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During the height of the ‘quantitative Sekarang, itu tersebar di beberapa disiplin

revolution’ of the 1960s, Economic Geography untuk merangkul berbagai pendekatan teoritis,
was a tightly focused and specialized field of filosofis dan empiris. Volume ini menggerakkan
research. Now, it sprawls across several geografi ekonomi melalui serangkaian Geografi
disciplines to embrace multiple theoretical, Ekonomi mencakup kontribusi oleh ahli
philosophical and empirical approaches. This geografi ekonomi terpilih yang tujuannya
volume moves economic geography through a adalah untuk membantu menjelaskan
series of theoretical and methodological keterkaitan di antara semua kekuatan yang
approaches, looking both towards the future memicu perubahan masyarakat, yaitu kapitalis
and to the discipline’s engagement with public yang selalu berubah sistem. para kontributor
policy. Economic Geography covers merekam mengubah fokus dan metodologi dari
contributions by selected economic 1960-1980 periode geografi ekonomi
geographers whose purpose is to help explain kuantitatif, minat 1980 dalam memahami
the interconnection among all forces that bagaimana rezim akumulasi dalam dunia
trigger societal change, namely the ever- kapitalis membangun ruang pembangunan
changing capitalist system. The contributors tidak merata, dan bagaimana sastra tahun
record changing foci and methodologies from 1990-an diperkaya oleh sudut pandang yang
the 1960–1980 period of quantitative economic berbeda dan metodologi whi ch dirancang
geography, the 1980s interest in understanding untuk memahami efek lokal dari ekonomi ruang
how regimes of accumulation in a capitalist global. Pada abad baru, tanggapan yang luar
world construct spaces of uneven biasa telah bahwa menjembatani kesenjangan
development, and how the 1990s literature was di 'suara-suara di dalam sub-disiplin Geografi
enriched by differing viewpoints and Ekonomi' untuk memaksimalkan pemahaman
methodologies which were designed to kita tentang proses yang membentuk sosial,
understand the local effects of the global space keberadaan politik dan ekonomi kita.
economy. In the new century, the Kontributor juga menyoroti apa yang mereka
overwhelming response has been that of lihat sebagai tantangan untuk memahami isu-
bridging gaps across ‘voices within the sub- isu kontemporer, dengan demikian meletakkan
discipline of Economic Geography’ in order to penanda bagi para peneliti muda untuk
maximize our understanding of processes that memimpin pada. Melalui koleksi 20 bab
shape our social, political and economic tentang konstruksi teoritis dan metodologi,
existence. Contributors also highlight what they perdebatan dan wacana , serta link ke
see as the challenges for understanding kebijakan dan evaluasi kebijakan, buku ini
contemporary issues, thus putting down memberikan pandangan singkat dari konsep
markers for younger researchers to take the dan lintasan sejarah mereka di Ekonomi
lead on. Through a collection of 20 chapters on Geografi. Pembaca yang terkena luasnya
theoretical constructs and methodologies, disiplin dan terlibat dalam perdebatan saat ini
debates and discourses, as well as links to dan pemahaman dari komponen-komponen
policymaking and policy evaluation, this volume penting dari penelitian di geografi ekonomi,
provides a succinct view of concepts and their teoritis, empiris dan terapan.
historical trajectories in Economic Geography. Helen Lawton Smith adalah Pembaca dalam
Readers are exposed to the breadth of the Manajemen, Sekolah Manajemen dan Psikologi
discipline and engaged in current debates and Organisasi, Birkbeck, Universitas London, dan
understandings of the critical components of Rekan Penelitian Terdistribusi di Sekolah
research in economic geography, theoretical, Geografi, Universitas Oxford.
empirical and applied.
Sharmistha Bagchi-Sen is a Professor in the
Department of Geography, University at
Buffalo-State University of New York. Helen
Lawton Smith is Reader in Management, School
of Management and Organisational Psychology,
Birkbeck, London University and a
Distinguished Research Associate at the School
of Geography, Oxford University.
Over the past half century, the field of Dari revolusi kuantum tahun 1960-an hingga
economic geography has been marked by munculnya geografi industri baru selama tahun
periods of particular dynamism and innovation. 1980-an, kombinasi dari inovasi teoritis dan
From the quantitative revolution of the 1960s ekonomi yang berubah dengan cepat
to the emergence of a new industrial Penelitian-penelitian baru sedang
geography during the 1980s, a combination of mengembangkan perkembangan itu pada
theoretical innovation and rapidly changing geografi ekonomi yang diperluas saat ini adalah
economic circumstance have made for an bidang studi yang dinamis dan terus
intellectually dynamic field of enquiry. The past berkembang. Minat penelitian yang panjang
decade has been no less significant in terms of dalam perubahan industri dan teknologi sedang
theoretical and empirical advance. Economic dikejar dengan kuat dalam konteks teori baru
geography today is a vibrant and growing field pembelajaran dan inovasi Geografi ekonomi
of study. New lines of research are emerging saat ini secara metodologis beragam, terlibat
that build upon a broadened concept of the dengan isu-isu o f kepedulian menarik sosial,
economic, upon analysis of economic dan hidup dengan beasiswa yang menarik dan
development and global economic change, and provokatif. Kami senang dalam konteks ini
upon renewed interest in issues of policy, untuk mendukung peluncuran Studi Routledge
institutions and governance. Longstanding di Ekonomi Geografi. Maksud dari seri ini buku
research interests in industrial and baru adalah untuk menyediakan sebuah
technological change are being vigorously platform berbasis luas untuk beasiswa inovatif
pursued in the context of new theories of yang tertinggi berkualitas di geografi ekonomi.
learning and innovation. Economic geography daripada menekankan setiap sub-bidang
today is methodologically diverse, engaged tertentu geografi ekonomi, kita berusaha untuk
with issues of compelling social concern, and menerbitkan karya di luasnya lapangan dan dari
alive with interesting and provocative berbagai perspektif teoritis dan metodologis.
scholarship. We are delighted in this context to dalam peluncuran seri buku, kami juga
support the launch of Routledge Studies in berusaha untuk mendukung dan Boleh dibilang,
Economic Geography. The intent of this new beberapa geografi ekonomi kini mencapai
book series is to provide a broadly based geografi ekonomi yang lebih luas dan lebih
platform for innovative scholarship of the terintegrasi, gender, pemerintahan, dan
highest quality in economic geography. Rather hubungan masyarakat-masyarakat yang lebih
than emphasizing any particular sub-field of terpisah. Pekerjaan yang paling menarik dalam
economic geography, we seek to publish work geografi ekonomi saat ini terletak pada
across the breadth of the field and from a antarmuka perubahan ekonomi ini, ini dalam
variety of theoretical and methodological hal cultura Penelitian baru yang menarik
perspectives. In launching the book series, we muncul di sekitar dinamika skalar dan geografi
also seek to support and promote a move relasional perubahan ekonomi global, termasuk
toward a broader, more integrated economic bekerja pada topik-topik seperti organisasi
geography. Economic geography now reaches global dan kebijakan pengembangan global,
into domains of culture, gender, governance, deregulasi pasar dan rezim investasi dan
and nature-society relations that heretofore konsekuensi petugas untuk
typically have been treated more or less as
separate domains of enquiry. Arguably, some of
the most exciting work within economic
geography today lies at these interfaces of
economic change, whether this is in terms of
cultural construction of economies, or the
relationship between industrial development,
resources and the environment. Contemporary
processes of global economic change are also
stimulating new research agendas in economic
geography. Exciting new research is emerging
around the scalar dynamics and relational
geographies of global economic change,
including work on such topics as global
organizations and global development policies,
deregulation of markets and investment
regimes and attendant consequences for
sustainable livelihoods around the world, and Salah satu konsekuensi dari proses perubahan
the local and regional development dynamics ekonomi adalah bahwa fokus utama geografi
accompanying intensified flows of capital, ekonomi pada ekonomi OECD sekarang
technology and information on a global scale. memberi jalan. ke geografi ekonomi yang lebih
One consequence of these processes of 'global' di mana 'geografi pembangunan' dan
economic change is that the predominant focus 'studi wilayah' memberi jalan. oleh rasa bicara
of economic geography on OECD economies is tentang geografi ekonomi analisis absen
now giving way to a more ‘global’ economic ekonomi berkembang dan ekonomi dalam
geography in which existing boundaries with transisi. Banyak perkembangan positif sedang
‘development geography’ and ‘area studies’ are berlangsung yang membantu memberi makan
giving way. Indeed, it makes little sense to talk geografi ekonomi sebagai bidang penyelidikan
of an economic geography absent analysis of yang bersemangat. Kami mencatat dengan
developing economies and economies in senangnya munculnya jurnal baru dan
transition. By the same token, research into the dukungan luas untuk lembaga musim panas
economic geographies of these regions is yang menghadapkan mahasiswa pascasarjana
becoming a source for further theoretical dan awal karier Kami juga menyambut baik
innovation within the field. Many positive keterlibatan di seluruh disiplin akademis dan di
developments are underway that help feed antara jaringan ilmiah yang menandai banyak
economic geography as a vibrant field of penelitian mutakhir dalam geografi ekonomi.
