design of the Metro system was based on the velocities were experienced at certain station entrances.
design of the Paris subway where trains average about 15 Sudden unanticipated openings of station doors due to
mph. The Montreal Metro trains, on the other hand, high air pressure were of major concern before the retrofit,
average between 22 and 32 mph. Furthermore, the and remain a problem at some stations.
blockage ratio of the Montreal trains is higher than in
most double-track systems. Yet, design was based on the Montreal's subway stations are estimated to be IS percent
assumption that virtually no piston effect would occur in piston-action ventilated, 80 percent fan ventilated, and
a double-track tunnel, and that therefore, any air five percent chimney ventilated. By using all three
velocities produced by the piston effect would not be methods, the stations maintain an average temperature
objectionable because the air would bypass the moving range of 44F to 85F with a relative humidity of 30 to 60
trains. For these reasons, piston air movement was percent. With fans operating in the intake mode, station
ignored in the design of the Montreal system. However, temperatures during the spring and fall are consistently
the air pushed by the train could not vent from the tunnels within the range of patron comfort.
except via the station platforms and entrances.
The tunnels are ventilated in the same manner as the
A major retrofit was required. During 1968, the stations, with long vent shaft spacings, averaging 2,900 ft,
45,000-cfm fans were replaced with l35,000-cfm fans, between stations. The gratings for these vent shafts are
which operate 24 hours a day in summer. From 1968 to located within buildings and parking areas. Gratings have
1970, 17 blast and ventilation shafts were added in tunnels 60 percent free area. Tunnel air changes six to eight times
near some stations and built directly into other stations. per hour. Tunnel temperatures range from 44F to 85F
These shafts were placed in the areas where high with a relative humidity of 30 to 60 percent.
temperatures and velocities had been experienced. As a
result of the changes, summer temperatures were reduced The PATCO System
to acceptable levels, except for short periods at certain
stations. Also, air velocities were greatly diminished. Port Authority Transit Corporation (PATCO) is a
subsidiary of the Delaware River Port Authority and
As originally designed, the mechanical ventilation rate operates a rapid transit line between downtown
was 2.5 air changes per hour, calculated on the basis of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Lindenwold, New Jersey.
1-12 Digest

The service to Lindenwold began in 1969. Outdoor air-handling systems are being designed and installed. A
temperature in the area ranges from -6F to lOOF, concept identified as "spot cooling" is being advanced in
averaging about 56F. Summer outdoor relative humidity the WMATA system. The objective of this concept is to
varies from about 30 to 90 percent. maintain a comfortable environment within an invisible
envelope of air enclosing only that portion of a station
Ventilation is by piston action only and no fans are platform area occupied by the subway system patrons.
provided. Although all surface stations have air-- When this objective is achieved· by an appropriately
conditioned waiting rooms, no air conditioning is designed supply and return air distribution system, the
provided in subway stations. All PATCO transit vehicles air-conditioning load is limited to that contained within
are air conditioned, with ten tons of refrigeration the envelope of air. When trains enter or leave the station,
employed for each car. The annual temperature range in the envelope will be "broken" and the otherwise steady-
the PATCO tunnels is estimated to be 40F to 98F. state load conditions and environmental control cannot
be maintained during this time interval.

The BART System To minimize this disruption of environmental control by

the piston action of the moving trains, designs were
In 1972, the first "all new" rapid transit system in the
developed to reduce the effect of piston action air in the
United States in recent years began operations in the San
station. Cutbacks in the center dividing wall between the
Francisco Bay area. The environmental systems for the
box-tunnel sections at the approaches to each station,
vehicles, stations and line sections were extensive, even
along with the use of large, common vent shafts at these
though the ambient outdoor air in the vicinity of most of
locations, are intended to reduce piston-action effects in
the subway sections of the system is almost always
the station area. In addition, trackway supply or exhaust
pleasantly cool.
air systems are in~orporated in WMATA station areas to
prevent the undercar train heat from affecting the station
Although the vehicles are air-conditioned, environmental
platform environment while trains are dwelling in a
control for stations and subway line sections relies entirely
on ventilation. Large vent shafts are provided for each
single-track tunnel at each of the station-line section
interfaces. Intermediate vent shafts are employed on Other forms of air conditioning are being designed into
station-to-station line section subway runs greater than the Baltimore and Atlanta systems and in the new Second
1,500 ft in length to support the system emergency Avenue line in New York. These include a variety of
ventilation criteria. The stations are mechanically supply and return air distribution systems, in which air-
ventilated with filtered outdoor air supply delivered handling equipment is generally located in rooms at the
through extensive duct distribution systems. ends of the station platform, and air ducts provide
distribution of the air along the length of the station
For emergency ventilation, reversible vane-axial fans of platform, with the air discharge being transverse to the
approximately 140,000 cfm capacity are provided in each platform length. Air ducts are located either at the ceilings
shaft with face and bypass dampers. The fan performance or in t·he normally unused space beneath the platform. In
characteristics are unique in that the capacity in each the latter case, vertical branches or risers are employed
direction of operation is identical. At the central control to discharge the air at appropriate heights above the
center, all fans are identified on a large display panel and platform. Different designs have been developed for vent
can be operated from this location or locally as required. shafts and tunnel configurations at the tunnel-station
interface in attempts to control train piston action air and
heat flows affecting the station complex. Many of these
Newer Concepts are described and discussed in Parts 3 and 4 of this
As new transit systems are being planned and the older
transit systems are being modified or extended, The ventilation concept currently receiving widespread
improvement of the environment is receiving increased consideration (either alone or in conjunction with other
emphasis. Intense attention is focused on emergency air conditioning or ventilation concepts) is the
ventilation systems and equipment for tunnel line sections underplatform exhaust system. With this concept, heat is
and stations. exhausted from the propulsion and auxiliary equipment
and the braking elements of a train while it dwells in a
In the station areas, various types of air-conditioning and station, using the normally dead space beneath the station
Design Process 1-13
platform level as an exhaust air duct. The air is then subway environmental control solely from the standpoint
discharged to the surface by fans. Exhaust air make-up of designing systems of adequate capacity to satisfy given
is provided either from an outside air supply duct at the criteria. On the contrary, it is necessary to achieve, as
track level or from an overhead air-conditioning or closely as possible, the overall optimization of the entire
ventilation system, as conditions may warrant. rapid transit system concept. The design objectives must
be geared to obtain the most efficient utilization of our
The consideration and evaluation of the interaction of the economic and natural resources - capital investment,
various ventilation and air-conditioning system concepts, overall system operating costs, and energy.
and their appropriateness to a given transit system, are all
part of the design process performed by the environmental
engineer. Criteria

The considerations of criteria will influence the magnitude

of the environmental systems required for a given
1.3 The Design Process installation, and the extent of interaction and
interdependence of the environmental control system with
other major subsystems such as the vehicles, stations, line
In a subway system, the sources of heat emiSSIOn are sections, operating concepts, etc. The establishment of
primarily the result of electrical energy input and to a station and line section ambient temperature criteria, for
lesser degree from metabolic heat released from people. example, is influenced by the unique transient nature of
The heat may be partially or entirely removed, either by the exposure of people outside and inside the various parts
absorption into the surrounding ground (when the of a rapid transit system. Other factors such as local socio-
ambient subway temperature is higher than the ground economic, demographic, and climatological conditions
temperature) or by release to the atmosphere through should also be considered. Part 2, Human Environmental
natural or piston-action ventilation. Any excess heat not Criteria, addresses the diverse factors and provides
removed by either process has to be removed by guidelines for establishing the various thermal and
mechanical ventilation (when the outdoor ambient aerodynamic criteria of significance to people.
temperature is less than the system ambient design
temperature) or by mechanical refrigeration. If none of The environment found in subway systems embraces
these latter processes are applied, then the system ambient many factors, including the patron using the system and
temperature will rise. An equilibrium temperature will be the physical surroundings. The physical environment
reached when the rate of heat input to the system is includes factors such as temperature, humidity, air
balanced by the rate of heat removal, due to absorption movement, air quality, rapid pressure changes, noise and
and natural or piston-action ventilation. However, before vibration levels. The human capacity to adapt to the
heating, cooling and ventilation loads in a subway can be physical environment varies with each individual as a
evaluated, it is necessary to understand the dynamic function of age, type of occupation, organic function
behavior of the various parameters affecting the efficiency or impairment, and degree of acclimatization.
environment and the design process which considers their Noise, dirt, vibration and odors are negative
interrelationships. environmental factors found in subways. Some of these
factors constitute no particular problem for a
Fundamentally, the design process for any heating, well-designed, well-maintained subway system, and
ventilating and air-conditioning system examines three consequently, this discussion is limited to the more critical
major factors: criteria, analysis and control. In subway thermal environmental parameters. Noise problems in a
applications, these three categories imply three questions: subway warrant special considerations which are beyond
(I) what is the optimum subway environment - not only the scope of the aerodynamic and thermodynamic related
for passengers, but also for operating personnel and parameters addressed in this Handbook.
equipment; (2) what factors affect that environment -
principally, what are the dynamic nature, source and The subject of heat exchange between humans and their
magnitude of heat and air flows; and (3) what types of environment is relatively well documented. Most
system strategies, equipment, or devices can be used to environmental evaluations are based upon thermal factors
control the environment-influencing factors so as to such as temperature and humidity.
achieve the desired criteria?
Tolerance for warmer environments may be measured in
It is not sufficient, however, to address the question of several ways: (I) by the degree of discomfort caused, (2)
1-14 Digest

by the time elapsed before the onset of negative reliability at temperatures over 90F. Also, subway air
physiological and psychological symptoms, and (3) by the temperatures are not steady. They vary not only yearly
difference in intensity of discomfort felt by different and daily but even by the minute as trains pull in and out
people. For all people, though, and especially germane to and crowds come and go. In addition, the outside air
the specific subway problem, the significant fact is the temperature may be considerably different from the
length of time it takes a person to approach thermal temperatu're of the internal subway system surroundings.
equilibrium or a steady-state condition of comfort or
discomfort. For the average human being, this is about six When comfort provisions for the patrons in a subway
minutes. During rush hours, however, when temperatures system are discussed, what then is really meant? Comfort
in the subway system are likely to reach a peak, the patron is more than staying on the fringe of the tolerance limit;
would probably spend not more than three or four it means what the patron prefers, is accustomed to, or is
minutes in the station, not enough time for his body to willing to tolerate. Air conditioning designers suggest that
achieve complete thermal equilibrium, before entering a air-conditioned spaces, in general, be set at temperatures
train. It would thus appear that cooling a station to as low only IOF to 15F below the ambient to achieve maximum
as 75F to 78F (a generally accepted comfort value for comfort. Sudden cooling of persons entering air-
steady-state occupancy in buildings) would usually be conditioned spaces during summer is unpleasant. It is
unnecessary as well as uneconomical. The train, however, important to maintain a pleasant, but not chilling,
can be air-conditioned to provide a temperature temperature difference between the car and the platform.
appropriate for the length of time of the average patron's Certainly, the provision of air-conditioned cars is an
ride. improvement in the environment for patrons while in the
car. The value of air-conditioned cars may be partially
Temperatures for the tunnel segments should provide a lost, however, for some systems if the platforms are
bearable environment for workmen and should be within excessively warm and a high temperature differential is
acceptable limits to ensure reasonable equipment life. maintained between the cars and the platforms. Patrons
Because of the operating conditions within stations and entering and leaving the subway cars would then be
tunnels, the capital and maintenance costs of mechanical subjected to a thermal shock. Since people are on subway
and electrical equipment used in these locations have station platforms for relatively short periods of time, a
proven to be quite high. Equipment failure problems are suitable temperature for a station platform lies between
caused by temperature extremes, high concentrations of that which the patron has experienced enroute to the
electrostatically charged dust particles, and by humidity. station (that is, the outdoor ambient) and the temperature
To some extent, these problems can be alleviated by within an air-conditioned subway car.
providing a better environment in which all equipment
can operate satisfactorily. The primary emphasis of Part 2, Human Environmental
Criteria, of this Handbook is on human comfort levels.
The length of time subway passengers are exposed to The information contained in Part 2 will enable the
warmer environments between leaving their air- design engineer to establish criteria on the basis of human
conditioned place of work and entering an air-conditioned tolerances ensuring freedom from health hazards and
subway car may easily be 15 minutes or more. This reflecting the aesthetic and comfort requirements of the
15-minute period assumes a three-minute train headway, community. Criteria cover normal and emergency
three-minute wait for and descent in an elevator at place operation in stations, line sections, vehicles, and
of employment, five-minute walk to the station, and time miscellaneous structures for temperature and humidity,
to descend into the station, pay a fare and walk to a air quality, air velocity, and rapid pressure change. A new
waiting position on the platform. Thus, on a hot July day, technique for evaluation of appropriate temperature
the passenger is well on the way to being at steady-state, criteria has been developed and is included in Part 2 of
physiological conditions by the time of entering an air- this Handbook. In order to evaluate the impact of any
conditioned subway car. criteria on subway system design, the analysis phase of the
design process must be applied.
The ASHRAE "Effective Temperature" is a widely used
environmental standard. However, it is not especially
pertinent to the environment in a subway system. For Analysis
example, on a hot day subway temperatures may be 90F
to 100F even with ventilation. The Effective Temperature The second phase of the design process is the analysis. The
concept was designed for air-conditioned temperature primary element of the analysis entails a thermal energy
levels at 75F to 80F and is suggested to have poor load, or heat balance. To perform the analysis necessitates
Design Process 1-15

an identification and quantification of the input heat loads requirements of the trains necessitate significantly higher
from all sources, most important of which is usually the power input and resultant power losses. Of these inputs,
heat dissipated from train operations. In other words, an the major portion is derived from braking and starting.
analysis must be made of where the heat is in the system In fact, braking is especially significant.
and how the air flow created by piston action of trains
and/or fans serves to disperse or remove this heat and
influence the thermal and aerodynamic load analyses. Some 50 percent of the total heat input attributable to
Until very recently, there has been no reference source for train operation can be assigned to braking, or
information on making such an analysis. However, design approximately 45 percent of the total heat input of the
tools have now been developed which provide this subway system. After resistor grid temperatures have
information, as described in the Handbook. reached an equilibrium and with short station-to-station
distances (one half mile or less), release of braking heat
from dynamic braking resistors is a function of time. Thus
The evaluation of heat gains and losses for the purpose the impact of this thermal load on the station platform
of establishing the required cooling or heating capacity is is dependent on the time it takes for trains to approach,
a rather complex process, since it involves one or more enter, dwell and depart the station area after the brakes
analyses of the combined aerodynamic and have been applied.
thermodynamic processes which are unique to a subway.
However, during the analysis phase of the design process,
the impact of the other subway system components on the The heat sink, where it is effective, is a natural cooling
environment, and vice versa, should be identified and mechanism, and so, in a sense, is the piston action of
quantified. Trade-off evaluations of other major subway moving trains where the outside air is cooler than the
subsystems can then be made (see Sec. 1.4). subway ambient design temperature. In gross and
qualitative terms, the effect is simple to explain: the
moving train pushes air ahead of it through the subway
The analysis phase of the design process, however, is not system and some of the air travels to the outside
a singular cycle of events. On the contrary, it is more of atmosphere via vent shafts. As the train moves past a shaft
a repetitive process which continues as appropriate to the or station, fresh air is drawn into the system behind it.
nature of the overall rapid transit system design decisions Therefore, some cooling is accomplished by exchanging
under consideration. In this iterative approach, the hotter inside air with cooler outside air.
intensity of investigation and evaluation must be in proper
relationship to the other systemwide investigations.
If it is decided to air condition the stations, steps shouid
be taken to limit the heat carried by piston action from
If the rate of heat emission in a subway is greater than entering the space used by patrons. Further, the station
the capacity of the ground or ventilation to remove heat ventilation systems should be designed to control the heat-
(when the outdoor ambient temperature is below the laden air. However, in any case, it is first desirable to have
subway ambient design temperature), then the subway air a knowledge of the behavior of air flow in the system
temperature will rise. Therefore, to begin an analysis, it before a station thermal analysis is accomplished.
is necessary to identify the sources of heat emission.
Heat transmitted from the tunnels into the stations by the
piston action of the trains should be estimated and
All forms of electrical energy input to the subway system
accounted for in the internal station thermal load. If
eventually are dissipated as heat. By far, however, the
tunnel heat is not removed, a temperature buildup may
greatest source of heat emission in a subway is produced
occur. Whether or not such a temperature buildup will
by the operation of the trains. They account for
occur depends, among other things, on the effectiveness
approximately 85 to 90 percent of all the heat generated.
of the ground as a heat sink.
In examining the most significant load contributor, the
vehicle, several factors are apparent. Heat generated
within line sections by trains from their traction, braking In general, the effectiveness of the heat sink is a function
system, and air-conditioning equipment will be at a of several factors: (1) 'the diurnal swing of subway air
substantially higher rate in subway systems now under temperature as a consequence of system ventilation, (2)
construction, or being planned for the future, than exists the temperature difference between the subway wall
in most systems today. The higher speed and acceleration surface and the air in the system, (3) the mass flow of the
1-16 Digest

air in the system, and (4) the surface area of the sink. The humidity throughout the stations, tunnels, and ventilation
deep sink temperature is generally of second order shafts. The program output provides readings of the
importance, an exception being the case of groundwater maximum, minimum, and average values for system air
migration. velocities, temperatures, and humidities during any preset
time interval. The program can also compute estimates of
An analysis of the piston action and a reliable estimate the station cooling and heating capacities necessary to
of its magnitude is essential to the design of new subway satisfy established environmental· criteria, as well as the
systems or tunnef segments, since it and the heat sink will percentage of time that such environmental criteria are
determine the degree to which other measures will be exceeded.
needed to meet an established temperature criterion.
A rigorous computer analysis will usually be necessary for
Unfortunately, the air flows and heat flows in the more comparison and trade-off evaluation of alternative design
complex geometrical configurations associated with concepts, or for the final stage of the iterative design
subway rapid transit systems are not amenable to a c1osed- process. In the formulative design stages, the manual
form analytical solution. This finding has led to the computation methods detailed in Part 3 will normally
recognition of the need for a high-speed digital computer suffice. However, an explanation of the features of the SES
model which can continuously evaluate the piston-action will enable the reader to understand some of the various
airlflows created by a series of trains traveling through a parameters and their interdependence in evaluating the
subway system that is interspersed with ventilation shafts heat flows and air flows unique to a subway system.
and stations. The computer model is known as the Subway
Environment Simulation (SES) program. It is described The SES program comprises four interdependent
in detail in the User's and Programmer's Manuals in computation sequences: a train performance subprogram,
Volume II of this Handbook. an aerodynamic subprogram, a temperature/humidity
subprogram, and a heat sink subprogram. These
The successful operation of the SES computer model has subprograms use a mutually-shared set of system
demonstrated that the simulation of the unsteady air flow descriptive parameters. Operating together they provide
and fluctuating envIronmental conditions in a subway a continuous simulation ofthe dynamic phenomena which
system is now possible and establishes the feasibility of govern the quality of subway environment. The basic
using computer modeling as a design tool for the control organization of this computational sequence is shown on
of subway environment. Fig. 1.3.

In addition to performing the role of a fine-tuned As may be seen from this chart, the train performance
analytical tool when used by an environmental design subprogram determines the velocity, acceleration,
engineer, the SES program - after appropriate validation position, and heat rejection of all trains in the system
- was employed to develop manual computation on a continuous basis. The aerodynamic subprogram uses
methods so that variations of major parameters in a these computed train parameters to compute continuous
system analysis in relation to a given set of conditions values for the air velocity in all stations, tunnels, and
could be identified. It has been possible to develop ventilation shafts. In tum, the temperature!humidity
graphical and tabular data from the varied SES runs, subprogram uses these computed air flow parameters,
which are included in Part 3 of this Handbook. together with the train-heat release data generated in the
Accordingly, and with the guidelines outlined in Part 3, train performance subprogram, to compute the convective
analysis of numerous conditions can be approximated dispersal ofsensible and latent heat throughout the system
without the necessity of programming and running the and thereby determine continuously the temperature and
SES computer program. humidity at all locations. Finally, the air velocities
computed in the aerodynamic subprogram are recycled to
The Subway Environment Simulation analytical tool is a the train performance subprogram and are used to
user-oriented model; that is, both the required input determine the air flows adjacent to the trains, providing
information and the output produced are tailored for use a means to compute the vehicle aerodynamic drag. The
by design engineers concerned with practical subway ventilation and heat load computations from these
environmental problems. This computer model provides subprograms, together with data on thermal properties
a dynamic simulation of the operation of multiple trains and daily and annual changes in outside conditions, are
in single- or double-track subways, and permits used by the heat sink subprogram to compute the long-
continuous readings of the air velocity, temperature, and term conduction of heat between the subway air and the
Design Process 1-17



Line segment lengths, cross- Track section data: grade, curvature, Line segments and ventilation SUbsegment partitioning of system
sectional areas and perimeters speed lim its shafts; Darcy-Weisbach friction Localized heat/humidity sources
Train physical characteristics tactor.s; head loss coefficient and sinks
Ventilation shaft locations,
lengths, cross-sectional areas Motor data: tractive effort-amperage- Fan locations, operating curves, Thermal properties of structure,
and perimeters speed relationships and stall ing characteristics earth surrounding system
Program control parameters Schedul ing data Skin friction coefficient for

,... - - - - -
--- -~----- - - - - - ~

I For each train operating 1n the system, computes:
I Location (h)
Speed (mph)
Heat rejection (Btu/sec)
Power demand (amps/motor)
I Acceleration (mph/sec)
Aerodynamic drag on vehicle Ubs)
Tractive effort (Ibs/motor)
.... ~ .1
For each line subsegment,
computes heat conduction
I For each line segment and ventilation
shaft segment, computes:
For each line subsegment and ventilation shaft
subsegment, computes:
in structure and soil and
resulting wall surface HI Air flow (cfm) -----, Temperature (F) I
temperatures ' I Air velocity (fpm) Humidity ratio (Ib/lb)
Pressure rise across all fans which are
IL in operation (in.w.g.l
_ _ .....JI

1. Detailed printout of all dynamic parameters at specified
time intervals.
2. Summary of maxima, minima and average values over
specified time interval, with air conditioning or heating
load estimates.
3. Train performance data only.

Fig. 1.3. Parameters and Organization of the Subway Environment Simulation Model

structure and soil surrounding the subway. This and alignment (grade and curvature), train weight, and
integrated calculation procedure makes possible propulsion system characteristics. The tedious naturcr of
continuous simulation of the complex interactions among these computations eventually prompted a number of
the dynamic phenomena operating in a subway system. motor manufacturers and engineering consultants to
create computer programs for determining train
The operation of trains provides a forcing function for the performance. Although these computer programs vary in
air movement in an underground transit system. The their ability to simulate complex operating schedules, all
energy dissipation from transit vehicles may account for use a computational procedure which follows closely that
as much as 90 percent of the heat released to the system. employed in the classical hand calculation.
Consequently, a knowledge of the location, speed,
acceleration and braking characteristics of the trains The new SES train performance subprogram differs from
within the subway system, as well as the time-dependent most conventional train performance programs in two
characteristics of heat release from the major train important respects: (I) it has been designed specifically
components, is essential to characterize the rate and to accommodate accurate, continuous computations of
location of subway heat release as well as the system the total heat released by trains, passengers, and ancillary
air flow regime. The pre-operational computation of train equipment such as air conditioning; and (2) it permits the
velocity, acceleration, and position in a given system has direct computation of the aerodynamic drag acting on
long been carried out by rail transit engineers using a each of the trains in the system, using continuously
classical computational procedure based on track profile computed aerodynamic parameters. Conventional train
1-18 Digest

performance programs ordinarily are not concerned with ventilation by fans. As noted earlier, the computation of
the continuous evaluation of vehicle heat release. In aerodynamic drag is an essential component of the subway
evaluating vehicle aerodynamic drag, these programs simulation because this factor determines both the air
ordinarily settle for a semi-empirical relationship based on resistance trains must overcome to accelerate and the
train velocity and blockage ratio (the ratio of the train amount of energy imparted by the moving trains to the
frontal area to that of the tunnel cross-section). In surrounding air. In general, the drag experienced by a
practice, the aerodynamic drag on a train fluctuates con- train- in a single-track tunnel increases with train speed
tinuously as it encounters variable annular air flows and decreases with frequency of train oper,ation (shorter
resulting from changes in tunnel diameter, ventilation headway).
shaft location, mechanical ventilation, and the piston-
action air flow from other trains. Therefore, the The aerodynamic equations used by the SES program to
continuous computation of vehicle aerodynamic drag in describe the air flow in subway tunnels resulting from
the SES represents a significant advance in the state-of- train piston action and from mechanical ventilation are
the-art. based on the fundamental physical relationships which
govern conservation of energy, mass, and linear
The most important train-related heat release to the momentum. Subway air flow is influenced by system
system occurs during the vehicle braking cycle. For a train geometrical parameters, such as the location, shape,
using a dynamic braking system, the speed reduction of length, cross-section, perimeter, wall roughness, etc. of the
the vehicles is brought about by using the motors as stations, tunnels, and ventilation shafts. Air flow is also
generators to produce electrical power. This power affected by dynamic parameters, such as train speed,
frequently is dissipated to a grid of undercar resistors. The acceleration, location, and headway, as well as ventilation
rate at which energy is dissipated is approximately equal fan operating characteristics.
to the net rate of decrease in kinetic and potential energy
of the braking train. The SES program computes this The time-dependent rate of change in air flow is equal to
energy loss directly from vehicle deceleration rates, the sum of the sources and sinks of flow energy. Sources
velocities, and total mass. Some of the braking energy is include the energy transmitted by the moving trains and
absorbed by friction brakes, and by friction, windage, and by fans. Energy sinks include the flow head loss resulting
bearing losses of the wheels, generators, etc. The SES from energy dissipation through air friction with tunnel
program accounts for the grid thermal inertia in and ventilation shaft walls and at the junctions of
computations of the rate at which this energy loss is added ventilation shafts with tunnels or stations. The net
as heat to the system air, considering such parameters as difference in magnitude between the energy sources and
the resistor grid physical properties, air turbulence and sinks, and the particular geometric configuration being
velocity, and grid temperature. examined governs ·the rate of increase or decrease in air
flow at any given instant. Where the rate of energy input
The air flowing through a subway system affects the is equal to the rate of energy dissipation, the air flow will
comfort of subway patrons both directly and indirectly. gradually approach steady-state. However, this case is
Air movement is directly responsible for the convective only rarely obtained in an operating subway.
transfer of heat and humidity through the system, and the
cooling effects of moving air can directly influence the The temperature and ·humidity of the air throughout a
comfort of persons in vehicles and in station areas. subway system reflect the heat added or removed by
Furthermore, the buildup of excessive air pressures in underground equipment, trains, and patrons. The
stations from train piston action may create other temperature and humidity also reflect the rate of heat
problems, such as causing doors at entranceways to swing exchange across the system walls, and the mixing of
hazardously. Air flows indirectly influence the heat subway air with external ambient air. The acceleration
content of subway air in two respects: (1) the aerodynamic and braking of trains produces the main source of sensible
drag on vehicles resulting from air motion relative to the heat in an operating subway system; but sensible and
trains affects the power consumption (and heat rejection) latent heat also are added by electrical equipment,
of the vehicle motors, and (2) the rate of heat transfer into patrons, and in certain instances, the surrounding earth.
the surrounding deep heat sink is dependent upon the air Heat is removed from the system mainly through the
velocity at the air-wall interface. expulsion of warm system air through ventilation shafts
and by heat conduction across the tunnel walls into the
Air flows in a subway are generated by two primary surrounding heat sink. Heat may also be removed or
sources: the piston action of trains moving through added by mechanical means such as by refrigeration or
confined tunnels and, in certain cases, mechanical heaters, respectively, in the stations.
Design Process 1-19

In the SES temperature and humidity computations, the heat transfer coefficient which is a function of the
system is treated as one-dimensional, meaning that the air subsegment air velocity, density, viscosity, thermal
temperature and humidity are considered uniform over conductivity, and tunnel diameter.
any cross section. Axial conduction heat transfer in the
system air is assumed to be negligibly small in comparison During the relatively short-term simulation periods of the
with the heat convected by moving air. A finite difference SES aerodynamic and temperature/humidity
numerical approximation technique is used for modeling subprograms, the surface temperature of the subway
the system. This method requires that the system be structures is essentially constant. However, subway wall
divided into a number of geometrical subdivisions of finite temperatures ordinarily experience daily and annual
length, each of which can be treated as having a uniform fluctuations because of variations in outside conditions
cross-sectional area, and which is assumed homogeneous and subway operating schedules. There may also occur a
throughout with respect to air temperature, air humidity, gradual increase in the average wall surface temperature
wall temperature, and all aerodynamic parameters. Heat over a period of years either as a result of prolonged
is transferred down the length of the system by air flow internal temperatures above outside ambient conditions or
across the boundaries of these homogeneous system because of increases in system utilization. These changes
sections, which have been named subsegments to in wall surface temperature have a direct bearing on the
distinguish them from the segments used in the heat transfer between the subway air and the surrounding
aerodynamic subprogram. As these subsegments are structure and earth, known as the heat sink effect. The
merely subdivisions of the aerodynamic segments, each purpose of the heat sink subprogram is the evaluation of
subsegment will have the uniformity of system geometry the interdependent behavior of the subway air
and air velocity which characterizes a segment, in addition temperature and the heat conduction in the materials
to its own unique thermal properties. surrounding the subway. Although the short-term
simulation evaluates subway air flows and temperatures
Three fundamental processes can occur to alter the on a second-by-second basis, the heat sink subprogram
temperature and humidity in each of these subsegments: evaluates a phenomenon which is measured in terms of
(I) sensible and latent heat can be added directly from hours, days and years. Thus, this subprogram involves a
sources within the system, (2) heat can be exchanged shift in time scales and the link with the short-term
across the tunnel walls, and (3) there can be a net change simulation is accomplished through a process involving
in the heat content between air flowing into the system the averaging of short-term simulation results.
and air flowing out.
The heat sink subprogram comprises two basic analytical
An equation for the rate of change in temperature and formulations. A heat conduction model is used to predict
humidity of each subsegment is therefore a combination the heat flux profile in the materials surrounding the
of the analytical expressions for these three processes. The subway, given as input the daily and annual variations in
quantity of air flowing into each subsegment at any given subway air temperatures. A separate analytical model
time is computed by the aerodynamic subprogram and links the conduction model with the short-term analysis,.
this air flow is used by the temperature/humidity accounting for the air-wall temperature interdependence
subprogram together with values for subsegment as well as extrapolating the short-term results to account
temperature and humidity to compute the net difference for conditions at times of the day and year other than that
between heat content of the air entering and leaving the considered in the short-term evaluation.
subsegment. Rejection of heat from moving trains,
computed simultaneously in the train performance The heat sink subprogram is geared to produce as output
program, is proportioned over the subsegments containing the wall surface temperature for each of the geometrical
trains. Next the temperature/humidity subprogram sums subsegments into which the subway tunnels and stations
the quantities of sensible and latent heat removal or are partitioned, corresponding to the time of the day and
addition in each subsegment by patrons, auxiliary year that the short-term simulation is intended. To
equipment, and station heating or air conditioning. Latent perform this computation, the subprogram requires data
heat can be removed from or added to the system by on structure and earth thermal properties, earth
condensation on or evaporation from system walls, temperature at a point far removed from the subway, and
although in the case of simple condensation or daily and annual variations in outside conditions. In
evaporation, an equivalent amount of sensible heat is addition, the subprogram requires detailed information on
added to or removed from the system by the program. subway ventilation and heat loads. Thus, the use of the
Finally, the heat transfer across the walls of the system heat sink subprogram requires that the aerodynamic and
is computed using the wall temperature and a convective temperature/humidity subprograms first be applied in a
1-20 Digest
short-term simulation. The SES is organized such that the
required data transfers are accomplished internally in the
program: the user can specify that the program execute
a short-term simulation, transfer the required ventilation 110

and heat load data to the heat sink subprogram for the
detailed heat conduction and wall surface temperature
computations; then transfer the calculated wall surface 100
temperatures back to the short-term simulation portion
of the program to continue the analysis.

A limited sampling from the results of a series of



-. ",I' V' if
conceptual subway environmental control studies (Ref. 4)
has been selected to exemplify the multi-faceted
capabilities of the SES program. Figure 1.4 is a graphical
. 0
portrayal of the SES-calculated rush-hour average air
- - - -' - - - -
temperature distribution through a portion of a subway ~ut~ Ambient
containing four-track tunnels and both local and express 70
stop stations. This particular concept relied entirely on
train piston action for ventilation, and the high subway
temperatures are a consequence of the heavy system
10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000
utilization, including 6D-mph train speeds and two-minute
Locotion, Feet
headway operation on the local and express train routes Vent
in both directions of travel. Of particular interest on this ~ Inl Inl
figure is the relationship between air temperature in the
Portal .1
Sta. I Sta.2 •
tunnels and stations. The observation that the tunnel
temperatures are on the average from SF to lOF cooler Fig. 1.4. SES-Computed Rush-Hour Average Air
than the stations suggests that there is a potential for Tempereture Distribution
improving upon the proposed ventilation scheme, shown
schematically along the locating coordinate, in terms of
ventilation air flows between the tunnels and stations. well as to air flow, finds particular use in evaluating the
impact on the environmental control concept of such
In the output of a typical SES simulation, the average air phenomena as train aerodynamic interactions.
temperature data illustrated by Fig. 1.4 are accompanied
by corresponding average airflow rates and humidities in Figures 1.4 and 1.5 are a brief sampling of the informa-
the system tunnels, ventilation shafts and stations, as well tion provided a designer by use of the SES. The concep-
as heat load tabulations. These data provide a high degree tual studies from which they are drawn span a broad range
of visibility and insight regarding the aerodynamic and of system configurations and operations, forming a broad
thermodynamic behavior of a simulated environmental data base for much of the information presented in Part 3.
control concept. Even more important, the understanding
afforded by these SES results enables the designer to focus
quickly on critical problem areas during the synthesis of
an overall environmental control concept for achieving Control Concept Selection
the criteria objectives.
Selection of control concepts is the last phase of the design
In situations where even greater detail is needed on process. In this phase, a determination of the most
aerodynamic or thermodynamic behavior, the SES can be appropriate environmental control system components is
set up to produce data such as that on Fig. 1.5. This made by the design engineer. These include the various
illustration relates theairflowin a section of the four-track mechanical heating, ventilating, and cooling systems that
tunnel, and in a contiguous shaft, to train operations on are most effective for satisfying the criteria in a given
a second-by-second basis. At any instant, the location and situation. Although no definitive rules can be
movement of all trains in the vicinity of this tunnel and promulgated at this point, in many systems tolerable
shaft can be pinpointed, enabling a detailed cause-and- station ambient temperatures may be met by effective
effect interpretation of the illu~trated air flows. This systems of ventilation alone, provided that the
capability, which applies to temperature and humidity as architectural and structural features of the system are
Design Process 1-21
120 r----.---r----r--.--.--~.......,---,'20

" V
Y 1-----+---t----+----f\:---+---1r--+'00

~ :T
Route I Roule 3

Route 2 I
1-----+---t----7Il'7.e:---+----+----+ 80
. \ ....
(/)" 60
~ / \
............ 1 - - - - - + - - - + + - + - + - - - + - - - - + - - - - + 60 Jl

'" e
i= \
' ..............r-. Train Situation

/ i=

40 f----+------,If-+--+---+----+----+ 40
......... ............... Route 4 I
r--.... ....... ~ T Route I
f----+---+-~~--'1'_,.,_-+----+----+ 20
~ ~ ........... ................
V Rout. 3

....... ......... . ~---+---+----+--=---1--"'--+---0 ....
14,000 15,000 16,000 17,000 18,000 -1,200 -BOO -400 0 400 800 1,200

Location. Feet t+ Sto.2
Air Flow Rate, efm x .001

-....I L.J L-I L_ _

JI 1 -,~mB Y L-

Fig. 1.5. SES-Computed Instantaneous Air Flows and Train Situations

compatible with the ventilation requirements. That is, the conditioning and supply and/or exhaust ventilation
simple admission of more outside air may lower the systems, trainway underplatform exhaust systems to
station temperature to levels consistent with criteria remove heat from under the car bodies while a train is in
established for a given system. In warmer climates, or a station, tunnel line section ventilation systems, and
where greater levels of comfort are desired, air cooling will various other possibilities and combinations.
be required.

Under conditions of reduced heat gain and reduced Design Approach

outside air temperature, normal air flow rates resulting
from train piston action may suffice to provide the desired Parts 2, 3 and 4 of the Handbook detail the approaches,
control over temperature rise. Frequently, the air flow rate in depth, for each phase of the design process. In this
required to provide this control will also replenish system section, each of these phases is discussed to the extent that
air with outside air at a desirable rate. In an emergency, knowledge of the basic elements may be of help to overall
however, when the system air has to be purged at a more system planners, vehicle designers, and transit system
rapid rate, the utilization of a separate exhaust system is operators.
normally required.
Ti).e need for an integrated systems approach deserves
A knowledge of the available environmental control particular emphasis when requirements or problems
equipment and its application is required to effect a related to subway environmental control systems are to
complete solution. In the development of this information, be evaluated. Due to the transient nature of system
an engineer should consider the variety of mechanical characteristics, few, if any, phenomena or parameters are
system concepts appropriate to subway environmental truly independent. A single parameter, such as train
control and the applicability of these systems in the speed, for example, has a profound effect on many aspects
optimization ofsubway construction and operation. These of a subway system's environment, such as temperature,
systems include, in addition to station platform air ventilation rate, or air pressure changes. Thus, for a
1-22 Digest

thorough evaluation, the entire subway system with all its operation can be achieved.
physical, geometrical, operational and physiological
parameters must be considered. Moreover, such In order to optimize construction costs, the transit system
evaluations should commence concurrently with the early specialists must first recognize those elements for which
planning stage for the system. If not given due alternatives are available. Conventional cost estimating
consideration sufficiently early in the planning phase, it techniques for both capital and operating costs may be
is possible that the ultimate real costs of providing developed after the trade-off alternatives have been
adequate environmental control systems on new rapid established. The decisions relating to these alternatives are
transit systems, for example, could in some cases equal or normally made in the early phases of planning a new
exceed the cost of the rolling stock. Since the rolling stock subway system or extension to an existing system. Such
is the primary source of the environmental problems, decisions may have a profound effect upon the
planning of the train speed, number of cars per train, and environment or the cost of its control.
train headways necessary to achieve the transportation
demand objectives should be weighed against their impact As stated previously, the comfort factor which will usually
on the environmental criteria and control systems. have the largest impact on the construction details and
costs, and cost of operations of the transit system, is the
Given a set of input parameters, and an ability to make thermal criterion; that is, the maintenance of acceptable
the evaluation of the simultaneous interaction of all these ambient temperatures in the various areas of a rapid
parameters in a dynamic system, the engineer or planner transit system during different operating times and
can then ultimately determine the requirements for the conditions, and throughout the changing seasons each
environmental systems design and ascertain its cost. What year. In a subway system the thermal environment is
then becomes most important for the system's planner is affected primarily by the operations of the transit vehicles.
the ability to estimate quickly the total system cost During the peak rush hour periods the trains will usually
variations as a function of varying some of the controllable contribute 85 to 90 percent of the total heat dissipated in
input parameters. The number of significant alternatives the transit system. Since it is the magnitude of the heat
resulting from the possible major variations' in the con- dissipation which contributes to changes in the thermal
trollable input parameters could conceivably, through environment, of which the vehicle is the primary
these permutations and combinations, run into several contributor, it is appropriate to examine this element of
hundreds. One of the major features of design tools the transit system first.
included in Volumes I and II of the Handbook is that all
promising alternatives may be quickly evaluated.
The Rapid Transit Vehicle
An understanding of the characteristics of a vehicle, as
1.4 Comparison of Alternatives they may interact with considerations of environmental
control, begins with an energy balance. It is the dissipation
of the train's energy as heat which is of concern.
In order to contribute to optimizing a complete subway
transit facility and remove the excess heat to achieve an The kinetic energy of the vehicle is primarily a function
acceptable environment, the environmental control of its mass and operating speed. The mass is a consequence
systems should be economical in construction and of the physical characteristics. The mass and operating
operation as well as responsive to the needs of the riding speed are generally influenced by the anticipated
public. Examining environmental problems leads to other passenger loadings or traffic density, as well as other
components of a rapid transit system, such as the vehicles parameters such as length of the system, alignment and
and the fixed facilities, particularly the subway stations profile considerations and constraints, vehicle structural
and line sections through which a transit system operates. design requirements, distance between stations, etc. Some
As the various transit system specialists, including of the major systemwide features and their range of
planners, engineers, architects and others, investigate the variations are described in the following paragraphs.
interfaces between environmental problems and the
various component subsystems of which a rapid transit Vehicle Sizes. In a rapid transit system the cars
system is composed, significant areas may be identified normally vary in length from about 40 to 75 ft. Car widths
where overall optimizations of cost of construction and range from approximately 8 to 10 1/2 ft, and their height
Comparison of Alternatives 1-23
from 8 to 10 ft above the car floor level, and about 3 1/2 rubber-tired trucks, their weight and rotational inertia are
ft from the car floor down to the top of the rail. significantly higher than for flanged steel-wheel trucks. In
addition, the limitations of load-bearing capacity of the
Train Sizes. The consist (number of cars) varies as a rubber tires results in significantly shorter car lengths than
function of system operating requirements, and will the allowable maximum for steel-wheel cars. Another
generally vary from one car to ten. These requirements disadvantage of rubber-tired trucks is the higher rolling
are usually influenced by peak versus off-peak traffic friction and hysteresis losses common to any rubber-tired
demands. Very often, cars are semi-permanently coupled vehicle. Collectively, these losses, together with a greater
in married pairs, a married pair consisting of two cars car weight per passenger, result in total system traction
which share certain auxiliaries such as air compressors, power requirements which may be more than 50 percent
communication systems, etc. While this provides certain larger than for steel-wheeled vehicles per passenger
economies in car construction and maintenance, the two carrying capability, for systems with similar track profiles
cars may only be operated as a pair. Some systems, such (Ref. 5). Therefore, it should be evident to the system
as the MUCTC in Montreal, operate three-car units. designers that many site and system factors must be taken
Large transit systems may operate with train lengths of into account in selecting the most appropriate truck-
600 ft or longer, using 10 or 11 cars. vehicle concept.

