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Lycée secondaire Sbikha 1979

From the SelectedWorks of Imed Adel

March 1, 2016

Standard Written Maghrebi (Arabic script)


Emad Adel, Lycée secondaire Sbikha 1979

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons CC_BY-NC International License.

Available at: https://works.bepress.com/Emad-Adel/1/


STANDARD WRITTEN MAGHREBI
A project to standardize Maghrebi orthography

Emad ADEL

March 8, 2016
Page |2

1 TABLE OF CONTENTS
2 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................. 3
2.1 Why Arabic script? ........................................................................................................................................ 3
2.2 A standard dialect ......................................................................................................................................... 4
3 The Alphabet ........................................................................................................................................................... 5
3.1 Notes about the consonants .................................................................................................................... 6
3.2 Notes about the vowels ............................................................................................................................. 8
4 General Writing Guidelines ............................................................................................................................. 11
5 General Grammar Rules .................................................................................................................................... 12
5.1 Personal Pronouns .................................................................................................................................... 12
5.2 Possessive Pronouns................................................................................................................................. 13
5.3 Direct Object Pronouns ........................................................................................................................... 13
5.4 Indirect Object Pronouns ........................................................................................................................ 13
5.5 Conjugation ................................................................................................................................................. 13
5.5.1 Regular triliteral verb conjugation ............................................................................................. 13
5.5.2 Weak roots .......................................................................................................................................... 15
5.5.3 Regular quadrilateral verb conjugation ................................................................................... 20
5.5.4 Regular quinqueliteral verb conjugation ................................................................................. 21
5.5.5 Anomalous verbs .............................................................................................................................. 22
5.5.6 Formation of derived stems.......................................................................................................... 25
5.5.7 Meanings expressed by different derived stems .................................................................. 26
5.6 Demonstrative Articles ............................................................................................................................. 27
5.7 Numbers ........................................................................................................................................................ 27
5.7.1 Ordinal Numbers .............................................................................................................................. 28
5.7.2 Fractions ............................................................................................................................................... 29
6 Vocabulary ............................................................................................................................................................. 29
6.1 Days of the week........................................................................................................................................ 29
6.2 Months of the year .................................................................................................................................... 30
7 Examples................................................................................................................................................................. 31
8 References ............................................................................................................................................................. 33
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2 INTRODUCTION
Maghrebi Arabic is a dialect continuum with about 71,448,000 users worldwide1. The language is
descending from Classical Arabic and is heavily influenced by Berber (Tamazight) with borrowed
words from Turkish, Italian, Spanish, French, and recently English.

Although millions of people use Maghrebi as their primary language, the language is rarely used
in literature works, nevertheless, it is very used on social media websites. Moreover, the Bible is
already translated into Tunisian and Moroccan dialects. Most of users use Arabic script in writing
with many others who are using Latin script in chatting rooms and SMS messages, however, no
standard orthography exists for Maghrebi.

This work tries to standardize the orthography of Maghrebi based on Arabic script to be used by
all Maghrebi speakers. Most of grammar rules are taken from MARÇAIS, Ph. (1977) and BEN
SEDIRA, B. (1910). Spelling rules are primarily based on the work of AGUADÉ, J. (2006).

Many works and orthographies were suggested before (DAOUDA, T., & REGRAGUI, N., 2012),
however, none of them went into general use by native speakers. To overcome this problem,
this orthography is based on the one which is used on social media websites, forums,
dictionaries, and literature works, taking into consideration the phonemicity of the orthography.

2.1 WHY ARABIC SCRIPT?


This work was based on Latin script before, however, recently the script was changed to Arabic
for a couple of reasons:

 Most of native speakers learned Arabic script at school.


 Arabic script is the most used for writing Maghrebi.
 Most of letters are available on the usual Arabic keyboard layout.
 Arabic script allows regional variations since short vowels are not written.

Although, Arabic script has some disadvantages too, but, it is already in use and many people
are able to read it without any problem. Furthermore, this standard orthography will be mostly
phonemic with some etymological traits from Modern Standard Arabic, such as the use of short
vowels, Alif Maqṣūra, Tāʾ Marbūṭa etc…

1
Based on Ethnologue data, there are 11,440,900 Tunisian Arabic users, 31,827,000 Algerian Arabic users,
and 28,180,100 Moroccan Arabic users.
Page |4

2.2 A STANDARD DIALECT


A standard dialect is needed in order to standardize the orthography. Hence, based on the
number of habitants of the biggest metropolitan areas, Algiers’ dialect was chosen to be the
standard one in writing. The second most populated metropolitan area is Casablanca and the
third is Tunis. Henceforth, Standard Written Maghrebi is to be primary based on Algiers’ dialect
with some influence from Casablanca’s and Tunis’ dialects.
Page |5

3 THE ALPHABET
Standard Written Maghrebi is composed of 27 graphemes.

‫ر‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫د‬ ‫خ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ا‬/‫آ‬

‫را‬ ‫ذا‬ ‫دا‬ ‫خا‬ ‫حا‬ ‫جا‬ ‫ثا‬ ‫تا‬ ‫با‬ ‫الف‬

ra ḏa da xa ḥa ja ṯa ta ba aləf
r ḏ/d d x ḥ j ṯ/t t b a/ə/i/u/-

‫ﻕ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ش‬ ‫س‬ ‫ز‬

‫قا‬ ‫فا‬ ‫غا‬ ‫عا‬ ‫طا‬ ‫ضا‬ ‫صا‬ ‫شا‬ ‫سا‬ ‫زا‬

qa fa ġa ɛa ṭa ḍa ṣa ša sa za
q f ġ ɛ ṭ ḍ ṣ š s z

‫ي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻝ‬ ‫ﻙ‬

‫يا‬ ‫وا‬ ‫ها‬ ‫نا‬ ‫ما‬ ‫لا‬ ‫كا‬

ya wa ha na ma la ka
y w h n m l k

Some supplementary letters are also used:

‫ڥ‬ ‫پ‬ ‫ڭ‬ ‫ڨ‬

‫ڥا‬ ‫پا‬ ‫ڭا‬ ‫ڨا‬

va pa ga
v p g
Page |6

ARABIC LETTER FEH WITH ARABIC LETTER QAF WITH


THREE DOTS BELOW ARABIC LETTER PEH (U+067E) ARABIC LETTER NG (U+06AD) THREE DOTS ABOVE
(U+06A5) (U+06A8)

3.1 NOTES ABOUT THE CONSONANTS


1. Arabic Ẓāʾ ⟨‫ ⟩ظ‬is not used, Ḍa ⟨‫ ⟩ض‬is used instead.2
a. The use of interdentals must follow MSA spelling, hence, words such as ⟨‫⟩حتى‬
must never be written as ⟨‫⟩حثى‬.
2. Sometimes a word is pronounced with /dˤ/ but written with D ⟨‫ ⟩د‬instead of Ḍ ⟨‫⟩ض‬,
that’s because Ḍ can be pronounced as [ðˤ] in some dialects, hence, the word becomes
confusing if it is written with Ḍ.

‫موضة‬ ‫ماندة‬
/mudˤa/ or /muðˤa/ /mˤandˤa/ (or /mˤanda/)

3. The interdentals Ḏ ⟨‫ ⟩ذ‬and Ṯ ⟨‫ ⟩ث‬can be used.3 Replacing them with D and T respectively
is also possible.
4. Emphatic Ẓ and Ṛ represents usually an allophone of /z/ and /r/ respectively. Hence, no
special grapheme was used to represent them. However, it is possible to differ between
two minimal pairs using the form Kasra + Alif. This form is used to inform the reader that
the word is pronounced with [æ] rather than [ɑ].

‫زنزانة‬ ‫زنزانة‬
/zənzana/ /zˤənzˤana/

‫دار‬ ‫دار‬
/dar/ /darˤ/

5. The phoneme /g/ in native words i.e. words from Arabic language, are obligatory written
with Qa. Words borrowed from other languages, or words without a clear origin, are
written with G.

2
Both consonants are pronounced the same which results in a big confusion for Maghrebi users. Merging
both letters in one would make this orthography more phonemic, although, this affects the etymology of
the word. Similar simplifications happened in other languages, such as dropping the circumflex in French
orthography. The use of Ḍ instead of Arabic Ẓāʾ is often seen on social media websites.
3
The use of interdentals must follow MSA spelling, hence, words such as ⟨‫ ⟩حتى‬must never be written as
⟨‫⟩حثى‬.
Page |7

‫بقري‬
/bəgri/

a. Names of Tunisian and Algerian cities, brands etc… are written with ⟨‫⟩ڨ‬.
b. Names of Moroccan cities, brands etc… are written with ⟨‫⟩ڭ‬.

‫اڭادير‬ ‫ڨابس‬
Agadir Gabès

c. Borrowed words with /g/ can be written with both graphemes. Nevertheless, ⟨‫⟩ڭ‬
is recommended.4

‫يوهان ڥولفڭانڭ ڥون ڭوته‬


Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

d. If a word from Arabic is pronounced with /g/ and can be confused with another
one, ⟨‫ ⟩ڨ‬is used.

‫ڨرن‬ ‫قرن‬
/gərn/ /qərn/

6. P and V are rarely used, it is recommended to write them as B and F respectively if the
word was borrowed a long time ago. However, recently borrowed words can be written
with P and V.
7. The glottal stop (Hamza) is spelled as in MSA. Although, dropping it is recommended.5

‫سأﻝ سؤاﻝ‬ ‫سوﻝ سواﻝ‬


ّ
/sʔəl suʔal/ /səwːəl suwal/

8. Shadda (šədda / tkərkira) is obligatory.

4
/g/ in borrowed words cannot be pronounced as /q/. Also, the consonant /g/ is phonetically near to /k/.
5
Speakers usually drop the glottal stop and replace it with either /j/ or /w/. In rural dialects, it is very
common to replace the glottal stop with /h/.
Page |8

a. iya and uwa are spelled as eyya and ewwa.

3.2 NOTES ABOUT THE VOWELS


9. There are three vowels /a, i, u/ which are written usually as long vowels.

Final form Medial form Initial form Isolated form


‫ـا‬ ‫ـا‬ ‫آ‬ ‫آ‬
‫ـي‬ ‫ـيـ‬ ‫ايـ‬ 6
‫اي‬
‫ـو‬ ‫ـو‬ ‫او‬ ‫او‬

10. The vowel diacritics in open syllables have the same value as normal vowels. They are
used with words which have different pronunciations or the ones which are recently
borrowed from Arabic.

Pronunciation Spelling
‫موترجم‬ ‫مترجم‬
ُ
‫ كسكسو‬/ ‫كسكسي‬ ‫كسكس‬

11. Stressed vowels in open syllables which are spelled as short ones in MSA should be
written as long vowels.

Arabic spelling Maghrebi spelling


‫راجل‬
‫َرجل‬
ràjəl

‫لوغة‬
‫ُلغة‬
lùġa

12. Hamzat Waṣl ⟨‫ ⟩ا‬can represent different vowels, but it is usually pronounced [ə] or
unpronounced ([∅]). Hamzat Waṣl represents an initial temporary Hamza which is
dropped when the definite article or prepositions are prefixed to a word. Since glottal
stop is usually dropped in Maghrebi, most of words spelled with Hamzat Qatʿ in MSA are

6
ey and ew are pronounced respectively /i/ and /u/ that’s why this form is used. ⟨‫ ⟩أي‬and ⟨‫ ⟩أو‬are
pronounced respectively as /aj/ and /aw/.
Page |9

spelled with Hamzat Waṣl instead. Vowel diacritics can be used with Hamzat Waṣl
(usually in dictionaries).

