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A Study on the Influence of the Suction Arrangement on the Performance of Twin Screw Compressors

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Twin Screw Compressors

DOI: 10.1115/IMECE2013-62391

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Proceedings of the ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition

IMECE2013

November 15-21, 2013, San Diego, California, USA

IMECE2013-62391

PERFORMANCE OF TWIN SCREW COMPRESSORS

Howden Compressors Ltd Howden Compressors Ltd

Glasgow, UK Glasgow, UK

Howden Compressors Ltd Howden Compressors Ltd City University

Glasgow, UK Glasgow, UK London, UK

ABSTRACT

Screw compressors are complex flow systems, but operate INTRODUCTION

upon simple considerations: they are positive displacement

machines consisting of meshing rotors contained in a casing to Although the basic operation of twin screw compressors is

form a working chamber, whose volume depends only on the well known and the analytical methods for their performance

angle of rotation. Their performance is highly affected by prediction are well established, only few attempts of

leakages, which is dependent on various clearances and the investigating the flow in screw compressors by means of CFD

pressure differences across these clearances. Nowadays, the can be identified in the available literature. Nevertheless, there

manufacturing and profiling techniques have matured so much, are many advantages in considering CFD as integrated part of

that rotors of even the most complex shapes can be the design and optimization process of screw compressors (SC).

manufactured to tolerances in the order of few microns, This is mostly because CFD complements the experimental and

resulting in high efficiencies. With manufacturing tolerances analytical efforts by providing an alternative cost-effective

this tight, there is only small amount of improvement expected mean of simulating real fluid flows and substantially reduces

from further exploration of this venue, and a rather different lead times and costs of designs and production compared with

direction for analysis may be more rewarding, i.e. other an experimental based approach, Tiu and Liu [1]. Probably the

components of the screw compressor, like the suction and most noticeable efforts in the field of numerical analysis of SC

discharge areas. While the available literature includes several were made by Kovacevic et. al. [2] and [3], where in addition to

references on improvements of the compressor performance establishing a mesh procedure specific to such flow machines,

based on the analysis of the discharge port and discharge the author also explains adequate boundary calculations to

chamber, the investigation of the suction arrangement and inlet encourage good convergence and minimal numerical errors.

port remains fairly unexplored. This is the area of concern for Similar efforts were made by Sauls and Branch [4], where the

the present paper, where the influence of the port shape and commercial code ANSYS-CFX was used for the detailed

suction arrangement on the overall compressor performance is analysis of a refrigeration SC designed for use with R134a in

investigated. Various suction models were investigated for a air- and water-cooled chillers. Also benefiting from the mesh

standard screw compressor by means of CFD, which allowed technique documented in [2], Steinmann [5] reported results

in-depth analyses and flow visualizations, confirmed by the from the modeling of a helical-lobed pump and a SC using

experimental investigation carried out on the actual compressor. ANSYS-CFX. While the available literature includes several

Keywords: screw compressors, optimum suction, CFD references on improvements of the compressor performance

based on the analysis of the discharge port and discharge

chamber, Mujic et. al. [6], Huagen et. al. [7] and Pascu et. al. of various clearances and the pressure difference across these

[8], the investigation of the suction arrangement and inlet port gaps.

remains fairly unexplored. By examining the flow results it is clear that the amount of gas

This is the area of concern for the present paper, where the induced into the suction cavities remains the same for both

influence of the port shape and suction arrangement on the designs – this is because the flows are somewhat identical for

overall compressor performance is investigated. the low pressure ratios. This could be due to fact that the

original suction port arrangement had very little pressure drop

EXPERIMENTAL BACKGROUND within the suction chamber and the suction port, and the

improvement to the pressure drop by opening up the radial port

While its theoretical background has never really been the did not give a significant flow benefit in terms of the induced

focus of research in the available literature, the shape of the gas flow.