Vehicle Weight. Weight will vary with the size of the Propulsion Systems. Most rapid transit system cars are
vehicle. However, it will also vary as a function of driven by electric traction motors which are contained on
construction materials. Aluminum body cars, for each car. The source of energy is wayside electric power
example, are generally regarded as lightweight distributed through a third rail or overhead catenary wire.
construction, as compared to stainless steel bodies. Contact shoes or pantographs, as appropriate, function as
Vehicle tare weights for rapid transit service will generally the power pickups for the car. The traction motors are
be in the 50,000- to 80,OOD-Ib range. generally mounted within the vehicle truck and there may
be one or two motors per truck, or two to four per car.
Vehicle Trucks. The most common type of vehicle truck Motor sizes up to four 150 hp each per car are possible.
is a two-axle, four-wheel type. The wheels are Motors may be A.C. or D.C., although most transit
steel-flanged type for operation on steel rails. There are systems use D.C. The motor sizes are determined as a
two trucks per car, each of which is connected to the function of car weight, design speed criteria, and design
structural frame via a suitable shock-absorbing suspension acceleration rate requirements.
system. Each truck can swivel about a point on the
longitudinal axis of the vehicle, thereby permitting the car Braking Systems. For safety considerations, most rapid
to negotiate curves. The two axles on each truck are fixed transit cars have multiple braking systems. These include
parallel to each other. This factor, along with the speed friction brakes of the shoe or disc type, and usually some
and operating weight of the train at any given moment, form of electric braking. In electric braking (dynamic or
combine with the track curvature radius and super- regenerative), the traction motors are switched to function
elevation, (if any) to contribute to the wheel-rail noise as generators during the braking mode. Where dynamic
screech common to most steel-rail systems. brakes are employed, the electrical energy generated by
the conversion of the train's kinetic energy in bringing the
Because of the noise problem in the older portions of the vehicle to a stop is discharged to onboard resistor grids.
Paris Metro, which contain short radius curves, the In the process, these resistor elements are heated up to
French developed a pneumatic rubber-tired truck. This 500F or 600F or even higher. Thus, the braking energy
design concept is now in use in some parts of the Paris is ultimately all dissipated as heat, either at the wheels as
Metro, as well as in the new Metros in Montreal and a result of the friction brakes or at the resistor grids. While
Mexico City. Two rubber-tired wheels are mounted on some systems may use friction braking exclusively
each of the two axles per truck. The wheels ride on a (usually in multiples for safety backup), in many systems
concrete or steel track. The trucks include horizontally- the operation of friction and dynamic brakes is blended.
mounted, rubber-tired wheels operating against sidewalls For example, at speeds above 50 mph both braking
of the guideway to steer the vehicles. Advantages claimed systems may be employed; at 50 mph friction brakes are
for the rubber-tired systems are reduced noise on short usually disengaged and braking energy is dissipated
radius turns, and the ability to operate on steeper grades through the grids until the speed is reduced to about five
than with flanged steel wheels. Due to the construction to 10 mph, at which time friction brakes take over and
features and number of components of the pneumatic dynamic brakes are deactivated.
1-24 Digest
One of the more recent advances in the state-of-the-art for measured in seconds for a downtown station-to-station
transit vehicle propulsion-braking systems is the use of run), the resultant reductions in energy demand and heat
regenerative braking. While similar to a dynamic braking dissipation could be very significant. In many cases, the
system in so far as the switching of the traction motors maximum cost effectiveness can be achieved where a
to operate as generators is concerned, part of the slight increase in headways due to coasting can be
generated energy is then used by onboard auxiliaries. An tolerated without overloading the system.
alternative system permits return of the electrical energy
to the contact rail for possible use by other trains. Train Control. While newer systems are employing
Regeneration can produce reuse of 25 percent or more of semi- or fully-automatic train control systems, the existing
the available braking energy of trains. Since, on the systems are predominantly manual-controlled. In such a
average, the braking energy accounts for almost 50 system, the train operator or motorman manually controls
percent of the total energy lost in a rapid transit system, the starting, running, and stopping of the train, and he or
reuse of some of that energy, and resultant reductions in the conductor controls the opening and closing of the train
heat dissipation, can be effected. Therefore, a regenerative doors in stations. The motorman operates the train by
braking concept is highly desirable from an energy varying a control lever in the cab. In turn, this varies the
conservation and heat reduction point of view. The field strength of the D.C. propulsion motors, and through
effective use of a regenerative braking system is limited a device known as a "cam controller", appropriate parts
only by the present state-of-the-art technology. of the vehicle propulsion motor circuitry are mechanically
switched to accelerate, cruise and decelerate the train.
Vehicle Air-Conditioning Systems. Most transit
agencies building new systems or replacing outmoded Recent applications to new systems employ "chopper"
rolling stock are purchasing air-conditioned vehicles. The controls in lieu of cam controllers. Fundamentally, a
air-conditioning hardware is of the vapor-cycle type, chopper is a solid state switching device which
resulting in heat dissipation from the condensers of each accomplishes similar end results as the cam controller but
air-conditioning unit equal to about 125 percent of the much more efficiently and smoothly by eliminating
heat removed from the car interior. Since the power mechanical cam contactors. Chopper controls can reduce
required per car for air conditioning may be as much as the traction power energy reqUirement in the acceleration
50 kw, the energy and heat dissipation loads of the air mode by as much as 10 percent as compared to cam
conditioners are significant contributors to the overall controllers.
load side of the transit system energy balance. This is
particularly true during hot summer months when they
The use of automatic operation of the vehicle is intended
operate almost continuously, even when the train is
to provide smoother acceleration and deceleration rates
stopped and no propulsion power is drawn. In addition,
than can be effected manually by an operator, as well as
the weight of the vehicle air conditioner(s) adds to the
permitting closer headway spacing of trains at higher
overall propulsion system energy requirement.
speeds. Automatic train control can increase the system
passenger-carrying capacity by allowing for an increase in
Vehicle Speed. Since the kinetic energy of a vehicle
the frequency of trains passing a given point in the system.
varies as the square of its speed, it is apparent that
Fully automatic train control is considerably more
operational requirements of vehicles can significantly
complex than one that is manually controlled.
affect the vehicle power demands. Higher speeds for
vehicles are generally desired by transit system planners,
because they influence the travel time of the passengers Vehicle Design. Since the kinetic energy of the train
and are a factor in determining rolling stock inventory relates in part to its mass, the transit system planner may
requirements. However, in downtown subway systems, endeavor to specify vehicles which result in the lowest tare
relatively close spacing of stations (within a half mile) will weight per passenger carried. The factors which the
limit maximum operating speeds that might be achieved, planner should consider, however, are numerous and
since criteria for a::celerating and decelerating rates will many decisions with regard to the physical characteristics
govern the operating conditions. In some instances, close of the vehicle can have a significant impact on energy
station spacing may result in a train shifting from a consumption and resultant heat dissipation. In general,
maximum acceleration mode to maximum deceleration the greater. the length of a vehicle, the lower will be the
mode without any operation at a steady "cruising" or car weight per passenger. While this would appear to be
diminishing "coasting" speed. Consequently, ifan increase an obvious advantage, it may limit the operating flexibility
in running time of trains can be accepted (usually for a given system (economical number of cars per train),
Comparison of Alternatives 1-25

or provide constraints on minimum track radii which may compared to at-grade or above-grade configurations. (In
require enlarged tunnels and may be in conflict with track April 1974, the New York Times reported New York City
routing and alignment considerations. Similarly, local construction costs of $30 million per subway mile.) Where
topographic or right-of-way construction considerations possible, transportation planners will endeavor to avail
may warrant the use of steeper grades, which may be more themselves of topographically natural features consistent
suitable for rubber-tired vehicles on concrete or steel with alignment requirements. Thus, in an urban central
guideways as compared to steel-wheeled vehicles on steel business district'which may be traversed by one or more
rails. With an understanding of the characteristics of the freeways or expressways, it may be possible to develop at-
major vehicle parameters, the designer will be able to grade rights-of-way for rapid transit facilities in the
evaluate their impact and interaction with the median strips of the roadways. Highway median rapid
environment (see also subsequent discussion, transit lines have in recent years been built in Chicago and
Methodologies for Cost Trade-off Evaluations, in this San Francisco. Where such measures are technically
section). feasible, they can have major economic rewards in terms
of land use, real estate acquisition costs, and reductions
in construction costs of the system by minimizing subway
Alignment and Profile construction requirements.

For a fixed guideway rapid transit system, the alignment, However, most systems will usually require some subway
or routing, of the system trackways and the locations of construction. Where this occurs, decisions relating to the
stations are determined by transportation planners as a determination of the track profile may significantly affect
function of the anticipated passenger traffic densities in and interact with environmental design considerations.
the various transportation corridors. Thus, the rapid Usually an analysis of the subsurface conditions by the
transit system alignment will be laid out so that the major civil engineers will be the primary basis for determination
business and commerce center of the urban area (where of the profile.
the traffic densities will be at a maximum) can
communicate effectively with the residential population Station location requirements, surface grade variations,
centers. It also very likely means that subways will be used subsurface space allocations for major utilities, and soil
in the central business districts, assuming that in these characteristics will be the major parameters which are
locales, surface land-use development will preclude the examined. As a result of such analyses, determinations
use of at-grade or elevated rapid transit system facilities. may be made as to the suitable track profile. In addition,
It can further be assumed that in the central business decisions of below-grade construction methods, for
districts land costs are very high, even where real estate example, by tunneling or cut-and-cover may be made.
is available for acquisition. Therefore, consideration of the Because of the findings, several alternative concepts of
subway environmental factors presented in this Handbook track profile and construction techniques may be feasible.
will have little or no impact on determination of the
alignment. Considerations of real estate acquisition and The development of the track profile will also consider the
facility developments at or above grade in a central grade changes. Construction and other local site
business district served by a subway, in support of the conditions may result in varying requirements. Vehicle
subway environmental control system requirements, are characteristics will impose constraints on grades as well
another. matter. These are discussed in Real Estate as on vertical radii of curvatures where changes in grade
Acquisition, later in this section. are necessary. Since environmental load factors are related
directly to system operating energy requirements, the
Having established an acceptable alignment, desirable guidelines from the environmental point of view
transportation system designers then proceed to develop are relatively simple. Where possible, it would be desirable
a track profile. Usually at this point determinations are for trains to travel on a downgrade when leaving a station
made with regard to those segments of the system that so as to assist the train in the accelerating mode, thereby
should properly be located above, at, or below grade. Very reducing the input power requirements. Similarly, it
often these determinations involve an iterative process would be desirable for trains to approach a station on a
which takes into account alternative alignments. The rising grade so that the braking energy requirements may
objective is to establish an overall system layout that best be reduced. A "humped" track profile can result in energy
serves passenger traffic needs and results in the most conservation and heat gain reduction by utilizing the
economical of system construction costs. Subway, or potential energy capabilities of the trains. The magnitude
below grade construction, will be the most costly of the benefits that might be derived fo; a given system
1-26 Digest

as a function of alternative grade possibilities can be deter- and economic constraints may suggest the alternative
mined by the environmental design engineer using the considerations of housing such equipment, either within
methodologies set forth in this Handbook. the confines of the subway structure, or external to it.

Environmental considerations may influence major In the vicinity of subway stations, provisions for
elements of the system structural design. For example, entranceways from the surface frequently afford the
when local climatological conditions .and thermal opportunity to include vent shaft terminals as a part of
charac;teristics of the soil and transit system operating these real estate acquisition demands. Dictates of
concepts are taken into account, the tunnel configurations underground construction needs may .also res~lt in real
may be affected. Certain combinations of environmental estate acquisition which might be subsequently used to
parameters may influence the choice between cut-and- accommodate environmental control system components.
cover (with or without dividing walls) and dual trainway
mined tunnels. Of possibly greater importance is the fact In any event, real estate acquisition in a central business
that environmental requirements for each of these district will usually be quite costly. Environmental control
alternative construction techniques can vary markedly for system engineers should weigh these costs against
different site conditions. Any attempt on the part of the alternative concepts. For example, if costs of systems
transportation planners or civil engineers to draw employing only ventilation are compared with systems
generalized conclusions with regard to the impact of using mechanical refrigeration, and if both are designed
environmental considerations, based upon findings at to maintain the same temperature design criteria,
some other site, would be a gross error in judgment. The mechanical/electrical equipment costs would probably
number of variables involved require analysis by favor the ventilation concept. However, extensive air
experienced environmental design engineers capable of shafts and/or air duct communications with the surface
applying the principles and techniques of environmental attendant to an all-ventilation system could very likely
design detailed in Parts 2, 3 and 4 of this Handbook. involve an expenditure in real estate acquisition alone
which would exceed any capital cost savings in
mechanical/electrical equipment.
Real Estate Acquisition

In almost all cases where subways are employed, there will Vent Shafts
be requirements, due to subway environmental
considerations, for structural and mechanical systems As subways were developed in the past, environmental
communications with the surface. These requirements can control meant ventilation. Ventilation in tum meant a
result from vent shafts, shafts for personnel egress and requirement for vent shafts. The variations in size and
access to below-grade mechanical equipment, air ducts configuration of these are almost infinite. Some have
from subsurface facilities, and various mechanical pipes almost continuous openings above the subway structure
and electrical conduits to support below-grade terminating in sidewalk or roadway gratings. Others are
environmental control systems. Offsite, central twisting and tortuous air passageways from the subway
refrigeration plants or ventilation buildings may also be tunnels to some termination at or above grade compatible
required. These structural or mechanical elements may with the surface real estate developments. Still others are
terminate at the surface, such as in the case of gratings shafts that were actually built as shield chambers for
for vent shafts or hatches for access to below-grade construction of the subway tunnels and were left as vent
equipment. The requirements might also include erection shafts afterward. Many shafts are fitted with dampers or
of structures rising from the surface, or inclusion of ducts, fans; some with both. In several systems, shafts are
shafts, pipes, etc., within existing or new building installed primarily for emergency egress and are utilized
structures developed for other purposes and having no for ventilation as well. In any event, they usually are
direct relationship to the transit system requirements. The expensive and may create problems with the real estate
structural or mechanical elements might terminate only development at the surface. On the average, their
a relatively short distance above grade or might extend construction cost might vary from $100,000 to $500,000
up through the structure of a building to its roof line. At each, depending on many factors.
that point, it might be required to locate thereon
mechanical equipment such as cooling towers or fans.. In It is almost inevitable that some type of shafts will usually
many instances, where an environmental design concept be required for a transit system in support of the
requires installation of mechanical equipment, technical underground construction or to satisfy emergency egress
Comparison of Alternatives 1-27

requirements. Where these shafts are to be constructed, the recently completed BART system, the underwater
the environmental designer should determine whether crossing of San Francisco Bay by the system necessitated
they contribute to environmental control or are a continuous tunnel segment in excess of three miles in
detrimental. The designer should, where possible, try to length without any intervening shafts. Faced with such a
influence the location of construction shafts so they can situation, the destners of the Trans-Bay Tube developed
be effective from an environmental point of view. More a system concept of emergency evacuation and a tunnel
ventilation, if desired, does not necessarily come about design that were compatible with the given constraints.
with more or bigger vent shafts. Even where it does, the In lieu of intervening vent shafts, a ventilation duct was
cost of additional shafts may be such that mechanical built into the tunnel between the trainways, and running
ventilation or refrigeration systems may be preferable. the full length of the tunnel. Large ventilation buildings
were built at each end. While the design may not be
Also, improved environmental control of a systl;m may appropriate for landside segments of underground
not necessarily come about by increased ventilation. subways, the emergency ventilation concept was
Where stations are air conditioned, for example, it will compatible with the criteria established by BART for
usually be desirable to minimize the ventilating effect of passenger evacuation safety. Thus, it follows that there are
shafts. For a given station environmental design situation, various engineering alternatives that might be applied in
the use of air conditioning for environmental control may the interest of reducing vent shaft numbers. Only through
be less expenSIve, and more effective in creating a greater a proper cost trade-off analysis of the viable alternatives
level of comfort, than a ventilation system which may can it be determined what is most appropriate and
minimize investment in mechanical hardware but may economically feasible for a given situation.
require greater expenditures for real estate acquisition and
construction of vent shafts.
Space Allocations for Environmental Control
The environmental design engineer may well be able to Equipment
satisfy normal operating environmental criteria with a
wide range of numbers, sizes and locations of vent shafts, Where mechanical/electrical systems are employed for
depending on local conditions. There are no universal underground station and line section environmental
criteria for determining the spacing and sizing of shafts. control, the hardware components of such systems have
The effectiveness of vent shafts in accomplishing a to be accommodated, with provisions to permit adequate
specified set of environmental criteria for station and line maintenance, repair and replacement. In subways, these
section environs should be examined and compared in a hardware components generally may include various
cost trade-off evaluation with alternative environmental types of fans, dampers, air-handling equipment,
control system concepts before a final determination can refrigeration equipment, pumps, cooling towers, related
be made. electrical switchgear and control centers, air ducts, pipes
and conduits.
Emergency ventilation requirements, when considered
together with overall safety and passenger evacuation In some instances, the environmental designer may find
concepts, in many cases will be the controlling factor in that it is technically feasible to locate some of the
establishing shaft location and size requirements. Even for hardware components external to the subway itself. This
emergency ventilation requirements, there are no feasibility could apply to refrigeration apparatus,
definitive rules or even guidelines which relate specifically including pumps, chillers and cooling towers. Where
to shaft locations (or spacing) and sizing. In past practice, several subway stations can be simultaneously served by
it is possible to find criteria specifying vent shaft spacings chilled water distribution from a remote central
at approximately 1,200- to 1,500-ft intervals. Very often, refrigeration plant, external location is often a desirable
these shaft spacings resulted from a decision to locate solution from both a technical and economic feasibility
them coincident with vertical egress facilities for viewpoint. It might also be possible to locate fans at the
evacuation of passengers from a subway in the event of surface terminations of shafts or duct systems which
an emergency. The close spacing (1,200 to 1,500 ft) for would ordinarily communicate between the interior of the
emergency egress was considered the upper limit for the subway and the surface.
horizontal distance to be traversed by patrons in the event
of emergency. In addition, access to the subway from the Major equipment spaces within the subway may house
surface by firemen or other rescue personnel is facilitated environmental system components that cannot be feasibly
by reasonably close spacings of such shafts. However, in located external to the underground facilities. In addition
1-28 Digest

to mechanical and electrical equipment rooms, which may evaluation of the technically feasible alternatives will be
house major items of equipment in station areas and at necessary to make a proper determination.
the base of fan shafts communicating with line sections,
the necessity for air ducts and pipes running
longitudinally through a station may have an even greater Methodologies for Cost Trade-Off Evaluations
impact on the structural configuration of the facilities. In
the case of a station structure, the cross-section may have In the preceding discussions in this section, the major sub-
to reflect increases in overall heights of the different levels systems of a rapid transit system which interact with the
in order to accommodate air ducts. These air ducts may environmental control system have been identified. The.
convey fresh air supply ventilation or air-conditioning particular characteristics of these subsystems which
supply air for the station. Anyone of a number of different impact subway environmental system determinations
exhau,;t or return air duct systems might be necessary as have been described.
part of an overall environmental control system concept.
Sometimes unused space, such as that beneath the station· The methodologies for performing cost trade-off
platform, can be utilized for one or more of these services. evaluations are familiar to most engineers. The engineer
should consider in his evaluations of alternatives the
Where large air-handling systems are employed in stations factors of capital costs, operating costs, life of equipment,
for ventilation or mechanical air cooling, the unique and the financing costs. Because of the various funding
configuration of a station structure will create constraints factors and the variations in their application to both the
in the location of mechanical or electrical equipment capital and operating costs of a transit system, the highest
rooms. A station platform level may be over 600 ft long priority cost factor cannot be established in a generalized
with a platform width between trainways of25 ft. For ease way. The planner' should' take into account current
of operation and maintenance, it might be desirable to federal, state and local funding options before a
locate air-handling equipment in a single location. meaningful trade-off evaluation is made.
However, if this is done at one end of the station, the cross-
sectional area of the supply and return air ductwork from Fundamentally, there are two major categories to be
the unit may impose an undue demand on the overall examined with regard. to cost trade-off evaluations
cross-sectional dimensions of the structure. Ideally, such between the environmental systems and the complete
a location would be either the quarter points or the center transit system. The first category relates to the
of the platform. Air distribution ductwork would then run environmental load. This environmental load generally
longitudinally toward each end of the station, thus refers to the heat which the environmental control system
minimizing the duct cross-section requirements. This must remove in order to maintain temperature design
arrangement is not ordinarily possible because it would criteria. Since the major contributor to this load is the
interfere with traffic flow on the platform level. energy used by the vehicle, it is the characteristics of the
Consequently, equipment rooms are often established at vehicle and of the system operating concepts which should
each end of the station, each serving one-half the length be addressed to effect energy reductions. Reductions in
of the station. Where consideration is given to locating energy consumption will have a direct benefit by reducing
equipment within a mezzanine above the station platform environmental control system requirements. The second
level, similar factors influencing the most desirable category involves the trade-offs generally between space
location for the equipment as evaluated for the station (or structural facility) requirements and
platform will apply. mechanical/electrical systems. Trade-offs in the second
category involve comparisons of environmental
When it is necessary to provide additional space equipment operating costs over a long period of time
exclusively to accommodate environmental control versus the amortized cost of capital construction.
systems, the costs of such space should be carefully
evaluated. It is quite possible that the cost of developing Regarding the several items previously identified, some
and constructing such space in a subway structure may additional factors to be considered are as follows:
equal or exceed the costs of the environmental system it
contains. Consideration of alternative mechanical systems Vehicle Characteristics. Most transit vehicles have a
concepts, not ordinarily deemed economical, may indeed service life of approximately 20 to 30 years. Therefore, the
prove to be appropriate for a subway. The extensive use decisions relative to the vehicle component characteristics
of fan-coil units in the existing station platform areas on will have a very long-term effect in regard to energy and
the Ginza line in Tokyo is an example. A cost trade-off environmental control factors. To effect load reductions,
Comparison of Alternatives 1-29

several objectives should be sought. These include reduced Space Allocations. The high costs of underground
weight of the vehicle and operating speed constraints in subway construction, or lack of available space in existing
the subway portions of the system. Most efficient systems, may warrant use of compact environmental
propulsion systems should be obtained. Braking systems control systems, such as fan-coil units, in lieu of extensive
which reduce energy losses are highly desirable. Thus, air duct distribution systems. Fan-coil units might
from an energy and heat-load viewpoint, chopper controls otherwise be considered uneconomical for handling the
and regenerative braking systems with maximum line expected loads. Determinations of these trade-offs can
receptivity are the most desirable objectives. also only be made on a specific system basis.

Where dynamic brakes are employed, consideration The parts of this Handbook which follow provide the
should be given to the evaluation of the systemwide environmental design engineer with all the tools and data
benefits that might be obtained from the different types normally required to develop environmental system loads
available. These different types include relatively large and concepts. It remains for the design engineer to apply
mass, tubular grids which depend on natural convection his imagination and ingenuity in collaboration with all the
for heat dissipation; low mass ribbon types which dissipate other members of the transit system design team - the
heat faster than the large mass tubes; and forced blown planners, vehicle designers, power engineers, civil and
(air cooled) grids, usually ribbon type, which dissipate structural engineers, and subsystem hardware component
heat faster than either of the other types. Locations of designers and fabricators - to create the optimum system
resistor grids and car air-conditioning condensers are also design.
important to the overall effectiveness of various
environmental control system concepts. Location of such
components on the roof of the car, for example, may offer
significant advantages and improve the effectiveness of REFERENCES
thermal exhaust ventilation system concepts in a station.
Elimination of. car air conditioners in favor of effective
thermal control in subway line sections may be feasible 1. Walker, James Blaine, "50 years of Rapid Transit,
for some systems. (Such concepts have been recently 1864-1914," Arno Press and New York Times, New
installed and are operational in parts of the Tokyo York, 1970.
2. Davies, J. V., "Air Resistance to Trains in Tube
Profile. Steeper downgrades for trains leaving a station Tunnels," paper presented to the American Society
and greater upgrades approaching the station can of Civil Engineers on May 15, 1912.
significantly reduce the power and heat loads. Where
grades can be made greater than those capable of being 3. Brock, Edison, "Development of Formulae for
employed for steel wheel-steel rail systems, the benefits Calculating Ventilation for the Chicago Subway,"
may be significant enough to favor consideration of Journal of the Western Society of Engineers, Vol. 48,
pneumatic rubber-tired vehicles. No.2, p. 76-91, June 1943.

Real Estate Acquisition. Effective alternative environ- *4. Parsons, Brinckerhoff, Quade & Douglas, Inc.,
mental control system concepts can often be developed "Aerodynamics and Thermodynamics of Subway
with negligible demands on real estate acquisition at the Design Concepts," New York, 1974. Technical
surface. Determinations can only be made on a localized Report, No. UMTA-DC-06-0010-73-6.
5. Parsons Brinckerhoff - Tudor-Bechtel, "Caracas
Vent Shafts. With regard to construction and number Metro Transit Vehicle Report," San Francisco, Cal.,
of required vent shafts for effective environmental control, November 1967.
similar comments as above in regard to real estate
acquisitions may also be applicable for vent shafts. *Prepared for Transit Development Corporation (TDe),
Washington, D.C.

The primary emphasis in this part of theHandbook is on system. The board of directors, the general manager, or
human comfort levels. Methods and guidelines are the engineering staff of the transit system may establish
presented that will enable an engineer to establish criteria the criteria guidelines, but their developIt:1ent also depends
that will assure patrons and employees freedom from on inputs from engineering consultants, demographic
injury to health and will satisfy their aesthetic and comfort consultants, and even public opinion surveys. No matter
requirements. Human tolerances given are based on the where the guidelines originate, the engineer assigned to
relationships between an environmental condition and its the task of designing environmental controls is confronted
resulting physical, physiological, or psychological effects. with the problem of quantifying the subjective, qualitative
Criteria are given for normal, as well as emergency, guidelines and establishing quantitative design criteria.
operating conditions for stations, line sections, vehicles,
and miscellaneous structures. The essence of some of these guidelines can be typified by
the following examples:
The requirements for establishing human tolerances are
influenced by patrons' transitory occupancy of subway
systems. Also, since aesthetic and comfort requirements, • As long as the patron is not presented with a
which vary from community to community, are involved degradation in thermal environment when
in the determination of the criteria, no single set of values leaving the street and entering the subway, he
for universal criteria can be presented in this Handbook will not object to riding the transit system.
and still meet the requirements of each operating transit
agency. Instead, a range of values or methods for • The subway should be more comfortable than
developing values are given. From these, planners, other forms of transportation, such as buses or
operators and designers can establish specific standards automobiles, in order to attract and maintain
for their particular systems. patronage.

Criteria for environmental conditions are continuously • The new rapid transit system should be more
being scrutinized by many government agencies and comfortable than the transit system in city X or
concerned citizens. Periodically, new federal and local at least as comfortable as that in city Y.
laws and regulations are promulgated that will affect
established criteria and, in some cases, supersede them.
Hence, people responsible for the establishment of criteria
must be cognizant of current regulations, especially those
that have resulted from the Occupational Safety and Guidelines, and subsequently criteria, have an impact on
Health Act of 1970 and its amendments. most of the other aspects of the rapid transit system. For
example, the criteria set limits on the temperatures in the
system, whereas the temperatures are dependent on
(among other things) blockage ratio, train size and speed,
2.1. Temperature and Humidity headways, available grade-level areas for vent shafts,
tunnel liner materials, and types oflighting. Therefore, the
design criteria for the temperature-dependent parameters
Guidelines provided to engineers establishing thermal can be established only after their influence on
criteria for underground rapid transit systems may be environmental conditions have been considered.
qualitative and subjective and may also reflect such
intangibles as community comfort values, amenities
associated with competing modes of transportation, or Recognition of the impact ofenvironmental criteria on the
civic pride. The bases for these guidelines may arise from rest of the system, however, should not dissuade the
conditions in alternative transportation available to engineer from making an independent determination of
patrons. Furthermore, these guidelines must anticipate the environmental criteria first. In this manner, the
and meet the needs of patrons when the transit system engineer will be able to apply human engineering in
becomes operative. The responsibility for developing developing environmental criteria and avoid the potential
guidelines for thermal criteria varies from system to problems that arise from having the environmental

Preceding page blank 2-1

2-2 Human Environmental Criteria

criteria established by default after the general design into account the transient nature of the patrons' exposure.
criteria for the other aspects of the system are fixed. After Generally, patrons spend very little time in stations. They
the human engineering criteria have been established, they are, however, usually in a vehicle long enough to corne
must be integrated into the total system criteria, and some to substantial equilibrium with the vehicle's environment.
compromises may be made in the process. It is important Also, before· entering the subway, patrons are usually on
that the environmental criteria be established as soon as the street long enough to be at equilibrium with the
possible or when other general design criteria are also outdoor environment. A station, therefore, is the
being established. transition between two environments with which patrons
will be in equilibrium.
For operating subway systems that are planning
extensions, the application of the same environmental When establishing thermal criteria, engineers must also
criteria employed in the existing system may be sufficient. take . into account physiological and environmental
If the extensions will have higher performance equipment, variables that determine patrons' comfort in subway
the older environmental control techniques may not be systems. Conventional thermal indices are summarized in
adequate to maintain the same level of environmental Table 2.1. None of these indices adequately characterize
comfort. In applying same-as-before guidelines when the transient aspects including all the variables needed to
establishing criteria, those setting the guidelines must be predict a comfortable subway environmental system.
certain that old and new conditions are also similar. Therefore, two indices, the Relative Warmth Index RWI
and the Heat Deficit Rate HDR, were developed for this
When establishing thermal criteria, engineers should take Handbook.

Table 2.1. Characteristics of Various Common Thermal Indices

Environmental Factors Considered

Radiant Metabolic
Temperature Humidity Clothing Emphasis
Heat Rate

Effective Temperature Yes Yes No No Yes hnmediate reactions to changes

(ET)l in environment

Index of Physiological Yes Yes No Yes Yes Effects of higher temperatures,

Effect (E)2 stress, physiological failure

Heat Stress Index Yes Yes Yes Yes No Effects of higher temperatures,
(HSI)3 stress, physiological failure

Predicted 4-hour Sweat Yes Yes Yes Yes No Effects of temperatures, stress,
Rate (P4SR)4 physiological failure

Relative Strain Index Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Effects of higher temperatures,
(RSI)5 stress, physiological failure,
and lower temperatures

* The superscript numbers designate References at end of this Part.

Temperature and Humidity 2-3

Physiological Considerations of Thermal On the other hand, when a person is exposed to a warm
Comfort environment or during muscular activity, the blood
vessels near the surface dilate and allow more blood to
flow to the skin. Increased blood flow carries more heat
The human body produces heat continuously as a result to the skin and raises the skin temperature, making it a
of chemical reactions that take place in living cells to more effective surface for heat transfer from the body. If
pr~)Vide the energy for the human processes and activities. the internal body temperature continues to rise, the
The rate at which the energy is released during these evaporative cooling mechanism, sweating, begins. The
chemical reactions is the metabolic rate. Ultimately, most body temperature inevitably rises when the heat loss is less
of the released chemical energy becomes heat. The body than the heat gain and production. The surface heat-
is also continuously gaining from or losing heat to the transfer characteristics are also dependent on the type and
environment by means of convection, radiation, and amount of clothing worn.
evaporation. The body, however, functions properly only
if its temperature remains nearly constant. Physiological Shown on Fig. 2.1 (Ref. 6) are the components of the heat
reactions within the body try to maintain the vital body balance obtained in a test on a person working at several
tissues at a relatively constant temperature. rates. The total energy output is the same as the metabolic
rate. The difference between the energy output and heat
The relative ease with which the body can accommodate production is external mechanical work, such as lifting
these physiological reactions determines the degree of weights against gravity, performed by the test subject. In
comfort. Heat production within the body, plus any heat this example, the external work is relatively high; but
gained from the surroundings, must equal the heat lost to usually, the thermal efficiency of a person is quite low,
the surroundings plus the mechanical work performed if often zero. Above a threshold value of work rate, the
the body temperature is to stay constant. This is expressed subject produced more body heat than could be dissipated
in the following heat balance equation: to the surroundings. The difference in energy between the
heat produced and external work performed and the total
M±C±R-E-W±S =0 heat loss resulted in an increase in body temperature. The
convective and radiative heat losses were nearly constant
where M for this test subject, despite the increasing work rates.
metabolic rate

R net radiative heat exchange rate When subway criteria are being established, the external
work should be taken as zero. The total heat loss then is
c the sum of radiative, convective, and evaporative heat
net convective heat exchange rate
losses. The evaporative heat loss can be from the skin and
E evaporative heat loss rate the lungs.

w net external mechanical work

performed (METABOLIC RATE)

S storage rate of body heat HEAT PROOUCTION

When a person is exposed to a cool environment, the blood TOTAL HEAT LOSS
vessels in the skin contract and reduce the peripheral
blood flow. This results in less heat being transferred to
the surface. The changes in the rate of blood flow to the
skin surface and in the size of the skin surface cells that
aid in regulating temperature are called vasomotor
500 ___----" ~~~~E~6~~E 8 RADIATIVE
adjustments. In this manner, there is a secondary drop in
skin temperature, reducing the heat loss by radiation and
convection. If the body's internal temperature cannot be
roo 200 300 400 500 600

maintained, the metabolic rate automatically increases by RATE OF EXTERNAL WORK,

1,000 FT-lB PEA HOUR
means such as the body shivering. The body temperature
inevitably falls if heat production cannot keep up with Fig. 2.1. Heat Exchange at Rest and During
heat loss. Increasing Work Intensities
2-4 Human Environmental Criteria

Environmental Considerations of Thermal RWI = M(Iew + Ia) + 1.13(t - 95) + RIa (2.2a)
Comfort 70(1.73 -P)

When P is equal to or less than 0.67 in. of mercury,

The principal environmental factors that influence
thermal comfort are also those that affect the body's heat RWI = M(Iew + Ia) + 1.13(t - 95) + RIa (2.2b)
transfer: temperature, humidity, air velocity, and 74.2
clothing. The human body receives sensations from its
own internal thermal conditions and from the
HDR in Btu per (hr)(sq ft) may be computed from
environment and integrates them into an overall comfort
rating. The comfort sensation is physiological,
psychological, and subjective. For development of criteria HDR = ..!2.. = -M _ 1.13(t-87) + 9 _ ~ (2.3)
for thermal comfort, indices are needed that reflect not H lew + I a lew + I a
only the human's comfort, decision-making process but
also the physical parameters used to specify and regulate where M metabolic rate, Btu per (hr)(sq ft)
environmental control equipment.
insulation of clothing based on wet
cloth assumption, clo
Thermal Indices for Subway Application
Ia insulation effect of air boundary layer,
The Relative Warmth Index and the Heat Deficit Rate
are the recommended thermal indices for subway dry-bulb air temperature, F
temperature control. They were developed especially for
a transient or subway application, based on the Relative t - 95 difference between dry-bulb temperature
Strain Index derived by Lee and Henschel (Ref. 5). The and average skin temperature just
Relative Strain Index relates the thermal stress placed on before a person feels uncomfortably
a person to the maximum thermal stress a person can warm, F
tolerate. Thermal stress occurs whenever, despite
vasomotor adjustments, metabolic heat production t- 87 = difference between dry·bulb temperature
exceeds the combined heat loss by radiation and and average skin temperature just before
convection. The amount of heat lost by sweating to a person feels uncomfortably cool, F
maintain the body at a steady temperature is a measure
of the thermal stress. R mean incident radiant heat from sources
other than walls at room temperature,
Relative Strain Index is the ratio of the actual amount of Btu per (hr)(sq ft)
sweating required to the maximum sustainable amount of
sweating. This Index, however, is not suitable for subway D heat deficit, Btu per sq ft
application because it does not indicate thermal comfort.
H exposure time, hr
For application to warm environments, the theory on
which the Relative Strain Index is based, and
experimental results of comfort tests sponsored by the The terms determining R WI and HDR in these equations
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air- are discussed in the following paragraphs.
Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), were combined to
form another index called Relative Warmth Index R WL Metabolic Rate. The metabolic rate M depends upon a
For cool environments, the Relative Strain Index was person's health and sex, physical activities, and
adapted to another index, called the Heat Deficit Rate environment. During most physical activities, practically
HDR. Both R WIand HDR are derivable from the human all of the metabolic energy is transformed into heat within
heat balance given by Eq. (2.1). the body because the thermal efficiency of the human
body is relatively low.
The R WI may be computed from Eq. (2.2a) or (2.2b),
depending on humidity conditions. When vapor pressure Metabolic rates can be measured directly or indirectly.
P of water in air exceeds 0.67 in. of mercury, Direct calorimetry methods measure the total quantity of
Temperature and Humidity 2-5

heat liberated from the body in a given time. Also, since can be approximated based upon oxygen deficiency tests.
more than 95 percent of the energy expended in the body
is derived from the reaction of oxygen with different foods, The average oxygen consumption rate changes occur
the metabolic rate can also be calculated indirectly, with within.a six-minute period, and it is assumed that the
a high degree of accuracy, from the rate of oxygen metabolic rate transition also takes about six minutes. It
utilization. is further assumed that an intermediate metabolic rate can
be found by linear interpolation from Eq. (2.4).
Metabolic rates of interest in subway environmental
control are listed in Table 2.2. These metabolic rates are
for an average person who has a skin surface area of 19.5
sq ft. For the computation of subway environmental
design criteria, it is assumed that, on the average, the ratio where MT metabolic rate at lapsed time T,
of metabolic rate to skin area is about the same for all men, Btu per (hr)(sq ft)
women, and children as it is for the average person.
T lapsed time, min

Mj initial metabolic rate,

Table 2.2. Metabolic Rates for Various Activities* Btu per (hr)(sq ft)

Btu per MF final metabolic rate,

Activity Btu per (hr)
(hr)(sq ft) Btu per (hr)(sq ft)
Basal 291 15
Seated at rest 384 20 For example, to find the metabolic rate of a person two
Standing at rest 430 22 minutes after he reduces his walking pace from four mph
Seated vending fares 490 25 to three mph. Table 2.2 can be used to obtain the steady-
Standing vending fares 549 28 state metabolic rates. For each walking speed, the table
Seated vending fares, rush hour 558 29 gives corresponding metabolic rates of 71 and 54 Btu per
Standing vending fares, rush hour 600 31 (hr)(sq ft), respectively. Therefore, the transient metabolic
Standing or occasional stroll 761 39 rate, two minutes after the change in speed, can be
Walking, 2 mph 761 39 estimated for the assumption that the steady-state
Ught maintenance, housekeeping 954 49 metabolic rate for walking at three mph would be
Walking, 3 mph 1,050 54 established in six minutes and the interpolation is linear
Walking, 4 mph 1,390 71 for the metabolic rate after two minutes.
Walking down stairs 1,440 74
Moderate maintenance, tile work 1,490 76 MT = 71 - 216 (71 - 54) = 65 Btu per (hr)(sq ft)
Moving load 1,600 80
Heavy maintenance, sawing wood 1,800 92 Insulation of aothing. The insulation effect of clothing,
Running, 5.3 mph 2,268 116 lew' clo, is based on the wet-cloth assumption.
Walking, 5 mph 2,330 120
Walking, very fast, 5.3 mph 2,580 132 A clo is defined as the amount of insulation necessary to
Walking up stairs 4,365 224 maintain a person's skin temperature at 92F in a room at
70F with air movement not over 10 fpm, humidity not
*Adopted from ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, 1972 over 50 percent, and with a metabolic rate of 18.5 Btu per
(hr)(sq ft).

Metabolic Rates in Nonsteady Situations. The metabolic The wet-cloth assumption takes into account the fact that
rate associated with a steaqy-state activity can be readily the insulation effect of clothing varies with the activity
obtained once an activity or its equivalent is identified in level of the wearer. During higher activity levels,
Table 2.2. Since subway patrons' activities often change, imperceptible sweat makes the cloth damper and reduces
their metabolic rates also change often. The metabolic rate its insulation properties. Table 2.3 shows values for the
. associated with the changing from one activity to another insulating effectiveness of clothing.
2-6 Human Environmental Criteria .

Table 2.3. Insulating Effect of Clothing The insulation effect lew for clothing that is worn when
at Various Activity Levels outdoor ambient conditions are somewhat cool can be
determined from Fig. 2.2. The clo values determined from
this figure are based on the assumption that the subject
Metabolic Insulation Activity has dressed to be comfortable in the specified ambient
RateM, lew*,Clo Induced- environment. Thus, lew is obtained with a knowledge
Btu per (Wet Cloth Velocity only of the patron's activity and" the ambient
(hr)(sq £1) Asswnption) Vb, fpm
environmental conditions. This approach eliminates the
need for detailed knowledge of the insulating effects
Basal 15 0.6 0
obtained by different types and layers of garments. For
Seated at Rest 20 0.6 20 example, to find the insulating effects of clothing worn
Seated Vending Fares 25 0.4 50 by a person walking at four mph in an ambient
temperature of 50F and ambient air velocity of about 700
Standing Vending
fpm, enter Fig. 2.2 at 50F on the temperature axis. Read
Fares 28 0.5 30
the corresponding lew value opposite the 700 fpm curve
Standing or Occasional on the "walking 4 mph" family of curves. The result is
Stroll 39 0.4 100 an lew of 0.5 clo.
Walking, 2 mph 39 0.4 200
Clothing Insulation Values in Unsteady Situations. For
Walking, 3 mph 54 0.35 300
the transient situation encountered in subways, lew
Walking, 4 mph 71 0.3 400 values are assumed to have a six-minute transient time
associated with them in accordance with the six-minute
assumption for change in metabolic rates. To determine
* All lew values are for a light business suit which is lew at any time during a change from one activity level
equivalent to 1 clo when dry (not exposed to sweat). to another, the following procedure is suggested:


M(Icw+ fal + 1.13(t-951 =0
2.0 r - - - - - - , . - - - - - , - - -.......,.......--.::::---:-.,----""'--..::--""' .,..----.,----,,---,
....................... ...........~'t-
..... '<>
............~~~ ......
• ~-t-.I, .......
...... ......
..... ..... .....

oL-- ....L --L ..L- -l- --l --:":- -:':- -::- ~

·10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 eo

Fig. 2.2. Comfort Clothing as a Function of t, M, and V

Temperature and Humidity 2-7
Establish the lew values associated with each steady- 10,000

state activity level. Obtain steady-state data directly from

Table 2.3 if the patron is wearing a light summer suit or
equivalent. Use Eq. (2.5) to determine the lew at
intermediate or transitional stages.
where lewT insulation of clothing at lapsed
time T, cIo "
T lapsed time, min
initial insulation of clothing, clo
final insulation of clothing, clo
During the colder season, when the clothing required is
heavier than a light summer suit, the clo value associated
with patrons' clothing while changing activity levels
should be obtained from Fig. 2.2, based on the set of
conditions for which the patrons made their choice of 10
cIothes to wear on the design day. A ratio is developed o 0.1 0203 0.4 O.~ 0.6 07080.9 1.0
to determine the lew . for. the new activity level from the
lew values in Table 2.3. For example, if a patron were Figure 2.3. Standard Value for la V5. Velocity of Air
dressed to be comfortable while walking at four mph on
a 50F day when the ambient air velocity is about 700 fpm,
his clothing insulation, as given by Fig. 2.2, would be
equivalent to lew = 0.5 cIo. If he were to come to a Reductions in air velocity or effective surface area of
stop and stand still and then occasionalIy strolI, the patrons due to crowding also affect the thermal sensation
insulating value of his clothing would increase. Table 2.3 of the patrons. This can be obvious when the patrons are
indicates that for a light summer suit, lew would increase in vehicles under crush-load conditions or waiting on a
from 0.3 to 0.4 clo after walking stopped. Therefore, the crowded platform and cannot feel the full effect of a
insulating effects of heavier clothing would rise in the breeze. As crowding increases, the patrons are closer to
same ratio, from 0.5 to 0.5 X 0.4/0.3 or to 0.66 cIo. For each other and the surface area available to them for heat
times within the six-minute period required to change dissipation decreases. Standing shoulder to shoulder
from one equilibrium condition to another, intermediate decreases surface area by about 10 percent, and standing
cIo values can be determined by linear interpolation. with close packing may decrease this area by as much as
30 percent. This crowding, in essence, increases the
Insu/ation Effects ofAir Boundary Layer. The insulation insulation. The crowding effect can be partly compensated
effect, la' of the air boundary layer next to skin or for by directing ventilation air in a more vertical,
outside clothing is also measured in clo units. la downward direction.
changes as the activity or air velocity changes. There is
no six-minute transient time associated with la' Figure Temperature. The difference between ambient air
2.3 shows the relationship between total air velocity temperature and skin temperature affects heat transfer to
(ambient plus activity-induced velocities) and la' and from the skin. Skin temperature is assumed to be
Activity-induced velocities Vb are given in Table 2.3 for between 95 and 87F depending on whether the air is warm
selected activities. Ambient air velocity Va is obtained or cool. Most people are comfortable when their average
from local weather conditions or air flows in stations. skin temperature is 91F.
2-8 Human Environmental Criteria

Incident Radiation. The mean incident radiant heat R is Comfort Range for Relative Warmth Index
usually from solar radiation. The radiation to or from
surfaces substantially at room temperature is accounted Nearly equal relative warmth values can be expected to
for by the effects of the temperature difference between indicate similar comfort sensations regardless of the
ambient and skin and need not be included again in this environmental conditions and activities that are combined
incident radiation term. Since there is no solar radiation to yield a specific Relative Warmth Index R WI Table 2.4
in the subway environment, this factor is nonexistent in relates R WI and the ASHRAE comfort classification. In
subways. The solar radiation for persons walking or this manner, a warmth level .can be: expressed
standing in the sun, on the street, or in a portion of a quantitatively for various combinations of activities and
transit system aboveground has an average value of about conditions.
10 Btu per (hr)(sq ft). In extreme cases of maximum sun Table 2.4. ASH RAE Comfort Classification and
angle and very clear weather with no air pollution, solar Corresponding Relative Warmth Index
radiation may be as high as 45 Btu per (hr)(sq ft).
ASHRAE Comfort Classification Relative Wannth Index
Vapor Pressure. The vapor partial pressure P of water in
air may also affect the comfort sensation. ASHRAE data Wann 0.25
have shown that below a partial pressure of 0.67 in. ofHg, Slightly Wann 0.15
R WI is independent of humidity. Conversely, above that
partial pressure, the comfort sensation is affected by Comfortable 0.08
humidity. Slightly Cool 0.00

EYaporatiYe-heat-Joss Rate. Evaporative heat losses from

the human body occur when heat production within the ASHRAE has made a frequency distribution of the
body exceeds its capacity to dissipate heat by convection percentage of test subjects who feel comfortable when
or radiation and sweat glands become activated. In cool exposed to the nominal ASHRAE comfort classifications.
environments, evaporative cooling is not required; A quantitative relationship among ASHRAE comfort
therefore, atly cooling that occurs is due to evaporation designations, the frequency distribution, and R WI is
in the respiratory tract where it usually amounts to about shown on Fig. 2.4, which gives the percentage of people
nine Btu per (hr)(sq ft) of skin area (not respiratory tract not feeling comfortable (those desiring a cooler
area). environment) in environments with various RWIvalues.

