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Hydraulic Wheel Generator i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This work would not have been possible without the continuous provision of

our dearest advisers Engr. Melchor S. Henson and Engr. Freneil R. Pampo. We are

very grateful for their motivation and enthusiasm to help us complete this study.

We are especially indebted to Engr. Alma L. Tangcuangco, our thesis

grammarian, who have been supportive of our career goals and who toiled actively to

provide us with the sheltered academic time to pursue our goals. We are sincerely

thankful for her patience and immense knowledge, which surely helped us in all the

time of this study. We could not have imagined having the best proofreader and

mentor for our work. She has shown us, by her example, what a good electrical

engineer should be.

We also appreciate all of those who give criticism, comment and suggestion

for the improvement of our paper. Each of the members of our Oral Defense

Panels, Engr. Edgardo M. Santos, Engr. Marty G. Alfonso, and Engr. Genesis C.

Tiria, has offered us far-reaching personal and professional guidance and taught us a

great deal about both scientific research and life in broad-spectrum. We would

especially like to thank Engr. Rhoderick M. Favorito, our thesis coordinator, as our

teacher and mentor; we give credit to him for he has imparted more than he could

ever give to finish project.

Nobody has been more important to us in the pursuit of this project other than

the members of our family especially Teodoro Family for their unending support from

the first day of the research study to the lowest point of the project up to its success.

We would also like to acknowledge our parents, whose love and guidance are with

us in whatever we pursue. They are the ultimate role models.


Hydraulic Wheel Generator ii

Most importantly, the greatest and warmest gratitude belongs to the Lord, our

God Almighty for the knowledge and abilities He have given us. Without His

blessings and guidance, we do not deserve any of this success.


Hydraulic Wheel Generator iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ....................................................................................... i

ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................... 1

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 1

Background of the Study ........................................................................... 1

Statement of the Problem ......................................................................... 4

Objectives of the Study ............................................................................. 4

Scope and Limitation ................................................................................ 4

Significance of the Study ........................................................................... 4

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE .................................................................. 5

METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................. 9

Research Design ...................................................................................... 9

Figure 2. Research Framework Diagram .................................................. 10

Figure 3. Block Diagram of the System ..................................................... 13

Figure 4. System Diagram ........................................................................ 17

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS ................................................................................ 19

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION .......................................................... 26

REFERENCES ..................................................................................................... 27

APPENDICES ...................................................................................................... 31

A. Gantt Chart ........................................................................................... 32


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B. Computations ....................................................................................... 33

C. System Diagram Front View ................................................................. 41

D. Electrical Plan of the System ................................................................ 42

E. Initial Design of the Hydraulic Turbine Wheel ........................................ 44

F. Survey Questionnaires .......................................................................... 45

G. Interview ............................................................................................... 64

H. Site Layout ........................................................................................... 65

I. Communication Letters .......................................................................... 66

J. Instruments and Materials ..................................................................... 70

K. Mechanical Power on Operation ........................................................... 73

L. Electrical Power on Operation ............................................................... 74

M. Output Voltage and Current of the System ........................................... 75

N. Speed of Gears on Operation ............................................................... 76

O. Volume Flow Rate of Water on Operation ............................................ 77

P. Efficiency of the System ....................................................................... 78

Q. SUS Score of the Respondents ............................................................ 79

R. Voltage Cut-Off of the Battery on Discharge ......................................... 80

S. Cost Benefit Analysis ............................................................................ 83

T. Critical Values of the Correlation Coefficient ......................................... 84

U. Actual Reading of Output Current and Voltage ..................................... 86

V. Progress Reports .................................................................................. 90


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W. Schematic Diagram ............................................................................. 107

X. Generator Specification ........................................................................ 108

CURRICULUM VITAE .......................................................................................... 109


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 1

Development of 150 Watts, 12V Hydraulic Wheel DC Generator for a Farm at

Brgy. Ligaya, Pulungmasle, Guagua, Pampanga

Abstract

Hydroelectricity subsists as one route to come across


the growing demand for energy. This study created a
system through hydraulic water wheel to solve the
lighting issues of the farmers during night operation in
the field. It aims to generate electrical power that
lighting loads and to charge lead acid batteries. Ample
consideration factors exist when building hydropower
plants. Galvanized steel was used for it is not only
inexpensive but it has also the properties that can
make the water wheel last for years. The economic
feasibility of the study was assessed by a Cost Benefit
Analysis method to prove its viability. After three years
of investment in this hydroelectric system, the user of
the project will benefit. The operation of the water
wheel and the generator were monitored during the
charging time of the battery to compare the mechanical
efficiency and the electrical efficiency of the system.
The generator drawn an average of 13 V with an
average current of 6A. The initial mechanical power
output is 78.83 W just as the water hits the water
wheel. The output power drawn from the generator just
as before the battery reaches its full charge state is
68.99 W. The generator gives out an average of 85.61
W as a result for an average input power of 87.06 W. It
consumes 10.32 hours to fully charge a battery. As of
for the respondent’s decision, the system is effective
and convenient to use.

In times of growing energy demand, twiddling natural resources and the

climate change debate, the development of new technology for sustainable power

generation is becoming ever more important. Experts have been pioneering the

generation of wind energy from the beginning. Now, it is time to turn the successful

and sustainable concept upside down and take it underwater when the tides and

waves provide a great supply of clean energy. The water and advance technology

guarantee a much more presage output than other renewable energy. Hydropower is
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a promising contributor in a clean and efficient energy makes for the future turning

the water motion in power generation.

According to World Energy Council (2016) hydroelectric energy is the number

one renewable source for electricity generation across the board, girding 71% of all

renewables. Up to 1,064 GW of installed capacity in 2016, it brings about 16.4% of

the world’s electricity. Hydroelectric power is the most adaptable and coherent of all

the renewable resources, the ability of meeting base load electricity requirements.

There are many opportunities for hydroelectric development and although there is no

open agreement, assessments denote the availability of almost 10,000 TWh annually

of unused hydroelectric energy potential in the world.

Hydroelectricity is derived from the energy running or moving water, which

may be yoked for beneficial purposes. Since earliest times, hydroelectric power from

many varieties of watermills has been used as a renewable source of energy for

irrigation and the process of numerous machine-driven devices, such as sawmills,

textile mills, trip mallets, mooring cranes, domestic lifts, and metal mills (Department

of Energy, 2017).

Southeast Asia’s first marine tidal power plant will start to be erected in the

Philippines on mid-2017, as proceeds it paces to green energy. A resident firm in

Asia arose with an impression of exploiting those tidal waves to yield energy. This

was such a noble knowledge that can enhance more foundations of dynamism, apart

from the current power plants in the Asia (Philippine News, 2017).

Devices that are capable in producing kinetic energy are significant in

promoting renewable energy such as hydroelectric energy. A water pump is a device

that moves water by mechanical action. Seeing the water flow and knowing about

hydroelectric energy as a source of energy, the researchers get into the idea of
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making the water pump as a source of moving energy producing electricity that can

supply lighting loads to promote security minimal maintenance.

It is a requirement for farmers to stay in the fields especially during harvesting

period and time to time monitoring of fishponds. Farmers usually install water pump

system for sustaining enough supply of water in the field. Building a small home for

the pump is the farmer’s way of protecting it from theft and shield during natural

calamity. This also serves as the farmer’s lodge when farmers want to take a break

from the field and to monitor the pump if it is functioning during night operation. In line

with this, farmers are obliged to bring flashlight or emergency lights as source of

luminescence. Having a system that can provide farmers with a source of electricity

to supply the lightings will be a great help in maintaining fields and ponds.

The main reason behind the latest peak of hydroelectric energy capacity is

due to enhanced technology. Numerous components of a hydroelectric technology

must be taken into account. Innovative developments in the structure using

enhanced, lightweight materials, and improved design techniques have permitted

today’s turbine to hit better water movements for reduced cost. It is vital to continue

improving the design of the hydroelectric turbine in order to produce better energy

and at better cost.

