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ABSTRACT

In this paper, we are making a water purifier which works on solar


energy. The basic principle behind this project is reverse osmosis. The solar
radiations are collected by solar panel. This energy is then stored in a battery.
The battery is connected to the purification unit through a electromagnetic
relay. The purification unit consists of high pressure motor , reverse osmosis
system and the water tank. The high pressure creates the necessary pressure
required to carry out reverse osmosis. The microcontroller PIC keeps a watch to
the level of water in the water tank and prevents it from over flow. Through this
process we obtain the purified water in the water tank.

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INTRODUCTION

The decreasing availability of water has necessitated in the search for


fresh sources of drinking water. The available water in many areas in the
country is brackish, saline or impure. Salinity is a major problem in the coastal
areas of Kutch and Gujarat. In our country pure drinking water is a major
problem in tribal/rural area .There are many processes available for purification
of drinking water like Chlorine tablets , Pot chlorination of wells, Slow and
rapid sand filters, Fluoride removal , Reverse osmosis plants, etc .In this
project, we are making a water purifier which works on solar energy. The basic
principle behind this project is reverse osmosis. We are using solar energy
which is a renewable source, abundant and cheap. In case of power failures, this
purifier will continue to work as solar energy can be stored. Here, we use
microcontroller PIC which prevents the water from over flowing. This purifier
can be used in remote and rural areas where there is no electricity. It can also be
used in places affected by natural disasters. It also reduces the salt content in
sea water. It provides pollution free operation.

The solar radiations are collected by solar panel. This energy is then
stored in a battery through a charge controller. The charge controller prevents
the battery from getting overcharged. The battery is connected to the
purification unit through an electromagnetic relay. The battery is also connected
to a voltage regulator. The voltage regulator converts 24V to +5V,which is
required by the microcontroller. The purification unit consists of high pressure
motor , reverse osmosis system and the water tank. The high pressure creates
the necessary pressure required to carry out reverse osmosis. The
microcontroller PIC keeps a watch to the level of water in the water tank and
prevents it from over flow. Through this process we obtain the purified water in
the water tank.

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BLOCK DIAGRAM:

DISPLAY

FEEDING TANK

SOLAR MICRO
PANEL CONTROLLER

MOTOR

CORBAN FILTER
BATTERY

UV&RO
FILTER

POWER
SUPPLY

TANK

3
POWER SUPPLY

+6V

1 3
LM317 IC 7 8 0 5 +5V

1N 4007
2
4 .7 K
S o la r + +
Panel 6V 1 0 0 0 M F D \5 0 V 0 .1 M D F 1 0 0 M F D \2 5 V

4 .7 K B ATTE R Y

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MICROCONTROLLER UNIT

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SOLAR ENERGY

Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by
humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar
radiation, along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave
power, hydroelectricity and biomass, account for most of the available
renewable energy on earth. Only a minuscule fraction of the available solar
energy is used.
Solar powered electrical generation relies on heat engines and photo
voltaic. Solar energy's uses are limited only by human ingenuity. A partial list of
solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture,
potable water via distillation and disinfection, day lighting, solar hot water,

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solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. To
harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to use solar panels.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or
active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar
energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar
thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include
orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass
or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.

Energy from the Sun

The Earth receives 174 peta watts (PW) of incoming solar radiation
(insulation) at the upper atmosphere. Approximately 30% is reflected back to
space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. The
spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible
and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet.

Earth's land surface, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation, and
this raises their temperature. Warm air containing evaporated water from the
oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection. When the air
reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses
into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's surface, completing the water cycle. The
latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection, producing atmospheric
phenomena such as wind, cyclones and anti-cyclones. Sunlight absorbed by the
oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C.
By photosynthesis green plants convert solar energy into chemical energy,

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which produces food, wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are
derived.

The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land
masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year. In 2002, this was
more energy in one hour than the world used in one year. Photosynthesis
captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass. The amount of solar
energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about
twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable
resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined.Solar energy
can be harnessed in different levels around the world. Depending on a
geographical location the closer to the equator the more "potential" solar energy
is available.

Applications of solar technology


Solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for practical
ends. However, all renewable energies, other than geothermal and tidal, derive
their energy from the sun.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive or active
depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute sunlight. Active solar
techniques use photovoltaic panels, pumps, and fans to convert sunlight into
useful outputs. Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with
favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that naturally circulate air, and
referencing the position of a building to the Sun. Active solar technologies
increase the supply of energy and are considered supply side technologies,
while passive solar technologies reduce the need for alternate resources and are
generally considered demand side technologies.

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SOLAR PANEL

A solar panel (photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged,


interconnected assembly of solar cells, also known as photovoltaic cells. The
solar panel can be used as a component of a larger photovoltaic system to
generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications.

Because a single solar panel can produce only a limited amount of power,
many installations contain several panels. A photovoltaic system typically
includes an array of solar panels, an inverter, and sometimes a battery and
interconnection wiring.

Theory and construction


Solar panels use light energy (photons) from the sun to generate
electricity through the photovoltaic effect. The structural (load carrying)
member of a module can either be the top layer or the back layer. The majority
of modules use wafer-based crystalline silicon cells or thin-film cells based on
cadmium telluride or silicon. The conducting wires that take the current off the
panels may contain silver, copper or other conductive (but generally not
magnetic) transition metals.
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The cells must be connected electrically to one another and to the rest of the
system. Cells must also be protected from mechanical damage and moisture.
Most solar panels are rigid, but semi-flexible ones are available, based on thin-
film cells.

Electrical connections are made in series to achieve a desired output


voltage and/or in parallel to provide a desired current capability.