enquiry. We note with pleasure the emergence Bidang ini juga didukung oleh ketersediaan
of new journals and the widespread support for platform penerbitan yang secara aktif
a summer institute that exposes graduate mempromosikan membawa ke hasil dari
students and early career faculty to the very periode berkelanjutan beasiswa dalam buku
latest theoretical and methodological naskah bahwa peran penting untuk naskah
developments within the field. We also buku yang menyatukan hasil kumulatif dari
welcome the engagement across academic program berkelanjutan penelitian, inovasi
disciplines and among scholarly networks that teoritis dan Kami berharap bahwa volume
marks much cutting-edge research in economic dalam seri ini akan mengilhami inovasi teoritis
geography. The field is also supported by the dan metodologis lebih lanjut, juga sebagai
availability of publishing platforms that actively wawasan baru ke dalam ekonomi
promote the bringing to fruition of sustained kesejahteraan, mata pencaharian dan dinamika
periods of scholarship in the form of book perubahan ekonomi secara lokal dan di seluruh
manuscripts. In an era of shortened cycles of dunia
research and publication, there remains an
important role for book manuscripts that bring
together the cumulative results of sustained
programmes of research, theoretical innovation
and empirical investigation. Routledge Studies
in Economic Geography seeks to provide such a
publishing platform for innovative scholarship
of the highest quality across the breadth of the
field of economic geography. We hope that the
volumes in this series will inspire further
theoretical and methodological innovation, as
well as new insights into economic welfare,
livelihoods and the dynamics of economic
change locally and around the world.
‘The real duty of the ... [economic geographer] 'Tugas nyata dari ... [geografi ekonomi] ... tidak
... is not ... [just] ... to explain our sorry reality, ... [hanya] ... untuk menjelaskan realitas maaf
but to improve it’ (Lösch 1954: 4). I use this kami, tetapi untuk meningkatkan itu. (Lösch
paraphrased quotation from a no longer 1954: 4) Saya menggunakan kutipan
fashionable ‘location theorist’ for four reasons. diparafrasekan ini dari tidak lagi modis 'lokasi
First, it was primarily because of Lösch’s book, teori' karena empat alasan. Pertama, itu
The Economics of Location (introduced to me terutama karena buku Lösch, The Economics of
as an undergraduate in the early 1960s by lokasi (diperkenalkan kepada saya sebagai
David M. Smith), that I became an economic sarjana pada awal tahun 1960 oleh David M.
geographer. What attracted me to his complex Smith), bahwa saya menjadi ekonomi geografi
book – and it seemed very complex indeed for Apa yang menarik saya untuk buku yang
somebody fed on the indigestible descriptive kompleks -. dan tampaknya sangat kompleks
texts of traditional economic geography that memang untuk seseorang yang diberi teks
constituted the conventional diet of economic deskriptif dicerna geografi ekonomi tradisional
geography courses – was that its heavy yang merupakan diet konvensional kursus
theoretical orientation was combined with the geografi ekonomi - adalah bahwa orientasi
deep sense of social concern. The purpose of teoritisnya berat dikombinasikan dengan rasa
any academic discipline worth its salt must be yang mendalam . kepedulian sosial tujuan dari
to try to improve the world in which we live: to setiap disiplin akademik senilai garam harus
engage with real problems, to ‘get our hands mencoba untuk memperbaiki dunia di mana
dirty’ in Amy Glasmeier’s words. Of course, the kita hidup :. untuk terlibat dengan masalah
kind of theoretical approach espoused by Lösch nyata, untuk 'mendapatkan tangan kami kotor'
soon became outmoded and displaced, as kata Amy Glasmeier ini Tentu saja, jenis
several of the contributors to this volume Theoret Pendekatan ical didukung oleh Lösch
explain, by a succession of alternative segera menjadi ketinggalan zaman dan
approaches, each being heralded as the new pengungsi, karena beberapa kontributor buku
orthodoxy by its adherents. But the normative ini menjelaskan, oleh suksesi pendekatan
question of ‘what ought to be’ – as well as alternatif, masing-masing sedang digembar-
‘what is’ – should still be at the centre of our gemborkan sebagai ortodoksi baru dengan
concerns as economic geographers. The second penganutnya. Tapi pertanyaan normatif 'apa
reason I refer to Lösch here is that his approach yang seharusnya' - serta 'apa' - .. harus tetap
first made me appreciate the importance of menjadi pusat keprihatinan kami sebagai ahli
theoretically-informed empirical research. His geografi ekonomi alasan kedua saya lihat Losch
book was surprisingly rich in a wide range of di sini adalah bahwa pendekatan pertama
empirical materials at different spatial scales. membuat saya menghargai pentingnya
Of course, I no longer espouse the particular penelitian empiris secara teoritis-informasi
theoretical framework of the economic location bukunya adalah mengejutkan kaya dalam
theorists but that is not the point. We need to berbagai bahan empiris pada skala spasial yang
develop theories to help us make sense of the berbeda. Tentu saja, saya tidak lagi mendukung
world and those theories need to be firmly kerangka teoritis tertentu dari teori lokasi
grounded. Today economic geographers ekonomi tapi itu bukan titik. kita perlu
engage in far more diverse theoretical mengembangkan teori-teori untuk membantu
explanations than in the 1960s and I am sure kita memahami dunia dan teori-teori harus
this is a good thing. The world is far too tegas didasarkan. Hari ini geografi ekonomi
complex to be captured by a single over-arching terlibat dalam jauh penjelasan teoritis lebih
theoretical framework. As Ray Hudson argues, beragam daripada di tahun 1960-an dan saya
‘the economic geographies of the late modern yakin ini adalah baik tipis g. Dunia ini terlalu
capitalist world are too complex and nuanced kompleks untuk ditangkap oleh satu over-
to be explicable in terms of one all- melengkung kerangka teoritis. Sebagai
encompassing theoretical position’. The berpendapat Ray Hudson, 'geografi ekonomi
diversity of contemporary economic geography dunia kapitalis modern akhir terlalu kompleks
is – or should be – a strength, not a weakness dan bernuansa menjadi dijelaskan dalam hal
(see Ann Markusen’s and Eric Sheppard’s satu mencakup segala ... posisi teoretis
chapters). But we do need to build theories; 'keragaman geografi ekonomi kontemporer -
mere description is not enough. Such theories atau seharusnya - kekuatan, bukan kelemahan
need to be able to incorporate the complex, (lihat bab Ann Markusen dan Eric Sheppard)
and highly unequal, power-laden Tapi kita perlu membangun teori; deskripsi
belaka tidak cukup teori tersebut perlu dapat
menggabungkan kompleks, dan sangat tidak
setara, power-sarat
interactions between the multifarious sets of interaksi antara beragam aktor, agen dan
actors, agents and institutions that constitute institusi yang merupakan rangkaian skala
economies and the ways in which these stretch geografis dan, pada saat yang sama, menembus
across a continuum of geographical scales and, 'wilayah'. Dalam pandangan saya sendiri, teori
at the same time, inter-penetrate ‘territories’. tersebut harus mencakup Seperti yang
In my own view, such theorizations should Katherine Mitchell tunjukkan, 'pemikiran dalam
include a strong focus on the relationalities of hal jaringan memaksa kita untuk berteori pada
situated networks. As Katherine Mitchell points proses sosio-ekonomi sebagai terjalin dan
out, ‘thinking in terms of networks forces us to saling konstitutif' Tetapi kita harus selalu ingat
theorize socioeconomic processes as bahwa jaringan semacam itu tidak independen
intertwined and mutually constitutive’. But we dari makro. di sisi lain, kita juga perlu penelitian
must always remember that such networks are empiris yang cermat dan dirancang dengan baik
not independent of the macro-structural dalam tema keterlibatan dalam interaksi
frameworks within which they are embedded dialektis, yang terlibat dalam 'ekonomi politik'.