Arabic spelling Maghrebi spelling


‫أمازيغ‬ ‫امازيغ‬
‫ُأستاذ‬ ‫استاذ‬
‫إباضية‬
ّ ‫اباضية‬
ّ
‫أصحاب‬ ‫اصحاب‬
‫إفطار‬ ‫افطار‬
‫أصفر‬ ‫اصفر‬
‫ألمانيا‬ ‫المانيا‬

13. If Hamzat Waṣl is stressed (i.e. long), it is written as Alif Madda ⟨‫⟩آ‬.

‫آمس‬
àməs

‫آمن‬
àmən

14. If the word is recently borrowed from MSA it should follow the spelling of older words.
Diacritics can be used to indicate vowels in this situation. 7

‫َخريطة‬
xariṭa (written like ṭriza)

‫طبيعية‬
ّ
ṭabiɛiya (from ṭbiɛa)

7
Although, this orthography should be phonemic, phonetically spelling recently borrowed words from
MSA might be confusing for the reader.
P a g e | 10

15. If a word can have different pronunciations of vowels, then, long vowels are reduced to
short ones.

‫ُكسكس‬
Kʷesksi Kʷesksu

‫دارجة‬
darja darija

16. The plural form “fɛala/fɛali” is written with a dotless Yāʾ (Alif Maqṣūra).

‫كراسى‬
krasi krasa

17. The rules of Tāʾ Marbūṭa are the same as in MSA. Some words which are not spelled with
a Tāʾ Marbūṭa are spelled with it in Maghrebi. Simply, a noun which is pronounced with
/t/ in construct state is written with Tāʾ Marbūṭa.

Maghrebi MSA

‫بيضة‬ ‫بيضاء‬
biḍa bayḍāʾ

18. Alif Maqṣūra is written at the end of borrowed words from MSA and at the end of verbs
having a /j/ in their root but are pronounced with /a/.

‫قرى‬
qra

‫شرى‬
cra

19. To know if the verb should end with an Alif Maqṣūra or not, it is possible to
a. Conjugate the verb in the present tense with third singular personal pronoun
huwa.

‫شرى > يشري‬


cra > ycri

b. Conjugate the verb in the present with first singular personal pronoun ana.
P a g e | 11

‫قرى > قريت‬


qra > qrit

c. Find the verbal noun of the verb.

‫قرى > قراية‬


qra > qraya

20. The Schwa is indicated by a Sukun (səkta) on the next consonant.


21. Verbs in the past and present tenses conjugated with plural personal pronouns ends with
a silent Alif.

‫هزوا‬
ّ
həzzu

4 GENERAL WRITING GUIDELINES


22. Use mutual grammar and vocabulary that speakers can easily comprehend. (Eg. nakəl
and not tanakəl or kanakəl)
a. Not all speakers use ka-/ta- prefixes to indicate the indicative mood. Moreover,
the indicative and subjunctive moods can be understood through the context.
23. Most speakers learned Modern Standard Arabic at school, therefore, the use of some
Arabic grammar rules and borrowing vocabulary would be useful.
24. Instead of favoring a dialect over another in writing, try writing the word in a way that
everybody can read and comprehend. If that is not possible, use the MSA spelling of the
word.
25. Use native Maghrebi words instead of borrowing every word from French and Arabic.
26. baš, maš, ġadi, raḥ etc... can all be used without a problem.
27. All prepositions are disconnected from the following word.

‫و ب كلمة‬ ‫ع الكلمة‬ ‫ب كلمة‬


‫لـ كلمة‬ ‫ف الكلمة‬ ‫من كلمة‬
a. The prepositions ⟨‫⟩من‬, ⟨‫⟩على‬, and ⟨‫ ⟩في‬are written respectively ⟨‫⟩ﻡ‬, ⟨‫⟩ع‬, and ⟨‫⟩ف‬
before the definite article.

‫ﻡ الكلمة‬ ‫من كلمة‬


P a g e | 12

‫ع الكلمة‬ ‫على كلمة‬


28. Since there is no official recognition of this written standard, the name Algerian and the
ISO 639-3 code “arq” is used to represent STANDARD WRITTEN MAGHREBI whenever needed.
That’s because Algerian dialects are mutually intelligible with both, Tunisian and
Moroccan dialects.8
29. Assimilations are not marked. That is, we write ⟨‫ ⟩عجوزة‬and not ⟨‫⟩عزوزة‬, ⟨‫ ⟩زوج‬and not
⟨‫ ⟩زوز‬or ⟨‫⟩جوج‬.
30. The dual form is expressed in two ways:
a. The suffix –in. Always written as ⟨‫ ⟩ـين‬but can have different pronunciations.
b. The form zuj + Plural. E.g. ⟨‫⟩زوج ديار‬
31. The relative pronoun elli is spelled ⟨‫⟩ا ّلي‬.
32. The interrogation and negation suffix –ši is written separated from the verb.

‫ما نعرفو شي‬ ‫تعرفو شي‬


I don’t know him Do you know him?

33. When writing a borrowed words, the consonant preceding the vowels [o], [a] and [e]
should be emphatic. If the consonant doesn’t have an emphatic equivalent, or it is the
consonant /d/ (see 3.1.1), the following consonant should be emphatic. If there is no
consonant preceding or following the vowel which can be written as an emphatic
consonant, then, the non-emphatic consonant is used.