Separate diodes may be needed to avoid reverse currents, in case of


partial or total shading, and at night. The p-n junctions of mono-crystalline
silicon cells may have adequate reverse current characteristics that these are not
necessary. Reverse currents waste power and can also lead to overheating of
shaded cells. Solar cells become less efficient at higher temperatures and
installers try to provide good ventilation behind solar panels.

Some recent solar panel designs include concentrators in which light is


focused by lenses or mirrors onto an array of smaller cells. This enables the use
of cells with a high cost per unit area (such as gallium arsenide) in a cost-
effective way.

Depending on construction, photovoltaic panels can produce electricity


from a range of frequencies of light, but usually cannot cover the entire solar
range (specifically, ultraviolet, infrared and low or diffused light). Hence much
of the incident sunlight energy is wasted by solar panels, and they can give far
higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. Therefore another
design concept is to split the light into different wavelength ranges and direct
the beams onto different cells tuned to those ranges. This has been projected to

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be capable of raising efficiency by 50%. The use of infrared photovoltaic cells
has also been proposed to increase efficiencies, and perhaps produce power at
night.

Currently the best achieved sunlight conversion rate (solar panel


efficiency) is around 21% in commercial products, typically lower than the
efficiencies of their cells in isolation. The Energy Density of a solar panel is the
efficiency described in terms of peak
power output per unit of surface area, commonly expressed in units of Watts per
square foot (W/ft2). The most efficient mass-produced solar panels have energy
density values of greater than 13 W/ft2 (140 W/m2).

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REVERSE OSMOSIS

When two solutions of different concentrations are separated by a semi-


permeable membrane, solvent (water) flows from a region of lower
concentration to higher concentration. This process is called osmosis. This
driving force in this called osmotic pressure. If a hydrostatic pressure in excess
of osmotic pressure is applied on the higher concentration side, the solvent flow
is reversed i.e., solvent flows from higher concentration to lower concentration.
This process is called reverse osmosis. Thus, in the process of reverse osmosis
pure water is separated from salt water.

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INTRODUCTION

WHY WE ARE USING EMBEDDED SYSTEM?

 Cost of production is very low.


 It is an advanced and latest technology.
 Production time is very less.
 It improves the efficiency of the host machine tremendously.

WHAT IS EMBEDDED SYSTEM?

Embedded System is a small computer system that is generally hidden


inside equipment [machine, electrical appliances, or electronic gadget] to
increase the intelligence of the equipment for better or more efficient
functionality. This kind of system always involves both the software and the
hardware co-development.
Embedded Systems are often easier understood in terms of Smart
devices, intelligent or automated equipments. Embedded Systems do not need a
complete operating system, but only the basic functionalities of an operating
system. Hence Embedded System can be defined as follows:

 It is embedding or inserting human intelligence by means of software into a


Microcontroller chip and designing hardware for the purpose.
 It is a combination of software and hardware with automatic working
without user interface.

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 It performs specific functions in host systems like satellites, remote
controllers, televisions, robotic vehicles, ATMs, pagers, laser printers,
missile launch systems, etc.
 It is a closed loop system i.e., change in the input will not affect the output.
EMBEDDED SYSTEM

An embedded system is a combination of computer hardware, software


and additional mechanical parts, designed to perform a specific function .An
embedded system is designed to do a specific task within a given time frame,
repeatedly, without human interaction. Embedded system do not need a
complete operating system, but only the basic functionalities of an operating
system in a real-time environment, that is, a real time operating system.
(RTOS). Frequently, embedded system does not have a user interface.

Application Area of embedded system include aerospace/defense


systems, telecommunication equipments and switches, mobile computing,
broadcast, automotives, industrial process control and monitoring, medical
electronics, consumer electronics, etc. Main hardware components of an
embedded system are microprocessor or micro controller, and supporting ICs.
The combination of micro-controller and ICs are application specific.
Commonly used microprocessors include the following. Motorola 680XX
series, IBM PowerPC series processors, MIPS processors, Intel 386 and
compatible CPUs, ARM processors, Sun SPARC series, etc. Embedded systems
need memory for storing programs and data, and usually programs are stored in
ROM or EPROM. Often these systems have a serial port network interface, I/O
interface for interacting with sensors and actuators in the case of process
controlling systems.

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MICROPROCESSOR Vs MICROCONTROLLER

Microcontroller is a general-purpose device which has an in-built


CPU, Memory and peripherals, which make it, function as a mini computer.

Both Microcontroller and microprocessor can be employed for designing


products or applications in Embedded System. But Microcontroller has its own
advantages over microprocessor. They are as follows:

 For transfer of data from external memory to the CPU,


microprocessor needs many operational codes. But in Microcontroller, one
or two codes are enough.
 Microcontrollers have many bit-handling instructions, but microprocessors
have only one or two.
 Microcontrollers have built-in peripherals whereas microprocessors lack in-
built peripherals.
 Microcontroller work faster than microprocessor because of rapid movement
of bits within the chip.
 Microcontrollers have simple circuit structure compared to microprocessor.
 Microcontrollers have only 35 instructions whereas microprocessors have
75.
 Microcontrollers are costly when compared with microprocessor.
 Microcontroller can function as a mini computer without any additional parts.
 Microcontroller instructions are simple, single word instructions.