and with which they continuously engage in Dan kita harus bertemu dengan teknologi.
dialectical interaction. We are all, to a large bahwa ini adalah kualitatif atau kuantitatif atau
degree, involved in ‘political economy’. On the kuantitatif atau kuantitatif atau campuran dari
other hand, we also need careful, robust, well- keduanya.Perlu untuk menghindari
designed empirical research. We need, in other etnosentrisme yang merupakan karakteristik
words, to focus not only on processes but also dari sebagian besar penelitian ekonomi-
on outcomes. And we need to do so using geografis, tertanam karena cenderung di barat
techniques appropriate to the task, whether (terutama Anglo-Amerika yang lain hampir
these are qualitative or quantitative or a mix of diabaikan atau, paling banter, di bawah- Ada
the two. But both our theories and our 'keheningan' yang signifikan. Sebagian besar
empirical work need to avoid the pekerjaan terus menjadi produksi yang
ethnocentrism that is characteristic of most produktif, dengan sangat sedikit integrasi
economic–geographical research, embedded as proses konsumsi dalam analisis kami. Di dalam
it tends to be in the western (especially Anglo- manufaktur, terus ada fokus sempit pada
American) industrialized countries (see Henry beberapa sektor tertentu dan pengabaian Kritik
Yeung’s chapter). We also need to broaden our serupa dapat dibuat dari pekerjaan pada
investigative horizons in terms of the layanan. Kami tahu banyak tentang layanan
phenomena we study. Some kinds of economic keuangan, misalnya, tetapi layanan logistik
activity attract a disproportionate amount of hampir tidak dipedulikan Dalam kaitannya,
our attention; others are virtually ignored or, at beberapa ahli geografi ekonomi saat ini
best, under-researched. There are significant meneliti alam yang ditekankan oleh orang-
‘silences’. Much of the work continues to orang dalam mengembangkan geografi
beheavily productionist, with very little real ekonomi, terlepas dari fakta bahwa sektor ini
integration of processes of consumption in our mempekerjakan sejumlah besar orang di
analyses. Within manufacturing, there negara berkembang dan negara berkembang.
continues to be a narrow focus on a few Ketiga, keterlibatan saya Tentu saja, ada
specific sectors and a neglect of others. A pengecualian terhormat dalam semua kasus
similar criticism can be made of work on kasus ini - banyak di antaranya terwakili dalam
services. We know a lot about financial buku ini - tetapi saya pikir kritik keseluruhan
services, for example, but logistical services are dibenarkan. dengan Lösch pada tahun 1960-an
virtually ignored. Agriculture continues to be pertama membawa saya melampaui batas-
given inadequate attention within economic batas geografi dan alam ilmu sosial lain:
geography, despite the fact that this sector ekonomi. Ada banyak perdebatan hidup
employs vast numbers of people in developing tentang, dan bagaimana, geografi ekonomi
countries and is one of the most sensitive harus terlibat dengan para ekonom. Saya pergi
issues in current globalization debates. In a bersama dengan pandangan beberapa
related vein, few economic geographers today kontributor buku ini bahwa geografi ekonomi
research natural resources and far too few harus terlibat dengan ekonomi, tetapi itu 'tidak
economic geographers have developed a pernah cukup' (Kaya Eric Sheppard menulis
serious engagement with environmental issues. tentang menciptakan 'zona perdagangan'
Of course, there are honourable exceptions in antara pendekatan disipliner yang berbeda dan
all of these cases – many of them represented saya sangat setuju dengannya Ada keberhasilan
in this book – but I think the overall criticism is disiplin akademik dalam perdagangan
justified. Third, my engagement with Lösch in tergantung pada kekuatan internal dan
the 1960s first took me beyond the boundaries identitas khasnya sendiri.Tanpa inti disiplin
of geography and into the realms of another yang kuat, akan ada sedikit untuk berdagang
social science: economics. There is much lively dengan orang lain
debate today about whether, and how,
economic geographers should engage with
economists. I go along with the view of several
contributors to this book that economic
geography must engage with economics, but
that is ‘never sufficient’ (Richard Walker). We
need to engage in productive dialogue with all
the relevant disciplines, but to do so in ways
that build upon economic geography’s own
strengths. Eric Sheppard writes of creating
‘trading zones’ between different disciplinary
approaches and I very much agree with that.
But an academic discipline’s success in trading
depends on its own internal strength and
distinctive identity. Without a strong
disciplinary core, there would be little to trade
with others. There is always the danger of
economic
geography (indeed of geography as a whole) Salah satu kekuatan geografi ekonomi yang
being swallowed up. One of economic tidak diragukan, seperti yang dikemukakan Ann
geography’s undoubted strengths, as Ann Markusen, adalah kemampuan mensintesisnya
Markusen points out, is its synthesizing abilities di seluruh ilmu sosial dan alam, tetapi
across the social and natural sciences. But while sementara kita niscaya perlu terlibat secara
we undoubtedly need to engage productively produktif dengan para non-geografi yang kita
with non-geographers we also need to engage miliki. Tapi itu juga benar. Yang paling jelas ini
more with other sub-fields within geography adalah benar tentang kesenjangan manusia-
itself. Most obviously this is true of the long- fisik yang sudah lama ada, yang jelas-jelas
standing human-physical divide, one that is so melumpuhkan dalam konteks masalah
self-evidently debilitating in the context of lingkungan global. Tetapi itu juga benar. ,
global environmental problems. But it is also misalnya, dunia yang tidak rata - dan
true, for example, of the lack of real kebutuhan untuk meningkatkan 'realitas maaf'
connections between economic geographers kita - ini bukan hanya bodoh, itu berbatasan
and development geographers. In such an dengan kriminal. alasan untuk mengingat Lösch
uneven world – and of the need to improve our adalah bahwa hal itu mengingatkan kita
‘sorry reality’ – this is not just stupid, it is tentang pentingnya memahami sejarah
bordering on the criminal. My fourth reason for geografi ekonomi sebagai sub-bidang yang khas
recalling Lösch is that it reminds us of the dalam geografi dan di dalam karena baik Susan
importance of having a real sense and Hanson dan Ann Markusen menunjukkan dari
understanding of the history of economic kerangka teoritis atau arsitektur metode
geography as a distinctive sub-field within disiplin, tetapi menulisnya sepenuhnya dari
geography and within the social sciences in skrip. Seperti yang kita harus mengerti
general. Economic geography, like geography as mengapa pendekatan telah berubah.Seperti
a whole, has a history of ignoring its history; of Susan Hanson berpendapat: "kita
not just discarding theoretical frameworks or memanfaatkan masa lalu untuk
methodologies but of writing them completely membayangkan masa depan ... Kemudahan
out of the script. As both Susan Hanson and yang penulis gagal Saya tidak mengerti masuk
Ann Markusen point out, this is very short- akal bagi saya karena itu berarti bahwa itu jauh
sighted. We need to know where we come lebih dari yang berkecil hati, tenggelam dan
from; we need to understand why approaches hilang ... lihat sejarah bidang ini memprovokasi
have changed. As Susan Hanson argues: ‘we panggilan untuk ekumenisme yang lebih besar,
draw upon the past to envision the future . . . Mereka menawarkan perspektif yang berharga
The ease with which authors fail to link their dan merangsang untuk lebih bersedia untuk
own work to earlier work . . . simply does not teori toleransi. Ini adalah agenda yang
make sense to me because it means that much menantang tetapi yang harus digapai, ini adalah
of value is needlessly discredited, submerged agenda yang menantang tetapi harus
and lost . . . a look at the history of this field digenggam. Seperti yang dikatakan Lösch, itu
provokes a call for greater ecumenism, for adalah 'tugas nyata' kami.