‫طاكسي‬ ‫پروڭراماسيون‬
Taxi Programmation

5 GENERAL GRAMMAR RULES

5.1 PERSONAL PRONOUNS


(ə)ḥna ‫احنا‬ ana ‫آنا‬
(ə)ntuma 9
‫انتوما‬ (ə)nt(i) ‫انت‬
huma ‫هوما‬ huwa ‫هو‬
ّ

8
Since Algerian is mutually intelligible with Tunisian and Moroccan dialects, it is often used as a de facto
standard dialect. Hence, many grammar rules are taken from Algerian.
9
Since it is a very common pronunciation in many Tunisian, Algerian, and Moroccan dialects.
P a g e | 13

hiya ‫هي‬
ّ

5.2 POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS


-na ‫ـنا‬ -i (-ya) ‫ـي‬
-kəm ‫ـكم‬ -k ‫ـك‬
-həm ‫ـهم‬ -u (-h) )‫ـو (ـه‬
-ha ‫ـها‬

5.3 DIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS


-na ‫ـنا‬ -ni ‫ـني‬
-kəm ‫ـكم‬ -(ə)k ‫ـك‬
-həm ‫ـهم‬ -u (-h) )‫ـو (ـه‬
-ha ‫ـها‬

5.4 INDIRECT OBJECT PRONOUNS


-lna ‫لنا‬ -li ‫لي‬
-lkəm ‫لكم‬ -lək ‫لك‬
-lhəm ‫لهم‬ -lu ‫لو‬
-lha ‫لها‬
1. Following the Arabic spelling, indirect object pronouns are always separated from the
preceding word.

5.5 CONJUGATION
5.5.1 Regular triliteral verb conjugation
Past Present Imperative

Active Singular

1st ktbt nktb –


P a g e | 14

‫كتبت‬ ‫نكتب‬ –

2nd ktbt(i) tktb(i) (e)ktb(i)

‫كتبت‬ ‫تكتب‬ ‫اكتب‬


3rd masculine ktb yktb –

‫كتب‬ ‫يكتب‬ –

feminine ketbt tktb –

‫ك ْتبت‬ ‫تكتب‬ –

Plural

1st ktbna nktbu –

‫كتبنا‬ ‫نكتبوا‬ –

2nd ktbtu tktbu (e)ktbu

‫كتبتوا‬ ‫تكتبوا‬ ‫اكتبوا‬


3rd ktbu yktbu –

‫كتبوا‬ ‫يكتبوا‬ –

Passive Singular

1st ttktbt nttktb –

‫ّتكتبت‬ ‫ن ّتكتب‬ –

2nd ttktb(i) tettktb(i) –

‫ّتكتبت‬ ‫ت ّتكتب‬ ‫ا ّتكتب‬


3rd masculine ttktbt tettktb –

‫ّتكتب‬ ‫ي ّتكتب‬ –

etc.

Nominal Active Participle Passive Participle Verbal Noun


P a g e | 15

katb mktub ktba, ktiba, ktaba

‫كاتب‬ ‫مكتوب‬ ‫ كتابة‬،‫ كتيبة‬،‫كتبة‬

5.5.2 Weak roots

5.5.2.1 Doubled roots


Past Present Imperative

Active Singular

1st mddit nmdd –

‫مديت‬
ّ ‫نمد‬
ّ –

2nd mddit(i) tmdd(i) mdd(i)

‫مديت‬
ّ ‫تمد‬
ّ ‫مد‬
ّ
3rd masculine mdd ymdd –

‫مد‬
ّ ‫يمد‬
ّ –

feminine mddt tmdd –

‫مدت‬
ّ ‫تمد‬
ّ –

Plural

1st mddina nmddu –

‫مدينا‬
ّ ‫نمدوا‬
ّ –

2nd mdditu tmddu mddu

‫مديتوا‬
ّ ‫تمدوا‬
ّ ‫مدوا‬
ّ
3rd mddu ymddu –

‫مدوا‬
ّ ‫يمدوا‬
ّ –

Passive Singular

1st tmddit ntmdd –


P a g e | 16

‫تمديت‬
ّ ‫نتمد‬ –

2nd tmddit(i) tetmdd(i) –

‫تمديت‬
ّ ‫تتمد‬
ّ ‫اتمد‬
ّ
3rd masculine tmdd ytmdd –

‫تمد‬
ّ ‫يتمد‬
ّ –

etc.

Nominal Active Participle Passive Participle Verbal Noun

madd memdud mdd, mddan

‫ماد‬
ّ ‫ممدود‬ ‫مدان‬
ّ ،‫مد‬
ّ

5.5.2.2 Assimilated
Past Present Imperative

Active Singular

1st wjdt nujd –

‫وجدت‬ ‫نوجد‬ –

2nd wjdti(i) tujd(i) ujd(i)

‫وجدت‬ ‫توجد‬ ‫اوجد‬


3rd masculine wjd yujd –

‫وجد‬ ‫يوجد‬ –

feminine wjdt tujd –

‫وجدت‬ ‫توجد‬ –

Plural

1st wjdna nujdu –

‫وجدنا‬ ‫نوجدوا‬ –
P a g e | 17

2nd wjdtu tujdu ujdu

‫وجدتوا‬ ‫توجدوا‬ ‫اوجدوا‬


3rd wjdu yujdu –

‫وجدوا‬ ‫يوجدوا‬ –

Passive Singular

1st ttujdt kttujd –

‫ّتوجدت‬ ‫ن ّتوجد‬ –

2nd ttujdt(i) ttujd(i) (e)ttujd(i)

‫ّتوجدت‬ ‫ت ّتوجد‬ ‫ا ّتوجد‬


3rd masculine ttujd yttujd –

‫ّتوجد‬ ‫ي ّتوجد‬ –

etc.

Nominal Active Participle Passive Participle Verbal Noun

wajd mujud Wjda, wjud

‫واجد‬ ‫موجود‬ ‫ وجود‬،‫وجدة‬

5.5.2.3 Hollow
Past Present Imperative

Active Singular

1st qʷlt nqul –

‫قلت‬ ‫نقوﻝ‬ –

2nd qʷlt(i) tqul(i) qul(i)

‫قلت‬ ‫تقوﻝ‬ ‫قوﻝ‬


3rd masculine qal yqul –
P a g e | 18

‫قاﻝ‬ ‫يقوﻝ‬ –

feminine qalt tqul –

‫قالت‬ ‫تقوﻝ‬ –

Plural

1st qʷlna nqulu –

‫قلنا‬ ‫نقولوا‬ –

2nd qʷltu tqulu qulu

‫قلتوا‬ ‫تقولوا‬ ‫قولوا‬


3rd qalu yqulu –

‫قالوا‬ ‫يقولوا‬ –

Passive Singular

1st tqʷlt ntqal –

‫تقلت‬ ‫نتقاﻝ‬ –

2nd tqʷlt(i) tettqal (e) tqal(i)

‫تقلت‬ ‫تتقاﻝ‬ ‫اتقاﻝ‬


3rd masculine tqal ytqal –

‫تقاﻝ‬ ‫يتقاﻝ‬ –

etc.