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HARDWARE COMPONENTS OF PIC16F917

This powerful yet easy-to-program (only 35 single word instructions) 8-


bit microcontroller packs Microchip's powerful PIC architecture into an 40- or
44-pin package and is upwards compatible with the PIC16C5X, PIC12CXXX
and PIC16C7X devices. The PIC16F917 features 256 bytes of EEPROM data
memory, self programming, an ICD, 2 Comparators, 8 channels of 10-bit
Analog-to-Digital (A/D) converter, 2 additional timers, the synchronous serial
port can be configured as either 3-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI™) or the
2-wire Inter-Integrated Circuit (I2C™) bus and a Universal Asynchronous
Receiver Transmitter (USART). All of these features make it ideal for more
advanced level A/D applications in automotive, industrial, appliances and
consumer applications.

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PIN DIAGRAM OF PIC16F917

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PIC16F917 BLOCK DIAGRAM

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The PIC16F917 has 40 pins. These 40 pins can be connected to different ports
like PORTA, PORTB, PORTC, PORTD and PORTE. Apart from these it can be
used for transmitting and receiving different analog signals. Oscillators,

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Capacitors, Resistors of varying value can be used with this. The ports in this
can be configured as either an output port or as an input port .If it is configured
as output port either LED’s or LCD’s or seven segment displays can be used to
view the output. If the ports are configured as input then signals can be received
by using keys. These ports have 3-8 pins. Port A, B, C, D has eight pins each
and Port E has only 3 pins. Supply of +5v are used in pins 1 and 32 where a
resistor of 1K is used in pin 1.Similarly pin 31 is used as ground. This IC is
particularly used for storing values in its memory. RTC (Real Time Clock) is an
added feature. When there is a need to use five ports or lesser than five ports we
can always go for 877 since it gives us an advantage to use EEPROM, RTC and
different types of input and output.

Oscillators

There are 4 common oscillator modes that are available on most PIC
micro devices. HS, XT, LP and RC.
These modes support crystals, canned oscillator modules, some
resonators or the use of an external resistor and capacitor as a clock source.
When using a crystal or resonator, other components such as capacitors may be
needed. The XT mode stands for “Crystal” mode and will produce a medium
drive level. It is designed to be used with crystals and resonators of about 1 to 4
MHz XT mode has moderate power consumption since its drive level is lower
than that of HS mode, and because a lower clock speed is produced. Remember,
as a rule: the faster the clock used, the more current the application will require.

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Master Clear Resets (MCLR)

Resets can be caused by a signal on the MCLR pin, by powering up


the device, by a Watchdog timer timeout, by a Brown-Out voltage Reset (BOR),
by a software reset instruction, or by a stack overflow or underflow reset. The
MCLR pin can be used to generate a reset. On most PIC micro devices the
MCLR pin is always active. When the MCLR function of the pin is enabled, it
is an active low Schmitt trigger input. This means that to ensure a reset, the
voltage on the pin must be lower than the maximum input low voltage
specified.

POWER SYSTEM
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Every electronic system we need low voltage DC power supply in
different electronic circuits operated in different power supplies, the ratings
depending upon load current and voltage. The load current depending on load
resisistance i.e. load current is inversely proportional to load resistance. So the
matched designation of power supply is very important to every electronic
circuit.

In this circuits we need two power supplies .All ICs are worked on
regulated DC power 5v with GND. Relay derive worked on dc 12v with
GND .This unit consist of transformer, rectifier, filter & regulator. AC voltage
typically 230v RMS is connected to a transformer which steps that AC voltage
down to the level of the desired Ac voltage .A Diode rectifier then provides a
bridge rectified voltage that is initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to
produce a DC voltage. This resulting DC voltage usually has some ripple or Ac
voltage variations. A regulator circuit can use this DC input to provide DC
voltage that not only has much less ripple voltage but also remains the same DC
value even the DC voltage varies somewhat,. OR the load connected to the
output DC voltages changes.

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BLOCKDIAGRM:

Transformer Rectifier Filter Regulator

TRANSFORMER:
A Transformer is a static (or stationary) piece of which electric power in
one circuit is transformed into electric power of the same frequency in another
circuit. It can raise or lower the voltage in a circuit but with a corresponding
decrease or increase in current. It works with the principle of mutual induction.
In our project we are using step down transformer for providing a necessary
supply for the electronic circuits .In our project we are using a (12-0) v/500mA.

RECTIFIER:
The Dc level obtained from a sinusoidal input can be improved 100%
using a process called full wave rectification. It uses 4 diodes in a bridge
configuration. From the basic bridge configuration. we see that two diodes
(say D2 &D3) are conducting while the other two diodes (D1&D4) are in “off”
state during the period t = 0 to T/2.Accordingly for the negative of the input the
conducting diodes are D1&D4.Thus the polarity across the load is the same.

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FILTER:
The filter circuit used here is the capacitor filter circuit where a capacitor
is connected at the rectifier output, and a DC is obtained across it .The filtered
wave form is essentially a dc voltage with negligible ripples, which is
ultimately fed to the load.

REGULATOR:
The output voltage from the capacitor is more filtered and finally regulated. The
voltage regulator is a device, which maintains the output voltage constant
irrespective of the changes in supply variations, load variation and temperature
changes. Here we use one fixed voltage regulator namely LM7805.The IC 7805
is a+5 voltage regulator.

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3-Terminal Positive Voltage Regulators

The LM341 and LM78MXX series of three-terminal positive voltage


regulators employ built-in current limiting, thermal shutdown, and safe-
operating area protection which make them virtually immune to damage from
output overloads. With adequate heat sinking, they can deliver in excess of 0.5A
output current. Typical applications would include local (on-card) regulators
which can eliminate the noise and degraded performance associated with
single-point regulation.

 Internal thermal overload protection


 Internal short circuit current-limiting
 Output transistor safe
 ea compensation
 Available in TO-220, TO-39, and TO-252 D-PAK packages
 Output voltages of 5V, 12V, and 15V
 Output current in excess of 0.5A

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LCD DISPLAY

Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have materials which combine the


properties of both liquids and crystals. Rather than having a melting point, they
have a temperature range within which the molecules are almost as mobile as
they would be in a liquid, but are grouped together in an ordered form similar to
a crystal.