more willingness to see the connections across
the decades, and for the enduring tolerance
that making those connections should foster.’
The chapters in this book exemplify each of
these concerns. They provide valuable and
stimulating perspectives on how and why
economic geographers do what they do in ways
that demonstrate the values that economic
geographers can bring to explaining and helping
to improve the lives of people and communities
wherever they are. It is a challenging agenda
but one that must be grasped. As Lösch said,
that is our ‘real duty’.

This book draws its inspiration from five Buku ini terinspirasi dari lima sesi geografi
sessions on economic geography organized by ekonomi yang diselenggarakan oleh editor di
the editors at the Centennial Meeting of the Centennial Pertemuan Asosiasi Geografer
Association of American Geographers (AAG) in Amerika (AAG) di Philadelphia pada tahun
Philadelphia in 2004. In the sessions, titled 2004. Dalam sesi, berjudul 'Geografi Ekonomi:
‘Economic Geography: Then, Now and the Lalu, Sekarang dan Masa Depan', Panel
Future’, through a discussion of their own dimotivasi oleh wacana baru-baru ini di
research histories, the panelists were asked to geografi ekonomi - ini mengungkapkan bahwa
reflect upon the progress in theory and practice siswa geografi perlu paparan berbagai
of economic geography. The panels were perspektif dalam rangka Tujuan pertama adalah
motivated by the recent discourses in economic untuk menilai keadaan pengetahuan saat ini
geography – this reveals that geography dalam geografi ekonomi dan arah masa
students need exposure to various perspectives depannya. Dengan demikian, buku ini
in order to understand the interconnection menunjukkan bagaimana ahli geografi ekonomi
among all forces that trigger societal change, menawarkan penjelasan Tujuan kedua
namely the ever-changing capitalist system Wawancara dengan tujuan lain pada konteks
whether North American, European or Asian. ekonomi global yang lebih luas Tujuan kedua
The objectives of this book are therefore adalah untuk menunjukkan perlunya geografi
threefold. The first objective is to assess the ekonomi untuk terlibat dengan beberapa
current state of knowledge in economic penonton, yaitu akademisi di berbagai
geography and its future directions. In doing so, organisasi disiplin, bisnis, pemerintah dan non-
this book shows how economic geographers pemerintah. dalam konteks ini, buku ini
have offered explanations of processes that meneliti bagaimana ahli geografi telah memberi
affect places and lives within the broader kontribusi pada proses pembuatan kebijakan.
context of the global economy. The book also Salah satu tujuan dari buku ini adalah untuk
offers a discussion of theoretical constructs and menyambut sebuah dunia di mana geografi
methodologies with a purpose to show the ekonomi terlibat dalam percakapan di seluruh
need to combine different approaches in disiplin ilmu (termasuk sub-disiplin ilmu
understanding spatial (inter)dependencies. The geografi) sehingga menciptakan pengetahuan
second objective is to demonstrate the need baru untuk mempromosikan pemahaman yang
for economic geographers to engage with lebih baik dari proses dan tindakan yang
multiple audiences, namely academics in memperbaiki kehidupan. dalam jangka panjang,
different disciplines, businesses, government peran 'agen perubahan' tidak akan langka bagi
and non-government organizations. Within this seorang ahli geografi ekonomi. agenda
context, this book examines how geographers penelitian uture. Kontributor menyoroti apa
have contributed to the policy-making process. yang mereka lihat sebagai tantangan untuk
One of the goals of this book is to herald a memahami isu-isu kontemporer, dengan
world in which economic geographers engage demikian meletakkan penanda bagi para
in conversations across disciplines (including peneliti muda untuk memimpin pada. Daya
sub-disciplines in geography) thereby creating tarik geografi ekonomi pada konferensi AAG
new knowledge to promote a better ditunjukkan oleh ukuran dan keragaman
understanding of processes and actions that (mahasiswa dan dosen dari berbagai sub-
improve lives. In the long run, the role of ‘agent disiplin ilmu dalam geografi dari beberapa
of change’ will not be rare for an economic negara) dari penonton, serta partisipasi dari
geographer. The third objective is to identify penonton, selama sesi. Kontributor sepakat
future research agenda. Contributors highlight bahwa dampak
what they see as the challenges for
understanding contemporary issues, thus
putting down markers for younger researchers
to take the lead on. The appeal of economic
geography at the AAG conference was
demonstrated by the size and diversity
(students and faculty from a variety of sub-
disciplines within geography from several
nations) of the audience, as well as the
participation from the audience, during the
sessions. Contributors agreed that the impact
of economic geography within and beyond Beberapa berpendapat bahwa data 'mindless'
geography had been constrained in the past by dan pemodelan tahun 1960-an dan 1970-an
its own limitations. Some argued that the yang menandai 'revolusi kuantitatif' adalah
‘mindless’ data crunching and modelling of the awal dari berakhirnya geografi kepada khalayak
1960s and 1970s that marked the ‘quantitative luas, yang lain berpendapat bahwa kegagalan
revolution’ was the beginning of the end of untuk melibatkan pembuat kebijakan adalah
geography’s appeal to wide audiences. Others alasan lain mengapa geografi ekonomi, lebih
argued that the failure to engage policymakers lagi di Inggris, tidak memiliki pengaruh luas
is another reason why economic geography, dalam ilmu sosial atau bisnis lain. sebagai
more so in the US than the UK, does not have a praproduksi dari banyak disiplin dan bidang,
wide reaching influence in other social sciences yang menawarkan sinergi luar biasa dalam
or business. All recognized that both menyatukan gagasan dan praktik dari ilmu
quantitative as well as qualitative sosial lainnya, humaniora , hukum dan bisnis,
methodologies are important. All argued for geografi ekonomi dan harus menjadi komponen
the need of rigour in training as we prepare a penting dari pedagogi geografi dari sarjana /
new generation of economic geographers. As a tahun pertama r melalui pelatihan doktor.