suction port in a twin screw compressor is often the subject of However, the incorporation of radial port seems to increase the

experimental investigations. The general belief is that by leakages. This is clear from the flow decrease at the high

opening the gas admission through a radial port at the suction pressure ratios.

will have a positive effect on the compressor performance, as When analyzing the power measurements results, the two

more of the rotor area will be exposed to the working gas. designs seem to absorb very similar amount of power, even

In order to determine whether or not the inlet conditions though the modified casing seems to absorb very small amount

bear an effect on the overall compressor performance, two of extra power for the higher pressure ratios - this could

suction scenarios were investigated for the same compressor, possibly be due to the influence of the leakage gas.

characterized by equal rotor diameters 165 mm, L/D=1.45 and 140

“N” rotor profile with 4/6 lobes: one with axial port at the

120

compression chamber entry (referred to as original), the second

including the same axial port, as well as a radial port machined- 100

Power [kW]

off from the inner casing wall (modified), as shown in Figure 1. 80

60 ORI_test

40 MOD_TEST

20

0

0 5 10 15 20 25

PR [-]

0.20

Mass Flow [kg/sec]

right – modified compressor

0.10

When analyzing the experimental results shown in Figure 2, ORI_test

particularly the flow, a reduction of volume flow in the

0.05 MOD_TEST

modified compressor compared to the original design can be

observed, especially at the higher pressure ratios. The maximum

0.00

reduction of the flow is around 2 - 3% at the pressure ratio of 20

and reduces as the pressure ratio goes down. At lower pressure 0 5 10 15 20 25

ratios, below 5, both compressors seem to provide roughly the PR [-]

same flow.

Figure 2 Experimental results

There are two main flow mechanisms which govern the net flow

going through a screw compressor: the flow induced into the

In conclusion, contrary to the initial assumption, this

suction space of the rotors and the gas leaks back from the high

compressor has not benefited in any way from the introduction

pressure regions to the suction space. The amount of gas

of the radial suction port, as test results have revealed no

induced depends on the volume, pressure and temperature of

improvement in the compressor performance at smaller pressure

the rotor cavities opened to the suction gas. Any pressure drop

ratios and a slight deterioration at higher pressure ratios, in

within the suction chamber and the suction ports would result in

terms of both power and flow.

lower flow and increase the power. On the other hand, the

amount of gas leaks back to the suction area depends on the size

NUMERICAL MODELS

In order to fully understand the flow mechanism in the The overall mesh statistics typically used for these compressor

suction area of the compressors and determine the reasons simulations are:

which influenced adversely the performance when opening a Main casing approx 82K nodes

radial port into the compression chamber, a numerical Discharge casing approx 86K

investigation was carried out. Inlet approx 176K nodes

An adaptive meshing technique is utilized to capture all the

Numerical mesh changes which occur within the working chamber during the

compression process.

The critical sub-domains in this setup are the two rotors as The number of time changes required by the rotors mesh is 120

they contain the working chamber as well as the clearances and for the full rotation of the male rotor, with the number of nodes

leakage paths (radial, axial, interlobe and blow-hole area). kept constant across the timesteps.

Generating the grids for these domains is by far the most

challenging part of the entire meshing procedure, as both micro- Boundary conditions

and macro- scales elements have to be solved (the interlobe

clearances are in the order of several microns, whilst the rest of The numerical model includes the stationary domain with

the rotor body measures over 1000 mm). In this case, a the major casing components (inlet, main and discharge) and

technique dedicated to screw compressor rotors was employed, the rotating domain, depicted by the two rotors, see Figure 5.

as described by Kovacević [3], which is included in SCORGgg Various interfaces were applied to each of these domains to

(Screw COmpressor Rotor Geometry grid generator). This ensure the flow transition between the different domains. All

procedure is fully explained in several publications included in these interfaces were considered to be General Grid Interfaces

the reference list (GGI). The original compressor model includes one interface

and therefore, will between the rotors and casing (called axial port, placed between

not be repeated the inlet casing the two rotors). The modified compressor

here. A simplified includes an additional interface to the rotors – the radial port

representation of machined in the main casing.