Liquid crystal display

An LCD consists of two glass panels, with the liquid crystal material
sand witched in between them. The inner surface of the glass plates are coated
with transparent electrodes which define the character, symbols or patterns to be
displayed polymeric layers are present in between the electrodes and the liquid
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crystal, which makes the liquid crystal molecules to maintain a defined
orientation angle.
One each polarisers are pasted outside the two glass panels. These
polarisers would rotate the light rays passing through them to a definite angle,
in a particular direction When the LCD is in the off state, light rays are rotated
by the two polarisers and the liquid crystal, such that the light rays come out of
the LCD without any orientation, and hence the LCD appears transparent.

When sufficient voltage is applied to the electrodes, the liquid crystal


molecules would be aligned in a specific direction. The light rays passing
through the LCD would be rotated by the polarisers, which would result in
activating / highlighting the desired characters.

The LCD's are lightweight with only a few millimetres thickness. Since
the LCD's consume less power, they are compatible with low power electronic
circuits, and can be powered for long durations. The LCD's don't generate light
and so light is needed to read the display. By using backlighting, reading is
possible in the dark. The LCD's have long life and a wide operating temperature
range. Changing the display size or the layout size is relatively simple which
makes the LCD's more customer friendly.

The LCDs used exclusively in watches, calculators and measuring in


aments are the simple seven-segment displays, having a limited amount of
numeric data. The recent advances in technology have resulted in better
legibility, more information displaying capability and a wider temperature
range. These have resulted in the LCDs being extensively used in
telecommunications and entertainment electronics. The LCDs have even started

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replacing the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used for the display of text and graphics,
and also in small TV applications.

Interface PIN Connection

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RELAY

A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under control of


another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by an
electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. It was invented by
Joseph Henry in 1835. Because a relay is able to control an output circuit of
higher power than the input circuit, it can be considered, in a broad sense, to be
a form of electrical amplifier.

Operation

When a current flows through the coil, the resulting magnetic field
attracts an armature that is mechanically linked to a moving contact. The
movement either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. When the
current to the coil is switched off, the armature is returned by a force
approximately half as on as the magnetic force to its relaxed position. Usually
this is a spring, but gravity is also used commonly in individual motor starters.
Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly. In a low voltage application,
this is to reduce noise. In a high voltage or high current application, this is to
reduce arcing.

If the coil is energized with DC, a diode is frequently installed across the
coil, to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation,
which would otherwise generate a spike of voltage and might cause damage to
circuit components. If the coil is designed to be energized with AC, a small
copper ring can be crimped to the end of the solenoid.

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This "shading ring" creates a small out-of-phase current, which increases
the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle.

Pole & Throw

SPST - Single Pole Single Throw.


These have two terminals which can be switched on/off. In total, four
terminals when the coil is also included.

SPDT - Single Pole Double Throw.


These have one row of three terminals. One terminal (common) switches
between the other two poles. It is the same as a single change-over switch. In
total, five terminals when the coil is also included.

DPST - Double Pole Single Throw.


These have two pairs of terminals. Equivalent to two SPST switches or
relays actuated by a single coil. In total, six terminals when the coil is also
included. This configuration may also be referred to as DPNO.

DPDT - Double Pole Double Throw.


These have two rows of change-over terminals. Equivalent to two SPDT
switches or relays actuated by a single coil. In total, eight terminals when the
coil is also included.

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QPDT - Quadruple Pole Double Throw.
Often referred to as Quad Pole Double Throw, or 4PDT. These have four
rows of change-over terminals. Equivalent to four SPDT switches or relays
actuated by a single coil or two DPDT relays. In total, fourteen terminals when
the coil is also included.

Normally Open (NO), Normally Closed

The contacts can be either Normally Open (NO), Normally Closed (NC),
or change-over (CO) contacts. Normally-open contacts connect the circuit when
the relay is activated; the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. It is
also called Form A contact or "make" contact. Form A contact is ideal for
applications that require to switch a high-current power source from a remote
device.

Normally-closed contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is


activated; the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. It is also called
Form B contact or "break" contact. Form B contact is ideal for applications that
require the circuit to remain closed until the relay is activated.
Change-over contacts control two circuits: one normally-open contact and one
normally-closed contact with a common terminal. It is also called Form C
contact or "transfer" contact.

Relay application considerations

Selection of an appropriate relay for a particular application requires


evaluation of many different factors:

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Number and type of contacts - normally open, normally closed,
changeover (double-throw) In the case of changeover, there are two types. This
style of relay can be manufactured two different ways. "Make before Break"
and "Break before Make". The old style telephone switch required Make-
before-break so that the connection didn't get dropped while dialing the number.
The railroad still uses them to control railroad crossings.

Rating of contacts - small relays switch a few amperes, large contactors


are rated for up to 3000 amperes, alternating or direct current Voltage rating of
contacts - typical control relays rated 300 VAC or 600 VAC, automotive types
to 50 VDC, special high-voltage relays to about 15,000 V Coil voltage -
machine-tool relays usually 24 VAC or 120 VAC, relays for switchgear may
have 125 V or 250 VDC coils, "sensitive" relays operate on a few mill amperes
Package/enclosure - open, touch-safe, double-voltage for isolation between
circuits, explosion proof, outdoor, oil-splash resistant Mounting - sockets, plug
board, rail mount, panel mount, through-panel mount, enclosure for mounting
on walls or equipment Switching time - where high speed is required "Dry"
contacts - when switching very low level signals, special contact materials may
be needed such as gold-plated contacts

Contact protection - suppress arcing in very inductive circuits Coil


protection - suppress the surge voltage produced when switching the coil
current Isolation between coil circuit and contacts Aerospace or radiation-
resistant testing, special quality assurance Accessories such as timers, auxiliary
contacts, pilot lamps, test buttons Regulatory approvals Stray magnetic linkage
between coils of adjacent relays on a printed circuit board.