synthesizer of many disciplines and a field, Seperti banyak dari kontributor menunjukkan,
which offers immense synergy in bringing ekonom seperti Krugman dan Porter telah
together ideas and practices from other social menerima publik yang sangat besar dan
sciences, humanities, law and business, perhatian akademik dan telah berpengaruh
economic geography is and should be an dalam merangsang penilaian kritis dari
important component of geography pedagogy 'ekonomi' dalam geografi dari dalam disiplin
from undergraduate/freshman year through sebagaimana dicontohkan dalam buku. Melalui
doctoral training. As many of the contributors koleksi 20 bab tentang konstruksi teoritis dan
point out, economists such as Krugman and metodologi, perdebatan dan wacana, serta link
Porter have received enormous public and ke kebijakan dan evaluasi kebijakan, buku ini
academic attention and have been influential in memberikan pandangan singkat dari konsep
stimulating a critical appraisal of the ‘economic’ dan lintasan sejarah mereka dalam geografi
within geography from within the discipline as ekonomi (lihat organisasi bab di bawah ini Buku
exemplified in this book. Through a collection ini menunjukkan akar yang berbeda dan
of 20 chapters on theoretical constructs and menciptakan warisan bersama dalam
methodologies, debates and discourses, as well memahami ketergantungan dinamis di dunia
as links to policymaking and policy evaluation, global. Catatan kontributor mengubah fokus
this book provides a succinct view of concepts dan metodologi dari periode 1960-1980
and their historical trajectories in economic geografi ekonomi kuantitatif, minat pada tahun
geography (see the organization of chapters 1980-an Mempertahankan bagaimana rezim
below). Contributions of many other key akumulasi dalam dunia kapitalis membangun
researchers in economic geography are ruang-ruang pembangunan yang tidak merata,
reflected in these chapters. The book dan bagaimana sastra tahun 1990-an diperkaya
demonstrates the differing roots and creates a oleh berbagai sudut pandang dan metodologi
common legacy in understanding dynamic yang dirancang untuk memahami efek lokal
dependencies in a globalized world. The dari ruang global. Pertemuan AAG, tanggapan
contributors record changing foci and yang luar biasa adalah bahwa menjembatani
methodologies from the 1960–1980 period of kesenjangan di 'suara dalam sub-disiplin
quantitative economic geography, the 1980s geografi ekonomi' untuk memaksimalkan
interest in understanding how regimes of pemahaman kita tentang proses yang
accumulation in a capitalist world construct membentuk eksistensi sosial, politik, dan
spaces of uneven development, and how the ekonomi kita. Buku ini memiliki dua bagian: (I )
1990s literature was enriched by differing Geografi Ekonomi - Akar dan Legacy, (II)
viewpoints and methodologies which were Globalisasi dan Kapitalisme Kontemporer, dan
designed to understand the local effects of the (III) Keunggulan Kompetitif Regional - Sheppard
global space economy. In the new century, membahas kemunculan bidang geografi
especially at the Centennial Meeting of the ekonomi dengan fokus khusus pada teori lokasi,
AAG, the overwhelming response has been that di bagian pertama, Sheppard, Hanson,
of bridging gaps across ‘voices within the sub- McDowell, Hudson, dan Scott merefleksikan
discipline of economic geography’ in order to kemajuan dalam geografi ekonomi. ekonomi
maximize our understanding of processes that politik, 'giliran budaya', pendekatan feminis,
shape our social, political, and economic dan ekonomi geografis. Pada sesi AAG, Eric
existence. The intention of this book then is to Sheppard menyatakan:
expose its audience to the breadth of the
discipline and at the same time allowing the
reader to engage in current debates and
understand the critical components of research
in economic geography, theoretical, empirical
or applied. The book has three sections: (I)
Economic Geography – Roots and Legacy, (II)
Globalization and Contemporary Capitalism,
and (III) Regional Competitive Advantage –
Industrial Change, Human Capital and Public
Policy. In the first section, Sheppard, Hanson,
McDowell, Hudson, and Scott reflect on
advances in economic geography. Sheppard
discusses the emergence of the field of
economic geography with specific focus on the
location theory, political economy, the ‘cultural
turn’, feminist approaches, and geographical
economics. At the AAG session, Eric Sheppard
stated:
Notwithstanding current frustrations with Meskipun ada frustrasi saat ini dengan
economics, the ongoing evolution of knowledge ekonomi, evolusi berkelanjutan dari produksi
production in economic geography will pengetahuan di bidang ekonomi bersifat
necessarily continue to be shaped through its kuantitatif dan neoklasik , dan geografi tidak.
relationship to economics. That relationship is Bahkan, kuantitatif, geografi ekonomi non-
currently plagued by the shared opinion of new neoklasik dan pasca-positivis memang ada, dan
economic geographers in economics and menyarankan kesimpulan yang berbeda dengan
geography that economics is quantitative and yang mendominasi geografi ekonomi baru di
neoclassical, and geography is not. In fact, bidang ekonomi. Selain itu, berbagai
quantitative, non-neoclassical and post- heterodoks, tradisi ekonomi pasca-autis ada
positivist economic geography does exist, and (feminis, ekologis, institusional, historis,
suggests different conclusions to those Marxian, pasca-struktural, dll.) dengan geografi
dominating the new economic geography in ekonomi baru dalam geografi yang memiliki
economics. Furthermore, a variety of lebih banyak kesamaan.
heterodox, post-autistic economic traditions Hus bab mengeksplorasi kondisi di mana
exist (feminist, ecological, institutional, peneliti dengan pendekatan yang berbeda
historical, Marxian, post-structural, etc.) with dapat berinteraksi untuk memperkuat produksi
which new economic geographers in geography pengetahuan dalam geografi ekonomi.
could have much in common. geografi? 3. apa metodologi kerja dan apa yang
His chapter explores conditions under which tidak? 4. Siapa penonton kami? 5. Bagaimana
researchers with differing approaches can kita mengajarkan geografi ekonomi? dalam
interact to strengthen knowledge production in menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan ini,
economic geography. Susan Hanson raises five pertanyaan yang diajukan pada hubungan di
questions: 1. What will we study? What is the seluruh sub-disiplin ilmu geografi, kekuatan
domain of economic geography? 2. What are lapangan dan tantangan dalam
the approaches to studying economic menggabungkan beberapa metodologi, serta
geography? 3. What methodologies work and kebutuhan untuk memaksimalkan efektivitas
what don’t? 4. Who are our audiences? 5. How geografi ekonomi dalam menjangkau ke
do we teach economic geography? In beberapa penonton, yaitu akademisi, bisnis,
answering these questions, more questions are organisasi pemerintah dan non-pemerintah. isu
raised on linkages across sub-disciplines of Pedagogik dieksplorasi dengan pemahaman
geography, the power of fieldwork and the penuh dari kebutuhan untuk evaluasi melalui
challenge in combining multiple methodologies, dialog berkesinambungan di antara para
as well as the need to maximize the mahasiswa, profesor dan praktisi Linda
effectiveness of economic geography in McDowell merayakan bagaimana feminis
reaching out to multiple audiences, namely geografis beasiswa sekarang mainstream. Hal
academics, businesses, government and non- ini terlihat dan bersemangat, yang melibatkan
government organizations. Pedagogic issues are sejumlah besar ulama menjelajahi geografi
explored with a full understanding of the need perbedaan dan hubungan gender di berbagai
for evaluation through continuous dialogue belahan dunia, dan penerbitan dalam berbagai
among students, professors and practitioners. jurnal. Ini tidak selalu begitu dan dia mencatat
Linda McDowell celebrates how feminist mengapa argumen feminis Dia menetapkan
geographical scholarship is now mainstream. It tantangan intelektual tempat baru bagi para
is visible and vibrant, involving considerable ahli geografi feminis dan bagaimana bisa
numbers of scholars exploring geographies of menginformasikan pemahaman audiens yang
difference and of gender relations in different lebih luas Meninjau kemajuan besar dalam
parts of the world, and publishing in a range of beberapa dekade berikutnya, terutama
journals. This was not always so and she geografi ekonomi dan keterlibatan dengan
records why feminist arguments were geografi ekonomi geografi ekonomi. ekonomi
neglected and how and why academic politik di t ia 1970-an dan warisan, Hudson
discourses have been transformed thus the menyimpulkan bahwa geografi ekonomi
theoretical positions that lay behind the heterodoks dan teoritis plural telah muncul dan
invisibility of women’s lives have been satu di mana on-akan perdebatan antara
dismantled. She sets out where new intellectual protagonis mengikuti posisi teoritis yang
challenges lie for feminist geographers and how berbeda kemungkinan akan berlanjut. Dia
they can inform the understanding of broader memprediksi keterlibatan teoritis yang lebih
audiences. Ray Hudson traces the changing serius dengan hubungan antara ekonomi,
paradigms of theoretical understanding in lingkungan dan alam
economic geography back to radical shifts in
approach in the 1950s when economic
geographers returned to explaining and
theorizing why economic activities are located
where they are. Reviewing major advances in
succeeding decades, particularly economic
geography’s engagement with Marxian political
economy in the 1970s and its legacy, Hudson
concludes that a heterodox and theoretical
plural economic geography has emerged and
one in which on-going debates between
protagonists adhering to different theoretical
positions is likely to continue. He predicts more
serious theoretical engagement with
relationships between economy, environment
and nature.