Nominal Active Participle Passive Participle Verbal Noun

qayl mtqal qul, qula, qwala

‫قايل‬ ‫متقاﻝ‬ ‫ قوالة‬،‫ قولة‬،‫قوﻝ‬

5.5.2.4 Defective
Past Present Imperative
P a g e | 19

Active Singular

1st rmit nrmi –

‫رميت‬ ‫نرمي‬ –

2nd rmit(i) trmi (e)rmi

‫رميت‬ ‫ترمي‬ ‫ارمي‬


3rd masculine rma yrmi –

‫رمى‬ ‫يرمي‬ –

feminine rmat trmi –

‫رمات‬ ‫ترمي‬ –

Plural

1st rmina nrmiw –

‫رمينا‬ ‫نرميوا‬ –

2nd rmitu trmiw (e)rmiw

‫رميتوا‬ ‫ترميوا‬ ‫ارميوا‬10


3rd rmaw yrmiw –

‫رماوا‬ ‫يرميوا‬ –

Passive Singular

1st ttrmit nttrma –

‫ّترميت‬ ‫ن ّترمى‬ –

2nd Ttrmit(i) tettrma (e)ttrma

‫ّترميت‬ ‫ت ّترمى‬ ‫ا ّترمى‬

10
Formed of (e)rmi+u which results in (e)rmiw.
P a g e | 20

3rd masculine ttrma yttrma –

‫ّترمى‬ ‫ي ّترمى‬ –

etc.

Nominal Active Participle Passive Participle Verbal Noun

rami mrmi rmu, rmya, rmyan

‫رامي‬ ‫مرمي‬ ‫ رميان‬،‫ رمية‬،‫رمو‬

5.5.3 Regular quadrilateral verb conjugation


Past Present Imperative

Active Singular

1st trjmt ntrjm –

‫ترجمت‬ ‫نترجم‬ –

2nd trjmti(i) ttrjm(i) trjm(i)

‫ترجمت‬ ‫ْتترجم‬ ‫ترجم‬


3rd masculine trjm ytrjm –

‫ترجم‬ ‫يترجم‬ –

feminine terjmt ttrjm –

‫ترجمت‬ ‫ْتترجم‬ –

Plural

1st trjmna ntrjmu –

‫ترجمنا‬ ‫نترجموا‬ –

2nd trjmtu ttrjmu trjmu

‫ترجمتوا‬ ‫ْتترجموا‬ ‫ترجموا‬


3rd trjmu ytrjmu –
P a g e | 21

‫ترجموا‬ ‫يترجموا‬ –

Passive Singular

1st ttrjmt nttrjm –

‫ّترجمت‬ ‫ن ّترجم‬ –

2nd ttrjm tettrjm ttrjm(i)

‫ّترجمت‬ ‫ت ّترجم‬ ‫ا ّترجم‬


3rd masculine ttrjm yttrjm –

‫ّترجم‬ ‫ي ّترجم‬ –

etc.

Nominal Active Participle Passive Participle Verbal Noun

mtrjm mtrjm trjma

‫مترجم‬ ‫مترجم‬ ‫ترجمة‬

5.5.4 Regular quinqueliteral verb conjugation


Past Present Imperative

Active Singular

1st prugramit nprugrami –

‫پروڭراميت‬ ‫نپروڭرامي‬ –

2nd prugramit(i) tprugrami prugrami

‫پروڭراميت‬ ‫تپروڭرامي‬ ‫اپروڭرامي‬


3rd masculine prugrama yprugrami –

‫پروڭرامى‬ ‫يپروڭرامي‬ –

feminine prugramat tprugrami –

‫پروڭرامات‬ ‫تپروڭرامي‬ –
P a g e | 22

Plural

1st prugramina nprugramiw –

‫پروڭرامينا‬ ‫نپروڭراميوا‬ –

2nd prugramitu tprugramiw prugramiw

‫تپروڭراميوا پروڭراميتوا‬ ‫اپروڭراميوا‬


3rd prugramaw yprugramiw –

‫پروڭراماوا‬ ‫يپروڭراميوا‬ –

Passive Singular

1st ttprugramit nttprugrama –

‫ن ّتپروڭرامى ّتپروڭراميت‬ –

2nd ttprugramit tettprugrama ttprugrama

‫ت ّتپروڭرامى ّتپروڭراميت‬ ‫ا ّتپروڭرامى‬


3rd masculine ttprugrama yttprugrama –

‫ّتپروڭرامى‬ ‫ي ّتپروڭرامى‬ –

etc.

Nominal Active Participle Passive Participle Verbal Noun

prugramur mprugrami prugramaṣyun

‫پروڭرامور‬11 ‫مپروڭرامي‬ ‫پروڭراماسيون‬

5.5.5 Anomalous verbs

5.5.5.1 kla
Past Present Imperative

11
Following the noun ⟨‫⟩اورديناتور‬.
P a g e | 23

Active Singular

1st klit nakel –

‫كليت‬ ‫ناكل‬ –

2nd klit(i) takl(i) kul

‫كليت‬ ‫تاكل‬ ‫كوﻝ‬


3rd masculine kla yakl –

‫كلا‬ ‫ياكل‬ –

feminine klat takl –

‫كلات‬ ‫تاكل‬ –

Plural

1st kilna naklu –

‫كلينا‬ ‫ناكلوا‬ –

2nd klitu taklu kulu

‫كليتوا‬ ‫تاكلوا‬ ‫كولوا‬


3rd klaw yaklu –

‫كلاوا‬ ‫ياكلوا‬ –

passive Singular

1st ttaklt nttakl –

‫ّتاكلت‬ ‫ن ّتاكل‬ –

2nd ttklt(i) tettakl(i) (e)ttakl(i)

‫ّتاكلت‬ ‫ت ّتاكلت‬ ‫ا ّتاكل‬


3rd masculine ttakl yttakel –

‫ّتاكل‬ ‫ي ّتاكل‬ –
P a g e | 24

etc.