As energy requirements are continuously varying, the operational elements

linked with the new energy foundations need to be established. An understanding of

all the energy sources, mechanical, and basic components associated to the design,

construction, and process of hydroelectric generators must be assessed to develop

an idea for the realization of the project. The whole concept of the study came up to

enhance the knowledge of the people about using renewable source of energy

effectively for everyday living.


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The activity of the water was observed as one of the key variable in solving

the lighting issues of the farmers during night operation in the field. In addition, it is

observed that when the water passes through small section of the channel of the

irrigation it produces high water current. This high water current can be used to

produce kinetic energy to electrical energy. The researchers will develop an energy

harvesting device to be installed in a water pump system to take full advantage of the

water current to produce electrical energy.

The primary objective of the study is to fabricate a hydraulic wheel generator

to regulate water flow during the pump operation. Specifically, it aims to generate

electrical power for lighting loads and to charge lead acid batteries, and to determine

the significant correlation between the mechanical and electrical efficiency of the

system.

This study will mainly focus on the application of the hydraulic wheel in a

water pump system for Barangay Pulungmasle, Guagua, Pampanga. Hydroelectric

energy as a source of energy is already known and already used worldwide. The

system is primarily intended to operate lighting loads and batteries for charging

purposes. The researchers aim only on transforming the traditional water pump

operation into useful energy efficient pump system. This study concerns delicately on

the mechanical side and mainly on the electrical side of the hydraulic wheel system.

The safekeeping of the water pump at night will be employed with the help of

renewable energy for lighting loads. Proper illumination in the house of the water

pump is a great support in sustaining the safety of the equipment as well as in the

maintenance of the field and ponds. The study can provide the people with the

knowledge to make use of the renewable energy as a source of electricity.

The study has educational significance related to Electrical Engineering. New

knowledge is required to its expansion. One must have advanced analytical skills to
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create a reliable project. This paper will also serve as a reference to the future

researchers who will conduct the same study regarding hydroelectric energy and

hydro turbine designs.

The current state of expertise makes hydroelectric energy a lasting asset

opportunity with possibly significant. The early phase of the technology and great

monitoring costs linked with extensive approving requirements and authorizing

reservations are likely to remain bestowing major cost-effective hurdles to

commercialization of the technology. In contrary, these developing technologies have

the probable to offer important quantities of affordable electricity with low ecological

influence given suitable care in setting, placement, and procedure.

Recently, entrepreneurial companies dominate the hydroelectric energy

conversion industry. Upon the completion of this project, it will have a great impact in

the modern technology especially in Philippine technology. These emerging

technologies have the potential to convert water current to essential amount of

electricity.

Many have conducted a research worldwide to improve and make use of the

world’s renewable energy. Hydroelectricity are already applied in different places and

widely used to improve the way of living but still lots of researches to be studied to

satisfy the needs of humanity.

The researchers were able to gather a number of information which has the

same matter that mainly focused on hydro energy as a source of electricity.

Hydroelectric energy is other form of renewable energy that can be recycled as an

alternative to fossil fuels. As water move through in the stream, it generates kinetic

energy. This undertaking can be used to power turbines which in turn, produce

energy that can be transformed into electricity. There are also numerous methods of

harnessing hydroelectric energy from the wave of the water.


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In the streak of the study of Muller & Kauppert (2004) and Jones (2005),

theoretically, four main kinds of water wheels can be identified: undershot, overshot,

breast-shot, and stream water wheels. The overshot water wheel, which is

complicated in its constructional design and requires large heads, is the most

common type of traditional water wheels (Capecchi 2013). The breast-shot water

wheel design can be referred to as an alternative model in sites with its head

unsuitable for overshot wheels (Quaranta & Revelli, 2015). The undershot water

wheel is the earliest design where the water passes below the axle, in turn acting on

the blade surfaces, and then transfers its kinetic energy to the wheel (Denny 2004).

According to Müller, Denchfield, & Schelmerdine (2007) and Denny (2004), in case

the water mass is not exploited, the undershot water wheels can be known as

“stream wheels”. Stream wheels or impulse-type water wheels are utilized to harness

the kinetic energy of shallow free surface flows while the undershot wheels employ

both the kinetic and potential energy of the water flows. However, energy production

for the stream and undershot water wheels has not been used in the past due to their

low efficiency, and there is no need for the utilization of power from small hydropower

and hydrokinetic energy sources. Today, these types of water wheel can be of

interest for applications to sites where fast flows are available, such locations with

large rivers or tidal streams (Muller et al, 2007).

According to Power in the landscape (2017) and Thompson (2009) water

wheels originate in two simple designs; a horizontal wheel with a vertical axle and a

vertical wheel with a horizontal axle. As for Muller and Kauppert (2010) and Bach

(2006), it was found that water wheels have to be designed for a given flow rate,

head difference and intended operating regime. Properly designed overshot wheels

have an efficiency of 85%, undershot wheels of approximately 75% for 0.2 < Q/Qmax

< 1.0, making this type of energy converter suitable for the exploitation of highly

variable flows.
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Most of the related studies, hydroelectric turbines are usually installed in

oceans for the continuous availability of ocean water flow. Unlike with this proposal,

the researchers decided to install the turbine in a water pump system. Through the

previous studies, the researchers decided to use a hydraulic turbine wheel. An

overshot water wheel design will be utilized in the project.

HYDRAULIC ELECTRICAL
GENERATOR
TURBINE WHEEL LOADS

Water velocity Generated Lighting Loads


Height (Head) Voltage Charging Outlet

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework Diagram

The quest to turn the motion of the world's waterways into a significant source

of energy may still be in its nascent stage, but several waterpower projects are

making headway. Whether it operates in lakes, rivers or the oceans, projects

attempting to harness the water energy share the same mission: to improve the

technology and offer an economical alternative to fossil fuels.

Figure 1 explains the conceptual framework of the study by Input-Process-

Output paradigm. Hydraulic devices are powered by moving water and are different

from traditional hydropower turbines in which devices are placed directly in a river,

ocean or tidal current. The system generates power from the kinetic energy of flowing

water. The available hydropower depends on the speed of the water flow and height.

The hydro turbine wheel will be developed to produce a maximum amount of

electrical power with the kinetic energy of flowing waters. As such, no dams and/or

head differential are necessary for the operation of this device; the structure of the

water pump remains in its natural state and no high investments in infrastructure are

required. Because the amount of kinetic energy (velocity) varies, a greater amount of

energy is generated with a higher velocity of water flow. In the process phase, as
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 8

water flows through a turbine, the kinetic energy of the flowing water is converted into

electricity by the generator and therefore will produce power that will be used in

supplying the loads as an output.


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Methodology

Research Design

This paper will use the exploratory research design. Through this, a survey

will be conducted to familiarize with the basic details, settings, and concerns. A

preliminary survey will be performed to generate new ideas and assumptions. It will

be an interview for the selected groups of experts in hydroelectric energy and for the

farmers experiencing a problem. The study will use broad open-ended questions that

are designed to receive large amounts of information, providing the freedom to

demonstrate the respondent’s knowledge.

Five persons will receive the interview questions prior to the phone/personal

interview that will be conducted and will be asked if they are willing to participate. The

persons that will participate must be aware that all information provided during the

interview will be recorded and then evaluated for this study. It will respect the

confidentiality of the respondents and can decline to answer the questions if the

respondents are not comfortable. Respondents will be coded as R1, R2, R3, R4, and

R5. In the study, straightforward technology assessment is chosen and questions are

designed to assess the overall feasibility of water wheel technology. Moreover, to

identify barriers and opportunities related to the further development of hydroelectric

system in specific design and operation and settings.

Research Framework

Figure 2 shows the research framework of the study which serve as guide

through cyclic process. After evaluation, revisiting the site is necessary to verify or

upgrade the system based on the demands.