1.0 a
Exposure Time. The length of time H a person is exposed
to a particular environment is measured in hours.
0.5 a

Heat Deficit. A heat deficit D occurs in a cool

environment when vasomotor adjustments are not
sufficient to compensate for the heat losses from the
human body and body temperature drops. Studies of this
temperature drop indicate that an energy loss of 15 to 30
Btu per sq ft of body area can occur without causing
---- --- -- -- ~


discomfort. But if a person's internal temperature is to

remain constant and ifhis average skin temperature is not 0.0 5

to fall below 87F, the heat deficit should not exceed about
nine Btu per sq ft. Therefore, nine Btu per sq ft is taken
to be a noticeable effect. Also 20 Btu per sq ft is assumed
to be the threshold of discomfort. A decrease in the rate
of heat deficit does not indicate a more comfortable
sensation because body temperature continues to drop
though at a lower rate. Response to heat deficit is
0.0 I
10 20 30 40 50
&0 70 80 .0 ..
cumulative. Note that DIH is identical in value but
Fig. 2.4. Percentage of People Who Want a
opposite in sign to that of the heat storage term Sin Eq.
Cooler Environment in Summer
Temperature and Humidity 2-9
Table 2.5 gives the numerical values used to calculate Outdoor climatic conditions for this purpose can be
R WI for several existing rapid transit properties. Figure determined by the procedures and data presented in Vol.
2.5 shows the R WI computed from these values for the II. These methods serve to establish the environment
existing properties, the ASHRAE comfort designations, passengers might experience before entering and after
and the R WI associated with alternative transportation leaving stations, the extremes in climatic conditions, and
modes. changes from morning to evening outdoor conditions.
These temperature changes indicate the type of clothing
commuting patrons may select for a cool morning and will
Application of Relative Warmth Index still be wearing when entering stations on a warm
afternoon for the return trip. Local custom and dress
information obtained from demographic consultants may
Examples of the use of R WI for selecting and establishing indicate the proportion of patrons who work in offices or
subway-system thermal criteria are provided herein. factories and whether or not their work areas are air-
Criteria may be established. by two methods. conditioned. The degree of air conditioning in offices,
factories, and alternative modes of transportation might
Method I. Select an R WI that will please a particular differ in the future when the transit system becomes
percentage of patrons. Method 2. Use an R WI that is a operational from that in existence when system design
compromise with competing transportation modes or starts. Consequently, the comfort levels for a transit
ambient conditions. system should be selected in anticipation of future

Table 2.5. Numerical Values Used in Calculating Relative Warmth Index for Existing Rapid Transit Agencies

Metabolic Total Air Relative Radiant

Property Location RateM, Air Velocity, Temperature, Humidity, HeatH,
Btu per (hr) Clothing
percent Btu per (hr)
(sq ft) Va + Vb,fpm fa, F (sq ft) Index
Boston Outdoor 71 0.3 700 92 46 10 0.50
(MBTA) Station 39 0.4 400 98 40 0 0.42
Train 20 0.5 40 75* 55 0 0.03

New York Outdoor 71 0.3 700 95 47 10 0.55

(PATH) Station 39 0.4 400 90 60 0 0.29
Train 20 0.5 40 78 50 0 0.07

Camden Outdoor 71 0.3 700 95 47 10 0.55

(PATCO) Station 39 0.4 400 78* 50 0 0.11
Train 20 0.5 40 75* 55 0 0.03

Chicago Outdoor 71 0.3 700 95 42 10 0.55

(CTA) Station 39 0.4 400 78 80 0 0.11
Train 20 0.5 40 74 55 0 0.02

Toronto Outdoor 71 0.3 700 90 56 10 0.48

(TIC) Station 39 0.4 400 87 68 0 0.24

* Air-conditioned.
2-10 Human Environmental Criteria

09 l-

0.8 f-

07 f-

--- -



- --
--- I- -
:3 MPH

--- -- MBTA
1--- -- 1------- - HUMAN COMFORT TOLERANCE

04 f- 1----



-- -- -- --- --
1--- _ 1 - - - - ""'tt~ f - - ' -1 - - -
0.2 I-

1--- - -- - - 1-- iMPIi"

~TA --t - - - -- -

0.1 f-
t-- - -- -- 2 MPH
"1--- t------


Fig. 2.5. Relative Warmth Indices

The above type of information was assumed for a patron platform and vehicle. The results are plotted in Fig. 2.6
of a hypothetical subway system for use in illustrative and discussed below.
examples of applications of R WI
For the 90F station, which is warmer than outdoor
Example 2.1. Variation of RWL A patron wearing light ambient, the R WIfor the patron increases when he enters
summer clothes is walking outdoors at three mph on a the station and thus indicates greater discomfort than
cloudy day. The dry-bulb temperature is 85F and there experienced outdoors. When the patron reaches the
is a seven-mph wind. On entering a subway station, the platform and stops walking, his metabolic rate is still at
patron continues to walk at three mph through the the level for walking, but the air motion due to his
mezzanine and fare collection areas to the platform. The activities drops to the new activity level. Therefore, the
average air movement in these areas corresponds to a R WI increases again. This phenomenon is commonly
three-mph breeze. RWIwill be determined for two station noticed as the sweaty feeling under the collar or across
temperatures: ,90F and 80F. the back. The patron's metabolic rate then starts to.
decrease from that for a 3-mph walk to that for an
When the patron arrives on the platform, he comes to a occasional stroll. Simultaneously, the R WI decreases until
stop, and his activity level changes to an occasional stroll the metabolic rate approaches equilibrium in about six
while he waits about five minutes for a train. When the minutes. For the 80F station, in contrast, the R WI
train arrives, the patron enters the vehicle and sits down. decreases when the patron enters the station. When he
The vehicle is air-conditioned to maintain a temperature stops on the 80F platform, the R WI increases and then
of 74F with an air velocity of about 80 fpm. starts to decrease again as he comes to an equilibrium with
his new activity level.
When the patron leaves the vehicle, he walks out of the
station, which is at 90F or 80F. These conditions are When the patron enters the vehicle, there is a decrease in
summarized in Table 2.6. From Eq. (2.2), the patron's temperature, which causes a correspondiltg decrease in
R WI can be calculated for the outdoors, mezzanines, R WI, and the patron feels more comfortable. After the
Temperature and Humidity 2-11

Table 2.6. Data for RWI Calculation - Examples 2.1 and 2.4

Parameters Outdoors Platform Vehicle Station I
Mezzanine Immediately 2 Minutes
on StoDDing after Stopping

Activity* Walk, 3 mph Walk, 3 mph Occasional Stroll Standing Walk,3 mph I

M, Btu per
(hr) (sq ft) 54 54 54 49 39 54 Table 2.2
Va' fpm 600 260 260 260 80 600 Ambient
Vb, fpm 300 300 100 100 100 300 Table 2.3
la, clo 0.22 0.27 0.32 0.32 0.44 0.27 Fig. 2.3
lew, clo 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.40 0.40 0.35 Table 2.3
P, in. Hg 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67 Assumed
R, Btu per
(hr)(sq ft) 10 0 0 0 0 0 Ambient

* Consult demographer for this mformation.

patron is in the vehicle six minutes, his metabolic rate They are not, however, working criteria until the R WI or
becomes readjusted to the new activity level, and the HDR equations have been used to determine the
patron experiences the comfort sensation associated with temperature, humidity, and vapor pressure. These three
the R WI dependent on the vehicle's environment. parameters form the working criteria for establishing the
desired comfort level. Establishment of warm-weather
When the patron leaves the vehicle and enters a station criteria is discussed in the rest of this article. Cold-weather
(80 or 90F), he becomes more uncomfortable because of criteria are discussed later on.
the warm environment. After he leaves the station, his
metabolic rate continues to increase, taking about six Stations provide a transition from outdoors to vehicles.
minutes from the time he starts his 3-mph walk to adjust. The conditions on the street and in the vehicle must be
known before a transition from one to the other can be
established. The criteria for the vehicle should be
Criteria for Temperature and Humidity established first.

Example 2.2. Vehicle Temperature, Humidity, and Air

Environmental criteria for subway systems can range Velocity Criteria. To establish the criteria for a vehicle,
from those sufficient to protect patrons' health to those a designer must first set an R WI or comfort level. This
that are luxurious. Criteria needed to protect health must selection may be assisted by data on Fig. 2.5 or Table 2.5
be maintained as a minimum, whereas establishment of for the R WI reported for persons in vehicles of existing
a luxurious environment in the sense of traditional office rapid transit systems or competing transportation or by
air-conditioning may be too costly or physically data on Fig. 2.4 for estimated percentage of persons
impossible. Economical, practical environmental criteria wanting a cooler environment with a particular R WI
for subways are somewhere between these extremes. Even for cold weather, the vehicle temperature criteria
can be established with R WI
The aim of the designer in setting environmental criteria
is to establish both an R WI and an HDR that will achieve To illustrate the procedures, assume the following
the desired level of comfort for the subway system. The
R WI and HDR selected, in effect, establish the criteria. 1. The system should provide comfort for 75% of
2-12 Human Environmental Criteria


1111111111111111111111174 F IN VEHICLE 11111111 80 F IN STATION


;xx:x:X, "\
x \
~ 0.3
a: tt.
1---- -~~~-
• #.
- -- --- -WARM - --- - --
;:: II': .~
S 0.2
a: l'r~#.
1---- --- -=-- _ - _ SLIGHTLY WARM _ _ _
- - -- - - -

~ ---
COMFORTABLE --- - ..•_- ---



Jll ~ I I I I I I
'I I I 1 I
0 5 10 15 V 0 5 10

Fig. 2.6. Relative Warmth Values in Subway Systems

the patrons; or 25% of the patrons will want a from which t = 75F. If the vapor pressure exceeds 0.67
cooler environment. Therefore, from Fig. 2.4, in.Hg, the dry-bulb temperature must be lowered to keep
RWI= 0.13. RWI = 0.13 (see Example 2.3).

2. The passengers are standing but not at a crush Example 2.3. Water- Vapor Pressure Compensations. In
load. Example 2.2, the water-vapor pressure is less than 0.67
in. Hg. If humidity increases beyond 0.67 in. Hg, the new
3. Water-vapor pressure Pis less than 0.67 in. Hg. temperature for attaining R WI = 0.13 can be determined
from Eq. (2.2a).
4. It is a cloudy day, so that R = O.
Station Temperature, Humidity and Air Velocity Criteria
for Warm Weather. Criteria can be set for a station as a
To determine the temperature to attain R WI = 0.13, use whole or for a mezzanine or platform individually.
Eq. (2.2b). Substitute in the equation the values given in Environmental conditions in the station can either be the
Table 2.6 in the vehicle column. The result is: same as or better than outdoor conditions. There are two
different methods for establishing the conditions in the
0.13 = 39(0.40 + 0.44) + 1.13(t - 95) station. One method is to select an R WI This would be
74.2 similar to the procedures in Examples 2.2 and 2.3 for
Temperature and Humidity 2-13

determining the vehicle criteria. The second method is to outdoors. The temperature difference could be greater if
set the R WI for the station between the R WI for outdoor the' station is to be more comfortable than outdoors.
conditions and the R WI for vehicle conditions. In this
way, the station, either the mezzanine or platform, will The temperature criterion computed in this example is for
be at least as comfortable as outdoors and also provide a the temperature difference between outdoors and station
transition from one environment (outdoors) to another and is not an absolute temperature. Care must be taken
(vehicles). Often, patrons are most sensitive to or aware in setting an upper limit for R WI in this manner because,
of this transition when they come to a stop on the platform above the value of R WI = 0.5, even for short periods of
and note the sudden marked increases in discomfort time, there exists a possibility that some less' physically fit
(associated with increased R Wl) at that point, as shown persons will experience severe distress.
on Fig. 2.6.
Employee and NonpubJic Area Criteria. In establishing
EX8J1lpJe 2.4. Determination of Station Temperature guidelines from which environmental thermal criteria
Criteria for Warm Weather. To illustrate the procedures may be established, designers should consider three types
used for the second method, assume the following: of nonpublic areas:

I. Maximum R WI for patrons during transition

from outdoors to a vehicle occurs when they • Operational and fare-collection spaces,
come to a stop at the platform. including rest areas for maintenance personnel,
that are more or less continuously occupied by
2. Maximum R WI during the transition is equal employees
to or less than the outdoor R WI in warm
weather. • Nonpublic areas intermittently occupied on a
routine basis, such as a transformer or motor
control room
Equate the RW/, as given by Eq. (2.2b), for outdoors to
the maximum RW/, as given by Eq. (2.2b), during the • Nonpublic areas infrequently occupied, usually
transition in the station. at times of the day that can be chosen to be off-
peak; for example, a trainway
M(lCW + la) + 1. 13(to - 95) + Ria]
[ 74.2 outdoors For continuously occupied employee spaces, conventional
= r
M(lcw +la) + I.l3(t. - 95)J
74.2 station
heating and ventilation guidelines apply. This means that
the desired level of comfort is chosen, and temperature,
humidity, and air velocity are selected in accordance with
standard ASHRAE guidelines. If, however, the activity
levels in certain continuously occupied areas are different
Substitute in the equation the assumed values given in
from those for which ASHRAE guidelines are applicable,
Table 2.6 for outdoors and the station (platform,
the R WI approach should be used to determine the
immediately upon stopping). The result is:
suitable temperature range to be maintained.
54(0.35 + 0.22) + 1.13(to - 95) + 10(0.22)
Intermittently occupied nonpublic areas can have thermal
= 54(0.35 + 0.32) + I.l3(t. - 95) guidelines that allow these areas to be somewhat
uncomfortably warm. This situation is somewhat
analogous to a similar guideline for some stations. The
Solving for the temperature difference between outdoors
principal exception is that the operating transit agency has
and the station gives:
the power to select and control the personnel entering
these nonpublic areas. If there are no physical standards
to - t. = 2.8 for the personnel working in these areas, a maximum R WI
of 0.5 would be appropriate. If, however, operating and
If the station is kept about 3F below outdoor temperature maintenance procedures limit the time spent in these areas
for the specific conditions in this example, the patron and control physical conditions for the employees, the
considers the station environment to be as good as maximum RWImay exceed 0.5. Healthy, young adults
2-14 Human Environmental Criteria

who are acclimated to working in hot areas can perform rate. The major difference between application of the
satisfactorily at R WI = 1.0. With the relative warmth HDR concept for thermal comfort in a cool environment
concept, the employees' activity level and clothing thereby and using the R WI concept for a warm environment is
are incorporated in the development of the environmental that the magnitude of cumulative heat deficit is more
criteria. The computation procedure for establishing the important than the HDR itself, whereas R WI gives a
criteria is the same as for vehicles (see Examples 2.2 and direct indication of discomfort.
Response to a heat deficit is cumulative. The heat deficit
Nonpublic areas infrequently occupied during normal approach implies that the history of a patron is important
operations usually do not have to be entered by personnel in determining his thermal comfort. For example, suppose
except at times of their choosing. For example, under a person walking outdoors to a station has a heat deficit
normal conditions, trainways do not have to be entered that is just within his comfort threshold. When he enters
during periods of peak loads and maximum temperatures a station that is warmer than outdoors, station
because work in these areas can be scheduled for other environmental conditions nevertheless could permit the
times. For this type of area, criteria are not needed to total heat deficit to increase beyond the comfort threshold.
protect personnel at all times. But for times when this area In that case, the patron might feel uncomfortably cool
must be entered, the criteria would be the same as those while in the station. Yet, on entering the same station
for intermittently occupied nonpublic areas or for while feeling comfortably warm, the patron could
emergency conditions. continue to be comfortable.

For the intermittently and infrequently occupied areas, A patron's comfort in a cool environment is strongly
experience indicates that the thermal environment for dependent on the amount and type of clothing he is
man is not necessarily the determining factor. Often, the wearing.
temperature criteria for these areas are selected to increase
the life and reliability of electrical equipment. In fact, EXJl111pJe 2.5. Variation of HDR in Subway TraJ'eJ.
designs for some modem industrial machinery rooms Assume a patron with the activity profile described in
include air-conditioning capacity to maintain Example 2.1. Assume also that the patron is dressed to
temperatures below 8SF. For non-air-conditioned be comfortable on a 30F day with a IS-mph wind, but
mechanical and electrical areas, temperatures usually are finds himself exposed to a IOF, IS-mph day. These
maintained below 104F. In any event, temperature criteria outdoor conditions are given in Table 2.7.
for equipment, especially computers and semiconductors,
depend on the equipment and therefore should be Substitute in Eq. (2.3) the values given in Table 2.7 for
consistent with the manufacturer's rating for the the preceding conditions. The result is:
HDR =-71 - 1.13(I0 - 87) + 9 =23 Btu per (hr) (sq ft)
0.85 + 0.17
Application of Heat Deficit Rate
After a IS-minute exposure to this HDR, the patron
experiences a cumulative heat deficit of 5.8 Btu per sq ft.
A heat deficit occurs in a cool environment when If he were to continue walking outdoors for another 15
vasomotor adjustments are not sufficient to compensate minutes, he would feel cold because the heat deficit would
for the heat losses from the human body and the body then be 11.6 Btu per sq ft, which exceeds 9 Btu per sq ft,
temperature drops. Application of heat deficit rate HDR the point where a coolness sensation becomes noticeable.
is different from that of R WL
On entering a station, the patron continues to walk at 4
Any decrease in R WI indicates that a patron becomes mph, through the mezzanine and fare-collection area to
more comfortable because there is essentially no change the platform. The average air movement on the mezzanine
in body temperature and the evaporative heat losses, corresponds to a 3-mph breeze. The station environment,
which control body temperature, are a measure of at 6OF, is warm enough to reduce the HDR to the point
discomfort. A decrease in HDR, however, does not where the body starts to gain heat; that is, the patron
necessarily indicate a more comfortable sensation because warms up. This can be shown by the negative heat deficit
body temperature continues to drop although at a slower attained when the body starts to warm up:
Temperature and Humidity 2-15

Table 2.7. Data for HDR Calculation - Example 2.5

Outdoors Subway System Outdoors

Parameters Selection Steady Enter Platform Car Enter
Plat- Exit Leave Stead)
Basis State Station Arrive Leave Initial Sitting
form Station Station State Reference
Walk, Walk, Walk, Occa- Occa- Walk, Walk, Walk, Walk,
Activity* 4 mph 4 mph 4 mph sional sional Seated Seated 4 mph 4 mph 4 mph 4 mph
Stroll Stroll
Steady State M, Btu
per (hr) (sq ft) 71 71 71 39 39 20 20 71 71 71 71 Table 2.2
Transitional M, Btu
per (hr) (sq ft) - - - 71 55 55 - 20 37 37 - Eq. (2.4)
Va, fpm 1,000 1,000 260 260 260 80 80 260 260 1,000 1,000 Ambient
Vb,fpm 400 400 400 100 100 20 20 400 400 400 400 Table 2.3
la' clo 0.17 0.17 0.25 0.33 0.33 0.54 0.54 0.25 0.25 0.17 0.17 Fig. 2.3
Steady State lew' clo 0.85 0.85 0.85 1.13 1.13 1.70 1.70 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.85 Table 2.3
Transitional lew' clo - - - 0.85 0.99 0.99 1.70 1.70 1.45 1.45 - -
t, F 30 10 50 50 50 70 70 50 50 10 10. Ambient
Transitional Time T,
min - - 3 - 3 - 6 20 2 - 4 -
Elapsed Time, min - 30 33 33 36 36 42 62 64 64 68 -

HDR, Btu per (hr)

(sq ft) 0 14 -24 -27 -14 -31 -2 10 5 26 14 -
Cumulative Heat
Deficit, Btu per sq ft - 7 5.8 5.8 4.8 4.8 3.2 2.4 2.7 2.7 3.4 -

* Consult demographer for this information.

HDR = -71 _ 1.13(50 - 87) + 9 M = 71 + 1..-(39 - 71) = 55 Btu per (hr)(sq ft)
0.85 + 0.25 (i

= -24 Btu per (hr) (sq ft) HDR = -55 _ 1.13(50 - 87) + 9
0.99 + 0.33
The patron comes to a stop on the platform. There, his = -14 Btu per (hr)(sq ft)
activity level changes from a 4-mph walk to an occasional
stroll, while waiting about three minutes for a train. The
average air motion on the platform is the same as on the Figure 2.7 shows the HDR as the patron moves from
mezzanine. Due to the reduction in metabolic rate from outdoors through the subway and later returns outdoors
that for a 4-mph walk to that for an occasional stroll, the and also shows the resulting cumulative heat deficit.
computed HDR indicates that the patron is not losing
stored body heat but still not gaining stored body heat After the patron enters the vehicle, which is heated to 70F,
quickly. In this instance, transitional values for M and and sits down, he senses that the vehicle is warmer than
lew must be obtained, from Eqs. (2.4) and (2.5) for the station, which is at 6OF. This sensation is accompanied
by a decrease in HDR. After six minutes in the vehicle,
substitution in Eq. (2.3), to determine HDR.
the passenger adjusts to the 70F environment. But there
After 3 min: still exists a cumulative heat deficit that reflects the
patron's thermal history, influenced by the station
lew = 0.85+1..-(1.13-0.85) = 0.99clo temperature. The warmer the station, the sooner a zero
6 cumulative heat deficit occurs. In the example, by the time
2 16 Human Environmental Criteria

the IS-minute ride is over, the patron's heat deficit has Temperature Criteria for Cold Weather
been eliminated and he feels comfortable.
Ell) +30
di'l f------~
(See also preceding Criteria for Temperature and
~....I +20
Humidity.) The HDR is used to determine station
~ +10
temperatures when it is cold outdoors and a person is
~~ likely to experience a heat deficit exceeding 9 Btu per
<i (hr)(sq ft). Designers can use HDR to design subway
environmental-control systems which in cold weather will
~ ~ -10 prevent patrons from experiencing a greater heat deficit

in the station than outdoors; that is, HDR is negative
b;>. -20
~D while they are in the station.
::r:: -30 SOF IN STATION
10F IN TR"'"

2.2. Air Quality

Air-quality criteria are presented in this section to indicate

practical limits on the quantity and nature of
contaminants in the air affecting patrons and employees
,, of rapid transit systems.
: :
I :r---

Clean air in a subway is defined as an atmosphere that
I I I II contains concentrations of contaminants that are
10 20 303336 100 insufficient to impair the health, comfort, or vision of the
patrons or employees, or to be aesthetically unpleasant to
Fig. 2.7. Heat Deficit Rate and Cumulative Heat Deficit them. (Air quality criteria required to protect equipment
and hardware are not presented in this section. Equipment
Just as the onset of a coolness sensation will not occur should be designed for service in subways or, at the
until the cumulative heat deficit exceeds about 9 Btu per manufacturer's recommendation, should be isolated from
sq ft, other physiological reactions to a warm environment the subway environment.)
are not apt to start until heat storage exceeds 9 Btu per
sq ft; that is, between conditions for which HDR applies Air quality in a subway depends on the amount of
and those for which R WI applies there is a neutral zone contaminants generated and made airborne in the system
in which the patron is comfortable. and the quality of ventilation air drawn into the subway.
Patrons and employees may experience one or more of the
When the patron leaves the vehicle and enters a station, following effects if air contaminants are present in
he feels a coolness. But his HDR at that point does not sufficient concentrations:
result in any loss of body heat. In fact, there is a slight
heat gain due to his increased metabolic rate because he Annoyance - For example, odors or haze.
is walking through the station at 4 mph. His stored body
heat remains positive. Short-term incapacitation For example,
drowsiness induced by high level of carbon dioxide
On leaving the station, the patron is again exposed to IOF. which disappears shortly after carbon dioxide level
His metabolic rate continues to increase for about six is restored to normal.
minutes after he leaves the vehicle walking at 4 mph.
When he attains a steady-state condition, the HDR levels Cumulative long-term fibrosis or toxIcIty - For
off at 23 Btu per (hr)(sq ft) as it was before he entered the example, silicosis may result from prolonged
subway. The cumulative heat deficit, however, continues exposures to small amounts of airborne silica dust.
to reflect prior thermal history. Consequently, he does not
feel cold unless he walks more than about a half hour For purposes of developing criteria, three general types
under the same temperature and wind conditions. of contaminants are considered: odorants, particulates,
Air Quality 2-17

and gases. When limits are being established on tht; Odors from organic matter can be reduced by diligent
contaminate concentrations to protect health, maintenance and janitorial service in stations and tunnels
occupational standards govern. Although the general to prevent accumulation of putrescible material.
public is exposed to the subway environment, ambient air- Architectural design should be such that waste-collection
quality standards, such as those promulgated under the containers are readily available throughout stations and
Clean Air Act of 1970 by the Federal Environmental in subway cars, so that patrons can deposit putrescible
Protection Agency, do not apply. materials in appropriate containers. Also, architectural
design of stations should preclude areas, other than
To meet the limits oil concentrations, a contaminant restrooms, in which persons can urinate or defecate. Areas
preferably should be controlled at its source and prevented where free moisture is allowed to stand are potential
from becoming airborne. Where this is not practicable, the sources of odorants and should be eliminated from
concentration must be reduced by dilution of the subways or be the object of intensive maintenance.
contaminant with fresh ventilation air. Subway
environmental engineers should arrange to supply Odor Control by Ventilation. Once an odorant is airborne,
subways with reliable sources of clean ventilation air from the practical method for controlling its concentration is
aboveground. Engineers must isolate subway systems and to dilute it with uncontaminated air, usually drawn from
their air intakes from such sources of low-quality air as outdoors. For this purpose, a subway should be supplied
underground garages or bus loops, and they should be with clean, odor-free, outdoor air. Consequently, fresh-air
cautious when placing street-level ventilation openings inlets should not be near sources of odorants, such as bus
near automotive exhausts. loops, automobile stops, and building vents.

Within a subway, areas that are potential sources of odor

Odorants should be ventilated at a rate of at least four air changes
per hour. Air from areas that are known sources of odors,
such as food-vending areas, should be exhausted to
Any airborne gas or particle that can produce an odor prevent any odors from entering the subway environment.
sensation is an odorant. The human physiological reaction Restrooms should be ventilated at a rate of more than 12
mechanism to odorants is not fully understood. air changes per hour.

Individual reactions to odors vary greatly. Odors that are To prevent accumulation of offensive human odors, fresh
pleasant to some people are unpleasant to others, and the air should be supplied at a minimum rate of 5 cfm per
threshold at which different individuals can sense them person. Air-conditioning systems that have been in use in
varies widely. Usually, when several odorants are present, buses, passenger trains, and subway cars provide, under
only the odor most prominent is detected because it masks peak-load conditions, 5 to IO cfm per person, which
the others. appears to be acceptable (Ref. 7).

General Odor Criterion. Because the description and

quantification of odors are personal characteristics, the Particulate Contaminants
basic criterion for odor control requires exercise of
judgment. The criterion requires that concentrations of
odorants should not reach offensive levels. This, however, Particulate contaminants of special concern to subway
is not a workable criterion on which control strategy can engineers are those generated within the subway. The
be based. Odor-control strategies should aim at the intake of particles with street-level air can be avoided by
reduction or elimination of either the sources of odorants locating fresh air intakes where the air is clean or, if this
or the concentrations of airborne odorants that can reach is impractical, by placing filters at intakes. These intake
people. filters will remove large particulates, which can foul air-
conditioning equipment and dirty the diffusers. But these
Odorant Sources. In a subway, odors are derived filters will not appreciably alter the concentration of
primarily from people or putrefying organic matter. respirable particulates.
Tobacco smoke is produced by people, and body odors
arise from people. Though smoking may be prohibited in Particulate Sources. Particulate loading of subway air
a subway and thus eliminated as an odorant source, there should be anticipated to be much greater than that of
is no practical way to reduce the odors caused by people. ordinary outdoor air. Under normal conditions, train
2-18 Human Environmental Criteria

operations and patrons are the primary sources of of a station, extremely low concentrations ofairborne dust
airborne particles. These may be organic droplets from will be visible because the particles scatter light from the
vaporized and degraded lubricants; iron and iron oxide headlights of an approaching train. Such observations of
from iron brake shoes, wheels and rails; rubber from tires; dust cannot be prevented, because light scattering can be
asbestos from composition brake shoes; graphite from eliminated only by having no airborne dust, which is not
motor or collector brushes; skin scales and hair fibers; and practicable.
dust from innumerable sources. Much of the dust from
these primary sources settles on underground surfaces and Gases. Subways are generally free of ingredients that form
may be subsequently re-entrained in the air. This re- gaseous materials and reduce visibility. Nearly all such
entrained dust is considered a secondary dust source. Both contaminants that are found in subway systems are
primary and secondary sources contribute to the overall brought in by ventilation air.
particulate loading of the air.
Particulate Control Concentrations of airborne particles
Reduced Visibility. Patrons become aware of reduced can be controlled by reducing them at sources or diluting
visibility when they cannot readily distinguish objects at them. There is, however, no practicable means of
the far end of a station. Therefore, the nuisance factor controlling many primary sources of particles. For
associated with reduced visibility is limited to short secondary particulate sources (the re-entrainment of
distances, say a station length. This distance may be even settled dust), some subway maintenance men routinely
longer when considering the visibility requirements of the wash down their entire system, tunnels and stations, with
motorman. high-pressure hoses and others use a vacuum train. But,
usually, control of particulate concentration is
The extinction of a light beam is an accurate method of accomplished by using large amounts of outdoor air to
measuring reduced visibility. Coefficients of extinction for dilute the subway air.
transmitted light give the loss of light per unit of distance
that a beam of light travels. A coefficient of extinction Concentrations of airborne particles can be estimated if
smaller than 0.002 per ft produces a visibility limit for the following are known: Ventilation rates that are
dark objects at least 2,000 ft away but does not cause haze determined by the methods given in Sec 3.1 and from the
normally noticeable to patrons in stations up to 800 ft sum of the amount of material released to the air in the
long. subway and the amount of particulates brought in by
outdoor air. One subway dust survey revealed that dust
In a few tests performed for applications other than concentration under the platform averaged about 0.39
subways, an approximate correlation was developed grains per 1,000 cu ft (Ref. 8). The Clean Air Act of 1970,
between the extinction of light beams and mass enforced by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency,
concentrations of dust. (No visibility reduction is aimed at reducing particulate loading in the atmosphere
measurements have been made in subway systems.) For to an annual geometric mean of less than 60Jlg per cu m
particle sizes typically found in the atmosphere, a (0.026 grains per 1,000 cu ft). Therefore, subway designers
coefficient of extinction of 0.002 per ft would be produced can assume that average ventilation air will be more than
by a dust concentration of 0.00087 grains per cu ft (2.0 10 times cleaner than that required for a station.
mg per cu m). For subway-station application, the
correlation between visibility and dust concentration is: Limits on Airborne Particles in Subways. Industrial
hygienists have long recognized that the effect of air
L = 0.7 (2.6)
contaminants are often time dependent. Relatively high
C concentrations for short periods can be tolerated, but long
exposures to low levels may be physically damaging.
where L = visible station length, ft, Patrons, because of their transient, short-term exposures
to a subway environment, can tolerate much higher
C = dust concentration, grains per cu ft concentrations of airborne contaminants than rapid
transit employees, who may spend 40 hours or more each
(Note: 1 grain per cu ft = 2,288.1 mg per cu m) week in the subway. Particulate limits in rapid transit
systems consequently are governed by the potential effects
on the system workers.
A patron may become aware of airborne dust in subways
even if the airborne dust concentration meets a light- Occupational exposures of industrial employees in the
extinction criterion. In the subdued lighting at the ends United States are limited by the Federal Regulations of
Air Quality 2-19

the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, or toxic effect when exposures are kept under
Department of Labor (OSHA) (Ref. 9). The applicable reasonable control. The nuisance dusts have also been
national consensus standard for such occupational called (biologically) 'inert' dusts, but the latter term
exposures is the Threshold Limit Values of the American is inappropriate to the extent that there is no dust
Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists .which does not evoke some cellular response in the
(ACGIH). Although some subway systems may be lung when inhaled in sufficient amounts. However,
exempt from OSHA, and since the ACGIH has no the lung-tissue reaction caused by inhalation of
enforcement powers, the subway must be designed to nuisance dusts has the following characteristics: I)
prevent adverse effects on subway employees and patrons. The architecture of the air spaces remains intact. 2)
Therefore, concentrations of any airborne contaminant Collagen (scar tissue) is not formed to a significant
should not exceed those most recently established by extent. 3) The tissue reaction is potentially reversible.
OSHA regulations or those recommended by ACGIH.
The values should be subject to the interpretations,
limitations and qualifications set by OSHA and ACGIH, .....A threshold limit of 10 mg per cu m, or 30 million
respectively. particles per cu ft, of total dust less than one percent
Si0 2 , whichever is less, is recommended for substances
Limits set by OSHA and ACGIH for those contaminants in these categories for which no specific threshold
that might be expected to occur in subway environments limits have been assigned. This limit, for a normal
are given in Table 2.8. workday, does not apply to brief exposures at higher
concentrations. Neither does it apply to those
substances which may cause physiologic impairment
at lower concentrations but for which a threshold
limit has not yet been adopted."
Table 2.8. Representative Limits for Particulate
Contaminants Generated in Subway Environment
Some "inert" particulates, when toxic impurities are not
OSHA ACGIH Threshold present, for example, quartz less than one percent, are
Exposure Limit. Limit Values, TL V given in Table 2.9 (Ref. 10).
mg per cu m mg per cu m

lron·oxide Fume 10 10 Table 2.9. ContenU of Some Inert Dusu

(I n the Absence of Toxic Materials)
Inert or Nuisance
Dusts; Respirable
Fraction 5 ., .
Calcium Carbonate Limestone
Total 15 10 Cellulose (Paper Fiber) Magnesite
Portland Cement Marble
Corundum (A1 2 °3)
Emery Plaster of Paris
The ACGIH defines threshold limit values TL Vas "The
values for airborne toxic materials which are to be used Glycerine Mist Rouge
as guides in the control of health hazards and represent Graphite (Synthetic) Silicon Carbide
time weighted concentrations to which nearly all workers
Gypsum Starch
may be exposed 8 hours per day over extended periods of
time without adverse effects" (Ref. 10). ACGIH discusses Vegetable Oil Mists Sucrose
dust further: (Except Castor, Cashew Nut,
Tin Oxide
or Similar Irritant Oils)
Kaolin Titanium Dioxide
"NuiSJll1ce Dusts. In contrast to fibrogenic dusts
which cause scar tissue to be formed in lungs when
inhaled in excessive amounts, so-called 'nuisance'
dusts have a long history of little adverse effect on OSHA defines "asbestos fibers" as meaning asbestos fibers
lungs and do not produce significant organic disease longer than 5 micrometers (microns). Concentrations of
2-20 Human Environmental Criteria

airborne asbestos in any rapid transit structure or vehicle Table 2.10. Representative Threshold Limits for Gaseous
should, after July I, 1976, conform to the following Contaminants in Subway Environment, mg per ClI m
OSHA standard: "The 8-hour time-weighted average
airborne concentrations of asbestos fibers to which any
employee may be exposed shall not exceed two fibers, Carbo~ Dioxide 9,000
longer than 5 micrometers, per cubic centimeter of air. ... "
(Ref. 9). Carbon Monoxide 55
Ozone 0.2

Gaseous Contaminants
To keep concentrations below those in the table, the
recommended minimum ventilation with outdoor air is
If present in sufficient concentrations, gaseous
7.5 cfm per person in stations and tunnels and 5 cfm per
contaminants have annoying, incapacitating or toxic
person in trains. Such inflow may be accomplished by
effects. Such contaminants may be brought into a subway
diffusion and mixing outdoor air with the tunnel and
with outdoor air or may be generated in the subway.
station air.
Gaseous contaminants that may be present in outdoor air
Institute for Rapid Transit "Specification for Rapid
and drawn into a subway with ventilation air include
Transit Cars" (Ref. 7) calls for a minimum of 6.5 cfm of
sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, ozone,
fresh air per passenger. This is consistent with the above
carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and
criteria. The IRT specifications consider tunnel air as
organic products of partial combustion called carbonyls.
fresh, whereas these criteria base minimum supply air on
Subway environmental engineers should locate intakes
outdoor air.
where contaminants are not likely to be present.

Only two gaseous contaminants are normally generated

within subways: carbon dioxide from passenger
respiration and ozone from electrical propulsion
2.3. Air Velocity and Rapid Pressure
machinery. Changes
Accumulation of carbon dioxide is of special concern. A
sytnptom of high carbon-dioxide concentration is Train piston action induces air motion and air pressure
drowsiness. While always present in outdoor air to some changes in a subway system. From a ventilation
extent, particularly in areas with heavy concentrations of viewpoint, the air motion is useful, but if too much piston
motor vehicles, carbon dioxide is produced by patrons in ventilation occurs, uncomfortably high velocities may be
trains and stations at a rate that can readily produce experienced. Both the interactions of the train with the
concentrations of 9,000 mg per cu m. The only practicable tunnel air and high air velocities create changes in air
method for controlling carbon-dioxide concentrations is pressure in the subway. Criteria for maximum air velocity
to dilute them with fresh air. and pressure change rates are given in this section.

Ozone results from operation of high-voltage electrical

equipment in subways. Ozone, although a very active Maximum Air Velocities
element, is usually not objectionable because
concentrations are low. As with carbon dioxide, the only
practicable means of reducing ozone concentration is to Air velocity has two effects on people. It influences the
dilute it with fresh air. heat balance of the human body, and it can cause
discomfort. On warm days, a high-velocity stream of air
Maximum allowable concentrations of gaseous may provide a much-welcomed cooling effect, but on cool
contaminants recommended by the American Conference days the same velocity may cause a chill. High-velocity
of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (Ref. 10) and air may cause discomfort by the amount of dust or trash
OSHA (Ref. 9) are given in Table 2.10. A value for carbon entrained in it or because it blows hair, hats, and skirts.
monoxide has also been included in case a vent shaft has This discomforting factor governs what the maximum air
to be located near automotive exhausts. velocity should be.
Air Velocity and Rapid Pressure Changes 2-21

Thermal Comfort Considerations. Air velocity affects percent of the people would like a continuous velocity
both the convective heat exchange and cooling efficiency higher than 700 fpm. This was a constant air flow instead
of sweat evaporation. When the air temperature is below of th~ type of sporadic air flow present in sub'way stations.
skin temperature, that is, below about 87F to 95F, The American Conference of Governmental Industrial
convection and evaporation are effective cooling Hygienists has developed a set of values of air velocities
mechanisms, and a high air velocity produces for direct cooling of workers. These values are listed in
considerable body cooling. When air temperature is above Table 2.12 (Ref. 10).
skin temperature, convection will heat the body, but
evaporation will cool it. There is an optimum air velocity
that provides the maximum cooling effect when air Table 2.11. Optimum Air Velocity as a FUl)ction
temperature is higher than skin temperature. For this of Metabolic Rate and Humidity at 104 F
velocity, thermal stress imposed on the body is the least.
Velocities lower than this optimum rate increase heat Metabolic Rate Equivalent Air Velocity, fpm, at
stress because there is a sharp reduction in evaporative Btu Btu per (hr) Relative Humidity
cooling efficiency, which results in more sweating. On the per hr (sg ft) 18% 36% 54%
ethel lland, an air velocity above this optimum causes
1,600 80 Moving Load 800 - -
additional hea~ stress as a result of heat gained by
convection from the hot air. 1,390 71 Walking, 4 mph 500 800 800
1,050 54 Walking, 3 mph 150 250 500
No specific tests for this optimum air velocity have been
conducted for subways. In fact, most velocity 384 20 Desk Work 30 50 100
measurements ma«e of subway environments have been
on the air velocities that actually occur rather than the
velocities that are aco,eptable to patrons and employees.
Tests, however, have be,en conducted in places other than Table 2.12. Acceptable Air Velocities Directed
subways for circumstam;es similar to those in subways. at Workers, fpm
These tests evaluated the Plhysiological effect of air motion
at high temperatures and a~ different humidities and work
rates to define quantitativel¥ the human requirements for
Continuous Exposure:
air motion under those conditions. An optimum air 50-75
Air-conditioned Space
velocity was determined for those circumstances. This was
the rate at which the least a$ount of thermal stress was Fixed Work Station, General Ventilation
or Spot Cooling: .
experienced under steady-state conditions. The numerical
Sitting 75-125
value of the optimum air velocity was observed to increase
Standing 100-200
as the metabolic rate increase<l1. Table 2.11 (Ref. 11) shows
the optimum air velocities when the ambient temperature Intennittent Exposure, Spot Cooling
is 104F(40C) as a function of metabolic rate and humidity. or Relief Stations:
Light Heat Loads and Activity 1,000-2,000
Table 2.11 is based on unspecified light summer clothing; Moderate Heat Loads and Activity 2,000-3,000
optimum velocity, however, strongly depends on clothing. High Heat Loads and Activity 3,000-4,000
The convective heat exchange is a linear function of
temperature difference between skin and ambient air and
also depends on posture and clothing. Therefore, the data
cannot be directly applicable to other situations. The tests Very high air velocities are acceptable for intermittent
nevertheless do indicate the existence of an optimum air exposure periods. Passengers' exposure to piston-action
velocity, its order of magnitude, and its trend at this high air movement in a subway system is intermittent, and they
temperature. will welcome these high velocities when they are subjected
to some degree of thermal stress. Therefore, there is no
Another series of tests were run in a hot airplane cabin upper limit for air velocity from the standpoint of thermal
to determine the air velocity that passengers felt was comfort in stations for warm or hot days. On cool or cold
comfortable when directed on their faces (Ref. 12). It was days, the thermal comfort criteria of Sec. 2.1 will
found that an air velocity of 700 fpm or less, at or near dominate. There, the maximum velocity is specified in
cabin temperatures of 95F and 15 percent relative combination with the other variables in the heat-deficit
humidity, satisfied 99 percent of the people. Only one equation, Eq. (2.3).
2-22 Human Environmental Criteria

Nuisance Considerations. The amount of dust undesirable in a subway system. The Beaufort No.3 winds
entrainment or the blowing of hair, hats, and skirts are are observed to extend light flags; Beaufort No.4 winds
the limiting factors of maximum air velocity in subway would be expected to raise heavier flags and therefore
systems. Specific measurements of maximum air velocities certain styles of skirts, hats and capes. Therefore, under
for comfort conditions in subway stations, however, have normal situations, air velocity should be limited to less
not been made. A series of wind tunnel tests applicable than Beaufort No.4, or less than 1,000 fpm (12 mph).
to subways, however, were conducted in Hamburg,
Germany, on a group of men and women. Under the Tests were conducted by the New York City Transit
steady conditions achieved in these tests, winds above 580 Authority (NYCTA) to determine what the maximum
fpm were reported to be uncomfortable, and winds over vertical air velocity was that patrons, particularly women
1,060 fpm were intolerable (Ref. 13). Although these wind wearing skirts, did not find objectionable. NYCTA found
tunnel tests were conducted for the subway system, they that vertical upward air velocities up to 360 fpm were not
do not reflect the gusty nature of subway air velocities. objectionable (Ref. 16). Higher maximum air velocities,
Since subway systems have not been tested to determine up to 500 fpm, through sidewalk gratings have been
the relationship between high air velocity and its effects, recommended as acceptable by other operating properties.
observations made in other places must be used. One At grade level, gratings not in sidewalks may have an
widely used correlation between observable effects and average velocity of 1,000 fpm.
horizontal wind speed is given in the Beaufort scale.