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ELECTROMAGNETIC RELAY:

The electromagnetic relays give a transition from ON to OFF when the


coil is energized or reenergized. The main feature in a relay is contacts that
close or open an electric circuit under the control of electromagnet.

We use the UN scaled general purpose relay and is very simple in design.

ARMATURE FIXED CONTACT

MOVABLE CONTACT

SUPPLY
COIL SPRING

IRON CORE

When a DC current is passed through a coil the iron core get magnetized
and attracting armature towards it. The moving contact is attached to the
armature. Therefore the switches can operated with the help of this make
contact.

Typical switching capacities


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Normal duty contacts : 5 amps 24Vdc
1 amp 250Vac

Heavy duty contacts : 10 amps 24Vdc


5 amps 250Vac

THE SWITCHING TRANSISTOR:

The transistor BC 547(NPN) is used to switch the LED displays. The simplest way to
use a transistor as a switch, meaning that we operate it at either saturation or cut-off, when a
transistor is saturated; it is like a closed switch from the collector to the emitter. When a
transistor is cut- off it is like an open switch.

+Vcc

Rc IC

CLOSED SWITCH
+VBB RB
BC 547 VCC / RC

OPEN SWITCH

L293D Motor Driver VCE

The L293D is a quadruple push-pull 4 channel driver capable of


delivering 600 mA (1.2 A peak surge) per channel. The L293D is ideal for

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controlling the forward/reverse/brake motions of small DC motors controlled by
a microcontroller such as a PIC.

The L293D is a high voltage, high current four channel driver designed
to accept standard TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads (such as relays
solenoids, DC and stepping motors) and switching power transistors. The
L293D is suitable for use in switching applications at frequencies up to 5 KHz.

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Features Include :

 600 ma Output Current Capability Per Driver


 Pulsed Current 1.2 A / Driver
 Wide Supply Voltage Range: 4.5 V to 36 V
 Separate Input-Logic Supply
 NE Package Designed for Heat Sinking
 Thermal Shutdown & Internal ESD Protection
 High-Noise-Immunity Inputs

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MPLAB
INTRODUCTION
MPLAB is a Windows program package that makes writing and developing
a program easier. It could best be described as developing environment for
some standard program language that is intended for programming a PC
computer. Some operations which were done from the instruction line with a
large number of parameters until the discovery of IDE "Integrated Development
Environment" are now made easier by using the MPLAB. Still, our tastes differ,
so even today some programmers prefer the standard editors and compilers
from instruction line. In any case, the written program is legible, and well
documented help is also available.

MPLAB CONSISTS OF

 Grouping the projects files into one project (Project Manager)


 Generating and processing a program (Text Editor)
 Simulator of the written program used for simulating program
 Function on the microcontroller.
REQUIREMENTS
 PC compatible computer 486 or higher
 Microsoft Windows 3.1x or Windows 95 and new versions of the
Windows
Operating system
 VGA graphic card
 8MB memory (32MB recommended).
 20MB space on hard disc
 Mouse
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HITECH C
INTRODUCTION

The HI-TECH C Compiler is a set of software, which translates


programs written in the C language to executable machine code programs.
Versions are available which compile programs for operation under the host
operating system, or which produce programs for execution in embedded
systems without an operating system.

FEATURES

Some of HI-TECH C's features are:

1. A single batch file or command file will compile, assemble and


link entire programs.

2. The compiler performs strong type checking and issues warnings


about various constructs which may represent programming errors.

3. The generated code is extremely small and fast in execution.

4. A full run-time library is provided implementing all standard C


input/output and other functions.

5. The source code for all run-time routines is provided.

6. A powerful general purpose macro assembler is included.

Programs may be generated to execute under the host operating


system, or customized for installation in ROM.

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Advantages of This Project

 No needs of EB Power.

 Easily Movable.

 Maximum power delivery by using Tracking system.

 Free Energy Resource.

 Power demand solving.

 Maintenance free.

 Highly Reliable.

Application

 Water pumping.
 Chemical injection.
 Garden Maintenance.
 Green House Automation.

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BIBILIOGRAPHY

WEBSITE REFERENCE

www.datasheetarchive.com

www.microchip.com

www.google.com

BOOK REFERENCE

1. Microprocessor by Nagoor Kani

2. Programming In ANSI C by Bala gurusamy

3. Embedded C by jerk

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Conclusion

As solar energy is being used for the purification of water, which is cheap
and abundant, it can be used everywhere where electricity is not available.
Here, the microcontroller which is used also prevents the water from
overflowing. Moreover, reverse osmosis is a good disinfectant process .This
project has only capital cost and almost no running cost. Hence, It will prove to
be useful in the near future.

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ENTREPRENEURSHIP

Basics of Entrepreneurship

It is a well-known fact that the scope of for absorbing the ever increasing
number of unemployment in government departments is very much restricted
on account of various factors. Absorption of unemployment people government
service takes place either on account of retirement of the existing staff or due to
launching of development programs. The employment so generated covers only
a segment of the unemployed. The private sector is also offering very little
opportunity to the young unemployed people due to various reasons. In such
adverse situation the Indian youth has to wage a bitter fight to solve the
problem of unemployment.

