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624 電氣學會雜誌

Three Winding Transformer.



(Transformer Engineer, Mitsubishi Denki-Kabushikikaisha.)


Three winding transformers afford many advantages on large power systems and their
use has become widely extended in recent years. Originally designed to eliminate insulation
strains when operating on the star-star connection the third winding is now frequently
used to supply power in the interchange of energy between two transmission lines, and for
power factor correction of long high voltage lines by means of synchronous condensers. A
number of concrete examples are given.
A brief discussion follows of the inherent charact,rristics of three winding transformers
with regard to short circuit stresses and voltage regulation; some of the limitations are
indicated. In conclusion the superiority of the three winding shell type over the core type
is pointed out.

Many of the large power transmission companies have found it very convenient
to use three winding transformers on certain portions of their systems r,,a account
of the resultant improvement in the economy and the increased flexibility of oper-
ation of the transmission lines. In this article we shall briefly discuss a number of
applications of the three winding transformer, and also some of the limitations in the
design of this type of apparatus.
The first applications of the third winding in power transformers was as an
auxiliary winding in units having both high voltage and low voltage windings con-
nected in star. Such transformers are frequently used on account of the reduced
initial cost as compared with the equivalent delta-delta connected transformers of the
same voltage. The saving is more evident the higher the voltages and the lower the
rated output of the transformers, and is mainly due to the better space factor of the
copper wire having the larger cross section, and also due to the reduced voltage
stresses between the individ ual coils and between adjacent winding groups. The
addition of the auxiliary winding increases the cost only slightly , as it is usually
designed for low voltage. The cost of the third winding is considerably less than
the amount of the saving previously mentioned. The necessity for such a winding
will appear from the following. It is well known that a sine form flux wave is pro-
duced by an exciting current with a distorted wave shape, caused by the variation

Paper to to read before the meting of the Kansai Local section.

大 正 十 四年 七 月 Three Winding Tran former 625

in the permeability of the iron of the magnetic circuit with changing flux density.
The most prominent component of this distorted exciting current wave is the third
harmonic. Being of triple frequency it occurs as a single phase current in the three

phase system. This current must be allowed to flow, since its suppression will lead
to the appearance of a third harmonic voltage wave in the windings, which may

greatly increase the dielectric strain on the insulation and may cause the transformer
to break down. If the neutral of the transformer primary ieconneeted to the neutral
of the generator without an intermediate resistance the current is able to flow and
no excessive insulation stresses occur. But if we have star-star connected transformers
with ungrounded neutral which is not connected to any other neu'ral in the system,
then we must supply a closed winding within the transformer bank to enable this
current to flow. This led to the introduction of the delta connected tertiary winding
in power transformers.
As the actual third harmonic current flowing in this delta tertiary is rather
small, many operating companies fount it convenient to use the winding for auxiliary

power, either for station lighting or for other small power requirements. In time the
size of the tertiary winding was increased so that in many cases the tertiary has a
rated output equal to that of either of the other two windings.
There has thus been developed a variety of applications of the three winding
trasformer, when all three windings are used for power purposes. Some of these are
enumerated below:
(1) Primary receiving power, both secondaries delivering power, usually at
different voltages.

(2) Secondary delivering power received from two primaries supplied by two
transmission line, usually at different voltages.
(3) Power transferred in either direction between two transmission lines by
means of an interconnecting auto-transformer. The third winding, which is indispensible
in this case, can be i sed for local power distribution.

(4) Step down transformer at end of transmission line with third winding
supplying synchronous condenser for power factor correction and voltage regulation .

As an example of the first group we might have a 5000 KVA three phase tra-
nsformer designed with a 66000 volt, 5000 KVA primary windin One of the
secondary windings would be designed for 22000 volt power distribution with a 4000
KVA rating, and the other for 2300 volt local distribution and 2000 KVA rating ,
The combined load on the two secondary windings must, however, not exceed 5000
KVA, the primary winding rating.
sometimes a power transformer bank is lccated at a suistation supplied from
two transmission lines operating at different voltages. Ordinarily there would be
required two sepal ate banks of transformers with two different voltage ratings and
with twice the KVA rating of the load to be delivered to the distribution circuit , as
it must bo possible to supply, the entire load from either transmission line , By using
626 G.K. KAISER 電氣學曾雜 誌

a three winding transformer we can effect a considerable saving in first cost of the
transformers and at .the same time maintain the required flexibility of operation. As
an illustration, one primary will have a 5000 KVA winding star-connected for 132000
volts, the other primary a star or delta connected 5000 KVA winding for 66000 volts,
and the delta connected secondary will have a 22000 volt winding, also pith 50000
KVA rating. In such a transformer the 5000 KVA secondary load can be supplied by
either primary winding alone, or by both windings combined in any proportion de-
sired, depending on the voltage regulation of the two lines.
Rapidly expanding power companies sometimes find it necessary to increase the
line voltage of their main transmission lines in order to minimize the line losses
resulting from the increase in the amount of power transmitted, If the voltage is
doubled the amount of power to be transmitted can be quadrupled with the same
percent line loss. However, it is not always feasible to change the high voltage
windins of all the connected transformers to adapt them to the increased line voltage.
In such a case an auto-transformer can be readily designed to step down the voltage
of the new transmission line to that required for the existing apparatus, not only
at a comparatively low cost but also with a very high efficiency of conversion, usually
of the order of 99%. To illustrate. An operating company wishes to raise its main
transmission voltage from 88000 volts to 154009 volts but does not desire to rewind
its high voltage step down transformers for the new operating voltage. By placing
an interconnecting auto-transformer between the 154 00 volt line and the 88000 volt
line, all of the old apparatus can be continued in use without change. The auto-
transformer would be star connected on both sides with solidly grounded neutral to
minimize the insulation stresses and in addition would be supplied with a delta
connected tertiary winding. To show the saving effected by using an auto-transformer
for this service, let us assume the amount of power to be transformed as 100000
KVA. Then the equivalent two winding transformer rating of the auto-transformer
bank would be 43000 KVA. At a somewhat higher cost the tertiary winding can be
designed to deliver power also, lot us say 25000 KVA at 44000 volts. This auto.
transformer bank can therefore be operated un'er the following conditions ;
(1) To deliver 100000 KVA at 154 to 83 KV
(2) " " 25000 "" 154 " 44 "
(3) " " 25000 " " 88 " 44 "