The Beaufort scale, shown in Table 2.13 (Ref. 14), was Rapid Pressure Change
used by the U.S. Weather Bureau to indicate wind force.
The description of the effects given in the Beaufort scale
takes into account the purpose the Weather Bureau had Air-pressure changes are inherent in subways because of
in establishing the scale. Corresponding effects can be train operations and the resulting air movement. The
observed in subways. For example, effects described for magnitude of these pressure changes has varying
a Beaufort No. 4 wind include raising dust, which is physiological effects on subway patrons and employees.

Table 2.13. Beaufort Scale

Name Air Velocity, fpm Description

0 Calm Less than 90 Calm, smoke rises vertically

1 Ught Air 90·300 Direction of wind shown by smoke, but not by wind vane
2 Ught Breeze 300·650 Wind felt in face, leaves rustle, ordinary vane moved by wind
3 Gentle Breeze 650·1,050 Leaves and small twigs in constant motion, wind extends light flag

(Recommended Maximum Nonnal Condition 1,000 fpm)

4 Moderate Breeze 1,050·1,600 I Raises dust and loose paper, small branches are moved
5 Fresh Breeze 1,600·2,200 Some trees in leaf begin to sway, crested wavelets fonn on inland waters
(RecoJrunended Maximwn Emergency Condition 2,500 fpm)
6 Strong Breeze 2,200·2,700 Large branches in motion, telegraph wires whistle, umbrellas used with
7 Moderate Gale 2,700-3,400 Whole trees in motion, inconvenience in walking against wind
8 Fresh Gal.: 3,400-4,100 Breaking twigs off trees, generally impedes progress
9 Strong Gale 4,100-4,800 Slight structural damage occurs, chimney pots and slates removed
10 Whole Gale 4,800·5,600 Trees uprooted, considerable structural damage occurs
11 Stonn 5,600-6,350 Very rarely experienced, accompanied by widespread damage
Emergency 2-23

The ear is the most sensitive organ affected by, and is the must be kept low. The earliest perception of fullness
first to feel, pressure changes. Air is normally prevented begins at 0.06 psi, and a healthy body can equilibrate to
from entering the ears by flutter-valve-like openings of the this pressure differential in less than one second.
Eustachian tube into the throat. Yawning or "popping"
the ears usually relieves the pressure caused by
compression. In decompression, expanded air usually Only limited tests have been performed on the effects of
escapes from the ears via the Eustachian tube to the pressure changes on the patrons and employees of subway
throat. systems. During the aerodynamic and thermodynamic
validation tests for the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid
Pressure changes that occur rapidly, but last briefly, cause Transit System (BART), however, average pressure
patrons the most discomfort because their ears must changes of 0.012 psi per sec (0.027 psi per sec maximum)
adjust to the pressure changes in the usual ways. Patrons were observable but not found annoying. However,
with colds or sinus conditions may have difficulty average pressure changes of 0.08 psi per sec (0.14 psi per
adjusting to the rapid pressure changes and thus suffer sec maximum) were found distressing (Ref. 15).
greater discomfort than other patrons. The various Observations made in other places must be used to
sensations experienced by the ear are given in Table 2.14 corroborate this limiting rate of pressure change.
(Ref. 17).
Table 2.14. Ear Sensations at Various Levels of Although extensive information is available 01) the effects
Pressure Change of pressure changes on passengers in airplanes, this
information has not been directly applied to subways.
Pressure Difference Pressure changes associated with subway operations occur
Between the Middle within a shorter time and are larger than those in a plane.
Ear Symptom
Ear and Ambient The rate of change of cabin pressure in planes' is limited
Air Pressure, si by specifications. For example, a Boeing 707 is limited to
a maximum rate of 0.050 psi per sec on descent and a
Perceptible Feeling of Fullness in maximum rate of 0.017 psi per sec on ascent, while the
the Ear 0.06·0.10 average rate is less than 0.008 psi per sec in either ascent
Increased Feeling of Fullness in or descent (Ref. 17).
the Ear 0.10·0.19
Distinct Feeling of Fullness, For high-speed ground transportation application, 0.06
Lessened Sound Intensity 0.19·0.29 psi per sec also was recommended by J. P. Carstens (Ref.
Increased Discomfort with Ear 17). He warns that more experience with employees'
Ringing (Tinnitus), Hissing, continuous exposure to these very short duration, low-
Roaring and Cracking; May Be level pressure fluctuations may warrant restriction of
Pain and Mild Vertigo 0.29·0.58 exposure to even smaller rates of change because of
neurological and psychological factors. Until experience
dictates, though, special lower-rate criterion for employee
exposure to rapid pressure cannot be justified. Therefore,
Sinuses are the second most sensitive areas to pressure the recommended criterion for rapid pressure changes,
changes. The effect of compression and decompression on
applicable when the total change in pressure is greater
the sinuses depends on the amount of congestion at the
than 0.10 psi (2.8 in. wg), is that no person, patron or
openings to the sinuses. If the throat is unobstructed,
employee, shall be subjected to a rate of pressure change
compression and decompression have no effect on the
greater than 0.06 psi per sec (1.7 in. wg per sec).

The symptoms felt are the same for both positive and
negative pressure changes although, physiologically, these
changes affect the body differently. Even though pressure 2.4. Emergency
changes occur rapidly, passengers and employees are
discomforted until the pressure differential between ear
and sinus cavities and the ambient pressure is reduced. To In this section, criteria for protection of patrons and
eliminate this discomfort, the pressure differential employees during emergency situations are presented for
between air in these cavities and the ambient pressure air quality, temperature and velocities. As used in this
2-24 Human Environmental Criteria

context, an emergency in a subway system is defined as provide fresh air to the patrons and employee.s and thereby
any unusual situation or occurrence that halts movement preclude their exposure to a potentially harmful
of a train and makes it necessary for passengers to leave atmosphere.
the vehicle and enter the tunnel or that requires
evacuation of a station. Furthermore, an emergency may Since some emergency situations could conceivably occur
include situations where maintenance of environmental where all the patrons cannot be provided with fresh air
conditions in the tunnel is required to make it unnecessary for the entire length of an evacuation route, criteria are
for the patrons to leave a stalled train. required to maintain air quality for those patrons. Such
a situation would occur, for example, when there is a fire
The subway system's response to an emergency is the in the middle of a train. Because fresh air could come from
result of comprehensive planning that establishes criteria only one direction, patrons in one-half of the train would
and procedures for train operations, communication, be exposed to air containing some combustion products
firefighting, electrical distribution, evacuation and all while patrons in the other half would receive fresh air.
other aspects, including ventilation. The overall Sufficient fresh air, however, must be supplied to patrons
emergency criteria for a subway system encompass many downwind of a fire to dilute adequately any harmful
disciplines, but the only emergency criteria that require combustion product.
a response from ventilation equipment are those related
to air quality, temperature and velocities. The usual way in which potentially harmful gases or
aerosols enter a human body is through the respiratory
To a large extent, the quantitative aspects of the criteria tract. The physiological reactions of the person depend on
for emergency situations will be arbitrary because there the contaminant, its concentration and exposure time, and
are no universally accepted tolerance limits pertaining to will be different for different persons. A person's reaction
air quality, temperatures and velocities. In fact, the to potentially harmful combustion products is
tolerance limits vary with age, health, weight, sex and proportional to a characteristic of the environment that is
acclimatization. Most of the studies on human tolerance quantified by the concentration-time product, CT'
to adverse situations have dealt with exposure tests on Depending on the circumstances, C T can be determined
healthy, acclimated adults. These individuals can survive from either Eq. (2.7) or (2.8).
in environments potentially harmful to the less physically
fit. It must be assumed, however, that under emergency For an emergency where contaminants are made airborne
conditions in subways some of the patrons might be by electric arcs or by fires that are sustained by electrical
infants, aged, or suffering from respiratory or cardiac energy, the source will stop producing contaminants after
ailments. The tolerances of these patrons will form the the electrical power is de-energized. This source will not
bases upon which criteria must be established. Little last long, and if it is of extremely short duration, the
information is' available on the physiological tolerance resulting contaminants may even travel down the tunnel
limits of people with health impediments, especially for as a puff. When the source is of short duration, the
short but intense exposures. patrons' potential exposure time to contaminants is less
than the evacuation time. This means the patron will be
In general, the human tolerance limit establishes the breathing fresh air before and after the emergency while
environmental conditions during the emergency. If any still in the subway. The concentration-time product
equipment is more fragile or needs more protection than resulting from contaminants created by a short-duration
the patrons and employees, it may require special source may be computed from:
protection as recommended by the manufacturer.

CT =~ (2.7)
Air Quality Criteria in Emergencies Q
where CT = dosage of a specific gas or aerosol, (mg) (min)
per cu m
During subway emergencies involving fire or generation
S Total mass of a specific gas or aerosol
of smoke, the products of combustion or electrical arcing
generated in the emergency, mg
will produce gases and aerosols some of which are
potentially toxic or incapacitating. All the aerosols in Q = total air·flow rate through the tunnel, cu m
smoke also tend to limit visibility. The intended effect of per min
all emergency ventilation equipment, therefore, is to (Threshold limit values are usually expressed in metric units.)
Emergency 2-25
When the fire is self-sustaining, it will be a continuing The source offume is of short duration. So Eq. (2.7)
source of gases and aerosols until it is extinguished. In that applies. Substitute the following values into Eq. (2.7):
case, the patron may be exposed to contaminated air until S = 2 lb; Q = 100,000 cfm; and the constants
he leaves the subway or until he passes into an area necessary to convert from engineering units to metric
supplied with fresh air. In this situation, the patrons' units.
reaction to each contaminant will be proportional to
average concentration and their exposure time. TheC T
C = (2) (454
T '
resulting from contaminants created by a self-sustaining
= 320 (mg) (min) per cu m
source may be determined from:

-T (2.8) Iron fumes have a TL Vof 10 mg per cu m (see Table 2.8),
Q and thus 4,800 mg-min per cu m would be an approximate
value of a potentially harmful C T value. Therefore, the
where S' = mass rate of gas or aerosol generation in the patron's exposure would be less than the CT value
emergency, mg per min computed from TL V data.
Q = total air flow rate through the tunnel, cu m Example 2.7. Exposures to Smoke From Self-Sustaining
per min Source. A fire produces a continuous source of inert or
T = time patron is in contaminated tunnel, min nuisance dust at a rate of 2 lb per min. During the
emergency and subsequent evacuation, fans maintain an
Regardless of whether the source is of short duration or average airflow rate of 100,000 cfm. Evacuation of patrons
self-sustaining, the patrons' physiological reaction will be through the smoke-filled portion of the subway takes 10
proportional to CT' Potentially harmful CT values can be minutes. The patron would be exposed to a CT value
estimated by multiplying the ACGIH or OSHA 8-hour computed as follows:
Threshold Limit Values TL V by 480 minutes. This
method for establishing the limitingCTvalue is consistent
with the OSHA methods for computing time-weighted Because the source of smoke is self-sustaining, Eq.
averages. When the method is used, all the restrictions (2.8) applies. Substitute the following values into Eq.
listed by OSHA (Ref. 9) should be applied. Although an (2.8): S = 2 lb per min; Q = 100,000 cfm; T = 10
apparently precise C T value can be produced for design min; and the constants necessary to convert from
purposes, the extrapolation to exposures to high engineering units to metric units.
concentration for brief periods of time from the TL V
should be used as a guideline rather than an absolute C =(2) (454,000) ( 35.3 ) (10)
design value. T 100,000

= 3,200 (mg) (min) per C:J m

Both ACGIH and OSHA values apply to repeated 8-hour
exposures each work-day. For many materials, the TL V Inert dusts have a TL V of 10 mg per cu M (ACGIH is
may be conservative. Some materials, however, are safe the more conservative), and thus 4,800 mg-min per cu m
for low-dose, long-term exposures because they are would be the approximate magnitude of a potentially
metabolized rapidly, but the TL Vmay be over-optimistic harmful CT value.
for massive, short-term exposures that do not allow time
for the metabolic breakdown of the compounds. The lack Equations (2.7) and (2.8) can be solved for an emergency
of information on short, high-concentration exposures air-flow rate only if the S or S' and T are known. The
adds to the uncertainty in establishing proper air-flow environmental control engineer, however, will not know
requirements during emergencies. during design how much of the smoke and combustion
products will be made airborne, nor will he know the
Example 2.6. Exposures to Fumes From Short-Duration exposure time of patrons in the smoke. These quantities
Source. An electric arc causes 2 lbs of iron to become are dependent on the nature of the emergency, the
fumes before the power is shut down. During the construction materials, and the subway's overall
emergency, fans maintain an average air-flow rate of emergency policies. Nevertheless, emergency fans must be
100,000 cfm. Patrons would be exposed to a C T value sized, and some guidance is provided by Eqs. (2.7) and
computed as follows: (2.8). The exposure will be lessened by:
2-26 Human Environmental Criteria

1. Reducing the amount of gases or aerosols respiratory or cardiac problems. The National Fire
generated, that is, making smaller S or S' . For Protection Association Handbook suggests that "firemen
the short-duration source, this reduction is should not enter atmospheres exceeding 120F to 130F
accomplished by sensing and eliminating the without special protective clothing. and masks. Even a
source of heat (usually electrical) causing the trained fireman cannot expect to inhale more than one or
emergency. For either the short-duration or self- two breaths of moisture-saturated air at these
sustaining fire, the source can be reduced by temperatures without serious consequences. Also, in
carefully selecting materials with low school fire tests conducted at Los Angeles in 1959, the
flammability, low potentially harmful temperature of 150F at the 5-ft level was selected as that
combustion product-generation characteristics beyond which teachers and children could not be expected
and low smoke-generation rates. to enter a corridor from a relatively cool room. This
selection assumed exposure to dry air and only for the
2. Reducing the patron's exposure time by use of brief period of time necessary to reach exits." (Ref. 18)
evacuation procedures that allow for quick
access to areas of fresh air or quick egress from The National Fire Protection Association also states that
the subway; that is, making T smaller. "the cooling effect of evaporation of skin moisture may
counteract the skin effect of heat up to 140F or more in
3. Increasing the air-flow rate through the subway dry air. This limit would be lower in moist air. In design
system past the area of the emergency; that is, of buildings for safe occupancy and for escape under
making Q larger. As discussed in Sec. 3.5, an emergency fire conditions, exitways should be protected
increased air-flow rate will dilute smoke and from ambient temperatures above the 120F to 150F range.
lower temperatures. Also, an increased air-flow This, it should be kept in mind, is the temperature range
rate, in general, will not increase the generation at about shoulder height, not at ceiling levels where
of smoke or combustion products. Therefore, temperatures usually would be higher" (Ref. 18), nor at
the air-flow rates during emergency conditions floor height where temperatures would usually be lower.
should be made as high as practical, as soon as
practicable without causing difficulty for the Based on the preceding, a suggested criterion for
patrons walking in such a flow rate. emergency situations is that patrons not be exposed to air
temperatures which exceed 140F. It is anticipated that the
In any emergency, the potential hazards of the energized 140F air temperature will place a physiological burden on
third-rail or other exposed electrical conductors may a few of the patrons, but the exposure is also anticipated
delay passengers' entry to the tunnel. The length of the to be brief and to produce no lasting harmful effects.
delay will depend on the subway's emergency policies or
the nature of the passengers' reaction to the situation.
During this delay, the emergency ventilation system
should be operating to provide passengers a tolerable Emergency Air Velocity Criteria
environment inside the train as well as in the tunnel in case
they leave the train.
Ventilation equipment in a subway emergency must sweep
Also, the motorman or train attendant could use the out heated air, remove smoke of any fire, and remove
option, if available, to stop the train's interior forced- fumes from any electric arcs. In essentially all emergency
ventilation equipment if there is more smoke in the tunnel cases, protection of the patrons and employees is enhanced
than in the train. Conversely, if the fire originates inside by the immediate activation of emergency ventilation
the train, the vehicle's ventilation equipment should be equipment.
used to bring fresh tunnel air into the vehicle. In either
case, the air flows in the tunnels should be maintained as When emergency ventilation air is needed in evacuation
high as practical. routes, it may be necessary to expose patrons to air
velocities higher than those permitted by normal nuisance
considerations. The only upper limit to the ventilation rate
Emergency Air Temperature Criteria occurs when the air velocity becomes great enough to
create a hazard to persons walking in that air stream.
According, to the descriptions of the effects of various air
Exposures to extremely high temperatures will be harmful velocities given in Table 2.13, patrons under emergency
to both employees and patrons, especially those with conditions can tolerate as much as 2,200 fpm.
Emergency 2-27
Patron mobility in such air velocities would be increased 193, 1938.
by providing handrails along the emergency walkways.
Usually, the highest air velocities will occur in the annular 7. "Specifications for Rapid Transit Cars," Institute for
region between the train and the tunnel. Above 2,200 fpm, Rapid Transit, Chicago, 1968.
some of the patrons may experience difficulty in walking.
8. Carey, Jack M., "Subway Dust Survey in Toronto,
In some instances, it may be desirable for fresh air to be Canada and Chicago, Illinois," American Air Filter
felt by the patrons to give them a sense of direction Company Report No. RP 1833, De Leuw, Cather &
enabling them to walk away from the emergency Co., Washington, D. C., 1968.
condition. If this air motion is to serve as an indicator for
patrons, it must be at least 500 fpm. If air motion is to 9. "Occupational Safety and Health Standards,"
be used as an indicator, however, it must be recognized Federal Register, Vol. 37, No. 202, Pt. II, Oct. 18,
that there will be some instances when there is no practical 1972.
way to get fresh air to all the patrons. Also, if fresh air
is not to be used as a direction indicator, there still will 10. "Industrial Ventilation," 11th ed., American
be a lower limit to air velocity in a potentially Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists,
contaminated evacuation route because of ventilation Committee on Industrial Ventilation, Lansing,
rates needed to meet the air quality or air temperature Mich., 1970.
II. Givoni, B., "Basic Study of Ventilation Problems in
Housing in Hot Countries Final Report," Technion,
REFERENCES Haifa, Israel, 1962.

12. Overmeyer, E. J., "How Face Air Velocity Affects

1. Houghten, F.e., et aI., "Heat and Moisture Losses Airplane Passenger Comfort," ASHRAE Journal,
from Men at Work and Application to Air Vol. 3, No.8, pp. 41-44, Aug. 1961.
Conditioning Problems," Transactions, American
Society of Heating and Ventilating Engineers, Vol. 13. Blendermann, W., "The Ventilation Problem in
37, pp. 541-564, 1931. Underground Railways," Report No. 135 of the
Hamburg University Dept. of Shipbuilding,
2. Robinson, Sid, Turrell, E. S., and Gerking, S. D., Hamburg, Germany, 1964.
"Physiologically Equivalent Conditions of Air
Temperature and Humidity," American Journal of 14. Baumeister, Theodore, ed., "Standard Handbook for
Physiology, Vol. 143, pp. 21-32, 1945. Mechanical Engineers," 7th ed., Mc Graw-Hill Book
Co., New York, pp. 9-13, 1967.
3. Belding, H. S., and Hatch, T. F., "Index for
Evaluating Heat Stress in Terms of Resulting * 15. "Associated Engineers, "Aerodynamic and
Physiologic Strains," Heating, Piping and Air Thermodynamic Validation Tests in the Berkeley
Conditioning, Vol. 27, No.8, pp. 129-136, 1955. Hills Tunnel," Vol. II, U. S. Dept. of Transportation,
Urban Mass Transportation Administration
4. Glickman, Nathaniel, et aI., "Physiological Technical Report No. UMTA-DC-06-0010-73-4,
Adjustments of Human Beings to Sudden Change in Washington, D.e., 1973, (PB 226-897).
Environment," Transactions, American Society of
Heating and Ventilating Engineers, Vol. 53, pp. 16. Scheyer, Emanuel, "Ventilation of Subways,"
327-356. 1947. The Municipal Engineers Journal, Vol. 41, Paper No.
268, pp. 59-79, 2nd Quarterly Issue, 1955.
5. Lee, Douglas H. K., and Henschel, Austin,
"Evaluation of Thermal Environment in Shelters," 17. Carstens, J. P., "Literature Survey of Passenger
U. S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Comfort Limitations for High Speed Ground
Public Health Service, Division of Occupational Transports," United Aircraft Corp., Hartford,
Health, Washington, D. C., 1963 (TR-8). Conn., 1965, (PB 168-171).

6. Nielsen, M., "Die regulation der koerpertemperatur 18. "Fire Protection Handbook," 13th ed., National Fire
bei muskelarbeit," Skand. Arch. Physiol., Vol. 79, p. Protection Association, Boston, pp. 4-35, 1969.

*Prepared for Transit Development

Corporation (TDe), Washington, D.e.

The human environmental criteria for temperature, 3.1. Design Strategies to Achieve Air
humidity, rapid pressure change, high air velocity and air Temperature Criteria
quality have been established from methods and
information given in Part 2. The design engineer will
translate these criteria into performance requirements for The fundamental task of the design engineer is to achieve
subway structures and equipment. There may be several the air temperature criteria through management of the
different designs which will achieve the desired criteria, heat flows in the subway. Heat flow in a subway system
permitting selection of a workable approach with the is a continuous phenomenon, unsteady with respect to
lowest costs (operating and/or capital). time and space. The significant heat gains and losses are
given in Table 3.1 as well as in later paragraphs in this
The purpose of Part 3 is to provide the methods for section, which analyze the gains or losses.
developing the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning
performance requirements of the subway's structures and Table 3.1. Heat Gains and Losses in a Subway System
equipment for both normal and emergency conditions. ------------,-
The fundamental aerodynamic and thermodynamic Heat ,Gains I Heat Losses
processes are presented to provide the designer with
methods to quantify the pertinent physical characteristics Consumption of electrical I Sensible heat of outflows
of a subway system, and to manipulate these energy
characteristics to modify the subway environment. These II of subway air
manipulations, when integrated with the other operating Sensible heat of inflows of Heat conducted into sur-
features of the subway system, (for example, train speed, outside air - may be negative rounding soil and water
traction motor design, tunnel configuration and station (a heat loss) when design
spacing) form the strategies to achieve the criteria. The temperature is greater than
first five sections contain methods for developing the ambient Latent heat of evaporation
strategies to meet the individual criteria for temperature of water
and humidity (Sec. 3.1), air velocity (Sec. 3.2), air quality Metabolism of patrons and
staff Heat pumped to external
(Sec. 3.3), rapid pressure change (Sec. 3.4), and sinks by mechanical
emergencies (Sec. 3.5). Performance of many of the refrigeration
components of an environmental control strategy affects
more than one criterion, resulting in use of some
components for more than one function. An example of
the design technique used to meet multiple criteria is given For any given segment of a subway system, the sum of
in Sec. 3.6. the heat outflows must equal the sum of the heat inflows,
i.e., there must be a heat balance. Whenever the heat
Generally, the computational techniques presented in balance is not met, the air temperature in the subway must
Part 3 are based on steady-state conditions. A more rise or fall until a new equilibrium for the heat flows is
detailed analysis may be obtained by using the Subway established, For example, heat balances are given for two
Environment Simulation (SES) computer program, given hypothetical 60-mph systems on Fig. 3.1.
in Volume II. SES analyses can provide time-dependent
estimates of air flow, temperature, train drag, horsepower This section presents methods for developing heat gains
and air-conditioning loads. for the heat balances. Quantitative information is
provided on the various heat gain and loss processes. For
After determining a design strategy for a subway system, a given set of thermal comfort criteria and operating
in accordance with the performance requirements of its criteria, there is no unique heat balance. Many options are
components, the engineer can then design, with the use available to balance the heat flows, and these options are
of Part 4, the arrangement of equipment and structures then consolidated to form one or more strategies for
from which cost estimates can be developed. achieving the thermal comfort criteria.

Preceding page blank 3-1

3-2 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies





1000 I-
10 Z
500 Cl

o ~_---'LU-LllJu...u.l.lJ..LLM;;.:.E;;;..T.:..:.A..::B:.:O:.:L;;.;IC=--- -L ..L-_--J



20 AIR
D.. '"0z
::::l UNDERPLATFORM 1000 l-
z z·
0 10 0
::i f:
:E HEAT 500
SINK it:

Fig. 3.1. Subway System Heat Balances with Design Temperatures Below and Above Ambient
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-3

To meet the thermal comfort criteria, it is necessary to that in the early design phases some of the information
kI!oW the location and magnitude of the heat being is not available, and for those instances, representative
generated. Also developed are methods for determining values are given. The estimates obtained through these
the spatial distribution of heat inside the subway. methods can be confirmed with the use. of the Subway
Appropriate strategies can then be evaluated for its Environment Simulation (SES) computer program
capture and removal. presented in the Subway Environmental Design
Handbook, Volume II.
Figure 3.2 is a simplified subway configuration schematic
in which the subway alignment has been divided into The heat load calculations are based on a few fundamental
specific sections to determine the amount of heat released system parameters. These should be available from the
in each section. The sections are: the approach tunnel, overall system criteria. An example of the prerequisite
station box, departure tunnel, and design speed sections. data is listed in Table 3.2, and a typical system is defined
The approach tunnel is the length of tunnel between the to serve as an example for the heat load calculations in
point where the train starts to brake and the station. The this section.
departure tunnel extends from the station to the point
Table 3.2. Example Subway System for Analysis
where the train reaches design speed. Between these
tunnel sections are the station box and the tunnel in which
the train runs at design speed. The immediate aim of Heat ReqUired Data Typical System
Gains is to isolate the quantities of heat which are
released directly to the approach tunnel by the braking Maximum No. of Cars per Train 8
resistors versus those carried into the station box and Car Length 75 feet
departure tunnels. Later, it will be shown how heat
Maximum Length of Train 600 feet
generated in a particular section is dispersed throughout
the subway by the train piston action and convective Air Conditioning per Car 18 tons
forces and how this affects the heat balance. The heat Station Length 600 feet
balance is usually done for each station module, which
Car Weight
includes a single station and its adjacent tunnels.
Empty 33 tons
Normal Maximum Passenger Load 17 tons
Heat Gains Total 50 tons
Rotational Inertia 4 tons
Total Equivalent Weight 54 tons
All subway heat gains except those associated with Maximum Acceleration Rate 3 mphps
ventilation are quantified herein (see Removal and
Addition of Sensible Heat by Ventilation). In addition to Deceleration Rate 3 mphps
estimating the total heat generated within the subway, the Headway in Each Direction 90 seconds
location of the heat is also given. Methods are provided Station Dwell 20 seconds
for the design engineer to compute with reliable accuracy
the heat gains for particular systems. Also, it is recognized Peak Passenger Loading 4,500 passengers per
hour per station


Fig. 3.2. Simplified Subway Configuration

3-4 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Train performance data are presented on Fig. 3.3 for heat gain are given in Table 3.4. This information enables
trains with nominal three mph per second acceleration the design engineer to make a judgment how much
and deceleration rates. Additional information on effort should be expended in obtaining precise input data
operating and planned subway systems can be obtained for computing that element of the heat gain. The major
in Appendices C and D. element of the heat gain is the conversion of the train's
kinetic energy to heat during the braking phase. In Table
3.4, the resistor input also includes any heat that will be
dissipated by the friction brakes.

----·------..1100FT Braking. Much of the heat created in the subway system
is generated by the train's braking action. The kinetic
energy in the train must be dissipated during deceleration.
ACCELERATION - _ Modern transit systems frequently utilize dynamic
braking as the primary means of dissipating this energy.
In dynamic braking, the traction motors are electrically
reversed to act as generators which are driven by the
decelerating train. The resultant electrical energy is fed
to resistor grids, usually mounted beneath the car, where
the energy is wasted as heat. This heat is radiated to the
DISTANCE TRAVELED, FT undercar area and convected throughout the tunnel. Not
all of the kinetic energy must be dissipated in the resistors
Fig. 3.3 Typical System Speed vs Distance Data since aerodynamic drag, mechanical resistance and
motor-generator losses all act to dissipate the train's total
For this example, times for acceleration to design· speed kinetic energy.
are assumed as twice the braking time. Since the
deceleration rate is fairly uniform, distances are easily When computing the kinetic energy, the "equivalent
calculated from the laws of motion. Care should be taken weight" of the train must be used. The equivalent weight
in defining the acceleration distance, since d-c motor includes the weight of the train itself, the passengers, and
characteristics make the acceleration curve flatten out at the weight equivalent of the rotational inertia of the
higher speeds. The acceleration distance usually is wheels and other rotating propulsion equipment. A good
specified first, and the appropriate motor size thus approximation for the equivalent rotational weight for
determined. steel wheel systems is eight percent of the total train
weight, including maximum passenger weight. Since the
The subway heat sources have been divided into several kinetic energy is being used in heat balances, its
categories for convenience. These include: heat generated
during train acceleration and braking, heat of electrical ....

resistance in the third rail and running rails, carborne air
2 0
conditioning and accessories, tunnel lighting, station
equipment and patron metabolism. .


Table 3.3 lists the main sources of heat in a subway system u 15

and shows the relative magnitude of each specific heat .

source in relation to a train's kinetic energy. Graphically, :;?
this is shown on Fig. 3.4 (Ref. I). It should be noted in o

this example that the station spacing is not constant E .....C~II .t'lt
because the trains are only allowed to accelerate to the ...w -.....o.!.!LCO. o
-~.:ZJ!!ll 0", 116
speed shown and then are made to brake immediately. It " o5 TH'RORAIL
~fS.~ _.-
therefore takes less distance to accelerate and decelerate
from 40 mph than 80 mph. This is typical of many subway
_L- --'--_ _ .~_-.l-.....-_.------J....- _ _- , - _
systems where train speed is limited by station spacing.
40 50 60 TO 80


Definitions of the heat sources and the relative order of

magnitude of each item's contribution to the total system Fig. 3.4. Relative Magnitude of Subway Heat Sources
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-5

Table 3.3. Relative Magnitude of Heat Sources in a Subway Station and Its Adjacent Tunnels

I Design Speed: 40 mph

Btu per Train Ratio to Btu per Train
Design Speed: 60 mph
Ratio to
Design Speed: 80 mph
Btu per Train I· Ratio to
per Stop Kinetic Energy per Stop Kinetic Energy per Sto~etic Ene~
Braking I I
Aerodynamic drag 200 0.003 1,100 0.008 3,700 I 0.016
Mechanical resistance 900 0.015 2,300 0.017 4,400 I 0.019
Motor losses 7,600 0.128 16,900 0.127 29,800 0.125
Resistor input 50,600 0.854 113,100 0.848 199,300 0.840
Subtotal 59,300 I 1.000 133,400 1.000 237,200 I 1.000
Aerodynamic drag 1,100 0.019 6,200 0.047 19,600 I 0.083
Mechanical resistance 2,900 0.049 7,200 0.054 14,300 0.060
Motor losses 7,300 0.123 16,800 0.126 31,200 I 0.132
Resistor input (cam control)I-----=2::2.,.:...1O:....:o'------t-_o.:....-=..:o.:...35'-----_+----o-4;2,.:...7o.:..:0'------+-_--=O-=..:.0:....:3-=..:5_-+__ +-I -0::c..;0-3.:..:5'------_
Subtotal 13,400 0.226 34,900 0.262 73,500 I 0.310
Third raillosses 1,000 0.017 6,000 0.045 27,400 II 0.116
Tunnel lighting 200 0.003 500 0.004 900 0.004
Car accessories
Air compressor 900 0.015 1,100 0.008 1,400 0.006
Motor generator 2,300 0.039 3,000 0.022 3,800 0.016
Car air conditioning 39,000 0.658 52,000 0.390 65,000 0.273
Station lights, equipment I II

and p e o p l e + -1_1_3-'.,9_0_0_+-_0_.2_3_4_-+__
- 13-',9:....:0-'0_+-__
Total I 130,000 2.192 244,800 1.835 I 423,100! 1.784

For Reference: I II I
gy g p
59_,_3_00 1_'°_°_°__ 1_ _ 13_3_,4_0_0_...1-__1_.0_°_°__-,-_23_7_,_20_0__1'---_1_.0_0_0_ _

Note: This table does not include the effect of ventilation air.

dimensions will be in Btu per hour. Thus, the kinetic In addition to overcoming changes in a vehicle's kinetic
energy which must be dissipated per hour in the portion energy, the power required to propel a vehicle includes the
of the subway system under study is: effects of mechanical resistance and aerodynamic drag.
These items help to dissipate the train's kinetic energy
(3.1) while braking.
For a first approximation, the effects of the aerodynamic
KE kinetic energy of trains at maximum speed drag and the mechanical resistance can be neglected in
in station module, Btu per hr computing the train's heat rejection. Although the major
equivalent weight of single car including portion of the braking heat released to the subway
passengers and rotational inertia, tons environment usually is from the dynamic braking resistor
grid, the heat release from several minor components will
N number of cars per train be discussed first. These minor items are deducted from
the total kinetic energy that must be dissipated through
11 number of trains through station module
per hour the braking system. Methods to reduce the amount of
braking heat rejected to the subway environment are
u maximum train speed, fpm discussed in Reduction of Heat at Its Source.
3-6 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Table 3.4. Summary - Subway Heat Loads

Range in
Percent of Total
Heat Source Definition Reference Equation Number Subway Heat

Aerodynamic Drag Resistance to airflow around the train and through Eq. (3.2) and (3.3) 0.1 to 0.9
the tunnel will produce heat and raise the internal
energy of air in the tunnel.
Calculated from train drag coefficient.
Mechanical Mechanical friction losses. These consist of journal Eq. (3.4) and (3.5) 0.7 to 0.11
Resistance friction, wheel and flange friction, swaying and
oscillatory resistances.
Calculated from empirical Davis equation which
gives resistance as a function of weight and velocity.
Resistor Input Electrical energy produced by the generators is dissi- Eq. (3.8), (3.9), and (3.10) 39.0 to 47.0
pated as heat through resistor grids carried on the cars.
This heat is the main source of heat in the subway.
Aerodynamic Drag See "Braking." Eq. (3.2) and (3.7) 0.9 to 5.0

Mechanical See "Braking:' Eq. (3.4) and (3.6) 2.0 to 4.0

Motor Losses Heat losses produced by current in motor windings. Eq. (3.11) About 6.0
Calculated from motor efficiency.
Resistor Input Heat lost through acceleration resistors which are Eq. (3.8) About 2.0
used to control motor current during constant rate
acceleration to prevent overloading the motor.
Formula based on series-wound dc motor with
cam-controlled, series-parallel connection.
Third Rail Losses Heat produced by current in the contact rail (third Eq. (3.12) and (3.17) 0.8 to 6.5
rail) and return path (running rails) during acceler-
ation of train to maximum speed.
Tunnel Lighting Heat from lights in tunnel. Eq. (3.16) Negligible
Car Accessories Heat from car accessories, other than air condition- Eq. (3.14) and (3.15) 0.1 to 2.5
ers, including motor generators and air compressors.
Air-Conditioning Air conditioners extract heat from inside the cars Eq. (3.13) 15.0 to 30.0
and release it into the subway. Systems are rated in
tons of air-conditioning, referring to the cooling
capacity of the unit. Heat is also produced by com-
pressors and fans which are integral parts of the unit.
Second most important source of heat.
Station The station box contains numerous fixed sources (See Example 3.4.) 3.0 to 11.0
of heat which include: station lighting, display
lighting, annunciators (train destination signs),
escalators, fare collection equipment, mezzanine
businesses, people.
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-7

Heat Gain Due to Air Resistance. The air resistance Heat Gain Due to Mechanical Resistance. The
component of train resistance is proportional to the speed mechanical resistance force in lb per ton of car can be
squared and, hence, increases in importance with speed. computed from the empirically proven Davis equation
The air resistance is due to the train's drag from the air (Ref. 2) for a four-axle steel wheel car. This equation has
flow passing the train in the annular area between the train the form A + BV. The "A" term is essentially speed
and the tunnel wall, and from the air flowing in the tunnel. independent and varies only with the car weight per axle.
The viscous aerodynamic forces increase the internal Part of the forces from journal friction and from wheel
energy of the air in the subway adding heat to the tunnel. and track deformation is included in this term. The second
The aerodynamic drag force, F D' and the resultant term comprises dissipative frictional forces which are
subway heat gain due to aerodynamic drag, q D, are proportional to speed, i.e.. journal, flange and wheel
calculated using Eqs. (3.2) and (3.3), respectively. contact friction and vehicle swaying and oscillation. The
frictional energy is dissipated as heat. Equation (3.4) does
The train drag coefficient, CD' can be determined from not contain the air resistance term normally included in
Fig. 3.32. Since the drag term is usually small in the Davis equation because Eq. (3.2) is more applicable
comparison to the other heat releases, a CD value of 4.4 to subways. The average speed in the segment is used in
will suffice for most conditions. The average velocity in Eq. (3.4).
the segment during the braking mode is used in Eq. (3.2).

4.3 x 10-6 aoCD U2 (3.2) where

where mechanical resistance force of single

car, lbfper ton
aerodynamic drag force, lbf w weight of single car including
passengers, tons
weight density of air, lb per cu ft
[j average train speed, fpm
aerodynamic drag coefficient,
dimensionless The heat gain resulting from the mechanical
resistance force is calculated using Eg. (3.5).
[j average train velocity, fpm
a frontal area of train, sq ft

subway heat gain due to mechanical

resistance, Btu per hr
mechanical resistance force of single
where car, lb per ton
stopping distance from maximum
subway heat gain due to aerodynamic drag, speed, ft
Btu per hr
w weight of single car including
aerodynamic drag force, lb passengers, tons
stopping distance from maximum speed, ft N number of cars per train

11 number of trains through station module 11 number of trains through station

per hour module per hr
3-8 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Fig. 3.5. Resistor Grid Package

Heat Gain from Resistor Grids. The kinetic energy of the The mechanisms for the heat transfer from the resistor
decelerating train is first converted to electricity and then grids to the air are complex and are described in detail
converted to heat in the resistor grids, which radiate and in Volume II. In general, all the electrical energy that is
convect the heat to the surroundings. Most of the heat sent to the resistor grids must be transferred to the air.
eventually is transferred to the air in the subway system. Otherwise, the grids will continue to increase in
temperature until they fail mechanically. The resistor
Resistor grids physically consist of metal tubes which are grids (if not force blown) usually weigh about 200 to 500
good electrical conductors and are constructed to have a lb per car, and thus have the heat capacity to absorb the
high surface area, thereby effectively dispersing the heat energy from several stops without becoming excessively
energy (see Fig. 3.5). The mass of the grids must be hot. The rate at which they dissipate heat is dependent on
sufficient to absorb all the energy from several stops their duty cycle. After successive rapid start-stop cycles,
without causing excessive grid temperatures that might Le., acceleration to a high speed and an immediate stop,
structurally weaken the tubes. Low mass grids are the resistor will reach an equilibrium condition where the
sometimes forced-air cooled to keep their temperatures electrical energy input will be transferred as heat to the
down. subway air within each cycle.
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-9

On the other hand, starting from cold, the resistor grids Figure 3.6 (Ref. 3) shows that the resistor grid
may retain up to 80 percent of their heat and put 20 temperature builds up, or cascades, over the first several
percent into the subway air during the first start-stop station stops, eventually leveling out to a repetitive cyclic
cycle. The time delay characteristics of the heat release pattern as the train continues through the system. During
can be of importance in the distribution of heat this .period of grid temperature cascading, the heat
throughout the subway system, but in general if there are released over a travel-dwell cycle is only a fraction of the
several stations in the subway line, all of the resistor grids' kinetic energy dissipated during braking, with the
heat eventually enters the subway system. An exception remaining energy going toward raising the grid
occurs when a train enters the subway with relatively cold temperature. The result is that a substantial portion of the
resistor grids and after stopping at one or two stations, braking energy is retained by the resistor grids after the
leaves with rdatively hot grids. In this manner, a first station stop, but after several such stops, the heat
significant amount of the heat is carried out in the resistors released from the grids during each travel-dwell cycle
themselves. approaches the kinetic energy dissipated during each
To illustrate the influence of the resistor grids' thermal
history consider an example system comprising 10 equally Just before the train braking into the second station of the
spaced stations. The station spacing is such that the trains system, the deceleration resistor grids had released only
within the system accelerate uniformly for 40 seconds IS percent of the braking energy absorbed during the first
until they reach a top speed of 60 mph, then immediately station stop. The grid, however, had approached to within
decelerate into the next station at the rate of three mph 25 percent of thermal equilibrium by the time the train
per second. This repetitive cycle puts a heavy demand on reached the third station.
the braking resistor grids, and the results provide insight
into the thermal behavior of the grids under such severe Several variables influence the thermal profiles for the
operating conditions. system: the kinetic energy of the train, the grid mass, and




a: 800

w 600


20 100 180 260 340 420 500 580 660 740


Fig. 3.6. Deceleration Resistor Temperature History

3-10 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

the station spacing. The kinetic energy of the train is, of From Eq. (3.6), the heat resulting from mechanical
course, the source of heat for grids. The number of station resistance force is computed.
stops required for the resistor grids to approach a state
of thermal equilibrium is a function of their mass. A low
mass grid, with less capacity for heat storage, will, in
general, reach equilibrium after fewer stops than a high
mass grid. Also, the low mass grid will experience greater where
fluctuations in temperature and heat release rate over a
da distance to accelerate to maximum. speed, ft
travel-dwell cycle than the high mass grid. The length of
time required for one travel-dwell cycle also is one of the
determinants for equilibrium temperature range and heat qM' F M' W, N, 11 = same as in Eq. (3.5)
rejection. If, after the first stop, characterized by the first
rise in deceleration resistor grid temperature on Fig. 3.6, Similarly, the heat resulting from the aerodynamic drag
the train accelerates to 60 mph and remains at this speed force is Eq. (3.7). The methods for using these two
until it reaches the last station of the system, the grid equations are the same as in the deceleration discussion.
temperature attains a maximum value of about 410F, after
= FD dall (3.7)
which it has an opportunity to cool back to near ambient
during the extended travel time to the next station stop. 778
Thus, in this situation, the equilibrium temperature range
is between ambient and 41OF, rather than the 900F to
1,200F range associated with the more frequent stops. da distance to accelerate to maximum speed, ft

The amount of heat released during a travel-dwell cycle same as in Eq. (3.3)
when the train has started with cold resistor grids can be
approximated using Table 3.5. Although equilibrium
temperature is reached, within 25 percent, by the third
stop as shown on Fig. 3.6, only 51 percent of the total Electrical losses in the propulsion system, i.e., motor
kinetic energy is released in the third station and its losses and motor controller losses, are significant factors
adjacent tunnels, provided the adjacent tunnels are only in the subway heat loads. The motor controllers modulate
long enough for acceleration-deceleration cycles. If the a fixed voltage source, delivered to the vehicle via the third
tunnels between stations are longer, a larger percentage rail, to obtain a desired torque-speed curve for the motor
of the heat will be transferred to the air. sets. The most generally used traction motor in rapid
transit systems is the series wound d-c motor in which the
Table 3.5. Approximate Heat Release from Resistor same current passes through the field and the armature.
Grids under Nonequilibrium Conditions A basic property of a series wound d-c motor is that the
speed is proportional to the applied voltage. Applied
voltage can be controlled by placing an external resistance
Station Stop Number in series with the motor or reducing the supply voltage
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 by placing motors in series. During the starting of electric
motors when maximum torque is required, these methods
Percent of Kinetic are also used to limit the current through the motor to
Energy Transfer-
prevent overheating (when the motor is at speed, the
red to Air Cold 21 38 51 62 70 76 82 86 89 91
current is self-regulated by load on the motor). The basic
types of controllers for the d-c motor are: (1) the cam-
controller with a parallel (motor sets in parallel) or series-
Acceleration. In the acceleration of the train to maximum parallel (motor sets first in series and then switched to
speed, the electric traction motors perform work. The parallel) connection and (2) a thyristor-controlled
amount of work or energy expended must be sufficient to "chopper." The cam-controller is an electro-mechanical
bring the train's kinetic energy to that corresponding to device which gradually increases the voltage input to the
its maximum speed, and to overcome the mechanical motors by reducing the resistance in series with the
energy losses during acceleration. These losses include motors. With the series-parallel connection, for instance,
aerodynamic drag and mechanical resistance. In addition, both the motor sets will be connected in series with the
there are electrical losses in the motor and starting resistor regulating resistor which is then dropped out of the circuit
which enter the system as heat. until the maximum current passes through the motors.
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-11