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ANALYSIS of
SITE ANALYSIS DESIGN AND hydraulic wheel
DEVELOPMENT
 Permit of Hydraulic Technical
wheel Economic

Legal

EVALUATION AND
IMPLEMENTATION TESTING of
 system charging/
convenience discharging time

 efficiency  Operational
Feasibility

Figure 2. Research Framework

Site Analysis

The initial site assessment will cover the permission section and the site

analysis that will mainly focus on the suitability of the area. Once an interest for

constructing a hydro turbine wheel system has been shown, a site must be chosen

and evaluated based on the optimal conditions for installing a water wheel.

There are several factors that must be considered when choosing an

appropriate site for a hydraulic wheelsystem. The factors include:

 Social Constraints

The use for the electricity must be analyzed and the most

economically beneficial option should be chosen. If there are no

beneficial options, a different site should be considered.

 Location of the Electrical Loads relative to the Hydraulic Wheel

Generator

The distance between the turbine site and the loads is also a

factor to be considered. If this distance is too great, it is not practical to

install a turbine wheel on the site. This is because the electricity


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would have to travel such a great distance to be disbursed that it

would not be economically beneficial.

Permission

After site analysis, the next factor that should be researched is the

community’s decision making process. The group will administer a personal interview

to the municipal/barangay council of Brgy. Pulungmasle, Guagua, Pampanga to

know the town’s bylaws governing the hydraulic wheel system approval and

installation process. Upon knowing all the rules regarding the the installation of the

device, the researchers will submit a barangay permit prior to the beginning of the

project.

Design and Development of Hydraulic wheel

The researchers will develop an overshot turbine wheel system to be installed

in the water pump system. The following quantities will be used in the system design

through the theory of hydroelectricity (Dilip, 2009): ŋ = efficiency, ρ = density of water

(1000 kg/m3), A = cross sectional area of the channel (m2), D = diameter of wheel

(m), P = power (W), d = distance (m), g = strength of gravity (9.81 m/s2 or 9.81 N/kg),

h = head (m), ℎ𝑝 = pressure head, the difference in water levels (m), ℎ𝑣 = velocity

head (m), ν = velocity (m/s), Q = volume flow rate (m3/s) and t = time (s).

In order to design the wheel, it is helpful to know the mechanical and

electrical design and how it works. To measure the flow rate bucket method was

used. In this study, a stopwatch is used to measure how long will a 16 liters container

be filled with water. The container should be above the watercourse thoughout the

process of measuring the flow rate. This experiment was performed eight time to get

the average time consumed to fill the container. Discard reading if there is a debris or

blockage in the water stream. Lastly, the flow rate is the volume of the bucket divided

by the average time.

To compute for the head using effective head equation under kinetic energy

(Nagpurwala, 2017), the following formula will be used: pressure head is the
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difference in height between the head race and tail race water surfaces and velocity

head is calculated from the velocity of the water in the head race at the same place

as the pressure head is measured from, the formula ℎ = ℎ𝑝 + ℎ𝑣 was used, where

𝜈2
the velocity head is . According to Behrens (2015) the ideal wheel diameter (D) is
2𝑔

90% of the head.

The optimal rotational speed (British Hydropower Association, 2011) of the


21
overshot water wheels will be calculated by 𝑂𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 (𝑟𝑝𝑚) = .
√𝐷

While, the power generated from falling water will be measured by the formula from

hydropower equation (The Renewable Energy Website, 2017) 𝑃𝑖𝑛 = ŋ𝜌𝑔ℎ𝑄 and
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡
efficiency by %ŋ = 𝑃𝑖𝑛
× 100 . A well- designed overshot water wheels can reach

efficiencies of 71% to 85% (Muller, 2004). In most literatures, the efficiency of an

overshot wheel ranges from 60% to 80%.

According to Shannon (2009) the number of the buckets is dependent on the

wheel’s circumference. The buckets should be one foot apart. The buckets should be

around one foot deep. For operational strength, it is sensible to keep the ratio of

diameter to width as near as feasible to 8:5. But in this study, a ratio of 1:2 was

utilized.

As for this study is an applied research, the generator’s specifications will be

taken into consideration when it comes in the the designing stage. The rated speed

and the rated voltage of the generator will be taken into account to be properly fit on

the water wheel.

The electrical layout of the system and load computation was presented. The

load computation is necessary to determine the VA rating of the inverter. The VA

value of the inverter should be equal to the total Watt value of the loads. However,

considering the Power Factor VA value is higher than the total Watt value, thus,
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𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑅𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝑉𝐴 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝐹𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟
(Mishra, 2014). For a residential house, the

power factor is about 0.7 (safer) to 0.8 (economical) (Mishra, 2014).

In this study, the researchers used a 12 V Lead Acid battery. One major lead

acid battery advantage is that these batteries do not require high maintenance to

ensure its performance. The performance and lifespan of an inverter largely rest on

the battery quality (Okaya Power, 2016). Consequently, battery capacity was

(𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 𝑅𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡)(𝑅𝑢𝑛𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐻𝑜𝑢𝑟𝑠)


determined by 𝐵𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑦 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 = 𝐵𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑦 𝑉𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒
. The researchers

considered 12 hours running time in order for the farmers to use the lighting facility

for the entire night.

Figure 3 shows the operation of the system from the input to the output. The

turbine wheel converts the energy of water into mechanical energy. The generator

converts the mechanical energy into electrical energy. The function of a battery

controller in a hydro system is to absorb excess energy. Battery-based micro hydro

systems require charge controllers to prevent overcharging the batteries. A battery

provides a way to store energy when more is being produced than consumed. When

demand increases beyond what is generated, the batteries can release energy to

keep the loads operating. An inverter is connected to the battery to change the DC to

AC that will be used to supply the loads.

Figure 3. Block Diagram of the System

Analysis of Hydraulic Wheel

In this phase, the researchers conducted the following feasibilities to analyze

data. In technical practicability, the following concerns are taken into consideration:

whether the necessary technology is accessible or not, whether the vital means are

obtainable (Manpower- testers & designers, Hardware). The researchers administer


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a search/survey regarding the applicability of the materials to be used in the

development of the turbine wheel generator. A water wheel can last only few years,

hence, frequent conservation and maintenances are required to preserve the water

wheel. The advantage and properties of each material (like wood, steel and plastic)

were carefully assessed to come up with the best.

Water wheels are usually constructed from wood. Traditionally, water wheels

were made of cypress or white oak. Both of these materials are expensive to source,

but they are highly rot-resistant. Pine is inexpensive, but it may only last a couple of

years when exposed to the elements. Though another popular choice, red oak is a

porous wood and therefore not the best option for a working water wheel and it offers

little in the way of durability over time (Hazen, 2002).

Plastics have numerous properties that make superior to other materials in

many applications. Plastics generally have: resistance to corrosion and chemicals,

low electrical and thermal conductivity, high strength-to-weight ratio, colors available

in a wide variety and transparent, resistance to shock, good durability, low cost, are

easy to manufacture, resistant to water and have low toxicity (Mahwah, 2017). In

fact, plastic refers to a state of the material, but the material itself: synthetic polymers

commonly called plastics are actually synthetic materials that can achieve the plastic

state, i.e. when the material is viscous or fluid, and no resistance properties to

mechanical stress.

Stainless steel is more expensive than standard grades of steel but it has

greater resistance to corrosion, needs low maintenance and has no need for painting

or other protective coatings. These factors mean that the stainless steel can be more

economically viable once service life and life cycle costs are considered (Aalco

Metals, 2017).
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Galvanized steel is steel that has gone through a chemical process to keep it

from corroding. The steel is coated in layers of zinc oxide because this protective

metal does not get rusty as easily. The coating also gives the steel a more durable,

hard to scratch finish that many people find attractive. For countless outdoor, marine,

or industrial applications, galvanized steel is an essential fabrication component

(Puomi et al, 2007). Upon assessment, the proponents decided to use galvanized

steel in making the water wheel. Galvanized steels are accessible, obtainable,

inexpensive, and the properties that can last for years.