Nominal Active Participle Passive Participle Verbal Noun

wakl / makl mukul -

‫ ماكل‬/ ‫واكل‬ ‫موكوﻝ‬ -

5.5.5.2 Ja
Past Present Imperative

Active Singular

1st jit nji –

‫جيت‬ ‫نجي‬ –

2nd jit(i) tji ji

‫جيت‬ ‫تجي‬ ‫جي‬


3rd masculine ja yji –

‫جى‬ ‫يجي‬ –

feminine jat tji –

‫جات‬ ‫تجي‬ –

Plural

1st jina njiw –

‫جينا‬ ‫نجيوا‬ –

2nd jitu tjiw jiw

‫جيتوا‬ ‫تجيوا‬ ‫جيوا‬


ْ
3rd jaw yjiw –

‫جاوا‬ ‫يجيوا‬ –

Nominal Active Participle Passive Participle Verbal Noun

jay - jyyan, jyya


‫‪P a g e | 25‬‬

‫جاي‬ ‫‪-‬‬ ‫جية‬


‫جيان‪ّ ،‬‬
‫ّ‬

‫‪5.5.6‬‬ ‫‪Formation of derived stems‬‬


‫‪Verbs‬‬ ‫‪Derived nouns‬‬
‫‪Active‬‬ ‫‪Passive‬‬ ‫‪Verbal‬‬
‫‪Past (3rd sg.‬‬ ‫‪Present (3rd sg.‬‬ ‫‪Imperative‬‬
‫‪participle participle‬‬ ‫‪noun‬‬
‫)‪masc.‬‬ ‫)‪masc.‬‬ ‫)‪(2nd sg.‬‬
‫‪Sg. masc.‬‬
‫فعل‪،‬‬ ‫ْ‬
‫فعلة‪،‬‬
‫فعاﻝ‪،‬‬
‫فعيل‪،‬‬
‫‪I‬‬ ‫فعل‬ ‫يفعل‬ ‫افعل‬ ‫فعوﻝ‪ ،‬مفعوﻝ فاعل‬
‫فعالة‪،‬‬
‫فعيلة‪،‬‬
‫فعولة‪،‬‬
‫فعلان‬
‫‪II‬‬ ‫فعل‬
‫ّ‬ ‫يفعل‬
‫ّ‬ ‫فعل‬
‫ّ‬ ‫مفعل‬
‫ّ‬ ‫تفعيل‬
‫فعاﻝ‪،‬‬
‫‪III‬‬ ‫فاعل‬ ‫يفاعل‬ ‫فاعل‬ ‫مفاعل‬
‫مفاعلة‬
‫تفعل‪،‬‬
‫ّ‬
‫‪V‬‬ ‫تفعل‬
‫ّ‬ ‫يتفعل‬
‫ّ‬ ‫اتفعل‬
‫ّ‬ ‫متفعل‬
‫ّ‬ ‫تفعيل‬
‫متفاعلة‪،‬‬
‫‪VI‬‬ ‫تفاعل‬ ‫يتفاعل‬ ‫اتفاعل‬ ‫متفاعل‬ ‫مفاعلة‪،‬‬
‫فعاﻝ‬
‫‪VII‬‬ ‫نفعل‬ ‫ينفعل‬ ‫انفعل‬ ‫منفعل‬ ‫انفعاﻝ‬
‫‪VIII‬‬ ‫فتعل‬ ‫يفتعل‬ ‫افتعل‬ ‫مفتعل‬ ‫افتعاﻝ‬
‫‪IX‬‬ ‫فعاﻝ‬ ‫يفعاﻝ‬ ‫افعاﻝ‬ ‫مفعاﻝ‬ ‫افعلاﻝ‬
‫‪X‬‬ ‫ستفعل‬ ‫يستفعل‬ ‫استفعل‬ ‫مستفعل‬ ‫استفعاﻝ‬
‫‪Iq‬‬ ‫فعلق‬ ‫يفعلق‬ ‫فعلق‬ ‫مفعلق‬ ‫فعلقة‬
‫‪IIq‬‬ ‫تفعلق‬ ‫يتفعلق‬ ‫اتفعلق‬ ‫متفعلق‬ ‫تفعليق‬
P a g e | 26

5.5.6.1 Comparison between Arabic and Maghrebi derived stems


Verbs Arabic Maghrebi
I faʻala fɛl
faʻila fɛl
faʻula fɛl
II faʻʻala fɛɛl
III fāʻala faɛl
IV afʻala -
V tafaʻʻala tfɛɛl
VI tafāʻala tfaɛl
VII infaʻala nfɛl
VIII iftaʻala ftɛl
IX ifʻalla fɛl
X istafʻala stfɛl
XI ifʻālla -
XII ifʻawʻala -
XIII ifʻawwala -
XIV ifʻanlala -
XV ifʻanlā -
Iq faʻlaqa fɛlq
IIq tafaʻlaqa tfɛlq
IIIq ifʻanlaqa -
IVq ifʻalaqqa -

5.5.7 Meanings expressed by different derived stems


Verbs Meaning
I ‫فعل‬ Basic verb form
II Causative and intensive;
‫فعل‬
ّ denominative; sometimes
transitive.
III ‫فاعل‬ Conative.
V ‫تفعل‬ Usually reflexive of Form II.
ّ
VI ‫تفاعل‬ Reciprocal of Form III.
VII ‫نفعل‬ Anticausative verb of Form I
VIII ‫فتعل‬ Reflexive of Form I.
IX Stative verb, especially for
‫فعاﻝ‬ colors and physical defects.
P a g e | 27

X Causative, and sometimes


‫ستفعل‬ autocausative verb.
Iq ‫فعلق‬ Basic verb form.
IIq ‫تفعلق‬ Reflexive of Form Iq.