the rotors mesh

(cross-sectional

view) is presented

section before 3D interpolation

approximately 140,000 for the female, of structured mesh. The

numerical model includes three more domains: the inlet casing,

the main casing, which in turn includes the suction into the

compressor and the discharge casing, including the discharge

port. ANSYS

ICEM v14.5 was

used for the mesh

generation process

and special mesh

refinement

techniques were Figure 5 Numerical model

employed for

sensitive flow Both the suction and the discharge were simulated by pressure

areas, i.e. the interfaces with the rotors). boundary conditions. The pressure boundary conditions are

similar to the inlet or outlet boundaries, firstly because they

Figure 4 Representative mesh for the working chamber couple pressure and velocity directly and secondly because for

(modified compressor) all equations, apart from the momentum equation, the boundary

properties are calculated from the velocity. This procedure may

cause instability in the compressor cycle especially when the

flow changes its direction at the boundary. This is compensated

by adding a boundary domain, in which an amount of mass is

added or subtracted to maintain a constant pressure, is natural

and gives a stable and relatively fast solution, [3]. Both

compressor models were simulated for air ideal gas and ran for

twelve full rotations (1440 timesteps), with the first six allowing

a natural pressure build-up in the system and used as initial

conditions for the last six, where wall roughness was added to

the rotors on top of the previous settings. The following

operating conditions were investigated:

[bar] [bar] [rpm] [C] [C]

1 5 3500 18 80

140

1 10 3500 18 80

120

1 15 3500 18 80

100

Power [kW]

Table 1 Boundary conditions

80

In all cases, oil injection was not simulated. 60 ORI-TEST

MOD-TEST

40

ORI-CFD

NUMERICAL RESULTS 20 MOD-CFD

0

The first step in the evaluation of the numerical results was

0 5 10 15 20 25

to compare the pressure levels in the two compressors, in order

to asses, from a compression point of view, the performance of PR [-]

the two models. For this purpose, a probe point was placed on

Figure 8 Power curves: numerical vs experimental

one grid node of the male rotor, on both the suction and

discharge faces and the total pressure was interrogated at each

time step, as shown in Figure 6 and Figure 7. It can be readily 0.20

observed that there is little to no difference in the variation of 0.16

Mass Flow [kg/sec]

definition, on both graphs, of each individual compression cycle 0.12

can be identified, where the start/ end of the cycle is marked by

the peaks on each plot. 0.08 ORI-TEST

MOD-TEST

0.04 ORI-CFD

MOD-CFD

0.00

0 5 10 15 20 25

PR [-]

for the compressor power and compares with the numerical

results for the two models. It can be observed that a smaller

PR’s (5 and 10) the numerical results are very well confirmed

by the measured power, while at PR=15 a slight over-prediction

Figure 6 Pressure levels at suction

of about 8% is calculated. This is due to the increased system

instability due to the high internal pressures, where, in the

absence of cooling, high local temperatures occur, especially on

the male side of the compression chamber. Nevertheless, the

trend of the measurements is very well repeated for by the

numerical results.

Figure 9 assesses the differences in the measured flow and the

numerical results and a similar validation is observed, i.e. very

good prediction for PR=5, 10 and a slight under-prediction for

PR=15.

Overall, the CFD set-up presented in the previous section

delivered results well validated by the experimental curves. The

numerical predictions repeated the trend of the experimental

curves, i.e. no substantial difference between the two

compressors was observed at smaller PR’s and a slight increase

in the power of the modified compressor (4.5%) was calculated

at higher PR’s, whilst the values of the flow rate remained fairly

similar. Therefore, a detailed flow analysis is required next in

order to fully understand the flow mechanism in the suction area

of the compressors and determine the reasons which influenced

adversely the compressor performance when opening a radial

port into the compression chamber.