In Economic Feasibility, a Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) was examined. The

paybacks of the project are summed, and then the costs related are subtracted. The

process is to collect a complete list of all the costs and benefits connected with the

project. Costs should comprise direct and indirect costs, insubstantial costs,

opportunity costs and the cost of potential risks. Then allocate monetary value to the

benefits and cost. The final step is to quantitatively associate the results of the

cumulative costs and benefits to determine if the benefits outweigh the costs. If so,

then the sensible decision is to go forward with project. In not, a review of the project

is defensible to see if adjustments can be made to either upsurge benefits and/or

lessen costs to make the project viable. If not, the project may be abandoned.

The legal feasibility includes a study concerning contracts, liability, violations,

and legal other traps frequently unknown to the technical staff. The researchers have

to make a thorough analysis of the legal issues surrounding the project, across

several dimensions. A detailed legal due diligence should be done to ensure that all

foreseeable legal requirements, which have not or will not be dealt with in other

evaluation exercises, are met for the development of the project. Prior to the

designing phase, the researchers will do an interview in a municipality regarding the

bylaws covered by hydroelectric energy. The legal feasibility will contain the list of all

the rules governing the topic to ensure that the project is legally doable.
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Testing of Charging and Discharging Time

The researchers will test the sustainability of the system by measuring the

charge and discharge time of the battery. Measurement was done every 30 minutes

and 1.68 kW was connected to the battery and allowed to operate until the battery

reached the voltage cut – off of the load. The voltage cut – off is the voltage reading

of the battery before the load stopped operating. To determine the status of the

battery, a voltmeter will be connected in parallel with the terminals of the battery.

The discharging status of the battery was monitored from fully charged to completely

discharge and vice versa.

An operational feasibility measures the acceptability of the project. The

researchers listed all the problems encountered when testing the device and

solutions was applied. The researchers identified whether the power output of the

system is enough to supply the demand of the farmers by evaluating the actual

charging voltage of the battery.

Evaluation and Implementation of Hydraulic Wheel

The hydro generator will be applied on the water pump system. The system

diagram is reflected on Figure 4.


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 17

Figure 4. System Diagram

The researchers conducted a System Usability Scale (SUS) survey to

evaluate the effectiveness (the ability of users to complete tasks using the system,

and the quality of the output of those tasks) and satisfaction (users’ subjective

reactions to using the system). The SUS includes 10 questions, which will be asked

to the respondents. Farmers will answer each question by ranking from 1 to 5. A

score of 1 means strongly disagree, 5 means strongly agree, and 2 and 3 are

somewhere in the middle (Borsci et al, 2009).

To evaluate the system’s effectiveness, the respondents’ total score for each

question on the SUS survey will be transformed to a new number by multiplying

respondents’ total score for each question by 2.5. The original scores of 0-40 will be

transformed to 0-100. Though the marks are 0-100, these are not percentage but

these are dimensions or bases of ranking. Based on SUS, a score of 0 to 12.5 will be

rated as “ineffective”, 12.6 to 35.7 as “inconsistent”, 35.8 to 71.4 will be rated as

“slightly effective”, 71.5 to 85.5 as “effective”, and 85.6 to 100 will be rated as “very

effective”.
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 18

In hypothesis testing, the test of the efficiency of the generator was based on

the power delivered. While, the efficiency of the hydraulic wheel generator in this

study was determined by using the average power input and output.
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 19

Discussion of Results

The economic feasibility of the study is assessed by a Cost Benefit Analysis

method. The total cost is compared to the possible benefit of the project to prove its

viability. The total cost of the system is ₱ 20, 500. 00 including the materials and

maintenance. When connected to a cooperative at a rate of ₱ 10.0954 per kWh and

₱ 605.724 per monthly bill, the total cost after three years will be ₱ 21,806.064. On

the lighter note, after three years of investment in a hydroelectric system, the user of

the project will benefit. Instead of paying the monthly electrical bill, electrical energy

will be 100% free.

A legal feasibility is accomplished to secure that the hydroelectric project is

legally doable. The proponents interviewed the municipal lawyer of Guagua,

Pampanga and luckily answered certain questions regarding the bylaws governing

hydroelectricity system installation. Atty. Avelino Buan explained that the law under

Republic Act No. 7196 otherwise known as “Mini-Hydroelectric Power Incentive Act”

governs hydroelectricity. The law aims to encourage entrepreneurs to develop

potential sites for hydroelectric power existing in the country by granting the

necessary incentives, which will provide a reasonable rate of return. The law has for

its objective the attainment of energy self-sufficiency and thereby minimizes

dependence on outside source of energy supply. He then further clarified that when

the developer fails to faithfully comply or perform any and all of the obligation under

and pursuant to the contract, the performance bond or other guarantee of sufficient

amount in favor of the government and with surety or sureties satisfactory to the

Office of the Energy Affairs will be forfeited in favor of the government. As the

municipal lawyer expounded, to make a hydroelectric system legally doable, the

applicant must prove that the operation of the proposed mini-hydroelectric project

and the authorization to do business will promote the public interest in a proper and

suitable manner and to formulate, in consultation with the National Economic and
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 20

Development Authority (NEDA), and the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)

standards to measure the technical and financial capacity of the developer.

For the assessment of the project, the operation of the water wheel and the

generator were monitored during the charging time of the battery to compare the

mechanical efficiency and the electrical efficiency of the system. The efficiency on

both aspects showed if the difference is significant.

18

16
Voltage and Current Reading

14

12

10

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 9.82

Voltage Output Readings Output Current Readings

Figure 5. Output Voltage and Current Reading of the Generator

The generator drawn 14 V with a current of 5.8 A on its initial operation and

12.59 V with a current of 6.8 A on its final operation before the battery is fully charge.

Figure 5 shows the output voltage and output current of the generator respectively.

The voltage and current varies immensely as time passes by. It is because these

parameters depend on the mechanical speed provided by the water wheel. As speed

increases, voltage provided by the generator also increases. These graphs illustrate

that as the voltage increases, the current decreases.


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 21

120

Mechanical and Electrical Power Rating


100

80

60

40

20

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 9.82
Time Interval in hour

Mechanical Power Input Mechanical Power Output


Electrical Power Input Electrical Power Output

Figure 6. Mechanical and Electrical Power Input and Output

Figure 6 shows the water wheel and the generator’s power output and power

input during the charging period. The initial mechanical power output is 78.83 W just

as the water hits the water wheel. The output power drawn from the generator just as

before the battery reaches its full charge state is 68.99 W. These powers are

calculated based on the input volume flow rate of water and the angular velocity of

the wheel. This graph illustrates that there are some losses when water energy is

converted by the water wheel into useful rotational mechanical energy. The

generator’s power changes dramatically for its output and input parameters depend

on the speed provided by the water wheel. On the first time of charging, the

generator gives out 81.2 W as a result for an input power of 93.06 W. Moreover, on

the time before the battery fully charged, the generated input and output power is

87.06 W and 85.61 W respectively.


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 22

Discharging Time

Charging Time

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Time Operation

Figure 7. Charging and Discharging Time of the Battery

Figure 7 illustrates the period of charging and discharging of the battery. It

consumes 10.32 hours to fully charge a battery and 31.2 hours to completely

discharge it. This only shows that the battery can sustain the 12-hour operation of the

loads in the farm.

Lighting issue was solve by constructing a hydraulic water wheel generator

that can provide power to charge a battery. Table 1 shows the actual charging

voltage of the battery. These voltage readings are measured from the discharge state

to fully charge state.