The plan document of our country lays emphasis on self-employment to


reduce unemployment in the country. We are a developing country and there is
a wider scope for the development of self employment to all types of job.
Industrial development in a country depends greatly upon the type of human
resources the country possesses. A country may be rich in material resources
and capital, but if entrepreneurship is lacking, the utilization of resources would
not be as expected. The developing economics of resources would not be as
expected.

Concept
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Entrepreneurship prevails environment in a country. Entrepreneurship being an
innovator who introduces something new into the economy, a method of
protection not yet tested by experience in the branch of manufactured
concerned, a product with which the consumes are not familiar, a new source or
raw materials, or a new market higher exploited and similar other innovations.
An entrepreneur is one who starts an industrial venture or a business of his own.
Entrepreneurship would include undertaking manufacturing activities, business
or crafts etc., Entrepreneurship is also associated with a risk assuming function.

Entrepreneur

An entrepreneur is said to be a person who organizes, manages and issue


the risk for a business or enterprise. Commonly entrepreneur is understood to be
those persons who start build their own enterprise rather than taking up a job.
Entrepreneurship is the trait taking up own enterprises.

Role of entrepreneurship

An entrepreneur is a part of industrial society. He is responsible for not


only making his own source of live hood but also for creating avenues of
employment for others and making additions to the gross national product. If a
larger number of entrepreneurs set up enterprise of their own, there is a great
deal of transformation of an area. The industrial entrepreneurs are thus the
agents of charge in removing back wardens and disparities of an area. An
entrepreneur has a great social responsibility.

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An enterprise consists of not only those who manage it but a host other
segments of society, workers, consumers, the state and the surrounding
community.
Some of the qualities are inherent but the others are mostly acquired.
Broody speaking four qualities are the most important one, e.g. intelligence,
motivation, knowledge and opportunity. While the first one is inherent, a
continuous process generally gains the knowledge, the qualities of
entrepreneurs further be sub-divided as under
 Capacity to take risk
 Capacity to work hard
 Desire for deferred consumption
 Capacity to take advantage of an external situation
 Imagination
 Emulation
 Initiative
 Sociability and flexibility
 Inventive ability

Expectation

 Increase number of industries is expected from the


entrepreneurs that they will help to.
 Increase production
 Earn foreign exchange through exports
 Develop the underdeveloped parts of the country.
 Develop economy

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Small – scale industries facilitate production of consumer goods locally
and help reduction of prices. Some of the important measures of assistance now
available are briefly noted below:

1. Technical assistance: complete technical, economic and managerial


consultancy services are provided to SSO through Small Industries
Services Institute (SISI) and Industrial Extension centers.
2. Assistance for obtaining raw materials: small – scale units are
helped to obtain controlled indigenous raw materials through state
director of industries and imported raw materials through State
Trading Corporation of India (STC).
3. Supply of machinery Hire Purchase: The National Small Industries
Corporation (NSIC) is giving assistance to small scale units by
supplying machinery to them on deferred credit basis.
4. Marketing assistance: SS units are helped to market their products
through Trade centers and by participating in government’s Stores
Purchase Programme.
5. Assistance to small entrepreneurs: Entrepreneurial Development
programmer is conducted by SSI and Small Industries
Development Organization (SIDO) to give necessary training to
young entrepreneurs. District Industries Centre (DIC) provides
under a single – roof all the services and support required by the
small and village industries at pre – investment, investment,
investment and post investment stages.
6. Financial assistance : SS units are helped by providing various
financial assistance like loans, subsides, and hire – purchase
scheme through various agencies like State Finance Corporation

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NSIC, State Directorates of Industries, commercial banks,
Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) , and National Bank
for Agricultural and Rural Development (NABARD) .

7. Special incentives : Special inducements like the following are


offered by the government for development of entrepreneurship.

a. Capital subsidy up to 15% in backward areas


b. Income Tax exemption for five years.
c. Exemption from Central excise duty.
d. Deduction of depreciation from net profit.
e. Concessions in Stamp duty.
f. License to import raw material.

Self-employment schemes

The following are the four important government schemes for prompting
self-employment.

i. District Manpower Planning and Employment Generation Council


The Council prepares a list of investment opportunities in
the self-employment in the district. The major objective of the council
is to remove the handicaps and difficult faced by the youth in entering
self-employment project.

ii. Employment Exchange

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A special Vocational Guidance Unit functioning in every
Employment Exchange with the object of giving guidance and
motivation to unemployed persons to take up self employment
ventures. In addition to furnishing information on self-employment
projects, until also helps in obtaining loans from the banks.

iii. The Prime Minister Scheme for providing self-employment to


educated Unemployed youth.
The objective of the scheme is to encourage the educated
unemployed youth to undertake self-employment ventures in industry,
service and business through provision of a package of assistance.
The scheme covers all unemployed youth who are matriculates and
above, and in the age group of 18 to 35 years. District Industries
Centers (DIC) are assigned the operational responsibility of the
scheme.

iv. Self employment scheme for TRYSEM – trained youth


TRYSEM stands for “Training of Rural Youth for Self-
Employment”, It is a scheme by which rural youth are trained in semi
engineering trades in Industrial Training Institutes and Polytechnics.
they youth are provided witth financial and other assistance from
Government I the form of subsidy drawn from Integral Rural
Development Program (RDP) and as credit from commercial banks
RS.3000 to Rs.10,000.

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The Scheme is implemented by a Task Force under the Chairmanship of
District Collector and with District Employment Officer as Member Secretary
and Project officer (DRDA). DDO and Lead Bank Manager as members.

Product Selection

A prospective entrepreneur should first prepare a shore list of product


lines that he wants to establish. Then, he should select the product to be
manufactured based upon market survey and demand survey, financial
implementations involved, technical know-how available, and his own
experience in the line.

