Anda di halaman 1dari 26

KEGAGALAN BANGUNAN

ARSITEKTUR FORENSIK
TEAM TEACHING:
AHMAD SAIFUDIN MUTAQI IAI AA | NOORKHOLIS IDHAM IAI PhD | ARIF WISMADI PhD | SOEPARWOKO IAI PhD

MAGISTER ARSITEKTUR | UNIVERSITAS ISLAM INDONESIA


KEGAGALAN BANGUNAN
UU nomor 2 tahun 2017 Jasa Konstruksi - BAB I KETENTUAN UMUM,
Pasal 1:
10) Kegagalan Bangunan adalah suatu keadaan keruntuhan bangunan dan/atau tidak
berfungsinya bangunan setelah penyerahan akhir hasil Jasa Konstruksi.
Pasal 60:
1) Dalam hal penyelenggaraan Jasa Konstruksi tidak memenuhi Standar Keamanan,
Keselamatan, Kesehatan, dan Keberlanjutan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 59,
Pengguna Jasa dan/atau Penyedia Jasa dapat menjadi pihak yang bertanggung jawab
terhadap Kegagalan Bangunan.
2) Kegagalan Bangunan sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat 1) ditetapkan oleh penilai ahli.
3) Penilai ahli sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat 2) ditetapkan oleh Menteri.
4) Menteri harus menetapkan penilai ahli dalam waktu paling lambat 30 (tiga puluh)
hari kerja terhitung sejak diterimanya laporan mengenai terjadinya Kegagalan
Bangunan.
KEGAGALAN BANGUNAN
Pasal 61
1) Penilai ahli sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 60 ayat (2) harus:
a. memiliki Sertifikat Kompetensi Kerja pada jenjang jabatan ahli di bidang
yang sesuai dengan klasifikasi produk bangunan yang mengalami Kegagalan
Bangunan;
b. memiliki pengalaman sebagai perencana, pelaksana, dan/atau pengawas
pada Jasa Konstruksi sesuai dengan klasifikasi produk bangunan yang
mengalami Kegagalan Bangunan; dan
c. terdaftar sebagai penilai ahli di kementerian yang menyelenggarakan
urusan pemerintahan di bidang Jasa Konstruksi.
KEGAGALAN BANGUNAN
2) Penilai ahli sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1) mempunyai tugas
antara lain:
a. menetapkan tingkat kepatuhan terhadap Standar Keamanan,
Keselamatan, Kesehatan, dan Keberlanjutan dalam penyelenggaraan Jasa
Konstruksi;
b. menetapkan penyebab terjadinya Kegagalan Bangunan;
c. menetapkan tingkat keruntuhan dan/atau tidak berfungsinya bangunan;
d. menetapkan pihak yang bertanggung jawab atas Kegagalan Bangunan;
e. melaporkan hasil penilaiannya kepada Menteri dan instansi yang
mengeluarkan izin membangun, paling lambat 90 (sembilan puluh) hari
kerja terhitung sejak tanggal pelaksanaan tugas; dan
f. memberikan rekomendasi kebijakan kepada Menteri dalam rangka
pencegahan terjadinya Kegagalan Bangunan.
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI PROJECT ENVIRONMENT / SYSTEM CLIMATE OF THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Project Conception Constraints


PROJECT ENVIRONMENT / SYSTEM

PROJECT ENVIRONMENT / SYSTEM


CLIMATE OF THE CONSTRUCTION

CLIMATE OF THE CONSTRUCTION


Project Management Client Responses Project Design Constraints
Constraints
INDUSTRY

INDUSTRY
Project Management Responses Designer Responses

The Constraint-Response Theory


From 1300 reported accident
cases (Suraji & Duff, 2001)

Project Construction Constraints


(Construction Management Constraint & Sub Contractor Constraint)

(Suraji & Duff, 2001)


Main Contractor or Sub Contractor Responses

Operative Constraints

Inappropriate Construction Planning Inappropriate Construction Control

DEFICIENT
CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

Inappropriate Construction Inappropriate Operative Action Inappropriate Site Condition