The motor sets are then electrically switched so that they The value of q m Step I used in Eq. (3.8) is dependent on
are in parallel with the resistance in series with each motor motor efficiency as shown in Eq. (3.9).
set. Again, the resistance is reduced to each set until it is
short-circuited, and the motors are on full line voltage.
Energy is lost from the starting resistors which then enters qm Step I -"" KEStep I (I -Em)
~ (3.9)
the subway system as heat. Approximately one-half the
resistor heat loss can be saved with series-parallel as where
compared with parallel motor sets.
Em traction motor efficiency, dimensionless
Calculations of the starting resistor heat loss can be
simplified so that values can be obtained without detailed Train resistance losses are negligible and can be ignored
knowledge of motor characteristics such as the curves for in computing the motor losses.
tractive effort and motor current that the electrical
engineer must work with. The heat loss is a function of The circuitry is such that the heat released by the resistor
the energy needed to accelerate the train. grids during the second step is about equal to that released
in the first step.
For the purpose of estimating heat dissipated during the
first step transition, the following equation may be used:

q Step I =KEStep I + qm Step I (3.8)

where qSR = 2qStep 1 (3.10)
qStep I starting resistor heat loss for first step of
cam-controlled series-parallel connection, where
Btu perhr
q SR starting resistor losses, Btu per hr
KE kinetic energy, Btu per hr
q Step 1 starting resistor losses for first step
subway heat gain due to traction motor . of carri-controlled series-parallel connection,
qm Step 1
losses in Step 1, Btu per hr Btu per hr

and where the speed at which the kinetic energy is

computed is the transition speed between the first step and The "chopper" (sometimes called thyristor controller)
the second step. Typical transition speeds are shown on regulates voltage in a different way. By "chopping" the
Fig. 3.7. supply voltage, i.e., turning it on and off rapidly, a
controlled average voltage and current can be attained.
The duration of the current pulse to the motor is used to
vary the motor speed. The "chopper" controller accelera-
tion heat losses are generally lower than cam-controller

Since a motor is not completely efficient, most of the

electrical energy is used to perform work, but some is
converted to heat and released into the subway
environment. The heat is generated due to power losses
in the field and armature motor windings. Since most
traction motors are forced-air cooled, the heat release may
be considered instantaneous. Motor efficiency may be
assumed as 90 percent if specific data are not available.
The heat release from the motors is computed from Eq.
Fig. 3.7. Transition Speeds of Cam-Controlled (3.11). This equation applies during braking as well as
Rapid Transit Motors acceleration.
3-12 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

qm = (KE+qD +qM +qSR) C ;:m) (3.11 )

KE = 11.1 x 10-6 (54 tons per car) (8 cars per train)·
(80 trains per hr) (7,040 fpm)2 = 19,000,000 Btu/hr

Mechanical resistance energy loss from Eq. (3.4) and
subway heat gain due to traction motor (3.5):
losses, Btu per hr
F =1.30+ 116 +(5.1xl0-4)(5,030fpm)
M 50 tons per car
KE kinetic energy of trains at maximum speed
= 6.21b (force) per ton
in station module, Btu per hr

subway heat gain due to aerodynamic drag, qM = (6t~~b) (~oc;~n~(~r~r~s) (4,400 ft)·
Btu per hr
Btu \ [80 trains = 1 120 000 Btu per hr
subway heat gain due to mechanical ( 778 ft-lbj \ hr "
resistance, Btu per hr

subway heat gain due to starting resistor Aerodynamic drag energy loss from Eqs. (3.2) and (3.3):
losses, Btu per hr
qD (4.3 x 10"(6) (0.0723 Ib/ft3) (4.4) (5,030 fpm)2-
traction motor efficiency, dimensionless
(100 sq ft) (4,400 ft) (~) (80 trains per hr)
778 ft-lb
=1,570,000 Btu per hr
Example 3.1: Calculate the heat dissipated in a subway
during acceleration of the train for the system described
in Table 3.2: Find the starting resistor losses:
From Fig. 3.7, the transition speed for the first step
W, total weight of single car including passengers = 50 is 10 mph (880 fpm).
tons (per example)
The kinetic energy at 10 mph from Eq. (3.1):
We ' equivalent weight of single car, including passengers
and rotating masses = 54 tons (per example) KE =(11.1 x 10"(6)(54 tons per car) (8 cars per train) .
(80 trains per hr) (880 fpm)2 "" 300,000 Btu/hr
U, design speed = 80 mph (7040 fpm) at 90 second
headway each direction (per example) From Eq. (3.9):

N, number of cars per train 8 qm Step 1 = (300,000 Btu per hr) ( 1 o~6°)
30,000 Btu per hr
n, number of trains thru station module per hour = 80
qStep 1 = 300,000 + 30,000 = 330,000 Btu per hr
da , distance to accelerate to 80 mph = 4,440 ft (Fig. 3.3)
Thus, from Eq. (3.10):
t, time for acceleration = 53 sec (Fig. 3.3)
(2)(330,000 Btu per hr)
[j, average speed 5030 fpm
660,000 Btu per hr
CD' drag coefficient = 4.0 (per example)

a, train frontal area = 100 sq ft (per example) From Eq. (3.11), the motor losses are:
qm = (19,000,000 + 1,420,000 + 1,120,000 + 660,000)-
Em' motor efficiency = 90% (per example)
1 - 0.90) = 2 "460 000 Btu per hr
The kinetic energy from Eq. (3.1): ( 0.90
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-13

Third Rail. Electrical power is transmitted to transit Typical values for the third rail and running rail are:
vehicles in subways from substations via a wayside contact
rail (third rail) or an overhead conductor. The current is Third rail - 12 milliohms per mile
returned to the substation via the running rails or separate Running rails (in parallel) - IS milliohms per mile
return rail connections. Power losses in the third rail are
greatest during acceleration when the motor current Example 3.2: Find the heat losses in the third rail for
demand is highest. These losses will enter the subway as acceleration of the train described in the typical system
heat. This section discusses losses in a d-c power (Table 3.2) to 80 mph.
distribution system.
fa' time required to accelerate to 80 mph
For detailed calculations of heat loss, the current through (from Fig. 3.3) - 53 sec.
the rails can be computed for each instant, and the d , distance to accelerate to 80 mph - 4,440 ft
resistance for the distance between the train and feeding
substations can also be computed. For estimating the heat (KE+q D +qM + qm + qSR) , energy required to accelerate
loads to establish strategies for achieving the temperature to 80 mph. Using Table 3.3, kinetic energy plus losses =
criteria, however, it is sufficient to use Eq. (3.12), for the 74,500 Btu + 237,200 Btu = 311,700 Btu per train stop,
case when the train is accelerating. and for 80 trains per hour KE+ qD + qM + qm + qSR =
(311,700 Btu)(80 trains per hr) or 24,940,000 Btu per hr
Va, voltage - 1,000 volts

The resistance, R, of the power circuit is:

(12 + IS) milliohms per mi x 4,440 ft
R =
subway heat gain due to third rail 5,280 ft per mi
losses during acceleration, Btu per hr
= 22.7 milliohms

KE, kinetic energy of trains at maximum

(24,940,000 Btu per hr)2 (22.7 milliohms)
Eq.(3.1) speed in station module, Btu per hr (0.65)
(80 trains per hr) (53 sec) (I ,000 volts)2
qD' subway heat gain due to aerodynamic
2,160,000 Btu per hr
Eq. (3.7) drag, Btu per hr

qM' subway heat gain due to mechanical

Car Air-Conditioning. Most new subway transit cars are
Eq. (3.6) resistance, Btu per hr
equipped with onboard air-conditioning units to control
the environment inside the car. Heat is withdrawn from
qm' subway heat gain due to traction
the space inside the cars and released into the tunnel air
Eq.(3.11) motor losses, Btu per hr
through the condenser coils. The air conditioner
compressor and condenser fans are integral parts of the
qSR' starting resistor losses, Btu per hr
air-conditioning units, and these perform work and
Eq. (3.10)
produce heat, which also enters the tunnel air. Next to the
R combined contact and running rail heat energy associated with the braking resistors, air-
resistance, milliohms conditioning heat can be the second largest heat source
in the subway system. The subway heat produced by the
n number of trains through station
car-carried air-conditioning units is determined from the
module per hr
rated cooling capacity of the air-conditioning unit and
from the horsepower of the compressor and condenser fan
acceleration time, sec
motors. The size of the car air-conditioning unit can be
determined from methods in Sec. 4.3. As an indication of
Va third rail voltage, volts
the size of air-conditioning units required, it has been
found that the nominal capacity required for a 60-foot
The resistance of the power distribution circuit is the sum subway car is about 14 tons. The energy release rate qAC
of the third rail resistance and the resistance of the of the train's air-conditioning system is given by Eq.
running rails which form the return path for the current. (3.13).
3-14 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

(3.13) where

where q AX = subway heat gain due to train accessories,

Btu per hr
qAC= subway heat gain due to train
air conditioning, Btu per hr Hp input horsepower to car accessory motors, hp

T air conditioning per car, tons Kw input horsepower to car accessory motors, kw

N number of cars per train I percent of time motors are in operation,

n number of trains through station module
per hour N number of cars per train

tt time for single train to traverse station n number of trains through station module
module, sec per hour

tt time for single train to traverse station

Approximate compressor ratings can be determined from module, sec
horsepower per ton of air conditioning required at a
specific tunnel design temperature. Figure 3.8 shows the
approximate relation between compressor hp per ton and The accessories' motor horsepower, mounted on the car,
the temperature of the air reaching the condenser coils. is usually determined by the car designer. lfthe car design
has not progressed enough to provide such information,
the values in the following examples may be used:

Number of cars per train = 8

Air compressor - duty cycle - 25%

- capacity - 10 horsepower
per car

Motor-generator - duty cycle - continuous

- capacity - 6 kilowatts
per car

TUlIINEL AIR TEMPERATURE. ~ Using Eq. (3.14) for the air compressor:
Fig. 3.8. Air Conditioner Power Requirements
= (0.707) (10 hp per car) (0.25) (8 cars per train).
(80 trains per hr) (1 00 sec)
Car Accessories. The main accessories on the car are the 113,000 Btu per hr
air compressor for pneumatic operation of car hardware
such as brakes and the motor-generator which provides Using Eq. (3.15) for the motor-generator:
power for car lighting and other electrical gear. The heat
released by these is computed from Eqs. (3.14) and (3.15). qAX = (0.948) (6 kw per car) (1.00) (8 cars per train)·
(80 trains per hr)(100 sec)
= 364,000 Btu per hr
qAX = 0.707 Hp' INn tt (3.14)
Tunnel Lighting. The heat from tunnel lights is small
when compared to the total, but should be included in the
qAX = 0.948Kw • INnt, (3.15) complete heat inventory. The lights serve to illuminate the
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-15

track for train operators or attendants, and also are of Example 3.4: Find the heat gains in a typical station with
service if the vehicles need to be evacuated in an the following characteristics:
emergency. The energy input to the subway system is
calculated in Eq. (3.16). Station lights - (3 watts per sq ft)(50,4oo sq ft)
platform and mezzanine area

(3.16) Display lights - (20 watts per sq ft)(2,4oo sq ft)

advertising space
Train annunciators - (10 signs) (200 watts each)
subway heat gain due to tunnel lighting, Escalators - between lower station and
Btu per hr mezzanine - (4) (10 hp)

tunnel lighting, watts per ft - between mezzanine and street -

(4)(20 hp)
L = tunnel length, ft - average load factor - 75%
Fare collection - 11 gates - 8,800 watts
Example 3.3: Find the heat gains due to tunnel lighting. 8 ticket vendors - 8,000 watts
5 money changers - 2,500 watts
Assume WL = 2 watts per ft
Agent's kiosk - 1 lot of agent's equipment -
L = 5,400 ft (80 mph) 1,500 watts
1 agent's kiosk air conditioner -
From Fig. 3.3 and Table 3.2, 1 hp
tunnel length L equals the
Mezzanine business - 4 mezzanine businesses -
sum of the distances 1, 000 watts ea.
necessary for the train to
People 4,500 passengers total through the
accelerate to 80 mph (4,440
station during peak hour at 250 Btu
ft) and then to decelerate to
per hr sensible heat and 520 Btu per
zero (1,560 ft), minus the
hr latent heat per passenger. (The
length of the station box (600
actual peak hour patronage is obtained
from the demographers on the
consulting team.) Also, for 2-minute
qTL= (3.41)(2 watts per ft)(5,400 ft) headways, the patron will be in the
station an average of three minutes
= 37,000 Btu per hr
including the walk to or from the street
and any wait at the fare collection.
Station Lights. Equipment lind People. The station area The heat is calculated as follows:
contains numerous fixed sources of heat which include
escalators, elevators, fare collection equipment, Station lights -
annunciators (signs above the platform which indicate the (3 watts per sq ft)(50,400 sq ft)(3.412 Btu per
destination of the next train or sequence of trains), station watt-hr) = 515,000 Btu per hr
and advertising display lights and other miscellaneous
electrical equipment used for mezzanine activities. In Display lights -
addition, the people waiting or working in the station (20 watts per sq ft)(2,400 sq ft)(3.412 Btu per
areas contribute to the heat load. Peak period station watt-hr) = 164,000 Btu per hr
passenger loading should be used in computing station
loads. Annunciators -
(10)(200 watts per unit)(3.412 Btu per watt-hr)
The information required to perform the heat inventory = 7,000 Btu per hr
in the station is readily available once the station has been
designed from ridership forecasts. The following example Escalators -
serves to illustrate the kinds of heat inputs which will be (120 hp)(2,545 Btu per hp-hr)(0.75) = 230,000
anticipated for a typical subway station. Btu per hr
3-16 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Fare collection - R combined contact and running r"il

(19,300 watts)(3.412 Btu per watt·hr) resistance, mill iohms
= 66,000 Btu per hr
n number of trains through station
Agent's kiosk - module per hour
( I,500 watts)(3.412 Btu per watt-hr) + (I hp)'
(2,545 Btu per hp-hr) = 8,000 Btu per hr run time, sec
Mezzaninc businesses - Va third rail voltage, volts
(4,000 watts)(3.412 Btu per watt-hr) = 14,000
Btu per hr The heat load can be calculated for a constant speed of
80 mph in a 4,560 ft tunnel.

3 -min)
Patron heat = (4,500 passengers) 6 0. (250 Btu Example 3.5: Find the heat gains from an 80-mph train
pcr hr) running at constant speed for 4,560 ft of tunnel.

= 56,000 Btu per hr sensible heat Mechanical resistance from Eqs. (3.4) and (3.5):
(4,500 passengers) ( 60 mi~/520 Btu F = 1.30+ ~O 116 +(5.1 x 1O-4)(7,040fpm)
M . tons per car
per hrl
7.2 Ib (force) per ton
= 117,000 Btu per hr latent heat
(7.2Ib/ton) (50 tons per car) (8 cars per train).

(77:}~-lb 1<80 trains per hr)

Total station heat load = 1,060,000 Btu per hr
sensible hcat + 117,000 Btu pcr hr latent heat (4,560 ft)
1,350,000 Btu per hr
Running at Speed. The subway system described above as
an example for these calculations has its stations so closely Aerodynamic drag from Eqs. (3.2) and (3.3):
spaced that the trains continue to accelerate until reaching
FD = (4.3 x 10'6) (100 sq ft) (0.0723 Ib per ft 3 ) (4.4).
the point where braking must begin. This condition is
typical in areas with high population densities which (7,040 fpm)2 = 6,8001b
require close station spacing.

If running at sustained speed is possible, the propulsion

<i D = (6,800 lbf ) (4,560 ft)('77~t~_lb) (80 trains per hr)
= 3,180,000 Btu per hr
power consumed is essentially continuously lost as heat.
When the train is running at constant speed, the subway
Motor losses from Eq. (3.11):
heat gain due to third rail losses is calculated from Eq.
qm = (1,350,000 Btu per hr + 3,180,000 Btu pc' hr).
0.65 (qD + qM + qm)2 R (3.17) I - 0.90) = 500 000 Btu per hr
( 0.90 '
nt, Va 2
Motor energy demand per train, qM + q D + q m
subway heat gain due to third rail n
losses, Btu per hr
1l,350,000 + 3,180,000 + 500,000) Btu per hr
subway heat gain due to aerodynamic 80 trains per hr
Eq. (3.7) drag, Btu per hr
63,000 Btu per train
qM' subway heat gain due to mechanical
Eq. (3.6) resistance, Btu per hr Combined third rail and running rail losses:

qm, subway heat gain due to traction Assume electrical resistance for third rail
Eq. (3.11) motor losses, Btu per hr and running rails,
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-17

R = (12 + 15) milliohms per mi x 4,560 ft Total Heat Input. Table 3.3 presents a tabulation of all
5,280 ft per mi heat inputs (except those resulting from ventilation
airflows) to the typical system described by the example.
23 milliohms
The data are dominated by the kinetic energy terms,
which increase in proportion to the squares of the
Then from Eq. (3.17), maximum speeds. To reveal the underlying relationships,
the ratio of each item to the train's kinetic energy at the
(5,030,000 Btu per hr)2 (23 milliohms) same speed is also tabulated. These ratios are plotted on
q3R = (0.65) - - - - - - - - - - - - '
(80 trains per hr) (39 sec) (1,000 voltS)2 Fig. 3.4.

120,000 Btu per hr Two conclusions given below are ap'parent from Fig. 3.4
and a review of the nature of the calculations on the
Tunnel lighting from Eq. (3.16): preceding pages.

~:tts) (4,560 ft) = 30,000 Btu per hr

I. As a first approximation, the total heat input to
(3.41) (2 a subway system per train for a run from one
station to the next is equal to twice the kinetic
energy of the train at the top speed attained in
Motor-generator sets from Eq. (3.15): that run. This approximation is completely
adequate for the ventilation engineering that
= (0.948) (6 kW)( 1.00) (8tram
\. car
cars) (so trains) (39 sec)
must be done even before the system design
fundamentals (such as station locations, grades,
train and tunnel cross sections) are established.
140,000 Btu per hr Of the total heat, about 50 percent is from train
braking, 30 percent from vehicle air
conditioning, 15 percent from train acceleration
Air compressors from Eq. (3.14): and five percent from the stations.

= (0.707) fIo hP)(0.25)fs
\ar c~rs)(so
\tr~n \ trains)(39
sec) 2. This first approximation probably will prove
quite accurate at all stages of the design.
Examination of the input items reveals that few
40,000 Btu per hr changes of significance will occur in the heat
loads as the system design details are
Car air conditioners from Eq. (3.13):

= (4.51) /IS.O tons) (s cars)
\" car tram
(39 sec) Spatial Distribution of Braking Heat. The resistor heat
distribution can be separated into three discrete portions,
= 2.020,000 Btu per ;,r defined by the physical lengths of the stations and tunnels:

The'total heat produced per hour by trains running 1. Heat into the station box. Heat which leaves·the
4,560 ft at 80 mph is: resistor banks while the train is physically
within the length of the station box.

Mechanical resistance 1,350,000 Btu/hr 2. Heat into the departure tunnel. Heat carried out
Aerodynamic drag 3,ISO,000 Btu/hr of the station by the not fully cooled resistors.
Motor losses 500,000 Btu/hr
Third rail losses 120,000 Btu/hr 3. Heat into the approach tunnel. This portion of
Tunnel lighting 30,000 Btu/hr heat is transferred to the undercar air during the
Motor-generator sets 140,000 Btu/hr braking action. This heat is released close to the
Air compressors 40,000 Btu/hr station and is transferred from the resistor grids
Air conditioners 2,020,000 Btu/hr to the air underneath the car. The undercar air
7,380,000 Btu/hr mixes with the tunnel air behind the train, which
3-18 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

then is carried either into the station by its Table 3.6. Spatial Distribution of Heat Released from
residual momentum or is pulled in by the piston Dynamic Resistor Grids of Example Train
action of the train when it subsequently departs.
Note that very little of this heat can make its way
up the approach blast shaft, as air flow in this Design Heat into Heat into Heat into
Approach Tunnel Station Box Departure Tunnel
shaft always is inward during this part of the Speed
(mph) I Btu per . Btu per Btu per
piston action cycle. % % %
Train Train Train
40 2,400 4.0 41,500 69.9 15,400 26.1
For t~e worst case conditions, the spatial distribution of
the dynamic braking resistor heat was recalculated for 50 6,400 6.9 60,600 65.3 25,700 27.8
design speeds at 10 mph increments and plotted on Fig. 60 14,600 10.9 82,600 61.9 36,200 27.2
3.9 (Ref. I). The significant heat blocks are given in Table
3.6. The worst case conditions would occur when the
70 27,800 i15.3 107,200 58.9 46,600 25.8

vehicle energy dissipation is rejected almost instantane- ~ 53,000 122.3 129,80~4.7 54,400 23.0
ously as heat (e.g., low-mass, force-blown resistors). At -_._--------- --._-
less than worst case conditions, the heat release becomes
more constant with time and the spatial distribution The concentration of this resistor energy in the station is
approaches the shape shown on Fig. 3.11 for the air again clear, particularly in the 40-mph case where the
conditioner heat rejection.









..."" 50

-2000 -1500 -1000 -500 o 500 1000 1500


Fig. 3.9. Distribution of Braking Energy Along Track - Worst-Case Analysis

Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-19

front of the train is far into the station before braking systems should be designed, the carborne air-conditioning
occurs. units operate almost continuously. Heat rejected from
carborne air-conditioning equipment is constant against
In contrast to the above worst-case condition, the heat time. This air conditioner heat is spread along the length
dissipation from higher mass resistors cooled by natural of the tunnels and stations by the train's motion. The
convection is more constant with time. An example of trains are fully or partly within the station box for at least
heat dissipation from a high mass resistor is shown on Fig. half of the time (in the SO-mph example, some part of the
3.10 (Ref. 3), which is based on field tests of a PATH car. train is in a station for 53 st;conds of the entire 1000second
The spatial distribution of heat into the subway system, station to station cyc"Ie; at 40 mph, 53 seconds out of 60),
from resistors in this type of service, is similar to the thus, a heavy concentration of heat in the station box is
distribution from any other steady rate source, such as a evident on Fig. 3.11 (Ref. I). The significant heat blocks
vehicle air conditioner. are given in Table 3.7. Note that in the example being used
for illustration, the length of tunnel is adjusted so that at
each design speed, the train only accelerates and
Spatial Distribution of Vehicle Air Conditioner Heat. decelerates (never cruises at speed); this results in an
During the periods of high ambient temperatures, which increasing amount of air conditioner heat rejection with
are the times for which subway environmental control train speed.

~ 200 70


----- ~
~~ /



<r ...0

"<r 900
/ f-
40 II

~ -r---
L ...

II c5
uJ <r OJ
9 ~ Ii /
II 2;

<r HEAT 3 ;:
0 ~ / / cr:

T~/ 0
<r 700
~ 20

\ II

~ "
600 1 i< 10

640 650
\ 660 670 680 690 700 711''1


Fig. 3.10. Detail of Temperature and Heat Rejection of Dynamic Braking Resistor Grids
at Thermal Equilibrium
3-20 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Table 3.7. Spatial Distribution of Heat Released from remaining heat sources. This has been done for the
Carborne Air Conditioner Condensers of Example Train example system in Table 3.8 and the results plotted on Fig.
3.12 (Ref. I).
Heat into Heat into Heat into
Speed Approach Tunnel Station Box Departure Tunnel The several components of energy dispersal during the
(mph) Btu per Btu per Btu per braking phase differ slightly in their heat distribution
% % %
Train Train Train patterns, but taken as a group are dominated by the
40 3,900 10.0 27,300 70.0 7,800 20.0 resistor heat flow. The total heat of the braking items,
50 6,100 13.4 27,300 60.0 12,100 26.6 therefore, is split in the proportions developed above. All
of the acceleration losses - drag, friction, motor heat and
60 8,200 15.8 27,300 52.5 16,500 31.7
resistor input - become undercar heat in the departure
70 10,400 17.8 27,300 46.6 20,800 35.6 tunnel and are so assigned. The fixed rate vehicle sources
80 12,600 19.4 27,300 42.0 25,100 38.6 - air conditioners, air compressors and motor generators
- follow the divisions already discussed. The station
sources, of course, are physically anchored in the station
Total System Heat. The major system heat inputs from
the vehicle braking resistors and air conditioners have As could be anticipated, a major portion of the system
been separated into three blocks - approach tunnel, heat is transferred to the air in the station box. The totals
station box and departure tunnel - in the previous for the example case, based on low mass, high temperature
sections. It is not difficult to make this separation for the resistors, are given in Table 3.9 (Ref. I).


I&. 40

u..,., 40 MPH
.., 10 50
70 MPH
80 MPH

- 2000 -1500 -1000 -500 o 500 1000 1500


Fig. 3.11. Distribution of Vehicle Air Conditioner Reject Heat Along Track
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-21

Table 3.8. Location of Heat Sources in a Subway Station and Its Adjacent Tunnels

Design Speed: 40 mph Design Speed: 60 mph Design Speed: 80 mph

Btu per Train Ratio to Btu per Train Ratio to Btu per Train Ratio to
per Stop Kinetic Energy per Stop Kinetic Energy per Stop Kinetic Energy:
Heat into approach tunnel
Braking 2,400 14,600 53,000
Tunnel lighting 100 200 JOO
Car,air conditioning 3,900 8,200 12,600
Car motor generator 200 500 700
Car air compressor 100 200 300
Total 6,700 0.113 23,700 0.178 66,900 0.282
Heat into station box
Braking 41,500 82,600 129,800
Car air conditioning 27,300 27,300 27,300
Car motor generator 1,600 1,600 1,600
Car air compressor 600 600 600
Station lights, equipment
and people 13,900 13,900 13,900
Total 84,900 1.432 126,000 0.944 173,200 0.730
Heat into departure tunnel
Braking 15,400 36,200 54,400
Acceleration losses 13,400 34,900 74,500
Third raillosses 1,000 6,000 27,400
Tunnel lighting 100 300 600
Car air conditioning 7,800 16,500 25,100
Car motor generator 500 900 1,500
Car air compressor 200 300 500
Total 38,400 0.647 95,100 0.713 184,000 0.776

System total 130,000 2.192 244,800 1.835 424,100 1.788

2.0 ~ • . _ TOTAL
Table 3.9. Spatial Distribution of All Heat Release
in Example Subway System
Design Heat into Heat into Heat into
Approach Tunnel Station Box

Speed Departure Tunnel
(mph) Btu per Btu per Btu per
..... % % %
Train Train Train
1.0 ~r'OIt 40 6,700 5.1 84,900 65.3 38,400 29.6
'NTO OEPART~RE TUNN EL . _ . : : : : : : : - - . . " , : : - 50 13,100 7.2 104,000 57.5 63,700 35.3
0.1 60 23,700 9.7 126,000 51.5 95,100 38.8
70 39,200 12.1 150,600 46.3 135,200 41.6

80 66,900 15.8 173,200 40.8 184,000 43.4

40 50 60 10 80

Fig.3.12. Relative Magnitude of Subway Heat Flows

3-22 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Examination of the three sets of data above for the heat Removal and Addition of Sensible Heat by
distributions under varying conditions shows a basic Ventilation
pattern, presumably resulting from the time/distance
profile of train motion. A generalized set of distribution
Ventilation in a subway system is the interchange of
values, which is accurate enough for most design
system air with fresh outdoor air. The ventilation air
decisions, is given in Table 3.10 (Ref. I). drawn through the subway system affects the heat
balance. If the ambient air is cooler than the air in the
subway system, ventilation will lower the temperature of
Table 3.10. Spatial Distribution of Heat Release - the system, and conversely if the air in the subway system
Preliminary Design Values is cooler than the ambient air, ventilation will raise the
temperature of the system.

Ventilation is induced by the train motion through the

Design Heat into Heat into Heat into system. The air flows created by the movement of trains
Speed Approach Tunnel Station Box Departure Tunnel
(mph) (%) (%) (%) through tunnels and stations are similar to the types of
flows caused by the movement of a piston within a
40 10 70 20 cylinder. Hence, the ventilation of a subway which is
50 12 63 25 created by the movements of trains is termed "piston
action" ventilation. To a much lesser extent, ventilation
60 15 55 30 is induced by buoyant effects caused by temperature
70 18 47 35 differences in the air. Piston action or buoyant ventilation
80 20 40 40 rates may be supplemented by fans, and in some systems
the fan-induced ventilation rate may dominate.

Methods will be discussed herein for determining the

ventilation rates and the functional requirements of
To summarize, the design engineer can determine the heat ventilation systems needed to achieve the temperature
input into a subway station and its adjoining tunnels as criteria of Part 2. Other criteria of Part 2 are also used
follows: to establish the ventilation rate. There are minimum
ventilation rates to provide fresh air and odor dilution (see
Air Quality in Sec. 2.2). There are maximum air velocities
1. By making assumptions of train weight and not to be exceeded without causing discomfort to the
maximum speed to determine the train kinetic patron (see Air Velocity and Rapid Pressure Changes in
energy. Sec. 2.3).

2. By assuming that the train heat release is equal There is no single answer to selecting a ventilation rate.
to twice the kinetic energy, modified to the The heat balance on Fig. 3.1 is reproduced on Fig. 3.13
extent indicated by Table 3.6 in the case where along with a graphic display of the impact of the
the train will enter the general area with cold ventilation rate. The impact of ventilation air may be
resistors. either beneficial or detrimental to the station heat balance.
A balance of heat sources and removals starts with an
3. By using Table 3.10 to determine the inventory of the sources. In this example, the sources are
distribution of the heat release into the tunnels electrical energy dissipation and metabolic heat. An
and station. inventory of removals includes heat sink effects,
underplatform exhaust, air outflow, and refrigeration. As
noted above, ventilation air can be a source of heat or a
Now the design engineer can determine the heat source mechanism for removal of heat, depending on the ambient
portion of the heat balance similar to that shown on Fig. temperature and station design temperature. Figure 3.13
3.1. Also, the location and magnitude of the heat source uses the system parameters of example 3.1, except that
can be identified as on Fig. 3.12. The remainder of this the design speed is slightly over 60 mph. On this basis,
section is devoted to developing methods for estimating the internal heat gain is approximately equal to 22,000,000
the heat removal from the subway system. Btu per hr.
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-23


10F OUTFLOW - 20
:> :>
::t 'TUNNEL ::t
Il. Il.
:> :>
‫­ן‬ ‫ן‬-
~ 10
- 10
.J .J
.J .J

0'--_..........u.L.LU.Ju.L1.LLU1- o



20 10F 20
a: t-l_~""Ilo4VENT OUTFLOW
Il. a:
:> :>
m ::t
z 10 lOffi
.J :>
.J ‫ן‬-

~ m
o '--_.....J.I.L.LU.Ju..u..LU..lL..M_ETABOLIC _....1- -1-_ _..1 0 ::::IE


Fig. 3.13. Effect of Ventilation Air on Heat Balance

3-24 Subway Environmental EvaluaHons and Design Strategies

Ventilation air will always be introduced into a subway between vent shaft spacing, vent shaft size, and fans. These
system through portals and station entrances by train functional tradeoffs must be incorporated in other design
piston action, by mechanical ventilation through vent strategies given in Part 3.
shafts, or by a combination of both. The effects of a
450,000 cfm rate of ventilation air are illustrated on AirFlow Fundamentals. The air flow relationships can be
Fig. 3.13. If the dry-bulb temperature difference between expressed in several fundamental equations. (The design
station design and outside ambient air is \OF, then that engineer is assumed to be familiar with these equations
air flow rate will have a sensible heat equivalent of and their application.) In addition to these equations, flow
4,860,000 Btu per hour. coefficients commonly used in subway ventilation work
are also presented.
Consequently, if the station design temperature is below
ambient, the ventilation air would constitute a load (or The Bernoulli Equation. For use in the design problem
"source") of 4,860,000 Btu per hour, whereas the same associated with subway ventilation and air flow, the
heat equivalent woul.d be a credit (or removal) if the Bernoulli equation has been modified to include the effects
station design temperature were 10F above ambient. The of energy additions and losses. The Bernoulli equation for
upper limit of a ventilation rate should be based on the steady, uniform or nonuniform flow is a statement of the
system's ability to move air and the criteria in Air Velocity mechanical energy balance:
and Rapid Pressure Changes in Sec. 2.3. Conversely, if in
the summer the station temperature is to be less than
outside (or during cold weather when the station
temperature should be greater than outside), the
ventilation rate should be minimized, provided the criteria (3.19)
of Air Quality, in Sec. 2.2 are observed.
Z elevation head, ft
The heat removed from or added to a subway system
by ventilation is given by Eq. (3.18): P static pressure, lbf per sq ft

q I.I Q f.T (3.18) fj fluid density, Ibf per cu ft

g gravitational constant
q rate of sensible heat removal or ft per min2
addition by ventilation, Btu per
hr V fluid velocity, fpm

Q average ventilation rate, cu ft per F energy head added, ft

min; this is fresh air flowing into
the subway, not total air flow h
through it f frictional energy head loss, ft

f.T temperature difference between hr form resistance energy head loss, ft

average subway temperature and
outside air temperature, F The P per fj term is called the static pressure head. The
jI2 per 2g term is called the velocity head.
To use Eq. (3.18), the ventilation rate, Q, must be
determined. Most of Removal and Addition of Sensible Head loss terms, h r orh" are directly additive where they
Heat by Ventilation deals with estimating Q so that heat occur in series, and their reciprocals are additive where
removal (or addition) can be determined. they occur in parallel. When adding head losses, always
be careful to use the correct reference area.
The following paragraphs describe the fundamentals ofair
flow in stations. For ease of reference, the discussion is The Darcy-Weisbach Equation. The head loss in the
divided into paragraphs on: air flow fundamentals, air Bernoulli equation due to friction is stated:
flow induced by piston action, and ventilation rate and
heat removal. The first discussions provide the
background for understanding the ventilation processes. (3.20)
The last discussion covers the functional tradeoffs
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-25

where D only. Some handbooks show I as the Fanning friction

factor, which is 1/4 of the Darcy friction factor.
head loss (friction), ft
One form of the definition of the dimensionless ratio
Darcy-Weisbach friction factor, dimensionless called Reynolds Number is:

L tunnel length , ft Re = D£ (3.21)

D tunnel hydraulic diameter, ft where
D hydraulic diameter, ft
v fluid velocity, fpm

g gravitational acceleration, ft per rnin 2

v linear velocity, fpm

v kinematic viscosity, sq ft per min

The dimensionless Darcy-Weisbach friction factor,!, is a
(air at 75F,v= 0.01 sqftperrnin)
function of Reynolds Number, Re, and wall roughness,
€, and is given on Fig. 3.14, a modification of the
For air at 75F:
"Moody" chart (Ref. 4). For fully turbulent flow (high
Re), the curves flatten out, and lis dependent on € per Re = 100 DV (if Vis in fpm) (3.22)

[Oltl X [Vlpm] FOR AIR AT 7SF

10 20 40 80 eo 102 4 • • 10 4 • • 10'


01 ~~1ItNAR.
ZONElI' ld=rn:j:-~'9 ....."t=M"f1ii'!f==;=1='f9=t=H++==+==I==I=##H===I==9==+=I=H9FH
.01 1-+t\+---'iCRITICA'I-... .0'

mt-->":+-+-++1-++++---+-+-++H1-++---+-HH-+++tt--f--++--l+t+H .00

o. r j"'t"#:tf==--j=~*I=l=I:#1=::::::j~F*=Fmw=*=f::*I=l=I:#1==1=:j::::l=+ffFj:j .02
'\ i"--_ " .0,.

_t» 01

;~\ _ ~

ea:: .03
- ,,;r-,+--1H-t-H+
11, t--_

,\ - t't-- -.,..--t~+t+H+--+-t-H+++tl--t-++t+t+tl
. 003

JjjH---......::::::t_-+--P~*I---+--1-+++++++--t--MI+J+I+l .002
. 00 ••

.0 I S WI+t---+-t--JH-+++++--f--++--1--t1r++t-- .s'""",_ t-- .000'
V",\- -f-- .0002
..a/..o~..r .......... .00015

ttlHt------t-t---r++t+tt--f--++--1--nI+tt----+-++-t+++++----P'~ .00004
t-::::::-- _
.0000 "
L..L.JL1..l.;;--~-l.-c..J..J...l.l..l.l-:--L-...L.L.J-LJL.ll~_..I..-...L...LL.Llll.l...:-_...L-l......L.Ll..LCI!IIo."'::::"'"""---l..:::::r::1::l::I::,bY .0000'
3 4
10 4 6 8 10 • 8 lOS 4 6 II 10 6 6 8 lOT 6 II loll


Fig. 3.14. Friction Factors as a Function of Reynolds Number and Retative Roughness
3-26 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

SOLUTION: ALIGN 1 = 13.5 WITH b = 40.5 AND READ 0 105
= 25 FEET. de = 1.30 [,"bIO.625 11+ b1 0.250 ]

90 90










Fig. 3.15. Circular Equivalent of a Rectangular Duet

Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-27

Since all tunnels and virtually all vent shafts are When determining the head loss due to friction in the
noncircular, the diameter to be used in the Reynolds subway tunnel at the start of design, the velocity is not
Number, relative roughness, and the Darcy-Weisbach known; hence, the Reynolds Number is not known. In the
equations must be the hydraulic diameter. case of the tunnel, however, the flow is usually fully
turbulent, and f is a function of € per D only and can be
For shapes reasonably comparable to a circle such as a determined from Fig. 3.14. In the case of the vent shafts,
circular tunnel with a simple invert, the hydraulic the velocity also is not known at the start of design, but
diameter is: the frictional losses are quite small, usually less than five
percent of the total. These losses for a vent shaft can be
D = 4 (, Area )
\Perimeter (3.23)

Typical € values are given in Table 3.11 for most formed

For rectangular shapes that differ greatly from the liner materials encountered in tunnel construction (Ref.
circular cross section, however, the hydraulic diameter 4); however, some tunnels are constructed with segmented
can be found from the nomograph on Fig. 3.15 (Ref. 5). ring lines. The effect of internal ribbing on pipe flow
Although the hydraulic diameters give constant friction friction factor is given on Fig. 3.16 (Ref. 6). Ribs may
at a constant flow, the bulk velocity is always computed cause a significant increase in friction factor, and
using the actual cross-sectional area. therefore increase the value of flow resistance.

VALID FOR 104 < R O < 2 X 105, b = h


~--... ........
o -......................" ,
I- , ... --...... " '" 0.070
------... '.....
...... ...... ...
........"'0.050 "-
o ........... 0.030 "
..-'... .. 0.020
.... 0.015
" ...
... ...... 0.040
I .......
I .........
0.040 _ _ ""
----.., L
f FOR h/D o = 0

10-2 L.. ....l.. .l.- .....J


Fig. 3.16. Effect of Internal Ribbing on Pipe Flow Friction Factor

3-28 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Table 3.11. Surface Roughness of Various Typical Table 3.12. Theoretical Tunnel Friction Factor
Materials of Construction

i I Wci~htl~
Material E, ft
II ',01
RtlUlZhm'"" ('haralll'nstils
~ -
X·· !!...... f
II ( '

! hl Tnlall,

---------L~_ _+ Rnu~hm..'s· D ~_+-+_-_-- __

Clean Steel 0.00015
Pipl'Supports II
n.b I tOIO
' 0.0"' I!
, I

~i1Jnd P.... ds n,nq lOUIS i(l'(l~7'1 0.0015

Asphalted Iron 0.0004
Smooth Concrete 0.001 CalwalkandSupports
I n'!4I n ISO 10.t'5, 00054

Average Concrete 0.003 Thud Rail and Supports I n.1(l n.n40 II tl.2:!01I n.flt144
Rough Concrete 0.01 Cunw,:t,,' Wan SUrf;.Il'l' I
79 I O.lHI(I2
- I l n.Ol4i (UlIll
-'- .....L__ ___• _

Wl'i~htl'd Tunnel !
_. __._--_._,- -- -----
hictiun bl'hH: tUl2XO
-_._- -,-- _.- ---- -
·I'rnm Tallk J.II
··rrom Tallk

The wall roughness around the perimeter of the tunnel is

not a constant value. Along the invert, there are the Form Resistance. Air flow through areas with changes in
running rails and their ties, the third rail and its supports. geometry, dampers, gratings and griJIs results in loss of
Along the walls and ceiling, there are the catwalk, piping, mechanical energy in the airstream. These losses are
lighting fixtures and electrical conduit. The friction factor proportional to the velocity head in the region where the
associated with its type of roughness is weighted by the loss occurs. The generalized equation is:
percentage of the perimeter covered. For example, in the
BART Berkeley Hills tunnel, Fig. 3.17, the weighted h = C-
o (3.24)
friction factor is computed in Table 3.12 (Ref. 7). In this , 2g
example, about 21 percent of the perimeter contributes
more than 60 percent of the friction factor.
h, mechanical energy loss per unit weight, ft

C loss coefficient, dimensionless

.I: velocity head, ft


The proportionality factor or loss coefficient, C, is

dependent on the configuration of the conduit in which
the air is flowing. Representative loss coefficients for area
changes when there is rio change in the direction of the
flow are given in Table 3.13 (Ref. 8).

The loss coefficients for curves, elbows and turns are given
in terms of the entering velocity head of the air. Generally,
the curvature of the tunnel is such that it can be
considered a straight conduit as far as air flow is

The head loss coefficients for elbows and turns are

presented on Figs. 3.18, 3.19, and 3.20. The turns most
Fig. 3.17. Cross Section of BART's Berkeley Hills Tunnel common in the subway vent shafts are miter turns. The
(Defines Friction Factor Characteristics aspect ratio, AR, characterizes the losses associated with
Given in Table 3.12) these turns.
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-29

Table 3.13. Loss Coefficients for Area Change.


A1 /A 2 Cp C2 AI A2 /A 1 C2 'f"

EDGE ---

~ 0.6
0.8 0.04 0.06 JI I
0.9 0.01 0.01 GRADUAL ~ 3" 0.02
: IJ
~ 60

0.17 ,

FORMATION ~ ffi?n~
Al = A2
oSo 14' I

40° 0.73
A = 00

EXIT i -

(A :no) :
A1/A2 = 0.0 1.00

Co ll-



A, ------"

0.0 2.50
EDGE -U1 0.2 2.44 FORMED
"----- I A== C
r-- I
EXIT -----.IJT 0.6
I 1:96
1.0 1.00 I AO/A2 Co *
lb A2 0.0 2.50

rr -
0.2 1.90
0.4 1.39
BAR j ! (l.1O 0.7
0.6 0.96
-- ~D
I 0.25 1.4
0.8 0.61
0.50 4.0 1.0 0.34


_ _e EIO C An/A Co
PIPE A, ' A 2
..lE 0.10 0.20 0.0 2.50
- DT
0.25 0.55 0.2 1.86
DUCT 1 I 0.50 2.0 EDGE AO 0.4 1.21

IN DUCT 0.20
STREAM- 1.0 0.0
Elo C
LINED IE 0.10 0.07
ACROSS 1C> I 0.25

0-- 1/8 IN.
ROD -r 1/4 IN.
5/16 IN.


3-30 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

the flow pattern with the use of a set of parallel easy bends
AR (3.25) in place of a simple miter. Depending on the design, the
loss can be reduced from 1.15 velocity heads to about 0.10
where AR aspect ratio, dimensionless velocity heads.

Db depth, along axis of bend, ft

Wb, width, in plane of bend, ft

Fig. 3.18 (Ref. 9) shows how the aspect ratio can vary
with the cross-section of the vent sliaft; in one case Db!
Wb < 1 and in the other Db!Wb> I. Graphically the
relationship between head loss and aspect ratio is shown
on Fig. 3.19.

The loss coefficients through 90 degree miter turns can

be substantially reduced through the use of turning vanes,
AR =
as shown by the reduced velocity pressures (35 percent
V.P. and 10 percent V.P.) in the square ducts of Fig. 3.20 "
(Ref. 9). The reduction comes from essentially changing Fig. 3.18. Definition Sketch of Aspect Ratio


1.38 ~

i:l 1.15 f-

U .92
> o o -
:ll0 .69 -
« .46

.23 f-

0 I 1 I I I I I
0 .5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0


Fig.3.19. Head Loss for 90 Rectangular Miter Turns
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-31

from 1.15 for the equal area case to 1.0, the infinite
expansion case. When A e per Ai is less than unity, the
head loss is dominated by the contraction.