Table 1. Voltage Reading of the Battery during Charging Period


Time Interval Charging Voltage of the Battery

0 10

0.5 10.5

1 10.76

1.5 10.97

2 11.03
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 23

2.5 11.07

3 11.26

3.5 11.41

4 11.53

4.5 11.78

5 11.9

5.5 11.99

6 12.03

6.5 12.04

7 12.32

7.5 12.59

8 12.78

8.5 13.04

9 13.5

9.5 13.64

9.82 14.07

The test of the efficiency of the system is based on the power the generator

delivered in a certain period of time. Table 2 shows the mechanical efficiency,

electrical efficiency and the overall efficiency of the system. The efficiency of the

system in this study is computed by using the average power input and output.

Table 2. Mechanical and Electrical Efficiency


System Overall
Mechanical (W) Electrical (W)
(W)
Average Power 93.92 92.42 93.92
Input 78.18 76.23 76.23
Average Power
Output
%ŋ 83.24 82.49 81.17
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 24

Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient for Hypothesis Test

There is a significant correlation between the mechanical efficiency and

electrical efficiency of the system. The verbal interpretation of r shows that there is a

very high negative correlation between the two efficiencies. It indicates a negative

association, that is, as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other

variable decreases. Figure 8 demonstrates the negative relationship between the

mechanical efficiency and the electrical efficiency of the system. As mechanical

efficiency increases, electrical efficiency decreases and vice versa.

Correlations

Mechanical Electrical
Efficiency Efficiency
Mechanical Efficienc y Pearson Correlation 1 -.892**
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 21 21
Electrical Efficiency Pearson Correlation -.892** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 21 21
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Figure 8. SPSS Simulated Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

SUS Survey for the System’s Effectiveness Test

Table 3. SUS Survey Interpretation

QUESTIONS R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 % Interpretation
Agreement
1. I think that I would like to use this Strongly
5 5 5 4 5 80
system frequently. Agree
Strongly
2. I found the system unnecessary 1 2 1 1 1 -80
Disagree
Strongly
3. The system was easy to use 5 5 5 5 5 100
Agree
4. I thing that I would need the support
of a technical person to be able to 1 2 2 1 2 -40 Disagree
use this system
5. I found the various functions in this Strongly
5 5 5 4 5 80
system were well integrated Agree
6. There was too much inconsistency
1 1 2 2 1 -60 Disagree
in the system
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 25

7. I would imagine that most people


Strongly
would learn to use this system 5 5 5 4 5 80
Agree
very quickly
8. I found the system very Strongly
1 1 1 1 1 -100
inconvenient to use Disagree
9. I felt very confident using the Strongly
5 5 5 5 4 80
system Agree
10. I need to learn a lot of things
before I could get going with this 1 2 2 1 1 -60 Disagree
system

The SUS Survey is conducted to evaluate the system’s effectiveness based

on the farmer’s assessment upon using the system. Table 3 shows each farmer’s

response score in using it. The system got an average score of 94, which falls under

the range of 85.6 to 100 that is to be labeled as very effective. As of for the farmer’s

decision, the system is effective and convenient to use.


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 26

Conclusion and Recommendation

The main objectives of the study, which are to make an energy-harvesting

device from water movements as a source of electricity and to generate electrical

power that will supply loads such as lighting loads and batteries for flashlights, were

achieved by designing a hydraulic wheel generator that can control the water current.

By harnessing the kinetic energy of water converting to electrical energy, the

generator supplied enough power to charge a battery that can be used for

illumination and charging purposes.

It is proven through test that there is a significant correlation between the

mechanical efficiency and electrical efficiency of the system. As the value of one

variable increases, the value of the other variable decreases which means that when

mechanical efficiency increases, electrical efficiency decreases. Furthermore, the

volume flow rate of the water also shares a great portion on the efficiency especially

when it comes to the prime mover’s rated speed for it acts as the driving force.

Through a survey, the system is very effective to solve the respondent’s

problem about lighting issue. The system can charge a 12V, 100Ah battery for 11hrs

that can sustain 2 days of charging and illumination, thus it proves that the system is

well designed to generate power from falling water.

The gears of the water wheel may be adjusted to maximize all the force

supplied by water to produce great number of revolutions, which can increase the

voltage output of the generator. Additional loads are also applicable but the

discharging time of the battery may shorten depending on the amount of loads

connected to it. A boost converter may be used to lower the discharging time of the

battery. The system may also be used with some other kinds of battery such as

lithium ion to see its response. Further study about water wheel types is also

recommended to determine which better suits a certain locale.


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 27

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Hydraulic Wheel Generator 29

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Hydraulic Wheel Generator 30

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Hydraulic Wheel Generator 31

APPENDICES
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 32

APPENDIX A
Gantt Chart

Work to be done June July August September

Inspection of the

Area

Planning and

designing of the

system

Selection of

materials

Construction

Implementation and

Evaluation

Testing
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 33

APPENDIX B

Computations

For the hydraulic turbine wheel (initial data gathering):

The researchers used bucket method in determining the volumetric flow rate

of water in the channel.

Bucket Method (channel):

Trial 1: 2. 01 s

Trial 2: 1.56 s

Trial 3: 1.67 s

Trial 4: 1. 44 s

Trial 5: 2. 02 s

2.01 + 1.56 + 1.67 + 1.44 + 2.02


𝑡= = 1.74 𝑠
5

𝑉 16 𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠 1𝑚3 𝑚3


𝑄= = = 9.1954 × = 9.1954 × 10−3
𝑡 1.74 𝑠 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑑 1000 𝑙𝑖𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠 𝑠

where: t = time

Q = volume flow rate

V = volume of the bucket

ℎ𝑝 = 1.2 𝑚 ; 𝑑 = 5 𝑖𝑛

3
−3 𝑚
𝑄 9.1954 × 10 𝑠 = 0.8131 𝑚
𝑉= = 2 2
𝐴 𝜋(0.06) 𝑚 𝑠

𝑚 2
𝑣 2 (0.8131 𝑠 )
ℎ𝑣 = = 𝑚 = 0.0337 𝑚
2𝑔 2(9.81 2 )
𝑠
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 34

ℎ = ℎ𝑝 + ℎ𝑣 = 1.2 𝑚 + 0.0337 𝑚 = 1.2337 𝑚

where: ℎ𝑝 = pressure head

V = flow velocity

Q = volume flow rate

A = area of the pipe

d = diameter of the pipe

ℎ𝑣 = velocity head

v = velocity of flow

h = head/height of fall

g = strength of gravity

𝐷 = 0.9ℎ = 0.9 (1.2337 𝑚) = 1.1103 𝑚

21 21
𝑂𝑝𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑 = = = 19.930 𝑟𝑝𝑚
√𝐷 √1.1103

3.2808 𝑓𝑡
𝐶 = 2𝜋𝑟 = 2𝜋(0.55515 𝑚) = 3.4881 𝑚 × = 11.444 𝑓𝑡
1𝑚

where: D = diameter of the wheel

C = circumference of the wheel

r = radius

𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑏𝑢𝑐𝑘𝑒𝑡𝑠 = 12

(1)(1.1103 𝑚) = 2𝑡

1.1103 𝑚
𝑡= = 0.55515 𝑚
2

where: t = thickness of the wheel


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 35

The turbine wheel’s diameter and thickness are almost 1.1103 m and 0.55515 m,

respectively, with an optimal rotational speed of at least 19.930 rpm. There are 12

buckets which are 0.95367 ft. apart from each other.

For Mechanical Power Input:

The researchers used bucket method in determining the volumetric flow rate of water

in the channel on the actual gathering of data.