Operation

5
ACCIDENT EVENT AREA
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE INAPPROPRIATE OPERATIVE ACTION

IOA-01 Annoyance, horseplay


IOA-02 Arson, burglary, vandalism.
IOA-03 Carelessness, recklessness, irresponsibility
IOA-04 Commission
IOA-05 Confusion
IOA-06 Exceeding prescribed limits: load, strength, speed, etc.
IOA-07 Improper or inadequate use of PPE
IOA-08 Improper use of tools or instruments
IOA-09 Improper working position or location
IOA-10 Judgement error, underestimate, overconfidence
IOA-11 Failure to adopt standard procedures
IOA-12 Failure to follow instructions
IOA-13 Omission: missing something, out from sequence of steps
IOA-14 Physical or mental assault on or violence to persons
IOA-15 Working under the effects of alcohol or drugs
IOA-16 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE INAPPROPRIATE SITE CONDITION

ISC-01 Unsuitable weather or climatic conditions

ISC-02 Unsuitable existing topography

ISC-03 Unacceptably noisy or crowded surrounding site

ISC-04 Inappropriate ground condition

ISC-05 Restricted working area

ISC-06 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE INAPPROPRIATE CONSTRUCTION OPERATION

ICO-01 Access/ egress defective or unsuitable


ICO-02 Breach of regulation or code of practice
ICO-03 Confined working space
ICO-04 Defective services
ICO-05 Defective equipment or vehicle
ICO-06 Improper construction procedure
ICO-07 Improper instruction to operatives
ICO-08 Improper maintenance of temporary structure
ICO-09 Improper plant or equipment operation
ICO-10 Improper stacking and routing of materials or components
ICO-11 Inadequate communication or co-ordination
ICO-12 Inadequate illumination or poor lighting
ICO-13 Inadequate maintenance of equipment or plant
ICO-14 Inadequate provision of PPE
ICO-15 Inadequate provision of safety warnings or other precautions
ICO-16 Inadequate safety facilities
ICO-10 Improper stacking and routing of materials or components
ICO-11 Inadequate communication or co-ordination
ICO-12 Inadequate illumination or poor lighting
FAKTOR-FAKTOR
ICO-13 KEGAGALAN
Inadequate maintenance of equipment orKONSTRUKSI
plant
ICO-14 Inadequate provision of PPE
ICO-15 Inadequate provision of safety warnings or other precautions
ICO-16 Inadequate safety facilities
ICO-17 Inadequate setting out
ICO-18 Inadequate working drawings
ICO-19 Inadequate site layout
ICO-20 Inadequate temporary structure
ICO-21 Inadequate traffic control system.
ICO-22 Inadequate ventilation
ICO-23 Inadequate working tools or instruments
ICO-24 Inadequate working platform including no guard rails
ICO-25 Unsuitable plant or equipment
ICO-26 Unsuitable material or component
ICO-27 Untidy workplace or poor housekeeping
ICO-28 Untrained or inexperienced workforce
ICO-29 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE INAPPROPRIATE CONSTRUCTION PLANNING

ICP-01 Inadequate design of access structure


ICP-02 Inadequate identification and assessment of risk.
ICP-03 Inadequate planning of construction work
ICP-04 Inadequate site layout plan
ICP-05 Inadequate method statement
ICP-06 Inadequate planning & design of plant or equipment operation
ICP-07 Inadequate planning & design of site services
ICP-08 Inadequate safety plan
ICP-09 Inadequate site investigation
ICP-10 Inadequate structural design for temporary support structures
ICP-11 Inadequate structural design for M & E installation work
ICP-12 Inadequate preparatory training
ICP-13 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE INAPPROPRIATE CONSTRUCTION CONTROL

ICC-01 Inadequate control of dangerous chemicals or substances


ICC-02 Inadequate control of plant or equipment operation
ICC-03 Inadequate control of ground conditions
ICC-04 Inadequate control of material or component storage & handling
ICC-05 Inadequate control of the stability of temporary structures
ICC-06 Inadequate control of safety facilities and protective equipment
ICC-07 Inadequate control of systems of work
ICC-08 Inadequate control or protection from weather effects
ICC-09 Inadequate control of worksite condition (housekeeping)
ICC-10 Inadequate supervision of operative work
ICC-11 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE OPERATIVE CONSTRAINT

OC-01 Ageing
OC-02 Boredom
OC-03 Complex working procedure
OC-04 Excessive working hour
OC-05 Fatigue, Tiredness and Illness
OC-06 Inclement weather condition
OC-07 Inadequate supervision
OC-08 Lack of competence
OC-09 Lack of safe system of work
OC-10 Low morale
OC-11 Physical disability
OC-12 Social or domestic pressure
OC-13 Unclear instruction from managers
OC-14 Peer pressure
OC-15 Others
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE SUB-CONTRACTOR RESPONSE