The head losses for other configurations of bends and

ductwork elbows can be found in standard reference such
as Fan Engineering (Ref. 10) or the ASH RAE Guide
(Ref. 8).
35% V.P. 10% V.P.
The head loss through dampers and gratings must be
TURNING VANES IN SQUARE DUCTS obtained from manufacturer data. In the absence of such
data, the grating can be treated as a square-edged orifice
with the grating's free area.

Head Loss Through a Vent Shaft. The head loss, '
Fig. 3.20. Head Loss for 90° Miters with Turning Vanes
is dependent on both the geometry of the vent shaft and
the direction of flow. includes all losses at ground
In the above discussion, the head loss coefficient, C, has level but not at the tunnel-vent shaft interface.
been determined for rectangular ducts with the same cross
section into and out of the turn. If the miter turn changes Example 3.6: Calculation of for Vent Shaft. To
area through the turn, the resulting velocity head loss will illustrate the methods for calculatmg' the example
be as shown on Fig. 3.21 (Ref. 9). Under the conditions vent shaft is defined in detail on Fig. 3.22.
when the ratio of exit area, A e , to inlet area, Ai' is greater
than unity, the head loss appears to vary only slightly
Ae will be the sum of the following terms:

I. Expansion and contraction losses through the


'.5 2. Sudden changes "in area" between upper and lower

~ VjA j sections

WIDTH = CONSTANT 3. Frictional losses in upper and lower sections
ct 3.5
r 4. Form losses through the miter bends with turning
> vanes
~ 3.0
.J All head losses are referenced to the velocity at the
UJ 2.5
> HEAD LOSS Cl>/-l junction of the vent shaft with the tunnel where the area
ui is A v '
0 2.0
0 1. Expansion and Contraction Losses Through the
r 1.5 Grating

1.0 Inflow: The grating is analogous to a number of

square-edged orifices.
From Table 3.13, (Square Edge Orifice Entrance Type),
for A per A = 0.6, Cg =0.96 for air flowing into the
0.5 1.0 20 25 , 0
vent ino terms Kof V , the velocity through the grating.
Fig. 3.21. Head Loss Through Variable Area Miter From the equation for conservation of mass: V =~ Vv
° A
3-32 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies



21.0 ft
Ao =60'1b OPEN = 219 SQ ft


20 ft


Fig. 3.22. Definition Sketch for C ~ps Example Calculation

Therefore, the grating loss coefficient Cg for inflow is: Outflow: Treating the grating as a number of
square-edged orifices, Table 3.13 (Square Edge
Orifice Exit Type) is used to find A a per A g =
0.6, and Cg = 1.96 in terms of Va'

Therefore, the grating loss coefficient Cg for outflow:

= 1.25 in terms of Vv' the velocity at the reference
area,~, of the vent shaft Cg = ·(1.96) (1.3) = 2.54 in terms of V v
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-33

2. Sudden Changes "In Area" Between Upper and Lower Section

Lower Sections
Find 11 -fJ for lower portion.
lower cross-sectional area = 250 = 0 69
upper cross-sectional area 365 . D = 17.4 (from Fig. 3.15)

Inflow: Interpolating from Table 3.13 (Abrupt

Contraction, Square Edge Type), Coefficient Ca for ~ = °i~~ = 0.0001724
inflow is:
Re = (100)(17.4)(720)= 1.25 x 106
Ca = 0.11 in terms of Vv
From Fig. 3.14, I = 0.014
Outflow: From Table 3.13 (Abrupt Expansion Type)

Ca = 0.09 in terms of Vv fJ~·

(0.014) (..2Q...)
0.02 velocity heads in terms of Vv
3. Frictional Losses in Upper and Lower Sections

It is necessary to assume some vent velocity for 4. Form Losses Through the Miter Bends with Turning
this calculation. Assume Vv = 720 fpm, then Vanes

Upper Section From Fig. 3.20, the head loss coefficient for a miter
bend with turning vanes is 0.2; then
From conservation of mass, Vu = Vv ~
Aup Cel = (2) (0.20) = 0.40

where Cel is head loss coefficient for the two
Vu = air velocity in upper portion of vent shaft, fpm miter bends, dimensionless.

Aup = area of upper portion of vent shaft, sq ft

Summary: Adding all head losses together,
:.V = 720 fpm (250 sq ft) = 493 fpm
u 365 sq ft
= Cg+Ca+!.uDf..+/if..+C
D el
From Fig. 3.15, for upper portion, (a = 13.5 ft
and b = 27 ft), = 1.25 + 0.11 + 0.01 + 0.02 + 0.40
= 1.79 velocity heads in terms of Vv
D '" 21.0 ft

From Eq. (3.22), Re = (I 00)(21.OX493) = 1.04 x 106

Outflow, C<lps = 2.54 + 0.09 + 0.01 + 0.02 + 0.40
= 3.06 velocity heads in terms of Vv
From Table 3.\1, € = 0.003 for average concrete.

Relative Roughness =£= 0.003 = 0.00014 Flow Splits at Vent Shafts. At a vent shaft, air flowing
D 21
through a tunnel will divide or split. The parameter
From Fig. 3.14, f = 0.0135 characterizing the flow split at a junction is Cm, which
is the ratio of the mass flow rate through the vent to the
= (0.0135) 20
1. )= 0.01
velocity heads in terms mass flow rate through the tunnel downstream (inflow)
o Vu or upstream (outflow) of the vent shaft. (See Figs. 3.23
and 3.24.) Thus, Cm is defined by:
)2 =(0.013)(0.47)
c. =~~ (3.26)
= 0.01 velocity heads in terms of Vv m AV
3-34 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

"- Driving pressure coefficient

Inflow Outflow
'. y Poe - PI PI - Poe
CD,p CD,p (3.27)
li VI 2
V2 2
Vent shaft head loss

Inflow Outflow

Poe - Po Po - Poe
PRESSURE ---+------------1:----- "-
CD,ps =
li • Vv 2 CD,PS li . Vv 2
where Po is the stagnation pressure at the bottom of the
vent shaft and is assumed equal to PI' These pressures,
DISTANCE '''CREASING O'f'05ITE THE DIIl.ECTlON OF FLOW in addition to Poe and P2 , are represented on Figs. 3.23 and
3.24. The driving force is the difference between
Fig. 3.23. Inflow at a T.Junction atmospheric pressure and the pressure across the bottom
of the vent shaft, which is approximately the upstream
pressure for both inflow and outflow. This may. at first,
seem a little inconsistent in the case of inflow; however,
most of the pressure drop resulting from the mixing of
fresh and tunnel air occurs downstream away from the
shaft so that the driving force is closely approximated by
PI' the upstream pressure.
From the definition of Cm and the equations for driving
force and flow resistance through the vent shaft, Cm is
" equal to:

C. =K.~jCAP
m • A CAPs
A', Outflow
C. =K
m 0
CAP + I - Ctilii

Fig. 3.24. Outflow at a T.Junction where K i and K 0 are empirical constants.

K; 0.965 for ail tunnel shaft geometries

(usualIy taken as unity)
The Cm formulation for tunnel air flow, which is
1.05 for tunnels with circular cross sections
assumed to be one-dimensional, incompressible and
(usualIy taken as unity)
isothermal, is dependent on the driving pressure
coefficient and the vent shaft head losses. These two 1.0 for circular tunnels with roadbeds
parameters can be expressed for inflow and outflow as
folIows: 0.90 for square tunnels
____ Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-35

CAlIi = entrance loss at the bottom of the vent CMe. may be neglected for Ctips> 1 ; for example, when
shaft. For a T-junction vent shaft, CAlIi = C~ps = 5, a 4.5% error results from neglecting CMe'
1 because there is no momentum recovery
as the air makes the 90 degree turn from CMe is important for straight discharge vent shafts
the tunnel to the vent shaft. having a very low vent shaft head loss (C~ps = I).

C~s = vent shaft head loss Pressure Rises Across Vent Shafts. In both inflow and
outflow, a pressure gradient exists across the vent shaft.
CA1Ie= coupling losses related to the configuration The gradient is caused mostly by two phenomena: the
of the interface between the tunnel and the Bernoulli Effect, because more air is flowing on one side
vent shaft. of the vent shaft than the other, and the turbulence. The
pressure coefficient across the vent shaft is:
For vent shafts with expansion chambers:
Tunnel area C 1.92(C.)O.4
~pxi = m
CMi = tunnel area + vertical open area (3.30)

provided the expansion is complete (see Fig. 3.25). The Outflow

vertical opening is also taken as the inlet area of the vent, C~pxo = 1.067 Cm (1..5 - Cm)

Flow Splits in A Tunnel-Vent System. The air flow has

been discussed above in terms of what takes place at a
single vent shaft. Most tunnels have several vent shafts.
The magnitude of the flow split can be estimated using
the following procedures.

The air flow split of a single vent shaft is dependent on

the variables given in Eq. (3.29). All the terms in this
equation are known from geometry of the tunnel and vent
shaft except CtJ.P' the driving force. To solve Eq. (3.29)
for Cm, another expression for C~ must be found and
the two solved simultaneously. The second equation
• • A"
comes from consideration of the flow in the tunnel.

Since both the vent shaft and, ultimately, the tunnel are
....... "'ItI = ytlll:TICAL OII'U AtIl" 0' VlIn' SHAfT
open to the atmosphere, the pressure at the end of each
flow path must be atmospheric (Fig. 3.26). Therefore, the
pressure drop along the tunnel system can be used to
Fig. 3.25. Definition Sketch of C~Hi for Momentum
determine the magnitude of C~p' The pressure drop along
the tunnel is composed of:
Recovery in Expansion
1. Tunnel resistance, which is the sum of the
C~He is the coupling loss related to the configuration of friction and form resistance in the length of
the interface between the tunnel and the vent shaft. tunnel between the vent shaft in question and
A V_15 atmosphere. Of course, the friction and form
CMe = 0.45 (AR)0.35 ( 1i ) (3.31) resistances are proportional to the square of the
air velocity actually flowing in the section.
2. The pressure change across each vent shaft due
AR =aspect ratio to turbulent mixing of outside air with tunnel air
length of vent shaft along the tunnel at the junction, Eq. (3.32).
height of vent shaft
3-36 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

For inflow, the CfJ.p can be computed for a tunnel-vent adjacent vent shafts, also includes any other head
system with identical vent shafts equally spaced: losses, H 2 , due to changes in area or other factors. The
'lr term is based on the distance between adjacent vent
shafts, not the entire tunnel length.

CfJ. p (1- Cm)2 (f ~ + 1.92 Cm O'J For outflow, the CfJ.pcan be computed for a tunnel-vent
system with identical vent shafts equally spaced:

+(1- Cm)4V 1J+ 1.92 Cm0.4)

+ (1 - Cm)6 ~ fJ + 1.92 Cm 0.)
+. etc. (3.33)
{-1.067 Cm (1.5 - Cm)

~ fJ -1.067 Cm (1.5 - Cm)]


I v, v, + (1- Cm )2
d~ I
+ (I - Cm )4 ~ ~ - 1.067 Cm (1.5 - Cm)]
I ~ I
~ p.,...--~t=====:t-----t----t---p-
+ . . . etc.} (3.36)
- ' - - - - - - - - - p.


B. OUTFLOW The simultaneous solutions to Eq. (3.29) for outflow and

VENT A VENT 0 Eq. (3.36) are presented graphically on Fig. 3.28 (Ref. 1).

Effect of Unequal Cm 's. The Cm's determined by Figs.

3.27 and 3.28 are for an infinitely long tunnel-vent system
with the same Cm's for all vent shafts within the system
because all the areas, head losses and lengths were the
same. This is not the case in the real world. Fortunately,
DISTANCE INCREASiNG IN THE DIRECTION OF FLOW since the flow relationships in Eqs. (3.33) and (3.36)
involve power series of numbers less than unity, the series
Fig. 3.26. Air Flow in a Tunnel-Vent System quickly converge. Therefore, the Cm for each vent shaft
can be computed as if all the other vent shafts beyond it
The simultaneous solutions and Eq. (3.29) for inflow and had identical geometry. The effect of this assumption
Eq. (3.33) are presented graphically on Fig. 3.27 (Ref. 1). usually does not alter significantly the overall results.
In order to use Fig. 3.27, two new parameters are defined:

1 (3.34) The percentage error associated with this assumption is
and illustrated in Tables 3.14 and 3.15. The inflow case
converges more rapidly than the outflow case, and it is
'It = fk+H
D 2 (3.35) recommended that the inflow Cm's be used whenever
possible when computing ventilation rates. Computing the
flow split through the blast shaft is the primary instance
Both <P and 'Ir can be determined from geometrical details where the outflow computation should be used. The
obtained from system drawings or loss coefficients given methods for computing flow splits around stations are
in this section. In addition to frictional head loss between given in Sec. 3.2.
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-37


I \ \
I \ \
\ \
I \
\ I
I \
~ \ \ \
5 \ \ \
\ \
'ii. \
u<3 6

.2 .4 .6 .8 1.0

Fig. 3.27. Vent Shaft Flow Analysis - Inflow

3-38 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies



I ,




.2 .4 .6 .8 1.0

Fig. 3.28. Vent Shaft Flow Analysis - Outflow

Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-39

Table 3.14. Inflow Driving Pressure Coefficient Clipi in a Tunnel-Vent System

With I~ Between Vent Shafts .. 1.5 Velocity Heads

First Vent, Cm1 - 0.3

All Vents, Cm 1= Cm 2 =0.3
Item Other Vents, Cm ? 0) Other Vents, Cm 2 004
Value Cumulative Value Cumulative Value Cumulative

(1- C.m! )2 [I!::...

D + 1.92 C·m2 ] 1.320 1.320 1.320 1.320 1.320 1.320

(I-C' )2(I-C' )2[/.L+1.92C'

m! m2 D ~
0.4J 0.648 1.968 0.785 2.105 0.500 1.820

(I-C' )2(I_C'
m! m2
D . m2
OAJ 0.317 2.285 0.502 2.607 0.180 2.000

(l - C· )2 (1 - C· )6 [r -±. + 1.92 C· 0.4J 0.155 2.440 0.321 2.928 0.064 2.064

m! m2 D m2
(1 - Cm!)2 (1 - Cm2)8 [r~ + 1.92 Cm 20.4J 0.076 2.516 0.205 3.133 0.023 2.087

% Change at Last SUlfunation

-- 3% 7% 1%

CA.p 2.516 3.133 2.087

Cm from Fig. 3.27 0.300 0.300 0.300

Actual Cm 0.300 0.320 0.260

% Error in Cm 0% 7% 13%

Table 3.15. Outflow Driving Pressure Coefficient CA.po in a Tunnel-Vent System

Withf~ Between Vent Shafts .. 1.5 Velocity Heads

All Vents, First Vent, Cm ! - 0.3

Item Cm ! = Cm ? = 0.3 OtherVents,Cm2 -0.2 OtherVents,Cm2 - 004
Value Cumulative Value Cumulative Value Cumulative

-1.067 Cm p·5 - Cm !) -0.384 -0.384 -0.384 -0.384 -0.384 -0.384

+(1-Cri'l)2 ~ ~-1.067 Cm2 (1.5 -Cm2 )] +0.546 +'0.162 +0.600 +0.216 +0.504 +0.120

+(1 - Cm !)2 (1- C';'2)2 [f~ -1.067 C~(1.5 - C';'2)] +0.268 +0.430 +0.384 +0.600 +0.181 +0.301

+(1 - Cm !)2 (1 - C';'2)4 [t~ - 1.067 C~(1.5 - Cm2 )] +0.131 +0.561 +0.246 +0.846 +0.065 +0.366

+(1- Cm!? (1- Cn,2)6 [f~ - 1.067 C~(1.5 - Cm2 )] +0.064 +0.625 +0.157 +1.003 +0.023 +0.389

+(1-Cm !)2 (1-Cm2 )8 [t~ -1.067 C~(1.5 -C';'2)] +0.031 +0.656 +0.101 +1.104 +0.008 +0.:':i97

+(1 - Cm !)2 (1- Cm2)!0[f~ -1.067 C~(1.5 - Cm2 )] +0.015 +0.671 +0.064 +1.168 +0.003 +00400

% Change at Last Su!mnation 2.3%


-- 5.8% 0.7%

CAp 0.671 1.168 00400

Cm from Fig. 3.28 0.300 0.300 0.300

Actual Cm 0.300 0.360 0.190
% Error in Cm 0.0% 20.0% 37.0%
3-40 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Air Flow Rates Induced by Piston Action.This section f , dimensionless (3.39)

presents a graphical method for estimating the air flow in U
a tunnel produced by train piston action. Figure 3.29 (ratio of tunnel air velocity to train speed)
shows the situation of a subway train traveling between
two vent shafts. tr.ain length, ft

Jl \::v

------+ A:'
Q 1:><::1 ~

- LI
v'} __
d train hydraulic diameter, ft

The drag forces produce a pressure difference between

Sections "b" and "f' so that the force moving the air
-~ through the tunnel is simply the product of the pressure
difference and the tunnel area.
I (P r • ",)
I The pressure in front of the train, Pf' can be expressed in
terms of the pressure losses down the tunnel (frictional)
and through the outflowing vent shaft, so that:

-- Pf PI +I i o ~~) (3.41)
Also, from Eq. (3.36)
Fig. 3.29. Piston Action in a Tunnel·Vent System

The air flows in the immediate vicinity of the train are

compiex phenomena and are discussed in Appendix B. where
The net effect is to create a pressure rise across the train
that serves to move the air through the tunnel. At points v = bulk velocity of air in the tunnel, fpm
designated "b" and "f', behind and in front of the train. The pressure drops can also be written for behind the
respectively. the near field flow phenomena disappear to train. except that the flow into the tunnel from the vent
be replaced by far field (i.e., pipe) flow phenomena which shaft is primarily dependent on the pressure upstream of
are mathematically tractable. The drag on the train is the vent shaft. Therefore, consideration must be given to
described by a drag coefficient, CD: the pressure change across the vent shaft due to the
turbulent mixing of the inflowing air. This can be
~ _[ (Ja-(3I(a-(3)\(~) (3.37)
computed using the following equations, in which dummy
t\ (1-a)2 }\d..,fa
pressure variables PO( and
used. Thus:
as defined on Fig. 3.29 are


M' = static pressure change as a consequence of train

D \28

passage, lbf per sq ft and:

U train velocity. fpm (3.43)

a blockage ratio = .x, dimensionless (3.38)

(ratio of train frontal area to tunnel area)
It train friction (usually about 0.03), dimensionless
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-41

Equating the drag force in Eqs. (3.37) and (3.38) and (3.46)
C'D ==
expressing the pressure drops in terms of the coefficients

= -1J2
[ fD CA
+- (L - f) + CA
. + CA
~. The constant CDoo ' which is an approximation of the drag
coefficient for an infinitely long tunnel where 13 = 0, has
been evaluated for several sets of train characteristics and
is plotted as a function of a on Fig. 3.:31 (Ref. I).
(3.45) Therefore Eqs. (3.45) and (3.46) may be solved
simultaneously to deduce 13 as a function of train and
tunnel geometry only. This has been done graphically on
In practice, (L b + L ) < (L - I) because the near field flow
Fig. 3.32 (Ref. I) for a train, running through smooth
phenomena extendsome tunnel diameters upstream and
(formed) or rough (ribbed) tunnels.
downstream of the train. Also, the tunnel friction factor
in back of the train is reported to be only 15 percent more
than that in front of the train. Within the accuracy of this The curves presented on Fig. 3.32 may be used to deduce
method, however, and also within the accuracy of the bulk velocity in the tunnel from knowledge of train
friction factors themselves, the use of the expression (L -1) characteristics and of vent and tunnel geometry in the
is sufficient. vicinity of the train. In this case, "vicinity" is defined as
the tunnel section in which the train is traveling, upstream
and downstream vent shafts, and one tunnel section
All the variables in Eq. (3.45) are known. The pressure
beyond each of these vent shafts. CDoo is known as a
coefficients C~po and C~pi may be evaluated graphically function of train geometry from Fig. 3.31.
from Figs. 3.26 and 3.27. The pressure drop across the
inflow vent shaft is expressed in Eq. (3.32) and is plotted
As defined in Eq. (3.45), n is equal to:
as a function of Cm on Fig. 3.30 (Ref. I).
2.0 n=2.. [c
+ 1. (L - f) + CA' + CAl (3.47)
D ~Pl ~px~

V All of the values needed to compute the value of n are

/" known. From consideration of an outflowing vent shaft,

-' 1.2
/ C~po can be evaluated as a function of tunnel and vent
shaft geometry, such as the case for C~pi at the inflowing
vent shaft. CA.
is evaluated from knowledge of C·m at
...z / the inflowing vent shaft, which can be deduced from the
same curves used to evaluate CApi'

/ Solution of ~, therefore, involves three steps:

1. Find n.
4 I
2. Find CD 00'

3. Enter Fig. 3.32 with these values to find IJ.
o .2 .4 .6 .8 1.0
Fig. 3.30. Tunnel Pressure Drop Across Vent Shaft,
Air Flowing In Figures 3.27 and 3.28 are required for the solution of
CApo and CApi' From the solution of CApi' a C is m
Experimental studies with geometrically true models have obtained for tne inflowing vent shaft. This Cm is then
produced results which indicate that for constant train carried to Fig. 3.30 where CApxi is found. These terms,
characteristics (lId) the drag coefficient can be in conjunction with the value for f( L - l)/D then complete
approximated as: the set of terms needed to define n.
3-42 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies




200 .I
t /
d RATIO / ,I
6fl1 /J.

/' ~'~
'~ V j"



'/3" ~/J

,» v/
v /.
/ V// /

7 //J /. /
[/7 V ..,/ .~// v / A

/ . / ~/ V~
/ ' ~' /,.~
./. / //
~ V~ V /'
/~ ~ Y /

~~ ~
.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .7

Fig.3.31. Effect of Train Characteristics on Drag

Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-43

I 00 ~----.------r----,....-----'----"""""---"'----_

50 1oo.::::------+----+------'=!~---+_--_..,.01'__--__1---_d

U'l 10

~ 5
l.!) 2

.1 .6 .7

Fig. 3.32. Piston Action Flow

3-44 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Evaluation of C is made from Fig. 3.31 knowing the where

D= . C
blockage ratio a, and the train lid. An appropnate D=
N number of vent snafts in system segment
curve on Fig. 3.32 intersects with the n family of curves
to yield a value for the velocity ratio 13, and thus the n number of trains per minute (average number
velocity of the air in the tunnel. The solutions for 13 for both directions)
generally apply when there is at least one tunnel-vent
section of tunnel on either side of the occupied section of A cross-sectional area of tunnel, sq ft
tunnel. A case of special interest is the value of 13 when
the train is approaching a station, and methods for v average velocity of air in tunnel, fpm
solution of this case are generally developed in Sec. 3.2.

m mass flow ratio between air flowing in
After entering Fig. 3.32 with known values ofCD=and n, through vent shaft to that flowing in the
the values for C~ and 13 are determined. From Eq. (3.39) tunnel
the airspeed in the tunnel is computed. The C~
determined from Fig. (3.32) is the first term of Eq. (3.37). Since V is not known a priori, 13, from Eq. (3.39), and a,
For smooth tunnels, CD should be about the same value from Eq. (3.38), are substituted into Eq. (3.48):
as C~ ' i.e., the other term is small; however, for rough
tunnels that term will become larger. Q = Nna U f!.-
a Cm

Ventilation Rate and Heat RemoYaJ. Methods are where

provided herein for estimating the ventilation rate so that
the heat removed or added to the subway by ventilation U = average train velocity
can be determined. Ventilation includes both train piston _ distance between stations (ft)
action ventilation and mechanical ventilation by fans. - (travel time + 0.25)(min)
Conversely, if the heat removal and temperature criteria
are known, the ventilation rate required to effect that
One-quarter minute (an empirical number based on the
removal is fixed. Therefore, the purpose is also to give the
relationship between vent size and spacing which will results of SES analysis) is added to the train travel time
result in the desired ventilation rate. to account for the momentum of the air flow in the subway
which causes the flow to persist even after the train has
The heat exchange rate affected by subway ventilation is stopped.
dependent on the ventilation rate and the difference
between the air temperature in the subway and outdoors.
The engineer can influence the ventilation rate through Figure 3.33 shows the subway system control volume
control of vent shaft geometries and quantity as well as analyzed. The subway system is divided into control
the deployment of fans, and thus design the desired volumes by stations so that each vent is assigned to a
ventilation rate into the subway system. Methods are station. The control volume is taken around a single
developed for estimating the subway ventilation rate. Use station and its assigned vent shafts. The stations on either
is made of the SES (Subway Environmental Simulation) side of this station are assumed to be generally similar. If
computer results to illustrate the sensitivity of the not, as in the case of a station adjacent to a portal, the
ventilation rate to various parameters of interest. more detailed methods for estimating tunnel flows given
in Air Flow Rates Induced by Piston Action must be
Ventilation Rate. The ventilation rate, Q, must be used. The ventilation rate for the station shown on Fig.
determined if Eq. (3.18) is to be applied. As a first 3.33 is equal to the total outdoor air that comes into the
approximation, Eqs. (3.48) or (3.49) estimate the control volume through the vent shafts. The ventilation
ventilation rate. These equations show all the basic rate is then determined separately for each control volume
tradeoff relationships among subway geometry, vent shaft
(station) of the system. Assuming the average tunnel flow
number and train operations. For train headways of less
is A V, then the average ventilation inflow into the subway
than 180 seconds, the following equation is usually within
from N equally sized vent shafts is NA VCm, where Cm
plus or minus 10 percent of the ventilation rate predicted
is the mass flow ratio between air flowing in through the
by the SES computer (see Volume II).
vent shaft to that flowing in the tunnel. Either inflow or
C· outflow might be used in this approach but the Cm for
Q = NnAV-!!L (3.48) inflow is usually more accurate (see Tables 3.14 and 3.15).
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-45


Fig. 3.33. Definition Sketch of Subway System Control Volume for Ventilation Rate Analysis

It has been shown in Air Flow Rates Induced by Piston Rule 3. Subway ventilation rates may be augmented by
Action, that C can be determined graphically from
m fans in the vent shafts. The fan alters the flow phenomena
consideration of vent shaft resistance and flow in the tunnel and requires modification to the basic
relationships in the tunnel. The graphical solution equation Eq. (3.49) for the subway ventilation rate. The
requires that <P in Eq. (3.34) and 'It in Eq. (3.35) be following modifications have been found to provide
known. Since the flow through the vent shaft is composed reliable data for fan systems when compared to the SES
of both inflow and outflow, it is assumed that each is computer program results.
occurring half the time, and hence Cmis divided by two to
obtain the flow rate into the subway. The ventilation rate Q = Q fan + Q piston action (3.50)
is also directly proportional to the frequency of train
operations through the subway in both directions. This is
expressed in trains per minute, n', counting trains in both where
directions. The /3/ a is taken as unity for the first Q fan number of fans in control volume
approximation. times the fan flow rate, cfm (if
fans are used in push and pull, use
Eq. (3.49) is reliable if the following rules are applied: the inflow rate)

Rule 1. The mass flow ratio Cm is determined graphically Q from Eq. (3.49), where N in this
from the parameters q\ describing the vent resistance, Q piston action
case equals the number of vent
and '1', describing the head loss between vents in the shafts in control volume without
tunnel (see Fig. 3.27). Since all vents in the control volume fans
are not equally spaced, it has been found that 'It should
be based on the distance between the vents in the tunnel. Cm is determined from <P and 'It when 'It is based on
Similarly <P is based on tunnel vent geometries as opposed maximum distance between the adjacent nonfan vent
to station vent geometries. shafts. Fig. 3.35 illustrates the computation of N. The
control volume is composed of four vent shafts, B2 which
Rule 2. Application of Eq. (3.49) is straightforward for has a fan, V2, B3, and V3.
single track and undivided double track systems. When
considering a station served with two single bore tunnels Therefore the number of nonfan shafts is three, or N =
that have independent vent shafts, however, N equals the 3. Figure 3.36 gives examples for determination of L for
total number of vents in the control volume and n equals several typical subway vent configurations.
the frequency of operations through one tunnel (see Fig.
I B2a I

.....:--...:---+-.::-~: : ::
V2 B3. V4.



=-~ -------

Fig. 3.34. Definition Sketch of Subway System Control Volume for Rule No.2 of Ventilation Rate Analysis
(Number of Vents, N = 7)
3-46 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Fig. 3.35. Definition Sketch of Subway System Control Volume for Rule No.3 of Ventilation Rate Analysis
(Number of Vents, N =3)


Fig. 3.36. Definition Sketch of Subway System Control Volume for Rule No.3 of Ventilation Rate Analysis
(Number of Vents, N =3 in Upper Two Sketches and N • 1 in Lo_r Sketch)
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-47

A change in any variable in Eq. (3.49) will directly affect Predicted Temperature Differential. Comparison of the
the piston action ventilation rate. An indication of the AT predicted by Eq. (3.18) with temperatures calculated
sensitivity of the subway ventilation rate to each by the SES computer program for subway systems of
parameter is given in Table 3.16 where the ventilation varying configurations indicates that an approximate
rates were obtained by averaging inflows predicted by the relationship can be found between the predicted average
SES computer program. For reference, Table 3.17 subway AT in Eq. (3.18) and the maximum tunnel and
contains the baseline system data for the reference double station temperatures obtained from computer modeling
track and single track systems. (Ref. 11). These relationships for stations with design
temperatures above ambient are:

Table 3.16. Sensitivity of Ventilation Rate to Changes in Subway System Variables

Average Percentage Ventilation
Ventilation Change Rate
Rate from Estimated
Computed Baseline from
by SES Ventilation Eq. (3.48) Ratio
Routes in Q ses Rate Qest Qest
Run Operation Variable Changed (% Changed) (cfm) % (cfm) rJ;;
Baseline (DT-3) Two 190,000 0 199,000 1.05
DT-l Two n, Frequency of Train (-50%) 95,000 -50 83,000 0.87
DT·6 Two Vent Shaft, <I> (-62%) 136,000 -28 130,000 0.96
DT·7 Two Vent Shaft, <I> (+358%) 270,000 +42 254,000 0.94
DT·8 Two Vent Shaft, <I> (+850%) 324,000 +71 310,000 0.96
DT·1O Two Vent Shaft, N (+50%) & <I> (+450%) 380,000 +100 346,000 0.91
DT·ll Two 0, Blockage Ratio (+40%) 1/ 324,000 +71 314,000 0.97
DT·12 Two 0, Blockage Ratio (-43%) 1/ 195,000 + 3 173,000 0.89
Baseline (5A) One 140,000 0 148,000 1.06
5B One Blast Shaft, <I> (- 50%) 142,000 + 1 148,000 1.04
5C One Blast Shaft, <I> (+100%) 137,000 - 2 148,000 1.08
5D One All Vents except Station, <I> (-60%) 152,000 + 9 148,000 0.97
5E One All Vents except Station, <I> (+100%) 127,000 - 9 127,000 1.00
5F One All Vents except Station, <I> (-50%),A v (-50%) 124,000 -11 118,000 0.95
5G One U, Train Speed (+33%) 160,000 +14 164,000 1.02
DT-14 Two Fans (150,000 cfm mid-tunnel, 2 vents) 218,000 - 200,000 0.92
DT-15 Two Fans 345,000 - 365,000 1.06
DT-16 Two Fans 425,000 - 440,000 1.04
DT·17 Two Underplatform Ventilation (No Makeup Air)
DT·20 Two System Configuration 340,000 - 334,000 0.98
DT·21 Two System Configuration 254,000 - 239,000 0.94
3-48 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies
Table 3.17. Baseline System Data When the station is air conditioned and its design
temperature is !OF below ambient, the relationships
between station temperature, T, and the tunnel
Data Double Track Single Track temperature (Ref. II) are:

Frontal Area of Train, 0 100 sq ft 100 sq ft I. Average multi-track tunnel

Tunnel Cross-Sectional Area, A 400 sq ft 200 sq ft temperature =T + 5F (3.59)
Blockage Ratio, a 0.25 0.50
Vent Shaft Cross-Sectional Area,A v 200 sq ft 200 sq ft 2. Average multi-track tunnel temperature
Vent Shaft Impedance, C!ips 9.5 (Inflow) 6.0 (Inflow) with mid - tunnel fan = T + 2F (3.60)
<I> 0.0263 0.1800
Hydraulic Diameter, D 20.2 14.3
3. Average single-track tunnel
L 1,650 ft 1,650 ft
temperature = T + 2F (3.61)
Tunnel Friction Factor,f 0.0253 0.0253
1/I=fJ> 2.07 2.92
C m 0.28 0.50 For air-conditioned stations, if the degree of aerodynamic
No. of Vent Shafts per Section,N 4 4 isolation between the tunnel and the stations can be
Train Speed, Maximum 60 mph 60 mph increased, the tunnel will be hotter, resulting in reduction
Tnlin Headways 120 sec 120 sec of the air-conditioning requirements in the stations. The
(each direction) (each direction) methods of increasing this isolation are discussed in Sec.
n 60 trains/hr 60 trains/hr
Temperature - Ambient, To 75 F 75 F
- Wall Surface, Tw 85 F 85 F
Figure 3.37 plots, as an example, the average air
temperature along a subway as a function of position for
1. Average subway temperature = To + AT (3.51) the example system run labeled DT-7 in Table 3.16.

2. Maximum station temperature

=To + 1.50AT (3.52) Example 3.7: Compare the SES results with those
calculated in Eqs. (3.51) through (3.55) above for the
3. Maximum tunnel temperature system labeled DT-7 in Table 3.16.
=To + 0.9AT (3.53) Ambient temperature outside subway = 75F
4. Maximum station temperature
From Table 3.16 the calculated ventilation rate is 254,000
with two trains stopped simultaneously cfm.
= To + 2.1AT (3.54)
From the SES run the net (total input minus heat to sink)
5. Maximum tunnel temperature heat released to the subway is 4,800,000 Btu per hI.
near station with two trains stopped
simultaneously = To + I.IAT (3.55) From Eq. (3.18)
q = l.IQAT
To =ambient temperature outside tunnel, F AT = Tf-o
If the station is air conditioned and its temperature is the 4,800,000
same as the outdoor ambient, the relationships between or AT = 17F
(l.l) (254,000)
station temperature, T, and the tunnel temperature
(Ref. 11) are: Then, from Eqs. (3.51) through (3.55):

1. Average multi-track tunnel 1. Avg subway temp = 75F + 17F = 92F

temperature = T + 7F (3.56) 2. Max. station temp = 75F + 26F = 101F

2. Average multi-track tunnel temperature 3. Max. tunnel temp = 75F + 15F = 90F

with mi(l - tunnel fan =T + 3F (3.57) 4. Max. station temp, two trains = 75F + 36F
3. Average single-track tunnel
5. Max. tunnel temp, near station with two trains
temperature = T+ 3F (3.58) = 75F + 19F = 94F
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-49





.n 100





V2 V4 V6 V8 VIO
81 VI 82 83 V3 84 85 V5 86 87 V7 88 89 V9 810 811 Vl1 ;11<:'

II I \rSl I 161 I 161 I 1),1 1 IJ,I I


Fig. 3.37. Subway Temperature Profile

Design Tradeoffs. There are seven key parameters in Eq. To illustrate the tradeoffs, assume a subway system with
(3.49) for estimating the ventilation flow rate, but the four vent shafts, namely the stairs, a midtunnel vent and
design engineer has control of only two: N, the number two blast shafts. If the system had one additional
of shafts and C m,
the vent shaft geometry. The train midtunnel vent, it would be a five-vent system. By
headway (1/11), area (a) and train speed (U) are largely changing from four vent shafts to five, the ventilation rate
dictated from people-moving design considerations. increases by about 25 percent; however, the Cm should
Environmental engineering must interact with other remain constant if the above ventilation rate increases are
engineering specialists to effect any changes in these items. to be realized. Shown on Fig. 3.38, which is a reproduction
Also the ratio {3/a does not vary a great amount from of Fig. 3.27, are changes in typical values of ep and 'I' if
unity over a wide range of typical applications. the design went from one midtunnel vent shaft to two
midtunnel vent shafts.
The number of vent shafts has a direct functional
relationship with the ventilation rate. Also, N will change For the purpose of this example, assume 3,000 ft between
the Cm term because N will change the length of tunnel stations, and that 'I' goes from 2.0 to 1.3 as N goes from
between vent shafts. Since other vent shaft parameters can 4 to 5. Using a C. of 0.3 for reference, the ep values must
be varied (within limits) to hold Cm constant, however, increase only slightly to go from A ('I' = 2.0) to B ('I'
it is possible to vary N independently of Cm . Also, Cm = 1.3) on Fig. 3.38.
can be varied independently of N.
3-50 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

A C t=f 6+ H2

, I
I \ \
I \ I
I \ I
I \
I \
I \
I \
I \ \
\ \
I \ \ \
...J \ I \
Z I \ \
0 \ I \
iii \
\ I \
\ \ \
0 \ \ \
\ \
\ \
u<3 6

.2 .4 .6 .s 1.0

Fig. 3.38. Vent Shaft Parameter Interaction - Inflow

Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-51

The <I> value goes from 0.033 to 0.041, which is an II a moderating effect on subway air temperature. As
percent increase in vent area. Also for reference, points subway air temperature rises, heat is transferred into
A' and B' are' included for a case when Cm = 0.5, and the tunnel and station walls, tending to reduce the magnitude
value goes from 0.22 to 0.28, which is a 12 percent increase of the rise. Conversely, as subway air temperature drops,
in area. To continue the example, recall that a 25 percent heat is transferred from tunnel and station walls, reducing
increase in ventilation rate was achieved by going from the magnitude of the drop. This phenomenon has come
N = 4 to N = 5. If the N value was constant at N = to be known as the heat sink effect.
4, the same 25 percent increase in ventilation rate could
be achieved by increasing Cm from 0.300 to 0.375 or, in Approximate heat sink values have been developed for the
the other case, from 0.500 to 0.625. The value for 'It preliminary design of subways which are not cooled or
would remain constant at 'It = 2.0, and thus the same heated by mechanical systems. For maximum rising
effect is achieved by moving on Fig. 3.38 from point A subway air temperatures, during summer evening rush
to point C, or A'to C. In changing the design from point hour, a IO Btu per (hr) (sq ft) heat flow from the subway
A to point C, the <I> value has changed from 0.033 to air to the walls will act as a heat sink to limit the air
0.065, which requires a 40 percent increase in vent area. temperature rise. Thus, for example, during a summer
Similarly, for changing from point A to point c' , the <I> evening rush hour in a subway which has 150,000 sq ft
value changes from 0.22 to 0.75, which requires an 85 of wall surface between stations, a heat balance over the
percent increase in vent shaft area. These results are area between stations should include a heat loss (sink)
summarized in Table 3.18. The increase in total system value of 1,500,000 Btu per hr for heat transferred from
vent shaft area equals the number of vent shafts multiplied air to walls.
by the increase in each vent shaft's area. The Clips term
has been constant. Evening rush hour heat sink values vary through the year
because the wall temperatures lag the changes in subway
From the examples summarized in Table 3.18, the air temperatures brought about by the fluctuation of
tradeoff is between increasing either the Cni or the outside ambient temperature. Representative evening rush
number of vent shafts to achieve 25 percent more hour values for the flow of heat from the subway air to
ventilation air. The change in cost for the vent shafts can the walls during other seasons are: fall - six Btu per
be estimated first for rough approximation purposes to be (hr)(sq ft); winter - three Btu per (hr)(sq ft); and spring
proportional to the total vent shaft area as given in Table - eight Btu per (hr)(sq ft). The heat flow on a daily basis
3.18. Because the line section to be ventilated is the same, during the winter is generally from the walls to the air,
all vents are assumed to be at the same depth; however, except for a few hours during the afternoon and evening.
a civil or structural estimator should be consulted for For example, during a winter morning rush hour a heat
these estimates. flow from the walls to the air of approximately two Btu
per (hr)(sq ft) acts to limit the subway air temperature
Table 3.18. Tradeoff Comparison of Vent
decrease. This significant variation in the heat sink value
Shaft Size and Spacing
between evening and morning rush hour is caused by the
same type of thermal lag phenomenon that results in the
N C.m Percent Increase Percent Increase in Total
in Ventilation Rate Systeth Vent Shaft Area seasonal heat sink value changes, and is observed at all
seasons of the year. For seasons other than winter, the
4 0.300 Reference Reference morning rush hour heat flow is from the subway air to
5 0.300 25% 39% the walls. The following values are recommended for
4 0.375 25% 40% morning rush hour preliminary design computations:
4 0.500 67% 158% spring - two Btu per (hr)(sq ft); summer - four Btu per
(hr)(sq ft); and fall - 0 Btu per (hr)(sq ft).
4 0.500 Reference Reference
5 0.500 25% 40% During weather conditions such as those that may occur
4 0.625 25% 85% during fall and spring, when a moderate temperature day
is preceded by several hot (design) days, the effectiveness
of the heat sink will be diminished. The reduction in the
heat transfer to the sink is attributable to the disruption
Removal and Addition of Sensible Heat by of the cyclical daily temperature pattern. The wall
Heat Sink temperatures are determined to a large degree by the
repeated daily cycle of the air temperatures. The thermal
The tunnel structure and surrounding earth tend to have inertia of the walls is such that the wall temperature
3-52 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

cannot adjust to the disrupted temperature pattern in a employed within station areas. The finished surface
matter of a few hours. Thus, the depression of the air commonly consists of one to two inches of brick or
temperature on the moderate temperature day results in ceramic tile anchored to a structural liner. To prevent
a lower air-wall temperature difference and a seepage and deterioration of the architectural finish, an
corresponding reduction in the heat flow to the sink. The air gap may be provided between the tile and the
consequences of this reduction in the heat transfer to the structural liner. Weep holes are then provided in the tiled
sink are usually most severe during the evening rush hour, wall near the tunnel invert so that seepage can pass into
when the subway heat gains are high, and will occur in the trackway drain.
systems both with and without mechanical systems. For
heat balance computations relating to the described The added thermal resistance due to the finished tile itself
circumstances, a heat transfer rate from the subway air is not significant, since the conductivities of the concrete
to the walls of 1.5 Btu per (hr)(sq ft) is suggested. For and tile do not differ markedly. However, a simple
similar circumstances in the winter, a heat transfer rate analysis will show that the air gap provides a significant
of 1.5 Btu per (hr)(sq ft) from the walls to the air is resistance to heat flow.
suggested. During moderate temperatures, such as during
the fall and spring, when the wall temperatures are about The base system was formulated assuming no
the same as the average ground temperature, the heat flow architectural tile finish in stations or tunnels. A computer
to the walls is about 1.5 Btu per (hr) (sq ft). When applied simulation was especially designed to examine the impact
to specific systems, the above approximate heat sink of tiled station walls on base system heat sink
values will be accurate within about 50 percent. Using the performance. During the summer evening rush hour, the
approximate heat sink values and typical data on train use of tiled station walls with an air gap resulted in a drop
operation, the total heat sink capacity equals 20 to of about 28 percent in heat transfer through walls.
50 percent of train braking and acceleration heat. Thus,
a 50 percent error in the heat sink introduces an error of Waterproofing. Several different techniques may be used
no more than 25 percent in the total heat balance. to minimize entry of moisture into a subway. One method
is to enclose the structure with a thin butyl rubber or
polyethylene membrane (perhaps 1/8 in. thickness).
A mathematical model, discussing the heat sink Another method is to apply alternate layers of tar and felt
phenomenon in considerable detail, is included as an to the structural liner (perhaps 3/8 in. total thickness).
integral part of the Subway Environmental Simulation Some subways use a layer of four in. brick in an asphalt
(SES) computer program, described in Vol. II of this mastic between two structural layers of concrete. A recent
Handbook. To develop data on heat sink performance, the method is to implace Bentonite (clay) filled cardboard
computer model was exercised over a considerable range panels outside the tunnel structure. Moisture swells the
of input parameters, including outdoor air temperature, Bentonite to many times its original volume, so that it
subway wall structure, and earth properties. (The seals the exterior surface of the structure.
approximate heat sink values discussed above resulted
from the computer model studies.) It was found that the Generally, the properties of the materials used for
heat flux to or from subway walls is remarkably insensitive waterproofing are similar to concrete, or the total thermal
to the various extremes which may exist. A hypothetical resistance of the material is small. For these reasons, it
station was examined for variations in summer evening appears that the use of waterproofing of the common types
rush hour heat flux caused by changes in outdoor does not appreciably affect heat sink performance.
conditions, tunnel wall characteristics, and by the
presence of earth migrant groundwater. Based on these Structural Techniques. Tunnel liners may be formed from
studies for non-air conditioned single-track subways, heat bolted segments of cast iron, fabricated steel, or precast
flux within subway tunnels is about 10 percent larger than concrete. Such liners are essentially in direct contact with
in the stations, on the average. the surrounding earth. Grouting (for example, two in. of
Portland cement) may be injected behind the liner to fill
For cases where some data on heat sink parameters are voids between the liner and earth.
available, the design engineer may wish to refine the
nominal values of heat flux-given above. This refinement Tunnel liners may also be formed from cast-in-place
can be accomplished by using engineering judgment concrete. For this case, the concrete may be poured
within the framework of the following discussion. against a segmented outer liner, rock, or against
semipermanent timber lagging. In any case, an
Station Wall Finishes. An architectural finish may be intermediate layer of waterproofing may be used.
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-53