5.6 DEMONSTRATIVE ARTICLES


hadak ‫هاذاﻙ‬ hada ‫هاذا‬
hadik ‫هاذيك‬ hadi ‫هاذي‬
haduk ‫هاذوﻙ‬ hadu ‫هاذو‬
NB: The final vowel is dropped before an article. E.g. had l-kelb and not hada l-kelb.

5.7 NUMBERS
1 ‫واحد‬
2 ‫ ثنين‬/ ‫زوج‬
3 ‫ثلاثة‬
4 ‫اربعة‬
5 ‫خمسة‬
6 ‫س ّتة‬
7 ‫سبعة‬
8 ‫ثمنية‬
9 ‫تسعة‬
10 ‫عشرة‬
11 ‫حداش‬
12 ‫ثناش‬
13 ‫ثلطاش‬ ّ
14 ‫اربعطاش‬
15 ‫خمسطاش‬
16 ‫سطاش‬ ّ
17 ‫سبعطاش‬
‫‪P a g e | 28‬‬

‫‪18‬‬ ‫ثمنطاش‬
‫‪19‬‬ ‫تسعطاش‬
‫‪20‬‬ ‫عشرين‬
‫‪21‬‬ ‫واحد و عشرين‬
‫‪22‬‬ ‫زوج ‪ /‬ثنين و عشرين‬
‫‪30‬‬ ‫ثلاثين‬
‫‪40‬‬ ‫اربعين‬
‫‪50‬‬ ‫خمسين‬
‫‪60‬‬ ‫س ّتين‬
‫‪70‬‬ ‫سبعين‬
‫‪80‬‬ ‫ثمانين‬
‫‪90‬‬ ‫تسعين‬
‫‪100‬‬ ‫مية‬
‫‪101‬‬ ‫مية و واحد‬
‫‪110‬‬ ‫مية و عشرة‬
‫‪200‬‬ ‫ميتين‬
‫‪300‬‬ ‫ثلاثة (ثلث) مية‬
‫‪1000‬‬ ‫الف‬
‫‪2000‬‬ ‫الفين‬
‫‪3000‬‬ ‫ثلاثة (ثلث) الاف‬
‫‪Thousands‬‬ ‫اولوف‬
‫‪106‬‬ ‫مليون (ملاين)‬
‫‪109‬‬ ‫مليار (ملاير)‬
‫‪5.7.1‬‬ ‫‪Ordinal Numbers‬‬
‫‪English‬‬ ‫‪Maghrebi‬‬

‫‪1st‬‬ ‫اوﻝ‬
‫‪12‬‬ ‫‪1.‬‬
‫‪2nd‬‬ ‫ثاني‬ ‫‪2.‬‬

‫‪12‬‬
‫‪It can be pronounced either ul or uwl.‬‬
P a g e | 29

3rd ‫ثالث‬ 3.
4th ‫رابع‬ 4.
5th ‫خامس‬ 5.
6th ‫سادس‬ 6.
7th ‫سابع‬ 7.
8th ‫ثامن‬ 8.
9th ‫تاسع‬ 9.
10th ‫عاشر‬ 10.

 A dot after the number indicates the order.

5.7.2 Fractions
1/2 ‫نص‬
ّ
1/3 ‫ثلث‬
1/4 ‫ربع‬
1/5 ‫خمس‬
1/6 ‫سدس‬
1/7 ‫سبع‬
1/8 ‫ثمن‬
1/9 ‫تسع‬
1/10 ‫عشر‬

6 VOCABULARY

6.1 DAYS OF THE WEEK


Sunday ‫حد‬
ّ ‫ال‬
Monday ‫الثنين‬
Tuesday ‫الثلاثة‬
Wednesday ‫الاربعة‬
Thursday ‫الخميس‬
Friday ‫الجمعة‬
‫‪P a g e | 30‬‬

‫‪Saturday‬‬ ‫السبت‬

‫‪6.2 MONTHS OF THE YEAR‬‬


‫‪English‬‬ ‫‪Modern‬‬ ‫‪Old‬‬
‫‪January‬‬ ‫جانفي‬ ‫ي ّنار‬
‫‪February‬‬ ‫فيفري‬ ‫فورار‬
‫‪Mars‬‬ ‫مارس‬ ‫مغرس‬
‫‪April‬‬ ‫افريل‬ ‫ابريل‬
‫‪May‬‬ ‫ماي‬ ‫مايو‬
‫ّ‬
‫‪June‬‬ ‫جوان‬ ‫يونيو‬
‫‪July‬‬ ‫جويليا‬ ‫يوليو‬
‫‪August‬‬ ‫اوت‬ ‫وسو‬
‫غشت ‪ /‬اَ ّ‬
‫‪September‬‬ ‫سبتمبر‬ ‫ستنبر ‪ /‬شتمبر‬
‫‪October‬‬ ‫اكتوبر‬ ‫اكتوبر‬
‫‪November‬‬ ‫نوفمبر‬ ‫نونبر‬
‫‪December‬‬ ‫ديسمبر‬ ‫دجنبر‬
‫‪P a g e | 31‬‬

‫‪7 EXAMPLES‬‬
‫تتجدد‪،‬‬
‫ّ‬ ‫تبدلوا و خ ّليوا الافكار ديالكم‬
‫الدنيا و لاكن ّ‬
‫و ما تديروش كيفما يديروا ناس هاذ ّ‬
‫باش تعرفوا مراد هللا المزيان و المقبول و الكامل‪.‬‬
‫لمقدس‬
‫ّ‬ ‫—روما ‪ ،12:1‬الكتاب ا‬