Bucket Method (channel):

Trial 1: 1.97 s

Trial 2: 2.03 s

Trial 3: 2.14 s

Trial 4: 2.10 s

Trial 5: 2.16 s

Trial 6: 2.04 s

Trial 7: 2.01 s

Trial 8: 2.07 s

1.97 + 2.03 + 2.14 + 2.10 + 2.16 + 2.04 + 2.01 + 2.07


𝑡= = 2.065 𝑠
8

𝑉 16 𝑙𝑖 𝑙𝑖 1𝑚3 −3
𝑚3
𝑄= = = 7.748 × = 7.748 × 10
𝑡 2.065 𝑠 𝑠 1000 𝑙𝑖 𝑠

ℎ𝑝 = 1.2 𝑚; 𝑑𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑙 = 5 𝑖𝑛

5 𝑖𝑛 1 𝑓𝑡 0.3048 𝑚
𝑟𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑙 = × × = 0.0635 𝑚
2 12 𝑖𝑛 1 𝑓𝑡

where: t = time

Q = volume flow rate


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 36

V = volume of bucket

ℎ𝑝 = pressure head

𝑑𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑙 = diameter of the channel

𝑟𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑙 = radius of the channel

3
−3 𝑚
𝑄 7.748 × 10 𝑠 = 0.6116 𝑚
𝑉= = 2
𝐴 𝜋(0.0635 𝑚) 𝑠

𝑚 2
𝑣 2 (0.6116 𝑠 )
ℎ𝑣 = = 𝑚 = 0.02 𝑚
2𝑔 2(9.81 2 )
𝑠

ℎ = ℎ𝑝 + ℎ𝑣 = 1.2 𝑚 + 0.02 𝑚 = 1.22 𝑚

𝑘𝑔 𝑚 −3
𝑚3
𝑃𝑖𝑛−𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ = 𝜌𝑔ℎ𝑄 = (1000 ) (9.81 ) (1.22 𝑚) (7.748 × 10 ) = 92.73 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠
𝑚3 𝑠2 𝑠

where: A = area of the channel

ℎ𝑣 = velocity head

h = head/height of fall

v = velocity of water

g = strength of gravity

𝜌 = density of water

For Mechanical Power Output:

𝑚 = 22 𝑘𝑔; 𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 = 0.5 𝑚; 𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 = 0.3 𝑚


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 37

Annular cylinder about central axis (Serway, 1986)


1 1
𝐼 = 𝑚(𝑟1 2 + 𝑟2 2 ) = (22 𝑘𝑔)[(0.5 𝑚)2 + (0.3 𝑚)2 ] = 3.74 𝑘𝑔 ∙ 𝑚2
2 2

𝐶 = 2𝜋𝑟 = 2𝜋(0.5 𝑚) = 3.1416 𝑚

𝑑 3.1416 𝑚 𝑚
𝑉= = = 3.1416
𝑡 1𝑠 𝑠

where: m = mass of the wheel

𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑒𝑟 = outer radius of the wheel

𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑒𝑟 = inner radius of the wheel

I = moment of inertia

C = circumference of the wheel

r = radius of the wheel

V = velocity

d = distance

t = time

𝑚
𝑉 3.1416 𝑠 𝑟𝑎𝑑
𝜔= = = 6.28
𝑟 0.5 𝑚 𝑠

1 1 𝑟𝑎𝑑 2 𝑘𝑔 ∙ 𝑚2
𝐾𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 = 𝐼𝜔2 = (3.74 𝑘𝑔 ∙ 𝑚2 )(6.28 ) = 73.75 = 73.75 𝐽
2 2 𝑠 𝑠2
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 38

𝐸 𝐾𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 73.75 𝐽
𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡−𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ = = = = 73.75 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠
𝑡 𝑡 1𝑠

where: 𝜔 = angular velocity of the wheel

𝐾𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 = rotational kinetic energy

E = energy

For Mechanical Efficiency:

𝑃𝑜𝑢𝑡−𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 73.75 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠


%ŋ𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ = × 100 = × 100 = 79.53%
𝑃𝑖𝑛−𝑚𝑒𝑐ℎ 92.73 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠

For Electrical Power Input:

𝑚3
𝑄 = 7.748 × 10−3
𝑠

−3
𝑚3
𝑉 = 𝑄𝑡 = (7.748 × 10 ) (1 𝑠) = 7.748 × 10−3 𝑚3
𝑠

𝑘𝑔
𝑚 = 𝜌𝑉 = (1000 ) (7.748 × 10−3 𝑚3 ) = 7.748 𝑘𝑔
𝑚3

where: Q = volume flow rate

V = volume

t = time

m = mass

𝜌 = density of water

𝑚
𝐹 = 𝐹1 = 𝑚𝑎 = 𝑚𝑔 = (7.749 𝑘𝑔) (9.81 ) = 76 𝑁
𝑠2

𝑑1 = 150 𝑚𝑚 = 0.15 𝑚; 𝑑2 = 50 𝑚𝑚 = 50 × 10−3 𝑚

150 𝑚𝑚 50 𝑚𝑚
𝑟1 = 2
= 75 𝑚𝑚 = 0.075 𝑚; 𝑟2 = 2
= 25 𝑚𝑚 = 25 × 10−3 𝑚
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 39

𝑥1−2 = 460 𝑚𝑚 = 0.46 𝑚

𝑇1 = 𝐹1 𝑟1 = (76 𝑁)(0.075 𝑚) = 5.7 𝑁 ∙ 𝑚

where: F = force

𝑑1 = diameter of the first chain drive

𝑑2 = diameter of the second chain drive

𝑥1−2 = center distance

𝑇1 = torque on the first chain drive (tight side)

𝑇2 = torque on the second chain drive (slack side)

𝑁1 = 60 𝑟𝑝𝑚

52 𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ
𝑁2 = (𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜)(𝑁1 ) = ( ) (60 𝑟𝑝𝑚) = 222.86 𝑟𝑝𝑚
14 𝑡𝑒𝑒𝑡ℎ

Chain Drive Torque (MathWorks, 2017)

𝑟𝑒𝑣 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 2𝜋 𝑟𝑎𝑑 𝑟𝑎𝑑


𝜔 = 222.86 × × = 23.34
𝑚𝑖𝑛 60 𝑠 𝑠 𝑠

𝜃𝑤𝑟𝑎𝑝 = 180° − 2𝛼

𝑟1 − 𝑟2
sin ∝ =
𝑥1−2
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 40

0.075 𝑚 − (25 × 10−3 𝑚)


∝ = sin−1[ ] = 6.24°
0.46 𝑚

𝜋
𝜃𝑤𝑟𝑎𝑝 = 180° − 2(6.24°) = 167.52° × = 2.924 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑠
180

where: N = speed of rotation

𝜔 = angular velocity

𝜃𝑤𝑟𝑎𝑝 = angle of wrap

∝ =angle of separation

For a standard chain drive pulley, the coefficient of friction 𝜇 = 0.3865;

𝑇1
= 𝑒 𝜇×𝜃 = 𝑒 0.3865×2.924 𝑟𝑎𝑑 = 3.096
𝑇2

𝑇1 5.7 𝑁 ∙ 𝑚
𝑇2 = = = 1.841 𝑁 ∙ 𝑚
3.096 3.096

where: 𝜇 = constant coefficient of friction for a standard chain drive pulley

T = effective torque/effective pull

𝑟𝑎𝑑
𝑃𝑖𝑛−𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐 = 𝑇𝜔 = (𝑇1 − 𝑇2 )𝜔 = (5.7 𝑁 ∙ 𝑚 − 1.841 𝑁 ∙ 𝑚) (23.34 ) = 90.07 𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠
𝑠
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 41

APPENDIX C
System Diagram Front View

IRRIGATION
PIPE TANK CHANNEL
WATER PUMP

HYDRAULIC WHEEL

NOTE:
All measurements are in meters.
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 42

APPENDIX D
Electrical Plan of the System

LODGE

IRRIGATION
TANK

NOTE:
All measurements are in meters.
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 43

LOAD SCHEDULE

RISER DIAGRAM
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APPENDIX E
Initial Design of Hydraulic Turbine Wheel
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 45

APPENDIX F
Survey Questionnaires
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Note: Other surveys were written by the proponents for respondents cannot read nor
write
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 64

APPENDIX G
Interview
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APPENDIX H
Site Layout

LODGE
WATER PUMP

IRRIGATION
TANK
IRRIGATION
CANAL

This shows the actual and CAD layout of the chosen site. The chosen site is in the

middle of fields where there is a water pump with an irrigation tank. The water leaves

the pipe as it drops down the tank then flow out in the fields.
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 66

APPENDIX I
Communication Letters
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APPENDIX J
Materials and Instruments

Clamp Meter

The clamp meter used is an EZ Digital SH-9600 which is an AC/DC Auto-Ranging

with true RMS meters to provide all electrical testing needs.