SCR-01 Accelerate pace of work process


SCR-02 Adjust level of supervision
SCR-03 Change number of workforce
SCR-04 Change working hours or require overtime work
SCR-05 Modify construction operation
SCR-06 Modify temporary support structure
SCR-07 Reallocate resources to another site
SCR-08 Recruit untrained or inexperienced operatives
SCR-09 Replace equipment or plant
SCR-10 Slow down work process
SCR-11 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE SUB-CONTRACTOR CONSTRAINT

SCC-01 Cash flow problems

SCC-02 Excessive work

SCC-03 Lack of relevant experience

SCC-04 New additional requirements

SCC-05 New working operations

SCC-06 Payment delay

SCC-07 Penalties by principal contractor

SCC-08 Pressure from other contracts for resources

SCC-09 Problems due to suppliers

SCC-10 Project acceleration

SCC-11 Shortage of equipment

SCC-12 Shortage of materials

SCC-13 Shortage of skilled operatives

SCC-14 Social, political and economical pressures

SCC-15 Tight project schedule

SCC-16 Variation order

SCC-17 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT RESPONSE

CMR-01 Accelerate construction processes


CMR-02 Add or reduce personnel allocation
CMR-03 Adjust level of supervision
CMR-04 Break contract
CMR-05 Change communication systems
CMR-06 Change construction method
CMR-07 Change equipment and tools
CMR-08 Change schedule of works
CMR-09 Extend project duration
CMR-10 Ignore to investigate subcontractor methods
CMR-11 Ignore to supply safety equipment
CMR-12 Introduce a new technology
CMR-05 Change communication systems
CMR-06 Change construction method
FAKTOR-FAKTOR
Change equipmentKEGAGALAN
CMR-07 and tools KONSTRUKSI
CMR-08 Change schedule of works
CMR-09
CODE Extend project duration
CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT RESPONSE
CMR-10 Ignore to investigate subcontractor methods
CMR-01
CMR-11 Accelerate
Ignore construction
to supply processes
safety equipment
CMR-02
CMR-12 Add or reduce
Introduce personnel
a new allocation
technology
CMR-03
CMR-13 Adjust level
Modify of supervision
site organisation
CMR-04
CMR-14 Break contract
Postpone or cancel work operation
CMR-05
CMR-15 Changecost
Project communication
reduction systems
CMR-06
CMR-16 Change construction
Propose method
claims or complaints
CMR-17
CMR-07 Reallocate resourcesand
Change equipment to another
tools site
CMR-18
CMR-08 Recruit
Change untrained orworks
schedule of inexperienced personnel
CMR-19
CMR-09 Replace sub-contractor
Extend project duration
CMR-20
CMR-10 Wait for
Ignore tofinal decisions
investigate from clientsmethods
subcontractor
CMR-21
CMR-11 Other
Ignore to supply safety equipment
CMR-12 Introduce a new technology
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT CONSTRAINT

CMC-01 Changes of order


CMC-02 Conditions of contract
CMC-03 Complexity of construction specification
CMC-04 Complexity of procurement system
CMC-05 Corruption
CMC-06 Design delay
CMC-07 Design variations or design changes
CMC-08 Economic and trade effect
CMC-09 Environmental or climate change conditions
CMC-10 Incompetence of Sub-contractors
CMC-11 Incompetent project manager, site manager, and site engineer
CMC-12 Lack of appropriate technology
CMC-13 Lack of communication between project participants
CMC-14 Lack of project fund or cash inflow
CMC-07 Design variations or design changes
CMC-08 Economic and trade effect
FAKTOR-FAKTOR
CMC-09 KEGAGALAN
Environmental or climate KONSTRUKSI
change conditions
CMC-10 Incompetence of Sub-contractors
CMC-11
CODE Incompetent
CONSTRUCTIONprojectMANAGEMENT
manager, site manager, and site engineer
CONSTRAINT
CMC-12 Lack of appropriate technology
CMC-01 Changes of order
CMC-13 Lack of communication between project participants
CMC-02 Conditions of contract
CMC-14 Lack of project fund or cash inflow
CMC-03 Complexity of construction specification
CMC-15 Lack of equipment
CMC-04 Complexity of procurement system
CMC-16 Lack of materials
CMC-05 Corruption
CMC-17 Lack of utilities
CMC-06 Design delay
CMC-18
CMC-07 Profit
Design gain expectation
variations or design changes
CMC-19
CMC-08 Project
Economicacceleration
and trade effect
CMC-20
CMC-09 Regulations
Environmental or climate change conditions
CMC-21
CMC-10 Skilled operative
Incompetence shortage
of Sub-contractors
CMC-22
CMC-11 Social and political
Incompetent projectpressure
manager, site manager, and site engineer
CMC-12
CMC-23 Lack of appropriate
Specified completiontechnology
time scale
CMC-13
CMC-24 Lack of communication between project participants
Other
CMC-14 Lack of project fund or cash inflow
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE PROJECT MANAGEMENT RESPONSE

