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1.

Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control


 What is Corrosion
 Definitions of Corrosion Terminology
 Basic Concepts in Corrosion
 Corrosion in Different Materials
 Factors Influencing Corrosion
 Types of Corrosion
 Cost of Corrosion

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

What is Corrosion?
Corrosion comes from the Latin word “Corrodere.”
 Meaning “eaten away.”
 Corrosion is a natural process.
 It is destructive and unintentional attack of a metal.
 It ordinarily begins at the surface.
 It is thermodynamically favored.

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Corrosion
 An attack on a metallic material by reaction with its environment
 Corrosion process is electrochemical
 M = Mn+ + ne- Oxidation
 The site at which oxidation takes place is called the anode;
oxidation is sometimes called an anodic reaction
 Mn+ + ne- = M Reduction
 The location at which reduction occurs is called the cathode

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Definitions of Corrosion
ASTM: “The chemical or electrochemical reaction between a material,
usually a metal, and its environment that produces a deterioration of the
material and its properties”.
Fontana: “Corrosion is the extractive metallurgy in reverse, which is
expected since metals thermodynamically are less stable in their
elemental forms than in their compound forms as ores”.

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Definitions of Corrosion
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) : “Corrosion
is an irreversible interfacial reaction of a material (metal, ceramic,
polymer) with its environment which results in its consumption or
dissolution into the material of a component of the environment. Often,
but not necessarily, corrosion results in effects detrimental to the usage of
the material considered. Exclusively physical or mechanical processes
such as melting and evaporation, abrasion or mechanical fracture are not
included in the term corrosion”

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Corrosive environments
 Air and humidity
 Fresh, distilled, salt and marine water
 Natural, urban, marine and industrial atmospheres
 Steam and gases, like chlorine
 Ammonia
 Hydrogen sulfide
 Sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen
 Fuel gases
 Acids
 Alkalies
 Soils

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Illustration of physical meaning of corrosion and the associated energy is brought


out in the figure [1].

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Basic concepts important to understand corrosion


 Three possible behaviors of a metal when immersed in a solution
 Four requirements of a corrosion cell
 Important metallurgical factors that influence corrosion behavior
 Inherent tendency of a metal to corrode, that is, reactivity
 Tendency of metals to form corrosion products
 Important solution characteristics with respect to corrosion,
including conductivity, acidity/alkalinity, oxidizing power, and
solubility
 Determination of corrosion rates and corrosion rate allowances

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Behavior of a metal in an environment


 Immune behavior: The metal is immune in an environment.
 Active behavior: The metal corrodes.
 Passive behavior: The metal corrodes but a state of passive behavior
is observed.

Three behaviors of metal in an environment [2]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Four requirements of a corrosion cell


Primary factors/ essential requirements for corrosion
 Anodic/Oxidation reaction:
 Cathodic reaction
 A metallic path of contact between anodic and cathodic sites
 The presence of an electrolyte
Secondary factors for corrosion
 Temperature, pH, associated fluid dynamics, concentrations
of dissolved oxygen and dissolved salt.

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Four requirements of an electrochemical corrosion cell [2]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

 Reduction reaction
 Hydrogen evolution in acid solutions

 Oxygen reduction in acid solutions

 Hydrogen evolution in neutral or basic solutions

 Oxygen reduction in neutral or basic solutions

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

An example of an anodic reaction-the dissolution of Iron [3]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Example of a cathodic reaction-hydrogen evolution on iron immersed in an


acid solution [3]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Coupled electrochemical reactions occurring at different sites on the same metal


surface for iron in an acid solution [3]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Corrosion in Different Materials


 Ceramics
 Polymers
 Composites
 Metals
 Iron, Steel and Stainless Steels
 Aluminum and Its Alloys
 Magnesium and Its Alloys
 Copper and Its Alloys
 Nickel and Its Alloys
 Titanium and Its Alloys
 Lead and Its Alloys

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Iron, Steel and Stainless Steels


Iron and steel make up 90% of all metals produced on earth

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Some natural combinations of environment and material [4]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Factors affecting choice of an engineering materials [5]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Factors affecting corrosion resistance of a metal [5]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Factor influencing Corrosion


Corrosion of a metal surface mainly depends on
 Nature of the Metal
 Position in Galvanic Series
 Relative Areas of the Anode and Cathode
 Purity of Metal
 Physical State of the Metal
 Passivity or Passivation
 Nature of the Corrosion Product
 Nature of the Oxide Film

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Factor influencing Corrosion


 Nature of the Corroding Environment
 Effect of Temperature
 Dissolved Oxygen Concentration and Formation of Oxygen
Concentration Cells
 Nature of the Electrolyte
 Presence of Aggressive Ions
 Flow Rate
 Humidity
 Effect of pH
 Presence of Impurities in the Atmosphere