Flow analysis in the suction casing Figure 10 Velocity vectors in the original compressor model

A detailed flow analysis was carried out for both

compressor models under each set of the investigated

parameters. For simplicity reasons, the visual analysis for

PR=10 will be presented next, though similar behaviour and

conclusions were drawn for the rest of the points in Table 1.

In a first attempt to understand the flow mechanism in the two

compressors models, the velocity vectors are plotted in the

overall numerical model depicted in Figure 5. The scale of the

plots starts at 0 m/s and has a maximum of 100 m/s. Figure 10

depicts the velocity vectors in the original compressor; from

suction (placed on the main casing) all the way to the axial port

(rotors interface between the rotors and the inlet casing), the

flow is steady and characterized by an average velocity of 6

m/s.

Figure 11 shows the same vector plot in the modified

compressor, keeping the scale magnitude. It can be readily

observed that the flow in this compressor is characterized by Figure 11 Velocity vectors in modified compressor model

two streams: one, the incoming flow from the suction to the

axial port; the second one (depicted in red because the vectors

are outwith the chosen scale) is highly disturbed flow coming

back into the main casing through the radial port. In this case,

the average velocity on the rotors interface (from the inlet

casing) is about 18 m/s.

In order to accentuate the differences between the flow paths in

the suction casing of the compressors, several snapshots of the

same velocity vectors, taken from different angles, are

presented next.

carried out on a single-phase fluid case with air ideal gas, but in

reality, this compressor is an oil-injected machine, and a

multiphase simulation would have revealed a combination of

working gas and oil returning from the working chamber back

into suction through the radial opening.

(front view)

(side view)

(front view)

The still images are captured at the end of the rotation cycle, Figure 15 Velocity vectors in the modified suction casing

but are representative for any intermediate timestep after the (side view)

internal pressure build-up was achieved.

While Figure 12 and Figure 14 reveal no other interferences to Finally, Figure 16 and Figure 17 show contour plots of the

the main stream, the plots in Figure 13 and Figure 15 show the velocity on the axial port, both plotted on the same scale with a

highly disturbed flow field, where the main flow stream maximum at 20 m/s. While the original compressor is

encounters high-velocity flow returning from the radial characterized by a fairly uniform velocity distribution, which

interface with the rotors. Visually, it appears that the rotors act averages out at 6 m/s (as stated above), the axial port in the

as a resistance to the main stream, as part of the incoming flow modified compressor averages at 18 m/s and peaks with a

is redirected back into the suction area. This is due to the maximum of 33 m/s. This yields to a non-uniform high-velocity

atmospheric flow coming in direct contact with portions of the flow field at the interface with the rotors and is the main source

working chamber exposed to high pressure fields and sets the for increased leakages in the modified compressor and

scene for increasing gas leakages. The CFD simulation was therefore, causing the performance deterioration measured

experimentally and numerically.

between the two compressors was observed at smaller PR’s and

a slight increase in the power of the modified compressor

(4.5%) was calculated at higher PR’s, whilst the values of the

flow rate remained fairly similar.

The visual analysis at PR=10 for the two compressor models

allowed the calculation of a detailed flow path in the main

casing. It was concluded that the flow field in the original

compressor was steady and uniform from suction all the way to

the axial port. However, the flow in the modified compressor

had two streams: one, the incoming flow from the suction to the

axial port; the second one was highly disturbed flow coming

back into the main casing through the radial port. In this case, it

appeared as if the rotors acted as resistance to the main stream.

This was due to the atmospheric flow coming in direct contact

Figure 16 Velocity contour plot on rotors interface: original with portions of the working chamber exposed to high pressure

suction casing fields and set the scene for increased gas leakages.