Market survey involves the following:

 Study similar product available in the market that can be probable


Competitors.
 Analyze them in regards to their utility, quality and cost.
 Check whether it is a seasonal product or needed throughout the
year.
 Find the probable extend of the market.
 Find whether the product can be exported.
 Explore the possibility of manufacturing in collaboration with a
foreign company.
 A demand survey is made to determine
 Whether survey demand for the product is or inelastic.
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 The trend of the demand.
 The composition and pattern of the potential users.

Site Selection
The important factors to be considered in selecting the site for an industry
are given below.
 Nearness to raw material: It will reduce the cost of transportation
of raw materials to the factory.
 Nearness to market: It will reduce transportation cost of the
finished products and also help to catch the share of the market.
 Easy availability of labor: If highly skilled workmen are required,
it is better to locate the plant near a large town.
 Availability of power and fuel: Electrical power and fuel required
for the plant should be easily obtainable in the area, Reliability of
power supply must be ensured.
 Availability of water: Water for drinking and for other purposes
should be easily available. If the process requires large quantity of
water, then the plant should be located near a major water source.
 Land-topography: Cost, probability of floods. Earthquakes, etc are
to be considered.
 Industrial areas: Notified industrial areas will be advantageous due
to the availability of ready infrastructure and other benefits.
 Other major factors: Presence of related industries, facilities for
expansion, housing facilities, and nearness of public amenities like
hospitals and schools, security problems, local and attitude of local
people.

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Plant Layout
Plant layout means the disposition of the various (equipments, material,
manpower, etc) and services of the plant within the area of the site selected.
Plant layout begins with the design of the factory building and goes up lathe
location and movement of a worktable. All the facilities like equipments, raw
material, machinery, tools fixtures,
Workers, etc, are given a proper place. In deciding the place for equipment, the
supervisors and workers who nave to operate them should be consulted.

There are three types of plant layout:


1. Process Layout (functional layout) in which all machines or
process of the same types is grouped together in the same area.
2. Product Layout (line layout) in which equipments regardless of
process is arranged as per the sequence of operations in which a
given product will be manufactured.
3. Layout by fixed position (static product layout) in which the
product is too big (e.g. ship, airplane) or too heavy to be moved
from one place to another and is consequently fixed in one place,
and men and machines are brought to the product to perform the
required operations. Whatever by the type required, certain basic
principles must be observed. While preparing the plant layout.

These are:
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1. Placement of facilities in a logical and balanced manner.
2. Minimum movements for workers and materials
3. Smooth and continuous flow of operations
4. Optimum space utilization.
5. Flexibility
i. Private Limited Company
ii. Public Limited Company
Each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. An entrepreneur’s
choices of the type of the organization will primary depend upon the nature of
the business to be started and his own preferences together with the amount of
capital he can contribute.

Registration

The prospective entrepreneur in the small – scale sector need not obtain
any Industrial Licenses, provided the item of manufacture is not governed by
special regulations. However, to facilitate identification, the Directorate of
Industries (through District Industries Center - DIC) issues certificates
registering a unit as a Small Scale / Ancillary / Tiny Unit.
Registration is done is two stages, Via, provisional and permanent. The
issue of Provisional certificate almost automatic, with Unit / ail validity of 6
months and with a further extension for another 6 months.

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Financial Assistance
With a view to ensure adequate of funds, the small scale Industrial frame
work for the flow of Financial Assistance to small
scale sector comprises of banks (Commercial Banks, Co-Operative banks,
Regional rural banks). State Financial Corporation, National Small Industries
Corporation INSIC and State Small Industries Corporations (SSIDCS).
The NSIC and SSID’S provide Financial Assistance in the form supply of
Machinery and hire purchase basis.
A National Bank of Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) has
recently been setup to meet the financial requirements of artisans, Small Scale
Industries, Industries those engaged in the field of Handicraft and other rural
craft.

Commercial Banks

The Reserve Bank of India issued instructions that no worth wile


proposals of the Small scale unit should be rejected merely on the ground that
these are not supported by adequate security. The commercial Banks have been
advised by the Reserve Bank of India to give special Attention to the needs of
the priority sector borrowers, particularly of the weaker section. Small scale
Industrial units also being charged lower rates of interest on their borrowings
from commercial Banks.
State Financial Corporations

Provide medium and long-term Loans to Small Scale Industries, granting


Loans raised by Industrial undertakings and differed payments and subscribing
to stocks, Shares and bonds of an Industrial Concern.

52
Lead Banks
The Scheme is designed to enable the bank to work effectively as an
Instrument of development. Under the scheme, the district in the country have
allocated to different commercial banks each of whom is expected to act as a
consortium and as a leader of the financial institutions operating in allotted
districts in matters relating to deposit mobilization, identifying of prospective
avenues for financial assistance and ensuring adequate credit flow for the
various development programs of the districts.

Institutional support
The success of Small Scale industries depends solely on the well –
established institutional setup. In order to accelerate the small industries
development, government at the central and state levels has setup a number of
development agencies / institutions. Functions of some these are mentioned.

1. District Industries Center (DIC)


Each district has a DIC at its headquarters. The main responsibility of
DIG is to act as the chief coordinator or multi functional agency in;
respect of various governments can get all assistance from DIC for
setting up and running the industry in rural areas. Each DIC has one
General Manager in the rank of Joint Director of industries as the head
and seven managers each looking after separate functional area.

 Identification of Entrepreneurs.
 Selection of Projects
 Provisional registration under SSI

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 Purchase of fixed Assets
 Clearances from Various Departments.
 Assistance of Raw Material supplies.
 Interest – Free Sales Tax Loan
 Subsidy Schemes.
 Training Programs
 Self – employment for Unemployed Educated Youth.
District Industries Centers are supposed to provide pre – investment and
post – investment assistance to entrepreneurs under one roof.