Allen Scott’s chapter fittingly completes this bab Allen Scott pantas melengkapi bagian ini
section with his critique of the current state of dengan kritiknya terhadap keadaan saat
economic geography, drawing together a geografi ekonomi, menggambar bersama
number of themes raised in the other chapters. sejumlah tema yang diangkat dalam bab-bab
He evaluates a number of prominent claims put lain. Dia mengevaluasi sejumlah klaim yang
forward in recent years by both geographers menonjol diajukan dalam beberapa tahun
and economists about the methods and scope terakhir oleh kedua ahli geografi dan ekonom
of economic geography. Much of his chapter tentang metode dan ruang lingkup geografi
revolves around two main lines of critical ekonomi. Banyak dari bab berkisar dua jalur
appraisal. He pinpoints the strong and weak utama dari penilaian kritis. Dia titik-titik poin
points of geographical economics as it has been yang kuat dan lemah ekonomi geografis seperti
formulated by Paul Krugman and his co- yang telah dirumuskan oleh Paul Krugman dan
workers. On the basis of these arguments, he rekan-rekan kerjanya. Atas dasar argumen ini,
identifies a viable agenda for economic ia mengidentifikasi agenda yang layak untuk
geography based on an assessment of the geografi ekonomi berdasarkan penilaian
central problems and predicaments of terhadap masalah pusat dan predicaments
contemporary capitalism. This assessment kapitalisme kontemporer. penilaian ini
leads him to the conclusion that the best bet menyebabkan dia pada kesimpulan bahwa
for economic geographers today is to work out taruhan terbaik untuk geografi ekonomi hari ini
a new political economy of spatial development adalah untuk bekerja di luar ekonomi politik
based on a full recognition of two main sets of baru pembangunan tata ruang berdasarkan
circumstances: first, that the hard core of the Pengakuan penuh dari dua set utama keadaan:
capitalist economy remains focused on the pertama, bahwa inti keras dari ekonomi
dynamics of accumulation; second, that this kapitalis tetap f Untuk menggarisbawahi garis
hard core is irrevocably intertwined with argumen yang sulit ditimbulkan pada dinamika
complex socio-cultural forces, but also that it akumulasi. awal untuk membangun prinsip-
cannot be reduced to these same forces. In prinsip dasar beberapa tentang produksi dan
order to ground the line of argument that now evaluasi klaim pengetahuan dasar. pada bagian
ensues, we need at the outset to establish a kedua, Clark, Markusen, Walker, Daniels, Angel,
few elementary principles about the production Kenney dan Dossani, dan Yeung memberikan
and evaluation of basic knowledge claims. In perspektif tentang kapitalisme kontemporer.
the second section, Clark, Markusen, Walker, Gordon Clark berpendapat bahwa keuangan
Daniels, Angel, Kenney and Dossani, and Yeung adalah lensa penting yang akan digunakan
provide perspectives on contemporary untuk mempelajari kapitalisme kontemporer -.
capitalism. Gordon Clark argues that finance is dari lokal ke global bab-Nya menjelaskan
the essential lens through which to study mengapa dan bagaimana geografi keuangan
contemporary capitalism – from the local to the sangat penting untuk masa depan geografi
global. His chapter explains why and how the ekonomi dan berapa usia aksioma teori
geography of finance is so important to the keuangan sekarang tidak memadai dalam
future of economic geography and how old terang heterogenitas praktek. Jadi, ia
theoretical axioms of finance are now berpendapat perlunya memperoleh wawasan
inadequate in the light of heterogeneity of model baru dan holistik dari struktur dan
practice. Thus, he argues the need for gaining kinerja keuangan global yang menggunakan
insights into new and holistic models of the qual itative dan teknik kuantitatif. Ann
structure and performance of global finance Markusen mengeksplorasi fertilisasi silang
using qualitative and quantitative techniques. antara ekonomi politik dan geografi ekonomi
Ann Markusen explores the cross-fertilization dan catatan tema penelitian utama dari tahun
between political economy and economic 1970-an, menyoroti keuntungan dari luasnya
geography and records major research themes pendekatan geografi ekonomi. Dia
from the 1970s, highlighting the advantages of menunjukkan bagaimana pekerjaannya dan
the breadth of approach of economic orang lain pada industri pertahanan pada tahun
geographers. She shows how her work and that 1980 memiliki resonansi untuk memahami isu-
of others on the defence industry in the 1980s isu kontemporer. perhatian utama nya,
has resonances for the understanding of bagaimanapun, adalah bahwa siswa saat ini
contemporary issues. Her key concern, memiliki landasan yang cukup dalam
however, is that today’s students have bagaimana lapangan telah berkembang atau
insufficient grounding in how the field has menghubungkan bahwa pemahaman peristiwa
evolved or linking that understanding to events dan gerakan dalam masyarakat yang lebih
and movements in the larger society. Through besar. Melalui akun dari Pengalaman untuk
an account of his own experience, Richard geografi di Johns Hopkins memperkenalkannya
Walker tells us about the education of an kepada ideologi Marxis, sebagai pengajar
economic geographer. Economics training in yunior anggota di Berkeley, ia mulai menjelajahi
the 1970s did not provide him with the answers topik-topik perkotaan, minat awalnya di
for solving problems plaguing society. Exposure lingkungan adalah Kontribusi signifikan datang
to geography at Johns Hopkins introduced him dari non-ahli geografi seperti peran industri
to Marxist ideology. As a junior faculty member jasa dalam pembangunan ekonomi, distribusi
at Berkeley, he started exploring urban topics. tidak merata
His initial interest in environmental issues
continues and his career path shows the
appreciation of diverse perspectives from the
social sciences. Peter Daniels reflects on how
academic geographers have written and
thought about service industries. Significant
contributions came from non-geographers such
as the role of service industries in economic
development, uneven distribution
of producer services, connections between Selama tahun 1980-an dan awal 1990-an, ahli
society and the rise of the service sector among geografi ekonomi menyoroti fakta bahwa
others. During the 1980s and early 1990s, layanan produsen adalah kunci untuk
economic geographers highlighted the fact that memahami fungsi dasar layanan di ekonomi
producer services are the key to understanding perkotaan atau regional. pertengahan 1990-an,
the basic function of services in urban or ahli geografi ekonomi meneliti peran layanan
regional economies. After the mid 1990s, produsen di jaringan global dan karakteristik
economic geographers examined the role of jenis layanan tertentu. Daniels mengingatkan
producer services in global networks and the kita bahwa:
characteristics of particular types of services. Permintaan, kualitas dan layanan distribusi
Daniels reminds us that: spasial jauh dari habis, tidak terkecuali sebagai
Research on the relationship between offshoring dan outsourcing dari kedua rutinitas
developments in information and dan tugas layanan pesanan yang lebih tinggi
communications technology (ICT) and the menyajikan tantangan ekonomi untuk
supply, demand, quality and spatial distribution beberapa ekonomi maju dan peluang untuk
services is far from exhausted, not least as ekonomi yang baru muncul.