The use of a three winding transformer at the end of a transmission line tc

supply a synchronous condenser offers a distinct saving in the initial cost compared
with separate banks of two winding transformers of the same total KVA rating at
the delivery side. The tertiary winding supplying the condenser load at zero power
factor leading does not greatly increase the size of the primary winding, as it is so
far out of phase with the secondary winding. Also since the tertiary is usually
designed for low voltage, it only molerately increases the weight and dimensions of
the transformer. The application of such transformers to this service can perhaps
大正 十 四年 七 月 Three Winding Transformer 627

best be illustrated by one or two actual problems.

A 15000 KVA bank of transformers at the end of a transmission line has a
tertiary winding which is connected to a synchronous motor generator set for power
factor correction. The input to the primaries of the bank is to be limited to 15000
KVA at unity power factor.

(a) If no load is being taken from the D. C, end of the set and the A.C. end
draws 5000 KVA at zero power factor, what load can be delivered on the secondary
side and at what power factor ?


Fig. 1

Since the primary is limited to 15000 KVA at unity power factor and supplies
both secondary and tertiary windings, the out-put of the secondary will be 15800
KVA, and its power fac'or will be 95% lagging. This is a simple problem in geo-
metry. As shoe n in Fig 1, we complete the third side of a right angle triangle of
which the other two sides are both known. The power factor is the quotient of
primary to secondary loads.
(b) Assume a load of 1000 KW on the D.C. end and an efficiency of the set
of 90%i also that the synchronous motor is drawing 4500 KVA from the line at
leading power factor. How much power can be drawn from the secondary and ..t
what power factor without exceeding 15000 KVA on the primary ?

Fig. 2

Again the solution is by right angle triangles. The motor generator set draws
4500KVA of which 1110 KW represents actual energy at a power factor of 1110/4500
628 G.K. KAISER 電氣學 曾雜誌

=24.7% leading. The reactive power will be 4369 KVA which combined with the
13890 KW available after supplying the motor generator set will give a secondary
output of 14600 KVA at a power factor of 14.6/15=97.2% lagging.
Three winding transformers have certain inherent characteristics which somewhat
limit their application and these must be carefully considered in their relation to the
transmission system. Many of the modern power sestems generate and. transmit
power on such, a large scale that when a short circuit occurs on any part of the
system, the amount of power feeding into the short circuit can be considered as pra-
ctically unlimited. The connected apparatus must therefore be designed to be self
protecting, that is, mechanically strong enough to withstand indefinitely the stresses
sets up in the windings under short circuit conditions. In large power transformers
this is frequently a serious problem as the mechanical forces developed are naturally
very high. Their magnitude is determined largely by the internal impedance of the
transformer which must of course not be too high, otherwise the cost of the trans-
former will be greatly increased and the regulation adversely affected.
What has been said applies generally to two winding transformers, but the prob-
lem becomes rather more complicated in three winding transformers. The relation
etween the impedances of the three windings is not a simple one and under bcertain
conditions of short circuit the tertiary winding may carry moat of the short circuit
current, if it is not properly designed.
When we have a balanced three phase short circuit on the primary or secon-
dary, all the power is supplied to the short circuit directly from the primary and
secondary windings and thee is no short circuit current flowing in the delta tertiary
winding. If on the other hand we have one of the lines grounded, that is, a single
phase short circuit from line to neutral and power supplied.from both primary and
secondary, then the tertiary serves to transfer energy from the supply circuits into
the short circuit, and may carry a very heavy current . It is this cindition which
must be carefully investigated in every case, and steps taken to design the tertiary
winding in such a manner that this current will not be excessive.
When three winding transformers are used to supply two secondary loads from
one primary or to supply one secondary from two primaries it is necessary to deter-
mine the regulation under the different conditions. The regulation is not as simple
a matter as in two winding transformers, but must be made in separate steps . The
regulation some times even comes out as a negative value in one of the circuites
which implies that there is a rise in voltage on that winding instead of a drop . For
best regulation and proper tdivision of load under all operating conditions the tran -
sformer should be designed for approximately equal percentage reactance between
all three pairs of windings.This is accomplishedby thoro inte lacing of all the coils
of the different circuits, as only in this manner can the reactances be equalized . The
shell type transformer construction is especially well adapted , for meeting this requ-
irement as the windings consist of a number of thin flat pancake coils assembled
on a central core and can be interlaced to any desired degree.
大 正 十 四年 七 月 Three Winding Transformer 629

The concentric cylindrical core type transformer on the other hand has the
inherent disadvantage of an inflexible arrangement of windings, no interlacing of
the coils being feasible. The secondary winding is usually placed between primary and
tertiary and the reactance of these two pairs of windings can therefore be controlled
to some extent. However the reactance between primary and tertiary is proportional
largely to the sum of the other two reactance values and is therefore usually too
high for proper load distribution between the windings.