Where earth stability is no problem, usually dense rock, temperature falls. When the subway stations are air
concrete may be sprayed to a depth of four to eight in. conditioned, the operation of the air-conditioning system
directly on to the surrounding earth. controls to a large degree the daily temperature
fluctuations in the stations and adjoining tunnels. In turn,
When the inner tunnel liner has a surface finish similar there is a corresponding impact on the magnitude of the
to smooth concrete, it is not expected that use of any of heat transferred to the sink. The tools for the detailed
the above types of construction will significantly affect analysis of this phenomenon are built into the Subway
heat sink performance. However, a segmented metal or Environment Simulation (SES) computer program, as
concrete inner-liner, or jack arch construction leads to an described in Volume II of this Handbook.
aerodynamically "rough" or a "ribbed" surface which
tends to increase the air film heat conductance at the inner The SES computer program was used to compute the heat
wall surface. sink effect under selected conditions. Tunnels associated
with stations in which the temperature is controlled to a
The impact of the use of ribbed tunnel linings on heat sink near-constant value throughout the day will transfer heat
performance was examined using the heat sink computer to walls at a rate of about seven Btu per (hr)(sq ft). Little
model. Summer evening rush hour heat flux was increased difference was noted in the heat sink effect for double-
by about 24 percent for the ribbed concrete liner, and by track or single-track tunnels serving the station. However,
about 28 percent for the ribbed cast iron liner. when mid-tunnel exhaust fans were added to the system
design, there was an increased flow of conditioned air into
Earth Properties. The properties of surrounding earth the tunnels, further dampening the air temperature
vary considerably on a geographic basis, and in fact, may fluctuations, and this reduced the heat sink effect in the
vary noticeably over the length of a given subway system. tunnel to about five Btu per (hr) (sq ft). The SES computer
program also was used to predict the heat sink effects for
The earth properties of most subways, however, lie the tunnels associated with air-conditioned stations in
somewhere between those oflight dry soil and earth where which the air temperature varies on a daily cycle with an
migrant groundwater is present. air temperature equal to ambient. For this design
condition, the heat transfer rate in the tunnels was about
The maximum impact of migrant groundwater on heat nine Btu per (hr) (sq ft).
sink performance was determined by examining the most
extreme case with the SES computer program. The The heat sink contributions from the walls within the air-
surrounding earth thermal conductivity and diffusivity conditioned stations also are affected significantly by the
were multiplied by a factor of 100 over that of a reference controlled daily air temperature fluctuations. In stations
base subway system to simulate the effect of migrant where air conditioning is used to maintain a near-constant
groundwater. For the hundred-fold increases in earth air temperature throughout the day, the thermal lag
conductivity and diffusivity, heat flux only increased by between the wall and air temperature is minimized. In this
about 40 percent. circumstance, it is suggested that the heat transfer
between the station walls and air be neglected in heat
The effects of dense rock and light, dry soil on heat sink computations.
performance were examined. For dense rock, the
computer model predicted a summer evening rush hour For cases where the operation of the air-conditioning
station heat flux of 11.37 Btu per (hr) (sq ft), i.e., about system is such as to cause station air temperature to vary
10 percent greater than the average design value of 10 Btu on a daily cycle with a swing approximately equal to
per (hr) (sq ft); whereas, for the same system in light dry ambient, a heat sink value of six Btu per (hr)(sq ft) for
soil a corresponding heat flux of 7.52 Btu per (hr) (sq ft) the heat transfer from the air to the station walls is
was predicted, i.e., about 25 percent lower than the recommended for summer evening rush hour heat balance
average design value for heat flux. computations. The correction factor discussed in Station
Wall Finishes for tiled station walls also applies to this
Heated and Air-Conditioned Sections. The daily station heat sink computation. Because of the thermal lag
fluctuations of air temperature influence the effectiveness nature of the heat sink effect, the heat sink value in the
of the heat sink; they cause fluctuations in the wall air-conditioned station will be reduced at other times of
temperatures which are out of phase and lag the air the day and may actually be a source effect. It is
temperature. Thereby, a sink effect is provided as the recommended that the station heat sink effect be neglected
subway air temperature rises, and a reduced sink or in morning rush hour heat balance computations for all
perhaps a source effect is provided as the subway air air-conditioned stations.
3-54 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Depth and Proximity ofTunnels. From analytical studies, sources is rejected while they are opposite the station
it has been determined that changes in subway waH platform. An effective means of preventing this heat from
temperature due to the component of daily air entering the station's occupied areas is to exhaust the
temperature ordinarily do not affect the sink temperature undercar air, and hence the heat, directly to the surface.
m'ore than two feet outside the inner wall surface. Since In this manner, the heat does not reach the occupied areas
tunnel walls approximately average this thickness, it is not nor cause their temperatures to increase. Trackway
expected that heat flow due to the daily component of exhaust systems result in a very direct and, potentially,
outside temperature will be affected substantially by the very effective removal of heat from the heat balance for
proximity of a tunnel to other structures or to the surface. the subway system. The amount of heat removed and
other aspects of the heat balance,i.e., changes in ambient-
Annual and long-term changes in subway air temperature ~ir ventilation rate, are discussed herein.
tend to affect temperatures for greater distances into the
surrounding earth than do diurnal changes. However, Types of Underplatform Ventilation Systems. The
these components generally affect the subway air ventilation system induces air changes underneath the
temperature less than daily temperature changes. vehicle by fans. There are three basic types of systems:
(1) exhaust only, (2) exhaust with supply, and (3) supply
Based upon these observations and limited computer only. These are illustrated on Figs. 3.39 through 3.41.
studies, it is suggested that no adjustments be made in the
nominal heat flux due to proximity of tunnels to other 1. Exhaust Only. This system will extract hot air
structures or the surface. from beneath the train through grilles adjacent
to the undercarriage and exhaust it to
aboveground. The exhaust grilles can be located
Underplatform and Related Exhaust" Systems to the side of the trackway beneath the platform,

One direct technique to remove heat from the

environment of the subway systems is to capture as much
heat as possible before it reaches the occupied areas. To
use this technique, the design engineer must determine the
locations where the air temperature is higher than that of
the rest of the subway system and exhaust the hotter air
to the surface. The most obvious, easy-to-reach location
of substantially hotter air is underneath the train during
its dwell. Underplatform and other configurations of
trackway exhaust systems capture the air heated by all the TI"4IFlO
undercar equipment and exhaust it directly to the surface
before it mixes with the station air. Depending on the
system design, there may be other underground areas that
Fig. 3.39. Underplatform Exhaust
offer an opportunity for similar capture and expulsion of
heat, such as the deceleration area just ahead of a speed
restriction area. Since the heat is removed by exhaust fans,
this concept for removing heat may affect the ventilation
rate of the subway system. The impact of the ventilation
rate is discussed in Removal and Addition of Sensible
Heat by Ventilation.

Trackway Exhaust Systems. Various concepts exist for

removing heat produced by the train while it is in the
station. Methods for estimating the heat rejected by the
train while it is in the station are described in Heat Gains.
The main sources of train heat are the propulsion and.
braking equipment, and in many cars, the air-conditioning
condensers. These sources are usually located undc!rneath
the car floor, and as much as half the total heat from these Fig. 3.40. Underplatform Exhaust with Supply
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-55

designed to prevent heat from entering the station. Any

increase in heat transfer from the undercar equipment to
the air is incidental. The hooding features of the design
should not be compromised in an attempt to modify that
heat transfer rate.

The efficiency of the trackway exhaust system is defined:


q ex = heat removed from station box by underplatform
Fig. 3.41. Underplatform Supply ventilation system, Btu per hr

between the rails in the invert, or in the wall qrel = heat released by train while in station box,
opposite the platform. Since exhaust systems Btu per hr
draw air from the station, air will flow into the
The heat which enters the station box heat balance is:
station and increase the ventilation rate by the
amount that is being exhausted. The heat
contained in this incoming air affects the station qst = qrel (I - E) (3.63)
heat balance.

2. Exhaust with Supply. A supply system can be The heat released by the train, qrel' is the summation of
added specifically for the trackway exhaust heat released by the undercar train sources· and is
system to reduce the amount of ventilation determined from the information in the discussion, Heat
induced by it. In subway systems where the Gains, addressing the spatial distribution of heat and the
temperature inside is less than the temperature load to the station box. These can include the braking and
outside, an exhaust system without a supply will acceleration resistors, motor, air-conditioning system, and
pull warmer outside air into the station. To car air compressor and motor generator. Methods for
reduce this amount of outside air, makeup air calculating the heat released in the station box by a train
is supplied in the vicinity of the trackway decelerating, dwelling and accelerating out of the station
exhaust intakes. are also developed in Heat Gains. The trackway exhaust
system does not treat the heat convected into the station
3. Supply Only. In contrast to the exhaust system by piston action.
concept, the supply concept blows the undercar
A comprehensive series of field tests using a full-scale
air away from the platform. In general, this
mockup of an exhaust-only underplatform exhaust system
concept would not be recommended because it
was conducted in the Toronto subway to develop an
does not remove heat from the station. The
understanding of the parameters that affect underplat-
efficiency of supply air in moving heat from
form exhaust efficiency (Ref. 22). These tests indicated
underneath the vehicle is about the same as for
that underplatform exhaust efficiency for systems and
an exhaust configuration, but if this undercar
trains similar to those tested behaves as illustrated by Fig.
heat is not captured, it will enter the station box,
3.42, and that a general expression of the form:
and will not provide a reduction in the station
heat load. E =(C) (Q) (3.64)

Efficiency of Trackway Ventilation System. The where E = efficiency in %

undertrackway ventilation system affects the heat balance
of the subway system in two ways. First, it preven~ some Q = average exhaust capacity per foot of
heat from entering the subway system and exhausts it trackway, cfm per foot
directly to the outside. Second, the ventilation system may C = constant of proportionality; a function
modify the fresh air ventilation rate as would any fan (see of intake port configuration relative
Removal and Addition of Sensible Heat by Ventilation). to the distribution of heated air beneath
In concept, the trackway exhaust system is a hood system the train
3-56 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

is appropriate for estimating exhaust efficiency values. rational theoretical model presenting the expected trend
The proper value of Q to apply in this expression is can be postulated.
ascertained simply by dividing the total underplatform
exhaust capacity by the lotallength of track in the station. The basic premise of the theoretical model is that heat
However, the constant of proportionality, C, is less released by undercar equipment remains entrapped be-
straightforward and is subject to a number of constraints. neath a train as it enters and dwells within a station and
mixes with station air as the train departs. With this
The Toronto subway cars used for the tests have a force- behavior, the theoretical maximum efficiency of the un-
blown assembly of acceleration and deceleration resistors derplatform exhaust system is illustrated by Fig. 3.43.
which discharges heated air longitudinally under the Note that the efficiency depends on the number of air
train. This configuration results in forced upwelling of changes beneath the train per "effective dwell," which
undercar air between 'cars with opposing discharge flows includes the actual dwell plus the integrated product of
and creates regions of relatively hotter under car air (see the fraction of train length in the station and time when
Fig. 3.42a). By positioning the intake ports to take advan- the train is entering and leaving the station. The air
tage of the undercar air temperature 'distribution, as changes per effective dwell are computed by dividing the
schematically shown for the particular case of the Toronto trackway exhaust flow rate adjacent to a train during
tests by Figure 3.42a, the underplatform exhaust system dwell by the volume of air space beneath the train and
can be "tuned" to maximize the heat captured by the multiplying the result by the effective dwell time. The
underplatform exhaust system. theoretical efficiency curve shown on Fig. 3.43 has been
corrected to allow for a fractional short-circuiting of
The efficiency versus exhaust flow relationship illustrated exhaust system make-up air through the train-platform
by Fig. 3.42 applies to the "tuned" underplatform exhaust gap. This gap flow, measured at approximately 30 percent
intake configuration of Fig. 3.42a. The corresponding C of the total underplatform exhaust flow in the Toronto
value is 0.48, and this value is recommended as a baseline tests under a wide range of intake configurations and with
for the sizing of side-intake, exhaust-only systems. To the force-blown resistor fans both on and off, reduces the
justify the application of this value, the engineer must amount of exhaust air that actually passes beneath the
provide for sufficient flexibility in the design of the un- train and hence the number of air changes.
derplatform exhaust system to enable rebalancing and 90
tuniIlg of the system at the outset of operations. Verified
exhaust duct balancing procedures for establishing any
desired distribution of the intake flow along the length of
the duct are provided in Ref. 22. Thus, the tuning proce- I
dure entails a straightforward field test to establish intake 70
port air temperature distribution as influenced by under-
car heat release, followed by appropriate adjustment of the 60 I !E-Limit of Test
Flow Rate
intake ports.

In subways where the major heat-producing undercar

equipment is cooled by natural convection, there is reason
to believe that efficiencies greater than those predicted
'+= 40
using Eq. (3.64), with a Cvalue of 0.48, can be achieved.
The forced upwelling of heated undercar air attributed to 30 /
the force-blown resistor assembly of the Toronto car acts
to limit the heat available to be captured by the underplat-
form exhaust system. Although natural convection equip-'
ment may exhibit buoyant upwelling tendencies, the flow
potential should be much less severe than the forced 10 /
upwelling associated with the test train. Under these
circumstances, it is expected that the efficiency will de- o
pend more on the induced air changes beneath the train o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

than on the absolute capacity of the exhaust system. The Exhaust,Flow Rate, cfm per Foot of Trackway
improved efficiency levels for the circumstances of natural
convection undercar equipment cannot be estimated with Fig. 3.42. Efficiency of Underplatform Exhaust Systems
certainty in the absence of further field tests. However, a Based on the Toronto Subway Tests (Ref. 22)
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-57

10 f' ~ /' ~

/ / "
Low Intake

1\ Temperature

) \ )
'"Qa.; V ~ l-/
I- 4 / "'J £
! I
I Optimum Port Locations
i I 1 I I I I I

o 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
Distance, Ft.

Discharge Direction from ..J
Resistor Ducts
, Fig. 3.42a. Schematic of Optimum Concentrated Intake Port Configuration for the Toronto Train

For comparative purposes, the efficiency data from the foot of trackway. At some point beyond the tested capac-
Toronto tests (Eq. 3.64; C=0.48) are shown on Fig. 3.43 ity range (approximately 140 cfm per foot of trackway)
for the specific case of a IS-second dwell. The difference the dilution of heated undercar air by the exhaust system
between the theoretical efficiency and the test findings must begin to impact on efficiency. At this point, the
traces to the behavior of the heated undercar air. In linear efficiency versus capacity relationship will no
contrast with the theoretical model premise that released longer hold, and the efficiency should behave in a manner
heat remains entrapped, to be swept away by the exhaust similar to the theoretical curve shown on Fig. 3.43. Since
air flow, the turbulent mixing and forced upwelling of the tested ranged of capacities did not extend into this
undercar air in the Toronto tests overshadowed the dilu- region of diminishing returns, little guidance can be of-
tion of heated undercar air by the exhaust system. fered for estimating efficiency in this region. How~ver, the
designer should never use an efficiency estimate in excess
Eq. (3.64) with a C value of 0.48 is recommended as the of the theoretical maximum.
baseline for the sizing of side-intake, exhaust-only sys-
tems. The theoretical analysis provides a basis for opti- The impact of the trackway exhaust system on a station
mism regarding higher efficiencies associated with sub- temperature is twofold. First, the trackway exhaust sys-
ways where the major heat-producing undercar equip- tem removes heat from the subway. Second, the trackway
ment is of natural convection type, but the engineer must exhaust system will increase the subway ventilation rate if
apply judgment in the absence of field confirmation. there is not a separate supply system. Any increased
Figure 3.43 illustrates a basic caution to be observed in the ventilation rate will represent an increased cooling load if
application of Eq. 3.64. Clearly, the linear relationship the station temperature is below ambient, or cooling effect
with respect to exhaust system capacity cannot hold if the station temperature is above ambient (see Removal
without bound, since efficiencies in excess of 100 percent and Addition of Sensible Heat by Ventilation).
would be predicted for capacities greater than 208 cfm per
3-58 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Tunnel Hot Spots. There may be some areas of the tunnel is to block the heated air from mixing with the air in the
that have average air temperatures substantially higher occupied areas of a station. The technology to do this in
than the balance of the subway system. The heat in these subways is new. Some of the concepts presented have been
areas may be caused by braking the train so it can enter applied to subways in a limited number of instances; some
have not been applied at all.

The two general categories of isolation systems are:

Theoretical Maximum Efficiency I-
(na~ural convection undercar \ /~ 1. Directed Air Flow Systems. These systems will
70 equipment) ~;r use'the air distribution equipment in a station
to establish localized cooling effects with air

60 curtains or envelopes. On the patron's side is the

*">: 50
/ Eq.13.64},C=0.48
15 sec. dwell
cool air and on the train's side, the warm air.
In this same general category is the concept that
;;:: 40
/ / many air changes will quickly sweep out the
warm air and replace it with cooled air.
30 / I 2. Train Screens. These systems will provide a
physical isolation of the tunnel air from the

20 / / station air. Train screens require a stationary set

of doors in the ~tation which line up with the

10 II doors on the train, somewhat similar to an

elevator bank.

o VI
o '2 3 4 5
Whoen applying heat balances to subways with isolation
systems, only the heat that enters the occupied areas must
Air Changes Per Effective Dwell be handled by the environmental control equipment. This
means that most of the heat generated from train
J2A l30 J2A l;!Q operations will not contribute to the air-conditioning load.
Effective dwell = D 44 1. + A 44 ? + dwell, sec
AD 3 AA 3 For the directed air flow concepts, the degree of isolation
where: AD = train deceleration rate into station, mph/sec
is not quantitatively known, but nonetheless several
AA = train acceleration rate out of station, mph/sec
potential concepts are discussed below. On the other hand,
l = station length, ft
train screens provide a physical barrier to positively
separate the tunnel air from the station air. This concept
Fig. 3.43. Theoretical Efficiency of Underplatform Exhaust
will be discussed following the directed air flow concepts.
Systems with Natural Convection Undercar Equipment

speed"restricted· sections or by lower than average

ventilation rates. Locating exhausts in these areas will Directed Air Flows. The directed air flow systems use air
remove heat before it has a chance to mix with the subway jets to develop air curtains or envelopes intended to isolate
air and raise its average temperature. In the early design the station platform area from higher air temperatures of
phases, the areas of speed restrictions will be known, and the trackway.
these areas may be treated similar to those with
underplatform exhaust. It is neither likely that localized Air is ~upplied along the length of a station through jets
hot spots within the tunnel will occur frequently nor that or diffusers. Refrigerated air is distributed in a manner to
they will be known without use of the SES computer form an envelope of cool air over a local area of the
program (Vol. II). platform. The patron area is beneath the envelope, and the
air in this area is entrained, mixed and cooled. The
Isolation of Heat Sources and Sinks coverage extends to the side of the train. The envelope also
There are several potentially effective opportunities to is intended to form an air curtain to screen the platform
~educe quantities of heated air entering the occupied areas from the warmer air from the tunnels, the trainways in
of the subway system. The. purpose of an isolation system the station and, perhaps, station air above the envelope.
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-59

The envelope formed by the directed air flow may be used compared with that of the tunnel air blast. Therefore, the
in conjunction with an underplatform exhaust system. cool air envelope will be overwhelmed by and mixed with
There is some experimental evidence that indicates the the tunnel air during a large percentage of the time, if the
envelope is more stable with an underplatform exhaust, time distribution of velocity magnitudes is similar to that
but during the experiments, stray drafts or simulation of predicted in Table 3.19. After the train arrives in the
piston-action air flows upset the envelopes. station, there is a residual air flow that continues at high
air velocity. When the momentum of that flow subsides,
Several factors are important when considering envelope the refrigerated air envelope will again dominate the air
cooling systems. In general HVAC practice, it is possible flows in the station until the air blast from the next
to cool isolated areas within structures. In structures that approaching train causes another disruption.
are draft free, this approach can be used for large areas,
such as bowling alleys up to the foul line. Where the The time required to reestablish the envelope is dependent
environment is more open and exposed to drafts, such as on the air change rate for conditioned air in the station.
foundries, the envelope cooling becomes effective only in If the residual tunnel air flow drops below 200 fpm, for
very small areas, i.e., spot cooling in one-man relief example, the air envelope will be able to start
stations. The subway platform is a large area and may be reestablishing itself. In the example depicted in Table 3.19,
subjected to strong drafts induced by the train's piston this will occur 50 percent of the time. For a two-minute
action. Table 3.19 gives a prediction of the percentage of headway operation, the station average is one train a
time that station air velocity is exceeded in a double-track minute, and hence about 30 seconds between trains are
system with 60 trains per hour stopping in the station. The available to reestablish the envelope. With only 30 seconds
maximum train speed is 60 mph. Of course, the air available, more than 120 air changes per hour in the
velocity frequency distribution is different in each subway platform area, which are not practical, will be required
geometry, and for the stations entered by single-track just to reestablish the envelope in that period of time
tunnels, the velocities are higher. The data in Table 3.19 before air flows from the next train start to exceed 200
are derived from the results of an SES computer program, fpm. However, such a system might be partially effective,
and similar results can be obtained for the geometry and but the degree of isolation has not yet been established.
train operation ofa specific station. Analytically, the situation is very complex, and test work
for empirical insight or validation appears inconclusive.
Table 3.19. Percentage of Time Air Velocity is Exceeded
Train Screens. Train screens are a permissive barrier,
opening to allow the passage of people and providing a
150 fpm 200 fpm 250 fpm 300 fpm controlled flow of conditioned platform air into the tunnel
around the boarding passengers. When closed, train
screens are a barrier to the heat of the cars and tunnels.
70% 50% 40% 22% In principle, train screens are similar to doors serving a
bank of elevators in a building lobby. The station can be
maintained slightly pressurized so the flow of air will be
from the station to the trackway, and there is no heat
Also, it must be noted that the velocities as predicted by convected from the trackway to the station. The heat gain
the SES computer program as in Table 3.19 are bulk in the station then comprises only the heat generated in
velocities. Air blasts have higher velocities during early the station, the heat in the incoming station ventilation
stages of their expansion near the station portal so that air and the small amount of heat transmitted through the
air distribution grilles in this location will experience walls and doors of the train screen. Train screens are in
greater drafts depending on the effectiveness of the blast operation at Tampa Airport, Seattle-Tacoma Airport and
control techniques (Sec. 3.2). Although the effectiveness the Leningrad subway system (see Isolation Systems in
of envelope cooling under actual subway conditions has Sec. 4.1).
not presently been demonstrated, most directed air flow
systems will provide a good distribution of conditioned air Although under normal operating conditions the patrons
throughout the station. will not be subjected to the tunnel environment, provision
still must be made for expelling the heat from the tunnel
The envelope cooling jet and tunnel air blast interact, and to prevent shortened operating lives of carbome or
the principle of conservation of momentum applies. The wayside equipment because of exposure to high
momentum of the air jets from the grilles is small temperature environments. On the trackway side of the
3-60 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

train screen, the station appears aerodynamically as just Speed Restriction. Since the kinetic energy is proportional
a continuation of the tunnel, and the ventilation of such to the square of the velocity, it is apparent that a basic
a tunnel can be analyzed by the methods in Removal and means for reducing the energy input is through speed
Addition of Sensible Heat by Ventilation. limitations on the system trackage. For instance, for a
given unit weight, a 61 percent reduction in kinetic energy
The impact of using train screens on the station heat is obtained by reducing the top speed from 80 to 50 mph.
balance is to eliminate virtually all the train-related Reductions in the kinetic energy for other speed
elements of the heat gains shown in Table 3.3. Thus, about differentials at the same train weight are also shown on
90 percent of the heat gains are isolated from the station Fig. 3.44.
area. Since the flow of air is always from the station to
the trackway, there is no heat convected from the track The first tradeoff encountered when considering slower
to the station. The heat load in the station then comprises system travel speeds is a possible requirement for
only the heat generated in the station, the heat in the additional rolling stock. Representative acceleration and
incoming ventilation air and the small amount of heat deceleration times given on Fig. 3.3 may be used to
transmitted through the walls and doors of the train estimate the travel time between stations for different top
screen. speeds. Reducing the top speed may change the total
theoretical train round trip time from a few seconds to
The tunnel environment is about the same with or without many minutes, depending on the length of the system and
train screens, and provisions still must be made for its geometry. At frequent headways, this may require
expelling the heat from the tunnel. If tunnel heat is not adding one or more trains to move the same number of
removed, the carborne or wayside electrical and air- people. The number of additional trains required to
conditioning equipment may suffer. The ventilation of a maintain a constant headway is the additional round trip
tunnel is no different than that for a tunnel with a station time in minutes divided by the headway in minutes.
in it (see Removal and Addition of Sensible Heat by However, the saving in environmental control equipment
Ventilation). is not the only saving that may be balanced with the cost
of the additional rolling stock. With the lowered top
speed, the propulsion energy is reduced; hence, smaller
Reduction of Heat at its Source electrical substations spaced at greater distances can·
provide the same level of electrical distribution. Electrical
conductors may also be smaller. Furthermore, if the top
Some of the subway system heat can be reduced at its speed is reduced everywhere, smaller propulsion motors
source. Energy that can be removed from the subway will be adequate. Therefore, all the electrical as well as
system before it becomes heat released to the air will assist mechanical savings must be weighed against the rolling
in reducing the amount of heat to be removed, thus also stock costs while maintaining acceptable levels of comfort
lowering the subway temperatures. The opportunities for for system patrons in the subway stations.
removal of heat at its source are primarily centered in the
areas of train propulsion and braking. Many of the
techniques for elimination of heat have not been reduced EQUiVALENT WEIGHT.
to operating practice, but the opportunities do exist. If the 300 REDUCTION IN TltA'N "'IflETIC
opportunities are attractive enough, efforts will be
rR~ III 10' 60 ~O.40
expended by the benefiting transit agency to apply the
opportunities to practice. Following is a discussion of " 27., 61

methods for reducing heat released by transit vehicles.

The principal energy source which determines the heat

released during braking is the kinetic energy of the train.
Taken as a whole, braking heat loads contribute between
44 and 56 percent of the total subway heat load. Several
means are available for minimizing or dissipating this
energy so as to, reduce the heat in the subway
environment. The kinetic energy is discussed in Heat
Gains and in Eq. (3.1). Figure 3.44 graphically illustrates
the relation between kinetic energy and train speed for Fig. 3.44. Train Kinetic Energy vs Speed
various weights of an eight-car train. IS-Car Train)
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-61

Wayside Dynamic Braking Resistors and Regenerative Regenerative braking means using the electrical energy
Braking. During dynamic braking, the kinetic energy is produced by braking trains to supply the energy
converted to electrical energy. If the electrical energy is requirements of other trains operating over the system or
wasted as heat above grouild in resistors, the braking to power wayside equipment. The energy from the braking
system is using wayside resistors. On the other hand, if trains is returned directly to the third rail, or perhaps to
the electrical energy can perform a useful function (e.g., a fourth rail. In this case, power costs to the system are
boil water, power other trains), the braking system is reduced since some energy is being recycled. The
regenerative. In terms of subway environmental control calculation of heat loads is complex since the receptivity
concepts, a major effect of either the wayside resistors or of the system to regenerated power may depend on the
regeneration is to electrically carry the kinetic energy instantaneous demands of the system which vary with
away from the train without converting it to heat inside time. The electrical energy leaving the train is inverted
the subway. Either system will require some development (given a specific direction) and sent to the primary feed
because extensively proven hardware is not yet available where it is then redistributed as needed. The electrical
although several operating transit agencies are engineer should be consulted to determine the amount of
considering these systems. The San Francisco Bay Area energy conserved. Currently this is estimated to be about
Rapid Transit system and the Toronto Transit 25 percent or less of the kinetic energy. Other
Commission system have some limited regenerative regeneration means are being and have been developed
capabilities. using stored energy (e.g. onboard flywheels, batteries at
substations, etc.), but continue to project a saving of only
In wayside resistor systems, the waste energy from about 25 percent of the kinetic energy.
braking is electrically transmitted to the surface where the
heat is dumped into the atmosphere, instead of the subway
system. The wayside resistor system also may eliminate A cost tradeoff study for wayside resistors or regeneration
the space and weight required for the train-carried will deal with changes in the heating, cooling or ventilat-
dynamic braking resistors and, therefore, reduce to some ing equipment, third-rail size, fourth-rail requirements,
extent the train kinetic energy at design speed. The trains substation sizes and spacing, traction motor design and
will still have to carry friction brakes for final stopping energy costs.
from low speeds and as backup for stopping if the dynamic
brakes are not available. Motor Controllers. During the low speed portion of
acceleration or when running at less than top speed, all
In a simple regeneration concept, using a "fourth rail," the power available from the third rail is not put across
part of the braking energy is transmitted to the substation. the traction motors. In cam control systems, the electrical
However, [2 R losses will occur in the transmission of power is dissipated through resistors before it gets to the
current in the "fourth rail." This energy eniers the subway motors. This dissipation results in a heat release in the
system as heat. The propulsion motors'· and associated subway. Thyristor or chopper types of controllers regulate
losses also put heat into the subway. The quantity of the power to the motors by rapidly turning "on" and "off"
energy rejected by the subway system cannot exceed the the supply voltage to the motors. These types of
amount of heat from the resistor grids during braking, as controllers do not dissipate appreciable amounts of heat
shown in Table 3.4. The rejected energy is about 85 and are consequently very promising as far as heat
percent of the kinetic energy since the traction equipment emission is concerned when compared with the cam-
is about 85 percent efficient. Of this energy, a portion controlled propulsion system. Application of solid-state
(about 10 percent of the total) will be in the fourth rail devices to existing systems by retrofit is possible. In Table
losses, and another portion (about seven percent of the 3.4, it can be seen that the cam-controller contributes
total for the 60 mph case) will be in the friction brake heat. about two percent of the total subway heat load during
Thus at most, a 70 percent reductior. in the heat created by acceleration, which in itself is oflittle overall significance.
the train's braking may be obtained by use of wayside However, during operation at low speeds, the heat
resistors or regeneration. This value may be even less if the rejected from the cam-controlled acceleration resistor
friction brakes must be used at high speeds to prevent grids can be appreciable.
damage to the electrical motors due to high current. For
example, on Fig. 3.44, about 30 percent of the kinetic Signaling. Using additional signaling and more precise
energy is dissipated by slowing speed from 60 to 50 mph. train control,. unnecessary stop-start and slow-fast cycles
If friction brakes service that deceleration range, only 40 can be smoothed out. Trains operating under heavy traffic.
percent of the possible 70 percent reduction in braking conditions may experience this profile as the train rapidly
heat to the subway atmosphere will be realized by use of accelerates and cruises at high speed through a control
wayside resistors. block, only to stop at the end and wait for the next block
3-62 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

to clear. Then when that block is clear, the train proceeds Example 3.8: Find the percent reduction in braking
at maximum speed to the end of that block only to wait energy for a 600-ft train traveling at 60 mph.
for clearance into the subsequent block. All these stops
and starts increase the heat gain in the subway, and efforts Number of cars per train: 8
should be made to minimize this type of operation. Equivalen t weight of cars: 54 tons
At 3 mphps, the stopping distance is 880 ft
Lightweight Cars. For a given speed profile, lightweight The rise in the tunnel at 4% will be (880-600)(0.04)
cars have less kinetic energy to dissipate during braking = 11.2 ft
and require less propulsion energy during acceleration The rise in the station at 2% will be 1/4(600 x 0.02) = 3.0 ft
than heavier vehicles. Reducing car equipment and The total increase in elevation = 14.2 ft
structural weight provides less opportunity to realize Using Eq. (3.65)
significant advantages than speed reduction. Also the
PI:' = wh
minimum vehicle weight is usually a function of car
passenger loads, structural integrity requirements in =(8 cars)!54 tons\(2'OOO Ib) (14.2 ft) ( Btu )
collisions, and type of propulsion and braking systems train \ car } ton 778 ft·lb
employed. The trade-off between the added costs of
= 15.800 Btl'
manufacturing and maintaining light cars is balanced with
the benefits of lower kinetic energy as described in the The total kinetic energy, from Fig. 3.44, is 133,000 Btu.
discussion on Speed Restriction.
Ratio of PE to KE = 15,800 Btu: 133,000 Btu
Track Profile. Another means to reduce subway heat is 15,800
through variation in the track profile between stations to = - - - = 12%
take advantage of gravity in the acceleration and braking
of the train. The tractive effort required for acceleration For a train moving at 60 mph, the fraction of train kinetic
and deceleration is reduced with a profile, which causes energy converted to potential energy during braking is 12
the train to travel uphill into a station and downhill when percent or approximately five to ten percent of the total
leaving a station. During braking, a fraction of the train's heat released over the train's travel-dwell cycle.
kinetic energy is converted to potential energy as the train
rises in elevation to stop at a station. During acceleration Modifications to the track profile that take advantage of
downhill, the tractive effort required to accelerate the gravity during acceleration result in heat reductions. The
train is lowered, thus reducing motor losses and electrical potential energy obtained by virtue of the station elevation
power distribution losses. These savings are usually traded is subtracted from the acceleration power requirements
off against increased tunneling and construction costs. and proportionately reduces losses through the motor and
The gradients given in the example profile represent limits acceleration resistor input. Since the third rail current to
for a steel wheel system, four percent in the tunnels and the motor is also reduced, there is a reduction in the heat
two percent in the stations. Also, for the purpose of transmitted to the departure tunnel. In general, these
analysis, the station is considered to have only half the losses will be minor because most of the heat loss occurs
total possible rise; because of symmetry, it is uphill over during the initial acceleration when the train is still in the
half the distance and downhill the rest. However, it should station with part going up the two percent grade and the
be recognized that a two percent grade through the station rest coming down.
was chosen to emphasize the effect because if the track
profile had a two percent grade, the platform would have Computing the reduction in losses due to this track profile
to also follow that contour. The amount of potential is complicated and highly dependent on the motor control
energy which does not have to be dissipated by the braking configuration. If precise data are required, the SES
system is: computer program (Vol. II) and other train performance
computer programs may be needed.
PE = wh (3.65)
Other Miscellaneous Sources. The summary tabulation
w weight of train, tons of the relative magnitude of heat sources given in Table
3.3 shows where there is opportunity to reduce the heat
h change in track elevation, ft gains at the source. The larger heat sources potentially
Subtraction of the potential energy from the kinetic energy offer greater opportunity for reducing the heat gains. The
produces the net energy which is dissipated in the subway heat gains related to the traction equipment and air
system as heat. conditioning dominate the heat gains from subway
Design Strategies to Achieve Air Temperature Criteria 3-63

sources. Heat rejection from car auxiliary equipment, Fresh Air. In conventional air-conditioning applications,
station equipment and people are relatively small. all the fresh air required for structure ventilation must be
Lighting fixtures in new stations and subway tunnels are brought in by the air-conditioning system, but in a subway
almost always fluorescent since these afford better system large amounts offresh air are brought in by piston
illumination and produce less heat than incandescent action caused by the train's movement through the tunnel.
sources. Usually, the piston-action air is adequate to ventilate the
subway system for air quality purposes, and this should
Removal and Addition of Sensible Heat by be checked against the criteria in Sec. 2.2, Air Quality and
Mechanical Equipment Sec. 3.3, Air Quality Control. If the air to the air-
conditioning or heating equipment is fresh air, then this
fresh air is also considered a portion of the heat convected
Heat can be removed from the subway system by to the subway system by ventilation. In general, if the
refrigeration equipment, or heat can be added to the summer station criteria allows for temperatures above
system by heaters. The amount of heat to be removed or ambient, consideration should be given to using all fresh
added can be determined from a sensible heat balance on air through the mechanical equipment; conversely for
the system. station temperatures below ambient, using only return air
may reduce the heat load. This generalization is somewhat
The cooling loads determined by a sensible heat balance tempered by the ventilation requirements for maintaining
must be combined with the latent loads to estimate the air quality and the latent heat loads.
capacity of tt. refrigeration equipment. Since the primary
latent load is tl. outside air, the effects of this load are In subway systems with station temperature below
discussed in Cooling Systems, Sec. 4.1. In addition to ambient at design conditions, there will be many days
describing the method for estimating the heat load, some when ambient temperatures are less than design and it will
of the considerations for introducing cooling air into the be desirable to have the station temperature at or above
station are discussed. ambient. These days can occur when the ambient
temperature is in the low sixties and the desired station
Heating and Cooling Loads. The elements of a sensible temperature is in the high sixties. Although in this
heat balance were presented previously, giving instance the air-conditioning capacity of the station can
the various heat gains and losses as well as the reduce the temperature by perhaps !OF below ambient,
opportunities to remove heat by different environmental it would not be desirable to have a 50F station on a 60F
control techniques. When all the heat gains, losses and day. Also, this station has heat gains that could cause a
removals are summed, any additional heat removal 25F temperature rise if there is no air conditioning, and
required to meet temperature criteria may be it is deemed not desirable to have an 85F station on a 60F
accomplished with air-conditioning equipment. The day. Therefore, on the 60F day, the air-conditioning
amount of heat released in the subway system is system must be operating at partial load to achieve the
determined by methods given in Heat Gains. If special desired temperature. Under these conditions, it may be
environmental control techniques are used to remove heat desirable to have a high percentage of fresh air to take
or reduce the amount of energy in the subway system, advantage of its cooling effects. As a result, for stations
these reductions in heat load must be accounted for by the to have below ambient temperatures at design condition,
methods given in Underplatform and Related Exhaust it appears that operating economies can accrue if the
Systems, Isolation of Heat Sources and Sinks, and option for using either fresh or return air is available by
Reduction of Heat at its Source. The heat transfer through means of dampers. This option will require both return
the tunnel walls is approximated from the data in ducts from the station and fresh air ducts from above
Removal and Addition of Sensible Heat by Heat Sink. ground.
Using the above methods, a heat balance similar to that
shown on Fig. 3.1 can be constructed, and any deficit or A similar argument can be presented for the need of both
excess sensible heat must be handled by heating or air- return and fresh air ducts in stations where the station
conditioning equipment. An example of this heat balance design temperature for summer is at or slightly above
is given also in Sec. 3.6, Selection of Strategies for Multiple ambient. However, the return air will be used in the winter
Criteria. Current experience with air-conditioned subway when the return air will be less of a heating load than the
design is limited to the SES computer program runs, fresh air.
which indicate this method for estimating the air-
conditioning loads to be accurate within about 15 percent For subway systems using train screens, the piston action
of the loads predicted. of the train will not provide ventilation air to the passenger
3-64 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

areas of the station. Some fresh air may be drawn into the 2. The air-conditioning load for the station being
station through the stairwells by the underplatform serviced by single-track tunnels can be
exhaust fans when the train screen doors are open during substantially reduced by opening the dividing
the dwell. However, the dwell is only a short portion of wall between the tunnels for about 50 feet before
the headway, so little ventilation will result. Also at off- the station. The openings allow a substantial
peak hours, the headways may be increased, and since the portion of the air in the approach tunnel to whip
train screen doors do not open as frequently, the required around and go down the departure tunnel
ventilation rate for the station may not be met by drawing without passing through the ·station. If the
air into a station with underplatform exhaust fans alone. openings are not provided between the tunnels,
Therefore, air-conditioning and heating systems for the this air passes across the last 50 to 100 feet of
stations with train screens should use only fresh air. the center-platform station as it goes from the
approach to the departure tunnels. For double-
Air Distribution. The air distribution system within the track tunnels or side-platform stations, this
station must put the cooled air near the sources of heat. arrangement is much less of a problem. The
Most of the heat is generated at the platform level of the phenomenon is largely dependent on the relative
station or convected in at that level from the tunnels. Test motions of the inbound and outbound trains at
results from the SES computer program indicate that 100 peak headways, and the design engineer should
percent of the cooling air should be put in at the platform use the SES computer program with several
level if the criteria permits station temperature to equal combinations of relative train motion to better
or exceed the ambient on design days. If the station understand the extent of this type of problem
temperature is to be less than ambient, then about 90 with various designs.
percent of the cooled air should be distributed at the
platform level and 10 percent at the mezzanine level 3. Certain areas of the platform are less ventilated
according to the SES results because that was the by piston action than others. Heat can build up
approximate distribution of heat between the platform in these areas unless the air distribution system
level and the mezzanine level for the computer runs. The puts the conditioned air into the areas in
mezzanine cooling load consists of heat gains from sufficient quantity to offset the buildup. As a
lighting, escalators, fare collection equipment and other result, a temperature gradient can result along
items located in the mezzanine and of heat convected into the length of the station. Most manual methods
the station through stairwells and other openings to street for computation of heat gains are concerned
level. The exact amount of cooled air to be distributed to with averages, and without help from the SES
the mezzanine level depends on the mezzanine's cooling computer program temperature gradients would
load. be difficult to predict. Such gradients, as
predicted by the SES computer program, can be
At the platform level, the air distribution for the purposes rather pronounced. These gradients, however,
of air conditioning is also thought to be important. will be somewhat moderated by the air
Although the SES computer program cannot model the circulation created by the air distribution
ciruculation patterns in stations, the one-dimensional system. An underplatform exhaust system, if
results from the SES indicate several important points included iii the station environmental control
which must be considered: concept, will also moderate these gradients and
tend to eliminate any areas oflow air circulation.
I. For the purposes of modeling the global The SES computer program can be used by
aerodynamic and thermodynamic effects, the design engineers to find any temperature
details of the distribution of the cooling air are gradients so that design modification may be
not too important. This means that when a made. Also, the computer program results will
subway system is divided into several detail assist in avoiding high temperature areas when
design packages, the design of one station will locating return inlets.
not be influenced greatly by the distribution of
conditioned air in the adjacent station. The total 4. During off-peak operations, the major source of
air-conditioning capacity of the adjacent heat gain may not be the train, and the total heat
stations is important but not the air distribution. gain will be greatly reduced and become more
This will allow the several different detail design nearly constant with time. Under those
contracts to go forward with a relatively large conditions, the air-conditioning system will have
degree of independence as far as the details of the capacity to drop the station temperature
the air conditioning are concerned.
Air Velocity Control 3-6S

substantially below the design value. Even for is proportional to the temperature difference and the flow
short headway operation, temperature swings of rate. The high temperature differences required to keep
3 to 5F may be common over the period of a the flow rates, and hence the duct size, small may cause
single headway. Fig. 3.45 illustrates results of a thermal drafts in quiescent areas. These drafts should
SES computer run to show temperature present little problem in the platform area because the air
variation with time along the length of a 450 ft motion there will tend to mask any thermally induced
station. The station is designed not to exceed drafts. The air motions on the mezzanine level are not as
ambient temperature on a 95F day. The average great, and the mezzanine's diffusers may be handling
station temperature is not changing with time conditioned air at the same temperature difference as that
although, as shown, the temperatures, going to the platform areas. Therefore, drafts may result
individually, are not completely cyclic over a at the mezzanine level. One approach to be considered in
single headway, i.e., the individual temperatures combating such drafts is to locate the diffusers in areas
at time = 0 are not always the same as at time where the air flow is likely to remain high, such as
120 sec. For the short headway, the corridors and stairwells. Since the main purpose of the
mechanical system cannot respond to diffusers on the mezzanine is to counteract the heat in the
counteract the temperature swings, but for the incoming ventilation air, this type of location is consistent
increased headways, where the magnitude of the with a policy of placing the cooling where the heat is.
swings will become greater, the system will have
time to respond, as discussed in Cooling Systems Table 3.20. Representative Cooling Loads
in Sec. 4.1.