2. Small Industries Development Organization


SIDO is a policy-making, co-ordination and monitoring agency for the
development of small – scale entrepreneurs. It maintains a close liaison
with government, financial institutions and other agencies, which are
involved in the promotion and development of small-scale units.

Functions
The main functions of the SIDCD are co-ordination, industrial
development and industrial extension service. Some important functions are:
a. To assess the requirements of indigenous and imported raw materials and
components for the small-scale sector and to arrange their supplies.
b. To collect data on consumer items, which are imported and encourage the
setting up of new units giving them coordinate assistance.
c. To prepare model schemes, projects reports and other Technical literature
for prospective entrepreneurs.
d. To assist and advise the Controller of Capital issues in regard to the issue
of import licenses and the imposition of import restrictions on various
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products whose manufacture has already been undertaken indigenously
be the existing or new units.
e. To secure reservations of certain products for the SSIS.

3. National Small Industries Corporation Limited (NSIC)


The NSIC was setup in 1955 with the objective of supplying machinery
and equipment to small enterprise on a hire-purchase basis and assisting
them in procuring government orders for various items of stores. The
corporation’s head office is at Delhi and it has four regional officers at
Delhi, Bombay, Madras and Calcutta, and eleven branch offices. It has
one central liaison office at Delhi and depots and sub-centers.

3. The main functions of NSIC are

 To develop small scale units as ancillary units to large scale industries.


 To provide SSIS with machine on hire-purchase basis
 To assist small enterprises to participate in the stores purchase
Programmed of the Central Government.
 To assist small industries with marketing facilities.
 To distribute basic raw materials through their depots
 To import ad distribute components and parts actual small scale users in
specific industries and
 To construct industrial estates and establish and run prototype
production-cum-training centers.

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4. Directorates of Industries of the State Governments
The small-scale industries are a state subject and, therefore, the
development and implementation of the schemes of assistance to SSIS is the
primary responsibility of the State Government Directorates of Industries of
Industries in each State do the work relating to the development of industries in
general and small scale industries in particular. Each directorate is staffed with
administration and small scale industries in particular. Each directorate is
staffed with administration and technical officers at State staff in each district.

Forms of Business Enterprise Topics


 Sale Proprietorship
 Partnership
 Private Limited
 Public Limited
 Co-operatives
 State enterprise

Sole Proprietorship
 Ownership when applied to an industrial enterprise means title to and
possessions of the assets of the enterprise, the power to determine the
policies of operation, and the right to receive and dispose of the proceeds.
 It is called a single ownership when an individual exercise and enjoys
these rights in his own interest.
 A business owned by one man is called single ownership.
 Single ownership does well for those enterprises, which require little
capital and lend themselves readily to control by one person.

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 Examples of enterprise run by single owner are printing press, auto retail
trades, service industries and small engine forms.
 In single ownership, one person contributes the original assets to start the
business, maintains and controls business operation, reaps full benefits in
terms of profit and full liable for all debts associated with the business.

Partnership

 A single owner becomes inadequate as the size of the business enterprise


grouse. He may not be in a position to do away with a1 the duty and
responsibilities of the grown business.
 At this stage the individual owner may associate with him more persons
who have either capital to invest or possess special skill and knowledge
to make the existing business still more profitable.
 Such a combination of individual traders is called partnership.
 Partnership may be defined as the relation between persons who have
agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them
acting for all. Individuals with common purposes join and partners and
they put together their property, ability, skill, knowledge, etc, for the
purpose of making profits.
 In brief, partnership is an association of two or more (up to 20) persons to
carry an as co-owners of a business for profit.
 Partnerships are based upon a partnership agreement which i.e. generally
reduced to writing.
 It should cover all areas of disagreement among the partners. It should
define the authority, right and duties of each partner.

57
Private Limited
 The capital is collected from the private partners; some of them may be
active while others are sleeping.
 Private limited restrict the right to transfer shares, avoids public to take
up shares or debentures.
 The number of members is between two and 50, excluding employee and
ex-employee, share holders.
 The company need not file document such consent of directors, list of
directors, etc. the register of joint stock companies.
 The company need not obtain from the register, a certificate of
commencement of business.
 The company need not circulate the balance sheet, profit and loss account
etc, among its members, but it should hold its annual general meeting and
place such financial state rents in the meeting.
 A private company must get its accounts audited.
 A private company has to send a certificate along with the annual return
to the register of joint stock companies stating that it does not have
shareholders more than 50 excluding the employee and employee
shareholders.
 Actually, a private joint stock company resumes much with partnership
and has the advantage that big capital can be collected than could be done
so in partnership.

58
Public Limited
 In public limited company, the capital is collected from public by issuing
shares having small face value (Rs. 50, 20, 10).
 The number of share holders should not be less than 7, but there is no
limit to their maximum number.

Co-operatives
 The main aim of the co-operative is to eliminate profit and provide goods
and services to the members of the co-operative cost.
 Members pay fees or buy shares the co-operative, and profits are
periodically redistributed to them.
 Since each member has only one (unlike in joint stock companies), this
avoid the concentration of control in few hand.
 In a co-operative, there are share holders, a board of directors and elected
officers similar to the corporation.
 There are periodic meetings of share also.
 Special laws deal with the formation and taxation of co-operatives.
 Co-operative organization is a kind of voluntary, demo craft ownership
formed by some motivated individuals for obtained necessities of
everyday life at rat.es less than the market. The principle behind the co-
operative is that of co-operation and self.

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DATASHEETS

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