offshoring and outsourcing of both routine and David Angel menawarkan bagaimana beberapa
higher-order service tasks presents economic topik menarik pertanyaan dalam evolusi
challenges to some developed economies and lingkungan dalam pola regulasi lingkungan
opportunities for newly emerging economies. perusahaan dan industri, tingkat pengawasan
David Angel offers how several topics attracted yang lebih tinggi terhadap aktivitas perusahaan
enquiries in environmental economic di seluruh dunia, serta perubahan iklim dan
geography: an examination of the evolution in tantangan lingkungan. Saat ini, Untuk
patterns of environmental regulation of firms penghijauan pendekatan industri, penelitian
and industries, higher level of scrutiny of firms’ berpusat pada perusahaan dan umumnya
activities around the world, and climate change terbagi dalam tiga kategori: konsekuensi
and environmental challenges. Currently, the perubahan dalam jaringan produksi global
approaches of study of environmental untuk pembangunan ekonomi, inovasi
economic geography include the greening of teknologi dan kinerja lingkungan, dan
industry and the political ecology of industrial hubungan globalisasi ekonomi, untuk ekologi
change. For the greening of industry approach, politik pendekatan perubahan industri,
researches are firm-centred and mainly fall into penelitian berada di awal teori proses
three categories: consequences of changes in perubahan industri, yang melibatkan aliran
global production networks for economic material. dan sumber daya serta alirannya
development, technological innovations and Perubahan terbaru dalam modal, teknologi,
environmental performance, and flows of produk dan jasa Martin Kenney dan Rafiq
capital, technology, and information and the Dossani memeriksa implikasi potensial dari
dynamic of economic globalization. For the jaringan telekomunikasi dan transportasi
political ecology of industry change approach, lanjutan untuk reorganisasi tenaga kerja global.
researchs are at the beginning of theorizing the Dampak-dampak ini akan menciptakan dampak
process of industrial change, which involves the baru dan dampak-dampak tersebut akan
flow of materials and resources as well as the menciptakan layanan kelas atas seperti dampak
flow of capital, technology, products and dan kebutuhan untuk mendefinisikan kembali
services. The focus is more on the structural layanan, relokasi layanan, dan aliran informasi
foundation and social processes of industrial digital yang tidak terbatas. Henry Yeung
change. Martin Kenney and Rafiq Dossani menulis tentang transformasi ekonomi Asia
examine the potential implications of advanced Pada awal 1990-an, konsep teoritis dalam
telecommunications and transportation geografi ekonomi gagal menangkap konteks
networks for the reorganization of global sosial dan kelembagaan yang mempengaruhi
workforce. The recent changes in internasionalisasi perusahaan. Peter Dicken
transportation and telecommunication also memperkenalkan konsep tersebut keleluasaan
have an impact on services, especially high-end dalam mengkonseptualisasikan 'perspektif
services like R&D. The impact on high-end jaringan bisnis', yang digunakan dalam
services includes the need to redefine services, menjelaskan hubungan ekonomi dan non-
the relocation of services, and the unrestricted ekonomi di intra-perusahaan, interfirm, dan
flow of digitized information. These impacts will ekstra- tingkat perusahaan, Yeung telah
create new labour processes; economic menerapkan perspektif di atas ke Asia
geographers are ideally positioned to examine
the spatial implications of such processes.
Henry Yeung writes on the transformation of
Asian economies. In the early 1990s, theoretical
concepts in economic geography failed to
capture the social and institutional contexts
influencing the internationalization of firms.
Peter Dicken introduced the concept of
embeddedness in conceptualizing the dynamic
organization of business firms. The concept has
been further developed and subsequently
resulted in ‘business network perspective’,
which is utilized in explaining the economic and
non-economic relations at the intra-firm,
interfirm, and extra-firm levels. Yeung has
applied the above perspective to the Asian
context and calls for further research in konteks dan panggilan untuk penelitian lebih
understanding the complex interrelationships lanjut dalam memahami hubungan timbal balik
in Asian capitalism. The third section includes yang kompleks dalam kapitalisme Asia. Bagian
chapters by Martin, Asheim, Beyers, Watts, ketiga meliputi bab oleh Martin, Asheim,
Glasmeier, Lovering, Green, and Malecki on Beyers, Watts, Glasmeier, Lovering, Hijau, dan
regional competitiveness. Ron Martin’s chapter Malecki pada daya saing daerah. bab Ron
focuses on the contemporary issue of regional Martin berfokus pada isu kontemporer daya
competitiveness, with its antecedents in the saing daerah, dengan anteseden dalam
pervasive phenomenon of geographically fenomena meresap pembangunan geografis
uneven development. The distinctiveness of tidak merata. kekhasan dari pemikiran saat ini
current thinking is that disparities in adalah bahwa kesenjangan dalam kinerja
performance are explicitly about secara eksplisit tentang daya saing daripada
competitiveness rather than ‘place’ 'tempat' kompetisi. Martin menjelaskan
competition. Martin explains discourses of wacana daya saing menyoroti kontribusi
competitiveness highlighting the contribution ekonom, dan bagaimana daerah saing dapat
of economists, and how regional dilihat sebagai suatu proses evolusi. Dia
competitiveness can be seen as an evolutionary berpendapat bahwa geografi ekonomi memiliki
process. He argues that economic geographers peran penting untuk bermain dalam
have an important role to play in explaining and menjelaskan dan mengkritisi gagasan daya
critiquing the idea of regional competitiveness saing daerah sebagai cara berpikir tentang
as a way of thinking about the economic lanskap ekonomi dan menyediakan ruang untuk
landscape and provides scope for economic keterlibatan ahli geografi ekonomi dalam debat
geographers’ engagement in public policy kebijakan publik . Björn Asheim menulis
debates. Björn Asheim writes about tentang mengontekstualisasikan geografi
contextualizing economic geography, ekonomi, geografi sebagai disiplin sintetis, co-
geography as a synthetic discipline, the co- evolusi geografi ekonomi Nordic dengan
evolution of Nordic economic geography with institusi / evolusi ekonomi yang mengarah ke
institutional/evolutionary economics leading to posisi internasional terkemuka ketika datang ke
an international leading position when it comes studi tentang sistem cluster dan inovasi, dan
to studies of cluster and innovation systems, sisi terapan ini sesuai dengan tugas ketiga. Dia
and the applied side of this in accordance with mencerminkan pada pengembangan teoritis
the third task. He reflects on the theoretical dari disiplin, membahas peran theoretization
development of the discipline, discussing the abstrak dalam tradisi Marxis yang digunakan
role of abstract theoretization in a Marxist pada awal tahun 1980, tetapi yang tampaknya
tradition which was used in the early 1980s, but telah menghilang dengan transisi dari
which seemed to have disappeared with the mempelajari Fordist ke pasca ruang ekonomi
transition from studying Fordist to post-Fordist Fordist. Dia berpendapat bahwa ini juga terkait
economic spaces. He argues that this is also dengan realisme sebagai pendekatan
related to realism as an epistemological epistemologis, yaitu hubungan antara
approach, that is, the relation between abstract penelitian abstrak dan konkret, dan peran yang
and concrete research, and the role played by dimainkan oleh kontinjensi dalam ruang