Application Btu per (hr) (sq ft)

Residence 15 to 25
Hospital 30 to 50
Supermarket 30 to 50
Offices 30 to 55
Schools 40 to 55
Department Store 45 to 65
Restaurant 45 to 120
Computer Room 75 to 250
Subway Station 150 to 700
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 150 TO 2.!5

3.2. Air Velocity Control

Criteria have been established in Sec. 2.3 for the upper
limits of air velocities in the subway system. These criteria
apply to the occupied areas such as platforms, stairwells,
escalators and pedestrian tunnels as well as the velocity
through street level gratings. High velocity air entering
occupied station areas is a source of passenger discomfort
because it can blow clothing and hair or deposit entrained
Fig. 3.45. Temperature Distribution in dirt and other materials onto the patrons. This section
Air-Conditioned Station (95F Design) develops the processes required to establish the functional
(Shows Temperature Variation at 6 Locations in design for equipment or structures which will control the
450·ft Station during 120-sec Headway Operation) air velocity to an acceptable level.

Another aspect of the air distribution system concerns the The train's piston action causes a blast of air to enter the
ability to provide a large amount of cooling in a relatively station portal from the tunnel as a jet and expand to the
small area. The cooling loads representative of various cross-sectional area of the station within about 50 to 150
applications are given in Table 3.20. The cooling delivered feet. Peak velocities on the platform will occur near the
3-66 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

station portal before the jet is fully expanded. The air blast The velocity of the air jet, Vjet in the station is determined
from an arriving train is usually greater than the velocity from the expression below:
induced in the station by a departing train and is,
therefore, the critical condition on the platform. (3.66)
Tiet = {3U (l - Cm)
A blast shaft is the vent shaft conventionally constructed
immediately upstream of the station. The purpose of the
and {3 = :; (from Equation 3.39)
blast shaft is to divert as much air as possible from the A V
tunnel, thereby minimizing the blast in the station. In and C· =.....L.....!. (from Equation 3.26)
many cases, the blast shafts have been overrated in m AV
effectiveness, and other abatement processes should be where
considered. Stairways and corridors also act as vent shafts,
and the piston action may cause excessive air velocities A tunnel cross-sectional area, sq ft
in these areas. A simplified schematic of the blast air flows
is shown on Fig. 3.46. It is the environmental engineer's Av vent shaft reference area, sq ft
responsibility to reduce the air velocities on the station
platforms, up the stairwells and through the gratings to V velocity of air in the tunnel, fpm
acceptable levels. This section provides the engineer with
an understanding of the phenomena, and some possible Vv velocity of air in vent shaft reference area, fpm
corrective actions.
U velocity of the train in the tunnel, fpm

BLAST SHAFT STATION Cm mass flow ratio for the blast shaft, dimensionless

I Ls---Jj~
:::;,,>--=:!J -
----;{;:;:'=iITl==rJTI -
Computation ofImpedance for a Station. One of the 'key
PLATFORM parameters required to estimate Cm or {J, and hence the
air flow in the station, is the station's impedance. The
impedance, Z, of a station can be found by the
Fig.3.46. Air Blast Flows in a Station
simultaneous solution of the equations for the
conservation of mass and the mechanical energy equation,
Fundamentals of Air Flow in Stations N

A knowledge of the characteristics of air flow in subway

Y;e,A = :E A k Vk = Al VI + A 2 V2 + .. , (3.67)
stations and tunnels resulting from train piston action is
necessary to determine the methods for controlling air
velocities in the subway station. The interaction between p _ p = Ck liVk 2 = Ci liVI
the train motion and the resulting air flows is generally S 00 2g 2g
covered in Removal and Addition of Sensible Heat by
Ventilation, in Sec. 3.1; that information is expanded where
herein for phenomena directly related to controlling the
high air velocities. velocity of air in the tunnel in front of the
train, fpm
The maximum air flow depends on the train speed and
the ratio of air speed to train speed as well as the velocity of air through the kth station vent or
resistances to flow in the tunnels, up the vent shafts and tunnel referenced to areaA k , fpm
through the stations. There is an additional dependence
on the interaction between trains both on the same track A area of inflow tunnel, sq ft
and on the adjacent tracks which can either minimize or
exaggerate the air velocities. The equations developed area of kth station vent, tunnel, or stairway,
herein consider only a single train in either single- or sq ft
multiple-track subways. The SES computer program
(Volume II) should be used for detailed behavior analysis coefficient of resistance for kth vent (velocity
of conditions with more than one train in operation. heads) referenced to areaA k , dimensionless
Air Velocity Control 3-67

Ps static pressure inside station, psf Most of the stairways (or escalators) leading from the
platform areas are not analogous to simple vent shafts.
/j weight density, lb per cu ft Rather, most lead to a mezzanine area, and from there
other stairways lead to the surface. Thus, from an air flow
g gravitational acceleration, ft per rnin 2 viewpoint, the air flow sees a platform area (a plenum),
a stairway (a vent shaft), a mezzanine (another plenum)
Thus the impedance of the station is: and a stairway to surface (another vent shaft).

The mezzanine impedance, Zm' is added to the air flow

P - _
Z = _s_ P = _ _~A~
2 __

2 _Ak)2
Vi; (NI:.JCk (3.69) impedance experienced at a stairway between the platform
and the mezzanine. Thus:

Pm - Poe Ak 2
V 2 (3.71)
2g ( L~)2
-(~+ where
Pm static pressure in the mezzanine, psf

where area of ith mezzanine to surface stairway, sq ft

P = static pressure in tunnel upstream of station, psf area of kth platform to mezzanine stairway,
Procedures for calculating vent shaft impedances appear
in Removal and Addition of Sensible Heat by Ventilation, Cj = air flow impedance of ith mezzanine to surface
in Sec. 3.1. When developing the impedance coefficient stairway (velocity heads)
C" ' careful attention is required to assure that the C" is
applied to the appropriate reference area. EX/lllIpJe 3.9: Compute the impedance of the station
shown on Fig. 3.47.
Calculations of lumped impedance coefficients for track
tunnels, CT' for flow out of the station include losses for
1. Lumped Impedance of Outflow Tunnels,
abrupt contraction at the tunnel entrance, frictional losses
CT2 , C T3 • C T4 • from Eq. (3.70).
between the station and first tunnel vent, and the lumped
impedance for the tunnel-vent system in the outflow L
mode. Thus: CT2 = CT3 = CT4 = f -D + C + CA_
C -...pO

L (0.0253) (100)
f - = = 0.16 velocity heads
(3.70) D 16

Cc = 0.28 velocity heads (Table 3.13, abrupt

contraction for A 1 = 200)
, A 2 700
coefficient ofresistance for contraction
of air into exit tunnel (velocity heads) C~o is a function of <t> and 'It from Eqs. (3.34)
(see Table 3.13, Sec. 3.1.). and (3.35), respectively
f~ friction loss in tunnel section between
station and relief shaft downstream of <t> 0.03
station (velocity heads) (See Air Flow

~ = 0.0253~ 'f~O)= 2.6

Fundamentals, Sec. 3.1).
'It =f
coefficient ofresistance for tunnel-vent
system in outflow mode (velocity
heads)(See Fig. 3.28, Sec. 3.1). C~o = 2.5 velocity heads (from Fig. 3.28)
3-68 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies


A = 200 sq It CTYPI

A" = 100 sq It (TYPI

..... 600 It

Fig.3.47. Definition Sketch for Example Problem - Station Impedance

Cn = CTJ = C T4 = 0.16 + 0.28 + 2.5 = 2.94 Computation of Blast Shaft Flow Split. Once the
velocity heads impedance of the station is known, it is possible to
compute the flow split between air in the tumlel being
Mezzanine Impedances for stairways VI and V2 , pushed ahead of the train by piston action and the velocity
from Eq. (3.71). of air entering the station (see Fig. 3.48). The mass ratio,
Cm, of air leaving through the blast shaft to that flowing
in the tunnel upstream of the blast shaft can be
determined by methods in Removal and Addition of
( L:~)2
yrc; Sensible Heat by Ventilation, in Sec. 3.1, except that the
air flow impedance of the station replaces the tunnel
(I80? impedance terms when using Eq. (3.29). The air flow rate
1.25 acting on the station is (I-Cm) of the air flowing upstream
180 180 )2 of the blast shaft. Substituting the station impedance in
( V 5.0 + V 5.0 Eq. (3.29), the flow split at the blast shaft is:

3. Station Impedance Z, from Eq. (3.69).

Z = A'
c. = AAv j(l - C,;/ Z' (3.72)
(2:vC;J m C/1ps

Solving for C m

1 +A-
j C/1ps
Air Velocity Control 3-69

v. em


v • v • (I-ern)

Fig. 3.48. Definition Sketch Showing Flow Split at a Vent Shaft

where All of the terms in n' are known from engineering

drawings or standard coefficients. The station impedance
(3.74) Z'is a measure of the station's resistance to air flow. It
is based on such factors as the number of tracks, flow
resistance in tunnels downstream of the station, station
t lL
head loss in tunnel section between blast shaft
vertical arrangement (mezzanines, etc.), length of the
and station portal
station, station cross-sectional area, size and location, and
resistance of stairwells and escalators to the street level.
expansion loss as tunnel air expands into the
station platform area (from Table 3.13)
By use of Fig. 3.32, the ratio of tunnel air speed to train
speed, (3, can be determined. The CDOo term needed for
z station impedance, Eq. (3.69)
Fig. 3.32 is found in the usual manner using Fig. 3.31;
however, the n' of Eq. (3.75) is used instead of the n of
Equation (3.73) gives the expression for Cm that can be Eq. (3.47). After solving Fig. 3.32 for (3, the velocity of
solved in terms of geometrical information readily the air in the tunnel just beyond the blast shaft but before
obtained from engineering drawings or standard the station is given in Eq. (3.66).
coefficients. The terms in the expression for Z ' include all
the flow resistances between the blast shaft and the
station. Areas along the first 50 to 150 ft of the platform adjacent
to the approach tunnel may be exposed to these peak jet
Computation of Jet Velocity and Expanded Velocity in velocities. As the air jet expands, its velocity is reduced.
the Station. The velocity of air in the tunnel due to train Using the equation for the conservation of mass, the bulk
piston action is determined by methods given in Removal velocity in the station obtained over most of the length
and Addition of Sensible Heat by Ventilation, in Sec. 3.1; of the platform is:
however, the tunnel impedance to air flow, n, used on
Fig. 3.32, can be modified to account for the station
impedance. Eq. (3.47) defines n. The derivation of n (3.76)
assumes a series of identical vent shafts uniformly spaced
in front of and behind the train. This assumption is where
accurate for estimating ventilation rates, but it can cause a ratio of tunnel area to station area,
significant error when estimating the peak flow near the dimensionless
station. Therefore, Eq. (3.47) must be modified, replacing
CApo (the resistance to air flow in front of the train due Subway System Air Flow Rates and Velocity. Figures
to tunnels and vents) with a new constant Z : which is the 3.49 and 3.50 are examples of the time"varying
resistance of the blast shaft and station. characteristics of subway system and station air flow rates
and velocities under subway conditions simulated in the
Hence: computer (Volume II). These examples are based on a
double-track system with trains operating at 120-sec
headways. On Fig. 3.49, it can be seen that the Cmfor the
(] \:
(t(L-l)+CA_' + C A _ XI• +
D '-'PI '-'P
z) (3.75) blast shaft is not constant because of the influence of
tunnel flow inertias on the tunnel flow structure caused
3-70 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

by the interactions of the trains. These nonsteady where

characteristics cannot be handled by Eq. (3.76); the
computer simulation gives far more detail. Equation Vjet velocity of the air jet in the station
(3.76) is adequate, however, for understanding the
phenomena involved and developing the environmental z station impedance, Eq. (3.69)
control strategies.
coefficient of resistance for kth vent (velocity
The techniques used in this section estimate the highest heads) referenced to areaA k , dimensionless
air flows, i.e., the design condition. The actual air
velocities will be at that peak value only for a small
percentage of the time during each headway; however,
that small percentage of time is important because it is the - - - EXI"..... OED VELOCITY IMSIDE STATION. V\

time of annoyance. The distribution of velocities shown - - - - - - VELOCITl' 1llIlOUGHST"IIIS. V.


on Fig. 3.50 results in an average station velocity of 136
fpm compared with a maximum velocity of about 620 fpm
when the train is approaching the station. Similarly for
the stairwells, the average inflow velocity is about 230 fpm 300

while the peak inflow air velocity is 580 fpm.

TIME. s£c

I r-,
I,, " '

I ,
.300 , I
, I


" '"

Fig. 3.50. Air Velocities in Station

Control of High Air Velocity by Use of Blast

The blast shaft 1S a vent located near the station which
vents the air in the tunnel, thus reducing the blast of air
Fig. 3.49. Subway System Air Flow Rates rushing into the station. This process is governed by
(120·sec Headways) several fluid flow fundamentals (see Fundamentals of Air
Flow in Stations), which require the air to flow to ambient
Velocity of Air in Exit Tunnels and Stairwells. The through the path of least resistance. Hence, the blast shaft
velocity of air in the exit tunnels and stairwells is becomes more effective when its resistance is lower than
determined from the following equation: that of the station. Methods for computing flow resistance
up a vent shaft are given in Removal and Addition of
Sensible Heat by Ventilation, in Sec. 3.1; methods for
(3.77) computing the flow resistance beyoild the blast shaft to
Air Velocity Control 3-71

atmosphere through the station are also given in of tunnel between the blast shaft and the station portal or
Fundamentals of Air Flow in Stations. In general, the a designed expansion loss configuration can also be used
blast shaft will have little effect in controlling the to increase overall impedance and, in many cases, these
magnitude of the air blast in the station unless the blast losses will be the resistances which govern the magnitude
shaft incorporates a large exhaust fan. of Z ~ Methods for computing these losses are given in
Removal and Addition of Sensible Heat by Ventilation,
Effect of Changing Blast Shaft Geometry. The in Sec. 3.1, and Fundamentals of Air Flow in Stations, in
relationship between the relative flow resistances for a this section.
station and its blast shaft is given on Fig. 3.51. On this
figure, the station impedance includes the flow resistance Effects ofBlast Shaft Location. One of the more obvious
of the length of the tunnel between the blast shaft and the ways of increasing the resistance in the tunnel between the
portal, the expansion losses at the portal as well as the blast shaft and the station portal is to increase the length
resistance out of the stairwells or adjacent tunnels with of that particular tunnel section. When that tunnel section
their vent shafts. The higher the Cm' the more effective becomes too long, however, the blast in the station caused
the blast shaft, as shown in Eq. (3.66). Thus, as seen on by the decelerating train after it passes the blast shaft may
Fig. 3.51, Cm can be increased by increasing <I> or Z ~ exceed the blast in the station caused by the train before
There are limits, however, beyond which <I> or Z' cannot it reaches the blast shaft.
be practically increased. The <I> value for most blast shafts
is in 0.1 to 0.6 range (see Fans and Air Handling Units, The location of the blast shaft and deceleration profile of
in Sec. 4.2). If the area of the blast shaft was twice that the train are used to determine the maximum air velocity
of the tunnel, and if the Cfj.p& was a very low value experienced in the station. This maximum velocity occurs
(around 1.5 velocity heads), then the <I> would still be as when the train either is upstream or downstream of the
high as 2.5, and this would indicate a massive structure. blast shaft. An example is shown on Fig. 3.52. The train
Means- of increasing the station impedance by changing begins its braking at point "a" and comes to a full stop
station geometry will be discussed in Control of High Air at point "b." The stopping distance is given on Fig. 3.53
Velocity by Changes in Station Geometry. A short length for the three mphps deceleration rate. The velocity at


'-- 2.9
..... ...... 2.5
.'"... 0.50
~ ...
r: 1/
~ ~

-- ~ ~
./ l..--' 1.5 ...
0 0.40 1.3 '"

- ~V ...vv

:::: b:::::: ..
~V --
- ~ ::::: ~

ZlL 0.9 III


~ ::::::: :::::
:::--- .

~ --

~ ~~
... z V 0.7
~ 0
~ c~
--- - ..
~~ ,/'
~ / k::: 0.5 l;;


~ ;:a

...2 ~ ~~
~ 0.3

::::: ..
-- ~

v•• 0.10

::::=:-- I-

0.0 I

0.01 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.06 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.' 1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 '.0 10.0


Fig. 3.51. Sh.ft Mass Flow R.tio

3-72 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

point "c," an arbitrary distance between points "a" and

"b," can be found on Fig. 3.53.

For example, a train approaches a station at 80 mph.
From Fig. 3.53, it must start its three mphps braking rate 00

at 1,560 ft from the far end of the station. The train will [
be traveling at 60 mph when it is about 880 ft from the DISTANCE Nff. .D
10 MPH TO 60 MPH
far end of the station; thus point "c," in this case, is 680 '"
ft from point "a."
If point "c" is upstream of the blast shafts, then the air 20

velocity in the station is:

DL.... ...L- ..L ---l. ---IL_
Vmax (3.78)
..., 1500 '000 SOD

But if the train has passed the blast shaft, the air velocity
_ ~L

in the station is:

Fig. 3.53. Train Stopping Distance vs. Speed for
The Vmax computed from Eq. (3.78) will be the same as Nominal 3 mphps Braking Rate
from Eq. (3.79) when the ratio between the distance of the (Shows Location of Stopping Point Relative to
~rain from the blast shaft to the total braking distance, L b , Station Geometry)

mass flow split, Cm ,does not provide an advantage if the

2C. - C. 2
m m blast shaft is too far away from the station, since the
decelerating train quickly passes beneath the shaft to
generate high tunnel velocities. If the blast shaft is located
and the distance bet wen the station and the blast shaft for
at a point before the train begins braking, it is not effective
this condition is given by:
in reducing maximum station air flows. It should also be
noted that once the blast shaft is located, a change in train
speed restrictions will affect the most effective S/L b and,
hence, the maximum velocity condition. Negative values
of Lv in Eq. (3.81) indicate that the maximum velocity
will occur when the train is between the blast shaft and
the station.

Exhaust Fan in Blast Shafts. The air flow coming down

the tunnel toward the blast shaft is estimated in the same
manner as discussed above whether or not there is a fan
in the blast shaft. The flow split is not determined by the
relative resistances to air flow; instead a fixed air flow rate
Fig. 3.52. Relationship Among Train Speed, is exhausted by the fan. In this manner, the air blast at
Blast Shaft location, and Blast Magnitude the station is lessened in magnitude by increasing the
capacity of the fan.
When the Lv computed in Eq. (3.81) is greater than the
For example, a 60-mph train is moving air at about 2,500
actual distance, the maximum velocity in the station will
fpm, and the air flow rate is about 500,000 cfm. As the
occur before the train approaches the blast shaft. If the
air leaves the 200 'sq ft of the tunnel and expands into the
computed Lv is less than the actual distance, then the
500 sq ft cross-section of the station, the jet velocity will
maximum velocity will occur when the train is between
be 2,500 fpm which will slow to 1,000 fpm when fully
the blast shaft and the station. Obviously, having a high
Air Velocity Control 3-73

expanded. If the jet velocity were to be reduced to 1,000 appreciably alter the jet velocity, which can be controlled
fpm by a passive blast shaft, the Cmfor the blast will have by other methods. One possible method is to have a
to equal (l . ~:~~~ or 0.6. A passive blast shaft with that transition section where the tunnel cross-sectional area
high a Cmwill not be practical. To increase the air flowing expands to that of the station and allows the jet to expand
out the blast shaft, a fan can be added. A fan located in before reaching the station. Sometimes, for center-
the blast shaft will have to exhaust 0.6 of the 500,000 cfm platform stations, this type of expansion is accomplished
coming down the tunnel to adequately reduce the air blast, in the blast shaft areas, so that the tunnel air enters the
and a 300,000 cfm fan, although large, will be practical. stations through both the inbound and outbound portals.
For side-platform stations, the dividing wall between the
Control of High Air Velocity by Changes in tunnels is removed some distance along the tunnel to
Station Geometry accomplish the same effect. Although the jet expansion
requires 50 to 100 feet for its expansion in the station, a
Station geometry influences the high air velocities in and somewhat shorter distance may be required when this
through the station in three ways: (1) the station's expansion occurs against some back pressure as would be
resistance relative to the blast shaft controls to a large the case in a blast shaft expansion chamber. The practical
extent the amount of tunnel air passing by the blast shaft limit to these changes in station geometry is the
and entering the station; (2) the station cross-sectional construction cost.
area influences the expansion of the airstream in the
station and the bulk velocity through most of the occupied Velocity in Stairwells. Since the station behaves
area; (3) the velocity in the stairwells and other corridors essentially as a plenum, the velocity in the stairwell is
is influenced by their cross-sectional area and impedance. dependent on the total station impedance and the air flow
resistance out of the stairwell. Thus the velocity in the
Station Impedance. The relationship between station stairwell can be estimated:
impedance and the air flow out of the blast shaft is shown
on Fig. 3.51. Substantial changes in the station impedance vk = v!Z
result in modest changes in air flow split at the blast shaft, (3.82)
but still some improvement in reducing the air blast can
be achieved by increasing the station's impedance. The
impedance of the station box is generally dominated by air velocity in the kth stairwell measured at
the low resistance flow paths to atmosphere through the the reference area used in computing Z, fpm
other tunnels and their blast shafts. There is little
opportunity to modify these impedances because they are V air velocity in the tunnel, fpm
fixed predominantly by tunneling considerations or
achieving high <I>'s for the blast shafts. Z station impedance to air flow, Eq. (3.69)

More opportunity exists for changing the total stairwell impedance to air flow of the kth stairwell
area and impedance. Maximum increase in station referenced to the area used in computing Z.
impedance is obtained if the doors to street level are
closed, which corresponds to an infinite stairwell Changing the Air Velocity in the Tunnels
impedance. However, this will have only limited effect on
the station's overall impedance. Reducing the quantity of
air flowing to the station by increasing the impedance This section discusses methods to reduce the air velocities
beyond the blast shaft is best accomplished by controlling in the stations by reducing the air velocity in the tunnels.
the entrance tunnel and expansion losses described in There are two general methods of reducing the air velocity
Control of High Air Velocity by Use of Blast Shafts. in the tunnels: (I) restricting the train speed, and (2)
designing the tunnel and vent geometry to produce a lower
Changing the Station Cross Section. The airstream ratio of tunnel air velocity to train speed, i.e., a lower p.
entering the station rapidly expands along the length of
the station to the full station cross section. The air velocity Train Speed Restriction. The airspeed throughout the
decreases from the tunnel (or jet) velocity at the entrance subway system is proportional to the train speed.
portal to a lower station bulk velocity value, usually Therefore, any decrease in the train speed will reduce the
within 50 to 100 feet. The area where the highest station tunnel air velocity and, hence, the air velocities in the
velocities are usually reached is on the platform near the stations. A train speed restriction is a positive means of
portal. Enlarging the stations' cross-sectional area will not controlling air velocities.
3-74 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Using train speed restrictions to control the air velocities more detail, see Ref. 23. Opening the dividing wall be-
is very effective, but may be very expensive if additional tween the tunnels near the station seems to be an effective
rolling stock is required. means of reducing the air blast in the stations.

Changing Tunnel and Vent Geometry to Lower (3. Table 3.2i shows the changes that can be expected from
Another method for reducing the air velocity in the changing air flow parameters in the subway. Increasing
station is to reduce the air velocity in the tunnels before the station cross-sectional area will reduce the bulk
it reaches the station. In essence, this requires designing velocity but will have little effect on the tunnel's jet
the system to have a lower ratio of tunnel airspeed to train velocity. Only the porosity will tend to significantly
speed, i.e., a lower (3, if there are no restrictions on train reduce both velocities.
speed. From Fig. 3.32, it may be seen that (3 is dependent
on two dimensionless parameters, CDoo and n. Factors
Table 3.22. Effect of Various Air Flow Parameters
in the tunnel-vent shaft system geometry that change these
on the Air Velocity in the Station
two parameters include: blockage ratio, tunnel porosity
and roughness, and vent shafts spacing and <I> • Of these
factors, only the blockage ratio and tunnel porosity, as it Percent Maximum Velocity
affects the blockage ratio, are significant in changing the Parameter Being Varied Change Station Percent
(3 term. Variable Velocity Change

Baseline System A
Changing the blockage ratio, 11, provides the air that (Undivided Double Track) Reference 1,220 fpm Reference
is flowing through the tunnel with a different tunnel cross-
Blast Shaft Area, A v , (<I> ) +50% (+50%) 1,220 fpm Negligible
sectional area across which the bulk tunnel velocity can
be spread. Table 3.21 shows an example of the change in Blast Shaft Resistance,
velocity ratio, (3, with change in the blockage ratio, a C~, (<I» ':'50% (-25%) 1,220 fpm Negligible
The example assumes a long train (lId =60) in a smooth Station Stairway Cross
tunnel and that the vent shaft area is of constant size. Only Section, ASrflirweu, (<I» -50% (-50%) 1,220 fpm Negligible
large changes in blockage ratio have significant impact on Stairwell Impedance,
the air velocity. Slightly enlarging a tunnel cross section CStflirwell, (<I» +67% (+33%) 1,220 fpm Negligible
by itlcreasing its diameter by one or two feet will not do Stairwell Impedance,
mucn to control the high velocities; it will be necessary CStflirwell, = 00 00 1,120 fpm -8%
to enlarge the tunnel cross section from single track to
Tunnel-Vent Configuration: Stairs only 1,100 fpm -10%
Blast shaft
and stairs
Table 3.21. Relationship Between Blockage Ratio and only, no
Velocity Ratio for Constant Vent-Shaft Area midtunnel 1,410 fpm +15%
Station Cross-Sectional
Area, As +43% 820 fpm -30%
11, CDoo n, (3,
Blockage Ratio (Fig. 3.31) Eq. (3-47) Velocity Ratio Baseline System B
(Divided DoUble Track) Reference 2,020 fpm Reference
0.50 18.0 7 0.60 Tunnel Cross-Sectional
0.25 5.5 16 0.37 Area, A +50% 1,400fpm -30%

0.125 3.5 28 0.25 Tunnel Porosity, P >15%of

Center Wall
Area 1,220 fpm -40%

The percentage of open area in the dividing wall between

tunnels is called porosity. If there is no wall, the porosity is Isolation of High Velocity Air
100 percent; if the wall is solid, the porosity is 0 percent.
Scale model test results indicate that porosities as low as 5 Two general concepts exist for isolating the high velocity
percent cause the tunnel to behave aerodynamically like tunnel air from the platform areas. These concepts are the
an open tunnel, in terms of far-field flow phenomena. same as those discussed in Isolation of Heat Sources and
However, there are differences in behavior between open Sinks, in Sec. 3.1, namely, the use of directed air flows and
and low-porosity tunnels, especially in the near field. For train screens.
Air Quality Control 3-75

Directed Air Flows. In these concepts air jets are used with establishing the amount of any specific contaminant
from the station's air distribution system to counteract the that is made airborne, and generates a criterion based on
momentum of the air blast from the tunnel. 7.5 cfm per person in the stations and 5 cfm per person
Unfortunately, there is no practical way to apply directed in the trains.
air flow concepts without having the air jets exceed the
criteria in Sec. 2.3 at times when the tunnel air blast does The subway design team should have demographic charts
not occur. Fan horsepower requirements would have to which will establish the maximum number of patrons in
be great to produce enough air momentum to counteract the subway at anyone time. These charts form the bases
the tunnel air blast upon reaching the station. for determining the minimum ventilation rate for the
subway system. Most often, due to other environmental
Train Screens. Train screens are a permissive barrier, considerations (for example, temperature control), the
opening to allow passage of people to and from the train. ventilation rate will be greater lhan the minimum because
At other times, the barrier is completely closed. The of air quality. Once the required ventilation rate has been
tunnel air blasts are physically blocked from entering determined, the system can be designed to attain that
occupied areas of the station, by a solid wall resembling ventilation rate by the methods given in Removal and
a bank of elevator doors. See Isolation Systems, in Sec. Addition of Sensible Heat by Ventilation in Sec. 3.1.
4.1, for description of the train screens.
Control of the contaminants that become reentrained in
the subway atmosphere is discussed under Maintenance
3.3. Air Quality Control of Air Passages, and Air Filtration. The strategy is to
clean the particulate contaminants from the subway
before they become reentrained in quantity, and to use air
Practical limits for the concentrations of airborne filters on equipment requiring dust protection.
contaminants are established in Part 2. Air quality in a
subway depends on the amount of contaminants generated Choice of Air Intake Types and Location
and made 'airborne in the system, and the quantity and
quality of ventilation air drawn into the subway. The site selection of the air intakes is important because
Contaminants include odorants, gases and particulates, the fresh air brought into the subway system is the only
and they originate from these basic sources: means for reducing the concentration of gaseous
contaminants generated in the subway. Also, dilution by
I. "Fresh" ventilation air bringing contaminants fresh air into the system is the principal method for
into the subway system. reducing particulate concentrations and, in fact, the only
method for reducing the particulate concentrations once
2. Train operations, patron and other subway the particulates are in the public areas.
activities generating contaminants.
Subway environmental engineers should arrange to supply
3. Reentrained dust which has originated from subways with reliable sources of clean ventilation air from
other sources and subsequently settled in the above ground. Federal, state, and local ambient air quality
subway system. laws should guarantee that the aboveground air is clean
enough to be considered fresh for diluting any
The contaminants from the first source depend largely on concentrations of contaminants generated in the subway.
the air quality of the city in general. Except for the isolated However, there may be isolated sources of airborne
instance where the air intakes are near sources of air contaminants that occur in concentrations in excess of the
pollution, there is little that can be done by the subway average air quality. Engineers should isolate subway
designer to control this contaminant source. Methods for systems or their air intakes from such sources of low-
avoiding this problem are discussed under Choice of Air quality air as underground garages or bus loops and
Intake Types and Location. should be cautious when placing ventilation openings at
street levels. Each lane of traffic has a deceleration and
The contaminants from the second source have only a an acceleration side of the intersection. To minimize the
limited chance of being controlled at their origin, and amount of exhaust fumes, the vent gratings should be
hence most of them must be diluted by fresh outside air placed on the acceleration side of the intersection, at
to a concentration level where they will no longer be a midblock, in a median strip, if available, or in the
problem. Part 2 recognizes the uncertainties associated sidewalk. Whether using the street, the median strip, or
3-76 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

the sidewalk, the vent shaft sites should be field inspected Transit Commission cleans its entire system about every
for possible source of contaminants before final selection. two weeks with a vacuum cleaning train (Ref. 12).
Maintenance of the air passage (which includes the
In addition to the airborne contaminants from the busy trackways and station corridors for this purpose) will have
intersections, there is dust from braking and/or tire wear no effect on the control of gaseous air contaminants from
which is too heavy to become airborne for a considerable train or human sources, but the maintenance should be
time. It is fine enough to be swept up several feet diligently pursued to eliminate sources such as algae,
aboveground in the wake of autos or buses, but it is coarse fungi, and putrescible material.
enough after this movement to settle again quickly. This
dust can easily enter the subway system by falling through Example 3.10: Compute the possible accumulation of
street-level vent gratings. Because this dust settles.quickly, metal from brake and wheel wear in a station only to
however, there is little opportunity to exhaust it out of the illustrate the potential magnitude of just one constituent
subway. Intake of these contaminants into the subway can of the problem.
be reduced by locating the vent shaft away from a street
intersection, or at least locating it on a side of the
intersection opposite to where vehicles must stop. Also, The assumptions and calculations are shown in Table
when siting vent shafts, planning should include the 3.23. Since all of the metal does not settle, the computed
effects of automobiles generating more pollutants as they accumulation of 0.017 in. per year is greater than will be
travel up and down hills. Once in the subway, this material experienced. Similarly, the metal particles are not all fine
will accumulate and contribute to the dust concentration enough to be airswept out of the subway system without
as it continually settles and becomes reentrained. settling. Some does settle, however, and forms a
Eventually, the dust will settle permanently on fixed and recirculating particulate load in the station atmosphere.
vehicular surfaces, creating a fire hazard, since the In this manner, the airborne dust load becomes greater
constituents of this dust are combustible. with each train stop. Also, the potential airborne dustload
and the accumulated dust deposits from this example form
A more positive method for preventing automotive traffic- just one constituent of the total dust.
generated contaminants from entering vent shaft street-
level openings is to use a pylon. The pylon can take in and
exhaust air at any desired height above street level. The Air Filtration
height above street level required to significantly reduce
rubber dust intake, and thus provide cleaner air is about Patrons on the trains will benefit from filtered air, as
four to six feet. The pylon will not appreciably alter the discussed in Vehicle Air-Conditioning, in Sec. 4.3, but the
gaseous or very fine particulate intake. Also, the pylon is patrons in the stations will not. It is unlikely, however,
a structure requiring grade level space, and this space may that they will be able to perceive the difference between
be difficult to find without routing the vent shafts to the air in the vehicle and that in the station. The ptirpose
remote sites where space for such a structure is available. of air filtration is generally to protect electronic gear, air-
conditioning coils, or other equipment. The subject is
covered in the ASHRAE Handbook and under Air Filters
Maintenance of Air Passages in Sec. 4.2.

Subway maintenance will have a significant effect on Filter tests conducted over several weeks by the Toronto
controlling the concentration of airborne particulate Transit Commission found that commercially available
material from train, human and aboveground sources. filters will remove an average of about 0.146 grain per
The particulate material settles, becomes reentrained in 1,000 cu ft. In earlier tests, the Commission reported 0.2
the air, and settles again. In this continuing process, the to 0.6 grains per 1,000 cu ft dust concentration during
airborne concentration consists of some particulate that heavy train traffic. There was more than a range of a
is newly generated but the balance is a recirculating load. factor of two in the amount of dust collected during the
filter tests. A portion of the range can be due to differences
Maintenance by periodic cleaning will greatly reduce the in the dust concentration in the station, and the rest of
recirculating load. The cleaning is usually accomplished the range is due to differences in the filter media.
with special cars equipped with high-pressure water hoses Combining the data from the two separate tests indicates
or with very large vacuum cleaners. The Toronto Transit that the commercially available filters are at best about
Commission washes each line section in its system at least 60 to 70 percent efficient on subway dust, because of dust
once every six months. The Montreal Urban Community load variations.
Air Pressure Control 3-77

Table 3.23. Possible Accumulation from Brake Areas contaInIng special equipment that must be
and Wheel Wear protected from the subway or outdoor environment,
should be kept at a positive air pressure relative to the rest
of the subway to preclude the infiltration of dust. Since
Train Configuration and Train Operations the air pressure in the subway is transient and may change
Cars/train 10 several in. wc in a few seconds, it is desirable to completely
Wheels/car 8 isolate and seal these areas from the subway. These areas
Wheels/train 80
should intake air from and exhaust air directly to the
Trains/year/station (a) 205,000 outside, whenever practicable.
Train miles/year/station (b) 68,000
Metal Wear
Metal from wheel (c) 79 lb/wheel/100,000 mi 3.4. Air Pressure Control
Metal from brake 40 lb/wheel/100,000 mi
Wheel and brake metal from train 9,500 lb/train/100,000 mi
(80 wheels)
Metal wear/station (d) 6,500Ib/station/year The piston action of trains causes the unsteady motion of
air within a subway system. This unsteady movement of
Dust Accumulation
If all metal settled (e) 0.017 in./year air is further associated with changing air pressures in
If all metal airborne (f) 1.1 grains/1 ,000 cu ft trains and at wayside. Under certain conditions, these
or 2.5 mg/cu m pressure changes can be a source of passenger discomfort,
If all metal oxidized to Fe Z 0 3 (g) 3.6 mg/cu m and can be harmful to equipment and structures.
(a) Assume the following schedule per station: In Section 2.3, it is recommended that the rate of static
o train/min) (60 min/hr) (8 hr/day) (260 days/yr) 125,000 pressure change be kept below 0.06 psi per sec (1.67 in.
o train/5 min) (60 min/hr) (8 hr/day) 005 days/yr) 10,000 we per sec) when patrons or employees are subject to a
(l train/5 min) (60 min/hr) 06 hr/day) (365 days/yr) 70,000 total pressure change of 0.1 psi (2.78 in. we), or greater.
205,000 This criterion is applicable to the interior of subway cars,
trains/station/year within station areas, and to tunnels because employees
(b) Assume 1/3 mile between stations: may be present in these areas periodically for maintenance
(205,000 trains/station/yr) 0/3 mi between stations) or repair work.
= 68,000 milstation/year
(c) Assume steel wheels reduce from 30 in. dia to 28 in. dia in For train speeds below 80 mph, changes in local static
100,000 mi:
2 2
pressure are generally less than one psi. Rapid pressure
rr/4 (30 S9 in. - 28 s9 in.)(3 in.)(500 lb/cu ft) = 79 Ib/100 000 mi changes of this order of magnitude, however, are sufficient
1,728 cu in./cu ft '
to place significant loads on large surfaces, until pressures
(d) 68,000 mi/station/year x 9,500 Ib/100,000 mi
on both sides of such surfaces equilibrate. Problems of this
= 6,500 lb/station/year
nature have been experienced with train cab and side
(e) Assume projected area over the area of the two (inbound and out-
windows, and wayside doors and panels. Pressure changes
bound) track ways:
are periodic in nature, and thus may also require
2 x 1,760 ft x 10 ft = 35,200 S9 ft
consideration of fatigue life in the design of equipment and
Further assume effective density of 130 lb/cu ft, then thickness structures.
of deposit on trackway is:
6,500 lb/station/year x 12 in./ft = 0 017 in
130 lb/cu ft 35,200 S9 ft . .
(f) Assume 200,000 cu ft per train (i.e., 200,000 cfm at peak head- The purpose of this section is to identify several air
way), then total ventilation air for all year: pressure control strategies related to:
205,000 trains/year x 200,000 cu ft/train = 4.1 x 10 10 cu ft/year
The average concentration is: I. Train speed restriction
6,500 lb/year x 7,000 grain/lb = 1.1 grain
4.1 x 10 1 0 cu ft/year 1,000 cu ft 2. Tunnel venting
(g) Assume all metal is iron and it oxidizes to Fe z 0 3 :

2.5 mg/cu m x Molecular Weight of Fe z 0 3 =Concentration 3. Changes in tunnel geometry

2 x Atomic Weight of Fe
2 x 55.8 + 3 x 16 4. Isolation.
2.5 mg/cu m x 2 x 55.8 = 3.6 mg/cu m
3-78 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies

Fundamentals pressures at various locations using non-dimensional

pressure rise coefficients. These coefficients are defined by
Air pressures developed initially in the near field of a train Table 3.24.
can be predicted satisfactorily by incompressible, one-
dimensional flow theory. Given these near-field pressures, In Table 3.24, the symbol P represents static pressure,
the traveling wave method is used to approximate pressure absolute. Combinations of superscripts and subscripts on
wave effects (Ref. 13). P are used to denote points of pressure measurement.
Outdoor ambient pressure is represented by P00' Pressure,
The process equations presented in this section are just ahead of the nose of the train is given by P'it.
applicable only to elementary subway system
configurations. For example, except in the case of passing Pressure in the annular space, just behind the nose of the
trains, the process equations are valid only for a single train is Pit. The symbol PlJ. is pressure in the annular
train operating within a subway system. Therefore, care space at a distance lJ. behind the train nose. Pressure P~
should be used in applying these simple tools to more is wayside pressure at some location ahead of the train.
complex situations than those for which they were The pressures Pi- .P;. P6 .and PWare associated wit~ t~e
originally developed (Ref. 13). tail of the train in a similar manner. The symbol P IS aIr
mass density. Train speed is represented by U.
The SES computer program does not provide air pressure
data as part of its normal output. However, the analysis The symbol C is used to denote pressure coefficients.
presented in this section can be extended to complex Combinations of superscripts and subscripts on C are used
subway configurations through use of air velocity and to identify pressure coefficients for each pressure
train data outputs of the SES program. measurement location. The choice of units for P, p, and
U is immaterial, so long as a choice results in non-
Pressure Coefficients. It is convenient to describe air dimensional pressure coefficients.

Table 3.24. Definition of Pressure Coefficients

P- p- p+

'(I C?9I I
I ~ I I
- - - -...•.. u f- l__L&
Air Pressure Control 3-79

Methods will be presented whereby the various pressure Due to the nature of calculations for viscous and inertial
coefficients can be determined. Then, given P and U, lengths, they will generally not be equal.
these coefficients enable calculation of static pressure rise
above atmospheric (P - P00) at corresponding locations. Pressure Waves. Pressure disturbances created in the
near field of the train propagate into the far field at sonic
Equivalents. Train near-field pressure changes are velocity ao ' Generally, ao is about 1,100 fps, although it
significant and, therefore, should be examined in detail. may be calculated more precisely from the equation:
The geometry of the subway in the far field must be
considered to determine near-field pressure transients. ao =49.02 Y Ta + 460 (3.83)

GeneralJY, the subway system geometry ahead of and where

behind the train may be quite complicated. Complications
a0 sonic velocity, fps
may include transitions in tunnel cross section, tunnel
branches, and vent shafts. Current experience indicates Ta tunnel air temperature, F
that such far-field system geometries ahead of and behind
the train can be approximated by simpler forms called Thus, depending upon its distance from the train, it may
"equivalents". easily be several seconds or more before the effects of a
pressure disturbance at the train are noticed at a given
Table 3.25 shows calculation procedures for determining wayside location.
viscous equivalents of tunnel and vent systems. Assume
that a certain segment of tunnel in the near field of the Each subway location where abrupt cross-section changes
train is considered as typical with cross sectional area A, occur constitutes a potential source of reflected pressure
hydraulic diameter D, and friction factor f. The table of waves.
viscous equivalents allows for calculation of the length of
tunnel, based on A, D and f, which would be equivalent
(in steady flow) to the tunnel-vent system. The general For low frequency plane waves, the relationship between
procedure for determining the viscous equivalent in front incident, reflected and transmitted pressure waves at com-
of the train is to use Table 3.25 to make successive mon geometrical discontinuities are given by Table 3.27
simplifications, beginning with the outflowing outer in terms of pressure coefficients.
extremities, until the near-field reference section is
reached. The general procedure to determine the viscous
equivalent to the rear of the train is to begin with the In Table 3.27, Ci represents the pressure of a wave
inflowing outer extremities of the system and use Table incident on a discontinuity in geometry, or:
3.25 to make successive simplifications until the near-field
reference area is reached.
It is usually sufficient to assume that the extremities of
the system lie between the fourth vent shaft to the front where
of the train and the fourth vent shaft to the rear of the
train, not including the fourth shafts. Pi = static pressure of incident wave, absolute

Equivalent viscous lengths are denoted by the subscript Similarly, Cr represents the pressure of the wave reflected
F. at the discontinuity, and Ct corresponds to the pressure
of the wave transmitted beyond the discontinuity. In the
Table 3.26 shows calculation procedures for determining last case, C v corresponds to the pressure of the wave
inertial equivalents of tunnel and vent systems. Consider transmitted to a side branch.
a certain segment of tunnel in the near field of the train
as typical, with cross-sectional area A, and hydraulic For the second, fourth, and last cases of Table 3.27, the
diameter D. The table of inertial equivalents allows for reflected wave is opposite in sign to that of the incident
calculation of the length of tunnel, based upon A and D, wave. This means that an incident wave of compression
which would be equivalent (fluid inertially) to the will cause a reflected wave of rarefaction and vice versa.
tunnel-vent system. The procedures for the use of Table In all cases, the resultant pressure to the left of the
3.26 are similar to those for use of Table 3.25. Equivalent discontinuity is given by the sum of the incident and
inertial lengths are denoted by the subscript I. reflected waves at that location.
3-80 Subway Environmental Evaluations and Design Strategies
Table 3.25. Viscous Equivalents


<?,pa Dun'LOWING
~ Cf Pn L1F-L, +~ (k,.: 1)

~N''''' ____ ~n- V,.A., V,.A., V,.A'0 1

(3 L
'+1, ~
.0:: L
+ Di~ I
r- [
ki+ 1 i· l • (I +', if)(~~n
u;:-r ~
n;:r;- -n;-:r:- - I