Generator

This is a permanent magnet type generator. This device does not require a

separate DC supply for the excitation circuit or does have slip rings and contact

brushes. One major advantage is that these machines does not require any

specific work environment and hence can be use in wind and water machines.
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 71

Charge Controller

This charge controller is rated 12V/24V. This is used to regulate and monitor the

charging status of the system.

Multimeter

The digital multimeter is used to measure the voltages coming in and out of the

system.
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 72

Inverter

The inverter used is a Bosca SAA-500AF 500 watt, 12V DC to 220V AC.

Water Wheel

This is made up of galvanized steel measuring 1.1429 m in diameter.


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 73

APPENDIX K

Mechanical Power on Operation

Time
Power Input (W) Power Output (W)
(30 minutes interval)

7:30 AM 91.84 78.83

8:00 AM 90.06 68.99

8:30 AM 98.33 89.33

9:00 AM 90.65 68.99

9:30 AM 88.70 62.03

10:00 AM 96.90 86.64

10:30 AM 97.39 86.64

11:00 AM 90.06 68.99

11:30 AM 99.41 92.06

12:00 PM 90.01 64.31

12:30 PM 88.30 59.80

1:00 PM 92.73 81.39

1:30 PM 98.20 89.33

2:00 PM 91.02 76.31

2:30 PM 88.30 59.80

3:00 PM 100.52 92.06

3:30 PM 100.32 92.06

4:00 PM 100.45 92.06

4:30 PM 98.07 89.33

5:00 PM 90.92 73.82

5:19 PM 90.06 68.99


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 74

APPENDIX L

Electrical Power on Operation

Time
Power Input (W) Power Output (W)
(30 minutes interval)

7:30 AM 93.06 81.20

8:00 AM 87.06 79.30

8:30 AM 99.07 65.16

9:00 AM 87.06 79.54

9:30 AM 82.55 81.19

10:00 AM 97.56 81.31

10:30 AM 97.56 82.42

11:00 AM 87.06 80.60

11:30 AM 100.57 65

12:00 PM 84.06 83.09

12:30 PM 81.05 80.99

1:00 PM 94.56 82.60

1:30 PM 99.07 66.51

2:00 PM 91.56 81.84

2:30 PM 81.05 79.46

3:00 PM 100.57 67.08

3:30 PM 100.57 67.49

4:00 PM 100.57 65.98

4:30 PM 99.07 65.16

5:00 PM 90.06 80

5:19 PM 87.06 85.61


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 75

APPENDIX M

Output Voltage and Current of the System on Operation

Time
Output Voltage (V) Output Current (A)
(30 minutes interval)

7:30 AM 14 5.8

8:00 AM 13 6.1

8:30 AM 14.81 4.4

9:00 AM 13.04 6.1

9:30 AM 11.94 6.8

10:00 AM 14.52 5.6

10:30 AM 14.46 5.7

11:00 AM 13 6.2

11:30 AM 15 4.3

12:00 PM 12.59 6.6

12:30 PM 11.91 6.8

1:00 PM 14 5.9

1:30 PM 14.78 4.5

2:00 PM 13.64 6

2:30 PM 12.04 6.6

3:00 PM 15.6 4.3

3:30 PM 16.07 4.2

4:00 PM 15.71 4.2

4:30 PM 14.81 4.4

5:00 PM 13.3 6

5:19 PM 12.59 6.8


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 76

APPENDIX N

Speed of Gears on Operation

Time
Speed at Gear 1 (RPM) Speed at Gear 2 (RPM)
(30 minutes interval)

7:30 AM 62 230.29

8:00 AM 58 215.43

8:30 AM 66 245.14

9:00 AM 58 215.43

9:30 AM 55 204.29

10:00 AM 65 241.43

10:30 AM 65 241.43

11:00 AM 58 215.43

11:30 AM 67 248.86

12:00 PM 56 208.00

12:30 PM 54 200.57

1:00 PM 63 234.00

1:30 PM 66 245.14

2:00 PM 61 226.57

2:30 PM 54 200.57

3:00 PM 67 248.86

3:30 PM 67 248.86

4:00 PM 67 248.86

4:30 PM 66 245.14

5:00 PM 60 222.86

5:19 PM 58 215.43
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 77

APPENDIX O

Volume Flow Rate of Water on Operation

Time Volume Flow Rate (m³/s)

(30 minutes interval)

7:30 AM 0.007673861

8:00 AM 0.007524985

8:30 AM 0.008215661

9:00 AM 0.007573964

9:30 AM 0.007411697

10:00 AM 0.008096142

10:30 AM 0.008137317

11:00 AM 0.007524985

11:30 AM 0.008306295

12:00 PM 0.007520564

12:30 PM 0.007377522

1:00 PM 0.007748184

1:30 PM 0.008205128

2:00 PM 0.007605466

2:30 PM 0.007377522

3:00 PM 0.00839895

3:30 PM 0.008382449

4:00 PM 0.008393443

4:30 PM 0.008194622

5:00 PM 0.007596439

5:19 PM 0.007524985
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 78

APPENDIX P

Efficiency of the System

Time Mechanical Electrical Overall Efficiency

(30 min interval) Efficiency (%) Efficiency (%) (%)

7:30 AM 85.83 87.25 88.41

8:00 AM 76.60 91.09 88.05

8:30 AM 90.85 65.78 66.27

9:00 AM 76.10 91.37 87.75

9:30 AM 69.93 98.35 91.53

10:00 AM 89.42 83.34 83.92

10:30 AM 88.96 84.48 84.63

11:00 AM 76.60 92.58 89.50

11:30 AM 92.60 64.14 64.88

12:00 PM 71.45 98.86 92.32

12:30 PM 67.73 99.92 91.72

1:00 PM 87.77 87.35 89.07

1:30 PM 90.97 67.14 67.73

2:00 PM 83.83 89.38 89.91

2:30 PM 67.73 98.04 90.00

3:00 PM 91.58 66.70 66.73

3:30 PM 91.76 67.11 67.28

4:00 PM 91.64 65.61 65.68

4:30 PM 91.08 65.78 66.44

5:00 PM 81.20 88.61 87.77

5:19 PM 76.60 98.34 95.06


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 79

APPENDIX Q

SUS Score of Respondents

Number Farmer 1 Farmer 2 Farmer 3 Farmer 4 Farmer 5

1 5 5 5 4 5

2 1 2 1 1 1

3 5 5 5 5 5

4 1 2 2 1 2

5 5 5 5 4 5

6 1 1 2 2 1

7 5 5 5 4 5

8 1 1 1 1 1

9 5 5 5 5 4

10 1 2 2 1 1

Note: Score of 1 means Strongly Disagree-Score of 5 means Strongly Agree


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 80

APPENDIX R

Voltage Cut- Off of the Battery on Discharge

Time Discharge Voltage (V)

(30 minutes interval)