The CFD simulation was carried out on a single-phase fluid

case with air ideal gas, but in reality, this compressor is an oil-

injected machine, and a multiphase simulation would have

revealed a combination of working gas and oil returning from

the working chamber back into suction through the radial

opening. It is expected that for the higher pressure ratios, this

instability will increase and cause a further increase in the

leakages back in the suction casing, resulting thus in a decrease

of the mass flow.

The combined experimental and numerical investigation

revealed that there is no improvement to be expected by adding

a radial port to the suction arrangement of the investigated

screw compressor and furthermore, at higher pressure ratios, a

slight deterioration of the compressor can be expected. It is

Figure 17 Velocity contour plot on rotors interface: therefore recommended that, for this twin screw compressor, the

modified suction casing suction arrangement includes only an axial port.

CONCLUSIONS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank the Centre for Positive

The shape of the suction port in a twin screw compressor is Displacement Machines for the continuous fruitful

often the subject of experimental investigations and the general collaboration. We also recognize the contribution of Howden

belief is that by opening the gas admission through a radial port Compressors Ltd in providing the environment in which work

at the suction will have a positive effect on the compressor such as this is supported.

performance, as more of the rotor area will be exposed to the

working gas.

In order to determine whether or not the inlet conditions bear an

effect on the overall compressor performance, two suction

scenarios were investigated for the same compressor, both

experimentally and numerically: one with axial port at the

compression chamber entry (referred to as original), the second

including the same axial port, as well as a radial port machined-

off from the inner casing wall (modified).

Tests on the compressor models did not reveal any

improvement in the modified casing and furthermore, for higher

pressure ratios, a slight deterioration in the performance of this

compressor was observed in terms of power and flow.

The CFD set-up delivered results well validated by the

experimental curves. The numerical predictions repeated the

trend of the experimental curves, i.e. no substantial difference

REFERENCES

[1] Tu, J., Yeoh, G. H., and Liu, C., 2008, “Computational

fluid dynamics”, Butterworth – Heinemann

[2] Kovacević, A., Stosic, N., and Smith, I., “CFD analysis

of screw compressor performance”, Centre for positive

displacement compressor technology, City University,

London

[3] Kovacević, A., Stosic, N., and Smith, I., “Screw

compressors. Three dimensional computational fluid

dynamics and solid fluid interaction”, Springer Verlag,

2007

[4] Sauls, J., and Branch, S., 2009, “CFD analysis of

refrigeration screw compressors”, Ingersoll Rand

[5] Steinmann, A., 2006, “Numerical simulation of fluid

flow in screw machines with moving mesh techniques

in ANSYS CFX”, Schraubenmaschinen 2006; VDI

Verlag GmbH

[6] Mujic, E., Kovacević, A., Stosic, N., and Smith, I.,

“The influence of port shape on gas pulsations in a

screw compressor discharge chamber”, Centre for

positive displacement compressor technology, City

University, London

[7] Huagen, W., Xing, Z., Peng, X., and Shu, P.,

“Simulation of discharge pressure pulsation within

twin screw compressors”, Journal of Power and

Energy, IMechE, 2004

[8] Pascu M., Kovacevic A., Udo N., 2012, “Performance

Optimization of Screw Compressors Based on

Numerical Investigation of the Flow Behaviour in the

Discharge Chamber”, Proc Int Compressor Conf at

Purdue, Purdue, pp. 1145

[9] Stosic, N., Smith, I., and Kovacević, A., “Screw

compressors. Mathematical modelling and

performance calculation”, Springer Verlag, 2005

[10] Menter, F.R., “Zonal two-equation turbulence models

for aerodynamic flows”, AIAA Paper 96-2906, 1993

[11] Jovanović, J., “The statistical dynamics of turbulence”,

Springer Verlag, 2004

[12] Guerrato, D., Nouri, J. M., Stosic, N., Arcoumanis, C.,

and Smith, I., “Flow development in the discharge

chamber of a screw compressor”, Centre for positive

displacement compressor technology, City University,

London

[13] http://www.ansys.com/Products/Simulation+Technol

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