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Types of Corrosion
 Direct Chemical Attack or Chemical or Dry Corrosion
 Oxidation corrosion
 Corrosion by other gases
 Liquid metal corrosion

 Electrochemical or Aqueous or Wet Corrosion


 Electroplating
 Liberation of Hydrogen
 Oxygen Absorption

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Differences between Chemical and Electrochemical Corrosion


 Chemical corrosion occurs in the dry state; electrochemical
corrosion occurs in wet conditions in the presence of moisture or
electrolyte
 Chemical corrosion involves the direct chemical attack by the
environment; electrochemical corrosion involves the setting up of a
huge number of tiny galvanic cells.
 Chemical corrosion follows adsorption mechanism;Electrochemical
corrosion follows the mechanism of reactions electrochemical
reactions

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Differences between Chemical and Electrochemical Corrosion


 In chemical corrosion, even a homogenous metal surface will
corrode; while in electrochemical corrosion, only heterogeneous
metal surfaces or homogenous metal surfaces with bimetallic
contact will corrode.
 In chemical corrosion, corrosion products accumulate in the same
spot where corrosion occurs; while in electrochemical corrosion,
corrosion occurs at the anode and products gather at the cathode.
 In chemical corrosion, uniform corrosion takes place; while in
electrochemical corrosion, pitting corrosion is more frequent,
especially when the anode area is small.
 Chemical corrosion is a slow and a uniform process;
electrochemical corrosion is a fast and non-uniform process.

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Types of corrosion

Macroscopic versus microscopic forms of localized corrosion [2]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Schematic representation of uniform corrosion (top) and three different forms of


localized corrosion [1].

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Forms of corrosion
 Uniform corrosion
 Galvanic corrosion
 Pitting
 Crevice corrosion
 Stress corrosion cracking
 Intergranular corrosion
 Selective leaching
 Erosion corrosion
 Hydrogen damage
 Cavitation corrosion
 Fretting corrosion

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Schematics of the common forms of corrosion [2]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Physical Processes of Degradation


Metals may undergo degradation by physical processes which occur in the
absence of a chemical environment
 Fracture
 Fatigue
 Wear
 Erosion or Cavitation Erosion
 Radiation damage

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Physical degradation processes and their environmentally assisted counterparts [1]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Methods to Control Corrosion


 Material selection
 Coatings
 Inhibitors
 Cathodic protection
 Design

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Cost of Corrosion
Metallic corrosion is a major loss-producing phenomenon in
many sectors of a nation’s economy. This is because corrosion
results in loss of metals and materials, energy, labor, etc.,
 Direct loss
 Indirect loss

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Direct Losses
 Cost of replacing corroded/failed structures/equipments/components
 Painting and re-painting of corrosion-prone structures to prevent
general atmospheric corrosion
 Costs involved in all other protective measures, such as cathodic
protection, inhibitor addition, protective coating/wrapping/cladding,
galvanizing, electroplating, etc.,

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Direct Losses
 Extra cost involved in choosing corrosion-resistant alloys (CRAs)
such as stainless steels, nickel base alloys, titanium, etc. in the
place of carbon steels which would have been otherwise suitable
from mechanical/ structural points of view, and
 Cost of dehumidifying storage rooms for storing metallic
components/equipments and spare parts, etc. before they are put
into use.

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Indirect Losses
 Loss-of-Production (Downtime) Cost: This factor alone, many times,
is orders of magnitude higher than the direct replacement cost,
 Product loss through leaks/failures due to corrosion: This also would
be very heavy if the equipment is concerned is a pressure vessel
and high pressure pipeline carrying huge quantities of finished
products under pressure like utility gas separated from oil, purified
potable water through water mains, high pressure steam, etc.,

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Indirect Losses
 Loss of efficiency in heat transfer equipments and pipelines:
Accumulation of corrosion product scales on pipelines and on heat
transfer surfaces reduces the pumping and heat transfer efficiency,
respectively, thereby necessitating increased power to the pumps
and heat exchangers.
 Contamination and hence rejection of product: Heavy metal
impurities as a result of corrosion of the container equipments and
transfer pipelines would result in total rejection of several batches
(huge quantities) of the carefully produced (value added) chemical
product.

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Indirect Losses
 Over-design: Giving “corrosion allowance,” thereby using vessels
with thickness much greater than that demanded by mechanical
requirements amounts to over-design and adds up to huge indirect
cost involved in providing excess metal for corrosion to take place.

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

Factors which increase or decrease the costs of corrosion [2]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control
Elements of cost of corrosion [2]

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1. Introduction to Corrosion and Corrosion Control

In Summary, it is important to understand


 Mechanisms of corrosion
 Basic Concepts in Corrosion:
 Thermodynamics of corrosion
 Kinetics of corrosion
 Factors influencing corrosion
 Forms of metallic corrosion
 Methods to prevent or control corrosion
 Corrosion testing and monitoring techniques

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