contingencies in the economic spaces studied. ekonomi dipelajari. dalam 'mendekati metode
In ‘Approaching research methods in economic penelitian dalam geografi ekonomi' , Bill Beyers
geography’, Bill Beyers reminds us that there is mengingatkan kita bahwa tidak ada satu
no one methodological or philosophical penghalang metodologis atau filosofis Dilatih
perspective that works for all. Each reader will sebagai ilmuwan regional, ia menilai analisis
construct for themselves their own approach kuantitatif, model formal, dan penggunaan
and each contributor has his/her own ways of teori dengan cara metodologi pemanfaatannya
utilizing methodologies to answer research sendiri. (3) pendekatan yang dimotivasi oleh
questions. Trained as a regional scientist, he rasa ingin tahu yang ada, (3) pendekatan yang
values quantitative analysis, formal models, dimotivasi oleh keingintahuan yang ada, (4)
and the use of theory to frame research pendekatan yang didorong terutama oleh
methods. His own research experience provides metode atau dengan metode yang
the following categorization: (1) approaches dikembangkan (6) penelitian didorong oleh
driven primarily by methods or models hasil yang tidak terduga, (7) penelitian
developed by others; (2) exploratory research kolaboratif antara fakultas dan siswa watt
motivated by pure curiosity; (3) approaches mencerminkan bagaimana organisasi spasial
motivated by existing theories; (4) approaches produksi dalam perusahaan multi-daerah telah
driven by secondary data; (5) research driven berteori, secara empiris belajar, dan mengajar
by the development of technologies; (6) sejak tahun 1950-an. Dia mencatat bahwa
research driven by unexpected outcomes; (7) econo yang lanskap mic telah berubah sebagai
research that has value to the applied research kontribusi untuk kerja daerah oleh perusahaan
community; and (8) collaborative research multi-regional yang besar menurun sedangkan
between faculty and students. Doug Watts kontribusi perusahaan-perusahaan kecil
reflects on how the spatial organization of meningkat dari tahun 1980-an, bagaimanapun,
production within multi-regional firms has been perusahaan besar tetap menjadi aktor kunci
theorized, empirically studied, and taught since dalam sistem ekonomi global dan tidak dapat
the 1950s. He records that the economic diabaikan dalam memahami ekonomi regional
landscape has changed as the contribution to berubah.
regional employment by large multi-regional
firms declined while the contribution of smaller
firms increased from the 1980s, however, the
large firm remains a key actor in the global
economic system and cannot be ignored in
understanding regional economic change.
Amy Glasmeier explores why economic Dia berpendapat bahwa keterlibatan akademik
geographers have been largely absent in policy- (2006) (post - Hurricane Katrina), banyak aliran
making circles, particularly in the USA. Her datang bersama-sama dalam pertemuan ide-
chapter records and deplores the lack of ide yang menghasilkan intelektual John
willingness for economic geographers to Lovering mengambil keterampilan dan
critically engage in debates that span academia pengetahuannya dengan gigih terlibat dalam
and public policy. She argues that academic perdebatan dan membuat perbedaan untuk
engagement in the political process best occurs beberapa masalah masalah yang diketahui
when society is gravitating in that direction. orang. untuk tugas pelukan geografi ekonomi
Therefore at times like the 1980s, and in the yang berlebihan dari Kekaisaran Ibukota. Dia
current period (2006) (post-Hurricane Katrina), menawarkan kritik tentang apa dia
many streams come together in a confluence of mengidentifikasi sebagai PostCultural-Turn
ideas that result in an intellectual consensus Ekonomi Geografi (PCTEG), dengan alasan
about critical problems to which geographers’ bahwa karena sejumlah pengaruh, PCTEG
best efforts and significant energy are adalah ekonomi hanya dalam arti tematik dan
profitably aimed. She implores economic dihapus dari kesadaran empiris informasi dari
geographers not to be silent and to use their planet tempat tinggal kita. Ann Hijau
skills and knowledge vociferously engaging in mencerminkan perkembangan di . geografi
debates and making a difference to how issues pasar tenaga kerja, bagaimana mereka diukur
are being understood. John Lovering takes to dan dipahami Sejak tahun 1980-an, metode
task economic geography’s excessive embrace analisis menjadi lebih kualitatif, teoritis, lebih
of the Empire of Capital. He provides a critique terfokus pada isu-isu sosial dan budaya dan
of what he identifies as the PostCultural-Turn terhadap pemilahan yang lebih rinci Dia
Economic Geography (PCTEG), arguing that due mengidentifikasi empat masalah utama peneliti
to a number of influences, PCTEG is economic :. penyesuaian pasar tenaga kerja, Dia
only in a thematic sense and is removed from mengidentifikasi mengidentifikasi isu-isu
an empirically informed awareness of the perubahan kebijakan dan berpendapat bahwa
planet we live on. Ann Green reflects on ahli geografi ekonomi memiliki peran penting
developments in labour market geographies, dalam memberikan kontribusi terhadap
how they are measured and understood. Since perdebatan dalam apa tuas kebijakan yang
the 1980s, methods of analysis have become tersedia di berbagai skala geografis untuk
more qualitative, theoretical, more focused on mempengaruhi hasil kebijakan Green
social and cultural issues and towards more berpendapat bahwa pertanyaan utama untuk
detailed disaggregation. She identifies four penelitian adalah 'Apa adalah kapasitas untuk
major concerns of researchers: labour market mobilitas dan fleksibilitas dalam pasar tenaga
adjustments, the balance between migration kerja? 'Ed Malecki tanggal akhir 1970-an
and commuting, area perceptions in labour sebagai waktu ketika perubahan teknologi
market behaviour and the role of labour market diakui oleh sejumlah kecil ulama, termasuk
intermediaries. She identifies changing policy dirinya sendiri, sebagai penjelasan mengapa
issues and argues that economic geographers perusahaan, terutama perusahaan besar, yang
have an important role in contributing to the terletak dan Akhirnya, kami ingin mengucapkan
debate in what policy levers are available at terima kasih kepada semua kontributor untuk
different geographical scales to influence policy lima sesi di Pertemuan Centennial AAG
outcomes. Green argues that a central question tersebut. kami sangat berterima kasih kepada
for research is ‘What is the capacity for mobility Allen Scott untuk keynote, yang memberikan
and flexibility in labour markets?’ Ed Malecki acara kami seperti awal yang indah. Semua sesi
dates the late 1970s as the time when yang sangat besar merangsang. kami berterima
technological change was recognized by a small kasih kepada penonton untuk partisipasi dan
number of scholars, including himself, as the kontribusi mereka. kami berharap bahwa buku
explanation for why companies, especially large ini menangkap kegembiraan dialami oleh ahli
companies, were located and how those geografi ekonomi, pada sesi ini, melihat ke
locations changed over time. He argues that depan pada abad ke dua puluh satu.
technology, broadly conceived as knowledge
and application, continues to be fundamental
to technological change and related regional
development. Finally, we would like to thank all
of the contributors to the five sessions at the
Centennial Meeting of the AAG. We are
particularly grateful to Allen Scott for his
keynote, which gave our event such a
wonderful start. All of the sessions were
enormously stimulating. We thank the
audience for their participation and
contribution. We hope that this book captures
the excitement experienced by economic
geographers, at these sessions, looking ahead
at the twenty-first century.