PMR-01 Accelerate project completion

PMR-02 Change order

PMR-03 Change resources allocation

PMR-04 Increase time pressure on design team

PMR-05 Inadequate intention to risk management

PMR-06 Modify project schedule

PMR-07 Reduce requirement for contractor pre-qualification

PMR-08 Reduce budget for supervision of construction procedures

PMR-09 Simplify project implementation

PMR-10 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONSTRAINT

PMC-01 Changes of project planning


PMC-02 Client expectation and satisfaction
PMC-03 Complicated project administration
PMC-04 Complicated project development
PMC-05 Design incompleteness or errors
PMC-06 Lack of appropriate project experience
PMC-07 Lack of information or communication
PMC-08 Late delivery of design detail
PMC-09 Limited availability of suitable contractors
PMC-10 Unsuitable procurement system
PMC-11 Project acceleration
PMC-12 Project conflict
PMC-13 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE DESIGNER RESPONSE

DR-01 Change design concept


DR-02 Ignore legal duties, e.g. CDM Regulations.
DR-03 Increase design complexity
DR-04 Not considering constructability of design

DR-05 Redesign
DR-06 Reduce design resources
DR-07 Reduce quality of components
DR-08 Require additional design information or data
DR-09 Sub-let part of design process
DR-10 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE PROJECT DESIGN CONSTRAINT

PDC-01 Acceleration of design programme


PDC-02 Changes of project brief
PDC-03 Conflict of project requirements and design outputs
PDC-04 Inadequate design budget
PDC-05 Incompetence
PDC-06 Lack of design code or standard design
PDC-07 Lack of design data
PDC-08 Regulation of building design
PDC-09 Time pressure
PDC-10 Unclear project brief
PDC-11 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE CLIENT RESPONSE

CR-01 Accelerate design and/ or construction


CR-02 Add new project criteria
CR-03 Change client’s team
CR-04 Change contractual or procurement system
CR-05 Change design & specification
CR-06 Change order
CR-07 Change project objectives
CR-08 Reduce project budget
CR-09 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CODE PROJECT CONCEPTION CONSTRAINT

PCC-01 Change in business or economic environment


PCC-02 Business competition
PCC-03 Difficulties in obtaining sources of project funding
PCC-04 End user demands
PCC-05 Environmental conditions
PCC-06 Government policy
PCC-07 Industrial regulation
PCC-08 Incompetence of project team
PCC-09 Land-take constraints
PCC-10 Political and social climate
PCC-11 Pressure from other parties
PCC-12 Project budget availability
PCC-13 Project completion
PCC-14 Project operation & maintenance expenditure
PCC-15 Restraint of applicable technology
PCC-16 Other
FAKTOR-FAKTOR KEGAGALAN KONSTRUKSI
CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY CLIMATE
CIC-01 Technological Know How
CIC-02 Lessons Learnt form Previous Accident Cases
CIC-03 Industry Norms,
CIC-04 Engineering Standards
CIC-05 Company Code of Practices
CIC-06 Legislation and Regulatory Systems
CIC-07 Public Opinion & Pressures
CIC-08 Political Climate
CIC-09 Resource Availability
CIC-10 Interface with other Systems or Institutional Setting
CIC-11 Economic Climate
CIC-12 Natural Hazard
CIC-13 Social Pressure
CIC-14 Supply Chain Structure
CIC-15 Procurement Systems
CIC-16 Cultural System
CIC-17 Other