‫الناس و الملايكة و ما عنديش المحبّة‪ ،‬راني نحاس‬ ‫كنت نتك ّلم ب لوغات ّ‬ ‫‪ 1‬ايذا ْ‬
‫النبوة‪ ،‬و نعرف ڨاع الاسرار‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫يطنطن و ناقوس يزنزن‪ 2 .‬و ايذا كانت عندي الموهبة ديال‬
‫لمحبة‪ ،‬راني‬
‫ّ‬ ‫نحول جبل وما عنديش ا‬ ‫و العلم ك ّلو‪ ،‬و ايذا كان عندي ايمان كامل باش ّ‬
‫يتحرق‪ ،‬و‬ ‫كل ما نملك‪ ،‬و ايذا عطيت بدني باش ّ‬ ‫صدقت ب ّ‬ ‫نسوا والو‪ 3 .‬و ايذا ت ّ‬ ‫ما ْ‬
‫لمحبة تصبر‬‫ّ‬ ‫الشي موش غادي ينفعني ب حاجة‪ 4 .‬ا‬ ‫لمحبة‪ ،‬راه هاذ ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫لاكن ما عنديش ا‬
‫تتصرفش‬
‫ّ‬ ‫لمحبة ما‬
‫ّ‬ ‫تتكبرش‪ 5 .‬ا‬
‫ّ‬ ‫لمحبة ما تتفاخرش و ما‬
‫ّ‬ ‫لمحبة ما تحسدش‪ ،‬ا‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫تحن‪ ،‬ا‬
‫ّ‬ ‫و‬
‫لمصلحة تاعها‪ ،‬وما تتق ّلقش ب سهولة‪ ،‬وما تعقلش ع‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫بلاش تربية‪ ،‬وما تق ّلبش ع ا‬
‫ل شي‪،‬‬ ‫لحق‪ 7 .‬تسامح على ك ّ‬ ‫الضلم‪ ،‬و لاكن تفرح ب ا ّ‬‫ّ‬ ‫لمحبة ما تفرحش ب‬‫ّ‬ ‫الشر‪ 6 .‬ا‬
‫ّ‬
‫لمحبة عمرها ما غادي‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ل شي‪ 8 .‬ا‬‫كل شي‪ ،‬و تصبر على ك ّ‬ ‫وتترجى ّ‬
‫ّ‬ ‫كل شي‪،‬‬ ‫و تثق ب ّ‬
‫تفشل]‪[..‬‬
‫لمقدس‬
‫ّ‬ ‫—كورنتوس الاولة‪ ،‬الكتاب ا‬

‫سط و‬ ‫سي پونتلياي كان لابس مرايات‪ .‬و كان راجل تاع حكاية اربعين سنة‪ ،‬طولو متو ّ‬
‫بني و رطب حرير‪،‬‬ ‫ضعيف‪ ،‬كانت عندو حدبة صغيرة زادة‪ .‬شعرو كان ّ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫رهيف و‬
‫بدنو ّ‬
‫محجمة ب لباهي]‪[...‬‬
‫ّ‬ ‫ممشوط على جنب‪ .‬لحيتو كانت‬
‫اول شاپيطرو‪«The Awakening, Kate Chopin » ،‬‬
‫—ثاني صفحة‪ّ ،‬‬

‫الطويلة‬
‫ّ‬ ‫لمانية‪ ،)Deutschland :‬ب الفورمة‬‫ّ‬ ‫المانيا ( ‪( ،(/alˤˈmˤanya/‬ب الا‬
‫هي‬
‫ّ‬ ‫لمانية‪،)Bundesrepublik Deutschland :‬‬
‫ّ‬ ‫لفدرالية تاع المانيا (ب الا‬
‫ّ‬ ‫مهورية ا‬
‫ّ‬ ‫الج‬
‫ّ‬
‫الدنمارك‪ ،‬و بحر‬
‫الشمال‪ّ ،‬‬
‫ّ‬ ‫مدورة ب بحر‬
‫ّ‬ ‫وپا‪،‬‬
‫برلامانية في وسط اور ّ‬
‫ّ‬ ‫فدرالية‬
‫ّ‬ ‫جمهورية‬
‫ّ‬
‫‪P a g e | 32‬‬

‫الشرق‪ ،‬ب اوصتريا و سويسرا م الجنوب‪،‬‬ ‫التشاك م ّ‬‫الشمال‪ ،‬ب بولونيا و ّ‬


‫ّ‬ ‫البلطيق م‬
‫درالية‪،‬‬
‫ّ‬ ‫مركزية و ف‬
‫ّ‬ ‫و ب فرانسا‪ ،‬لوكسمبورڭ‪ ،‬بلجيكا‪ ،‬و هولندا م الغرب‪ .‬المانيا بلاد لا‬
‫فيها ‪ 4‬ميترو پولات ب اكثر من مليون ساكن‪ :‬العاصمة برلين‪ ،‬زيادة على هامبورڭ‪،‬‬
‫ميونخ‪ ،‬و كولن‪ .‬قصر الحكومة موجود ف المدينة تاع برلين و ف المدينة الفدرال ّية تاع‬
‫قتصادية تاع المانيا‪.‬‬
‫ّ‬ ‫بون‪ .‬المدينة تاع فرانكفورت يعتبروها العاصمة الا‬
‫ّ‬
‫لحرة‬
‫—ويكيپيديا‪ ،‬الموسوعة ا ّ‬

‫حر ين و متساوين ف الكرامة و الحقوق‪ّ .‬تعطالهم العقل و الضمير‬


‫كل الناس يتولدوا ّ‬
‫ّ‬
‫خوة‪.‬‬
‫و يلزمهم يعاملوا بعضهم ب روح الا ّ‬
‫—الاعلان العالمي تاع حقوق الانسان‬
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