6:00 PM 14

6:30 PM 14

7:00 PM 13.9

7:30 PM 13.8

8:00 PM 13.8

8:30 PM 13.8

9:00 PM 13.7

9:30 PM 13.6

10:00 PM 13.6

10:30 PM 13.5

11:00 PM 13.5

11:30 PM 13.4

12:00 AM 13.4

12:30 AM 13.3

1:00 AM 13.2

1:30 AM 13.2

2:00 AM 13.2

2:30 AM 13.1

3:00 AM 13

3:30 AM 13

4:00 AM 13

4:30 AM 12.9

5:00 AM 12.9
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 81

5:30 AM 12.8

6:00 AM 12.8

6:30 AM 12.7

7:00 AM 12.7

7:30 AM 12.6

8:00 AM 12.6

8:30 AM 12.5

9:00 AM 12.5

9:30 AM 12.4

10:00 AM 12.4

10:30 AM 12.4

11:00 AM 12.3

11:30 AM 12.3

12:00 PM 12.2

12:30 PM 12.2

1:00 PM 12.1

1:30 PM 12.1

2:00 PM 12

2:30 PM 12

3:00 PM 12

3:30 PM 11.9

4:00 PM 11.8

4:30 PM 11.8

5:00 PM 11.7

5:30 PM 11.6

6:00 PM 11.6

6:30 PM 11.6
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 82

7:00 PM 11.5

7:30 PM 11.5

8:00 PM 11.4

8:30 PM 11.4

9:00 PM 11.3

9:30 PM 11.2

10:00 PM 11.1

10:30 PM 11

11:00 PM 11

11:30 PM 10.9

12:00 AM 10.9

12:30 AM 10.8

1:00 AM 10.7

1:12 AM 10.5
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 83

APPENDIX S

Cost Benefit Analysis


Cost

Water Wheel - ₱ 5,000.00

Battery - ₱ 3,100.00

Charge Controller - ₱ 600.00

Inverter - ₱ 800.00

Generator - ₱ 7,000.00

Electrical/Wiring Materials - ₱ 3,000.00

Maintenance - ₱ 1,000.00

Total ₱ 20,500.00

When connected to a Cooperative:

PELCO (₱ 10.0954 per kWh)

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total

Electrical Consumption
(₱ 605.724 x 12 months) ₱ 7,268.69 ₱ 7,268.69 ₱ 7,268.69 ₱ 21,806.064

Benefit

After three years of investment in a hydroelectric system, the user of the

project will benefit. Instead of paying the monthly electrical bill, electrical energy will

be 100% free.
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 84

APPENDIX T

Critical Values of the Correlation Coefficient r

Degrees of Freedom (df) α = 0.05 α = 0.01

1 0.997 1.000

2 0.950 0.990

3 0.878 0.959

4 0.811 0.917

5 0.754 0.874

6 0.707 0.834

7 0.666 0.798

8 0.632 0.765

9 0.602 0.735

10 0.576 0.708

11 0.553 0.684

12 0.532 0.661

13 0.514 0.641

14 0.497 0.623

15 0.482 0.606

16 0.468 0.590

17 0.458 0.575

18 0.444 0.561

19 0.433 0.549

20 0.423 0.537

21 0.413 0.526

22 0.404 0.515

23 0.396 0.505

24 0.388 0.496
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 85

25 0.381 0.487

26 0.374 0.478

27 0.367 0.470

28 0.361 0.463

29 0.355 0.456

30 0.349 0.449

35 0.325 0.418

40 0.304 0.393

45 0.288 0.372

50 0.273 0.354

60 0.250 0.325

70 0.232 0.302

80 0.217 0.283

90 0.205 0.267

100 0.195 0.254

125 0.174 0.228

150 0.159 0.208

200 0.138 0.181

300 0.113 0.148

400 0.098 0.128

500 0.088 0.115

1000 0.062 0.081


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 86

APPENDIX U

Actual Reading of Output Current and Output Voltage


Hydraulic Wheel Generator 87
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Hydraulic Wheel Generator 90

APPENDIX V

Progress Report
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APPENDIX W

Schematic Diagram
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 108

APPENDIX X
Generator Specification
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 109

CURRICULUM
VITAE
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 110

Francisco Kyle A.
District 9, Lot 45, Blk 94, Pandacaqui, Mexico, Pampanga
Email Address: kyle_francisco13@yahoo.com
Contact Number: +639453153112

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Date of Birth : December 13, 1996


Age : 21
Sex : Male
Height : 5’11”
Weight : 75 kg
Civil Status : Single
Religious Affiliation : Roman Catholic
Father’s Name : Victor A. Francisco
Mother’s Name : Leonila A. Francisco
Address : District 9, Lot 45, Blk 94, Pandacaqui,
Mexico, Pampanga

Languages : English, Tagalog & Kapampangan

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Tertiary - Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering


Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University
Bacolor, Pampanga
2013 – Present

Secondary - San Agustin Diocesan Acadamy, Inc. Jaen, Nueva


Ecija

Primary - Dampulan Elementaryn School. Jaen, Nueva Ecija


2003 – 2009
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 111

AFFILIATION

 Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineering of the Phillipines DHVTSU


– Student Chapter
Member (2014-present)

SEMINARS AND TRAININGS

 Install Wiring Devices/Install Lighting Systems (Leading to Electrical


Installation and Maintenance NC II)
SC Human Resources Training Development and Assessment Center Inc.
Sto. Rosario St., Angeles, Pampanga
May 2015

I hereby certify that the foregoing information above is true and correct to the best of
my knowledge and ability.

Kyle A. Francisco
Proponent
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 112

Naguit, Jake Joseph D.


45B,Tizon Street, Poblacion,Sto Tomas, Pampanga
Email Address: jakenaguit768@gmail.com
Contact Number: +639265041032

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Date of Birth : November 27, 1996


Age : 21
Sex : Male
Height : 5’7”
Weight : 75 kg
Civil Status : Single
Religious Affiliation : Roman Catholic
Father’s Name : Albert C. Naguit
Mother’s Name : Leonor D. Naguit
Address : 45B, Tizon Street, Poblacion,
Sto Tomas, Pampanga
Languages : English, Tagalog & Kapampangan

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Tertiary - Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering


Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University
Bacolor, Pampanga
2013 – Present

Secondary - Pampanga High School


City of San Fernando, Pampanga
2009 – 2013

Primary - San Fernando Elementary School


City of San Fernando, Pampanga
2003 – 2009
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 113

AFFILIATION

 Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineering of the Phillipines DHVTSU


– Student Chapter
Member (2014-present)

SEMINARS AND TRAININGS

 Install Wiring Devices/Install Lighting Systems (Leading to Electrical


Installation and Maintenance NC II)
SC Human Resources Training Development and Assessment Center Inc.
Sto. Rosario St., Angeles, Pampanga
May 2015

I hereby certify that the foregoing information above is true and correct to the best of
my knowledge and ability.

Jake Joseph D. Naguit


Proponent
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 114

Teodoro, Christine Ann S.


Purok 4 Ligaya, Pulungmasle, Guagua, Pampanga
Email Address: christ_ineann@yahoo.com
Contact Number: +639979040688

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Date of Birth : June 30, 1997


Age : 20
Sex : Female
Height : 5’4”
Weight : 69 kg
Civil Status : Single
Religious Affiliation : Roman Catholic
Father’s Name : Leonard S. Teodoro
Mother’s Name : Lota S. Teodoro
Address : Purok 4 Ligaya, Pulungmasle, Guagua,
Pampanga
Languages : English, Tagalog & Kapampangan

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Tertiary - Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering


Don Honorio Ventura Technological State University
Bacolor, Pampanga
2013 – Present

Secondary - St. Augustine Academy of Pampanga


Poblacion, Floridablanca, Pampanga
2009 – 2013

Primary - Talang Elementary School


Talang, Pulungmasle, Guagua, Pampanga
2003 – 2009
Hydraulic Wheel Generator 115

AFFILIATION

 Institute of Integrated Electrical Engineering of the Phillipines DHVTSU


– Student Chapter
Member (2014-present)

SEMINARS AND TRAININGS

 Install Wiring Devices/Install Lighting Systems (Leading to Electrical


Installation and Maintenance NC II)
SC Human Resources Training Development and Assessment Center Inc.
Sto. Rosario St., Angeles, Pampanga
May 2015

 E-Power Mo! Smart Energy Utilization Forum and Stakeholders Conference


Department of Energy
Fontana Hot Spring Leisure Parks, Clark Freeport Zone, Pampanga
November 29, 2017

I hereby certify that the foregoing information above is true and correct to the best of
my knowledge and ability.

Christine Ann S. Teodoro


Proponent