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What is Cement

• A dry powder made from silica, alumina,


lime, iron oxide, and which hardens when
mixed with water; used as an ingredient in
concrete and mortar.

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Cement or Concrete?
• Cement is the glue that holds concrete
together

• Cement is to concrete as flour is to bread

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Cement is Part of Concrete

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What is Mortar ?
A mixture of cement, sand and water

What is Concrete ?
A mixture of cement, sand, gravel and water

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Some History
• 3000 BC They used gypsum mortars and
mortar of lime in building the
Egyptians pyramids

• 300 BC - 476 AD Used pozzolana cement from Pozzuoli,


Italy near Mt. Vesuvius to build the
Romans Appian Way, Roman baths, the
Coliseum and Pantheon in Rome

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History of Cement

• 1824 Joseph Aspdin of England


invented Portland cement by
burning finely ground chalk
with finely divided clay in a lime
kiln until carbon dioxide was
driven off. The sintered product
was then ground and he called
it Portland cement named after
the high quality building stones
quarried at Portland, England.

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History of Cement
Ransome patented the
• 1845 first rotary kiln
• 1882 F. L. Smidth & Co is founded

• 1891 The continuously fed ball mill


was patented

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History of Cement
• 1930s Roller mill first applied to cement
manufacture
• 1932 Patent of the cyclone preheater kiln

• 1937 Introduction of the Fuller


grate cooler

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History of Cement
Introduction of
• 1950s mechanical separators
• 1973 Introduction of calciner with
tertiary air duct
• 1992 FLSmidth and Fuller introduce the
controlled flow grate cooler

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History of Cement
Introduction of Hot Disc

• 2003

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History of Cement
Introduction of multi movable
• 2004 cross bar cooler

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Quarry

World demand for cement


2000 7
1800
6
1600
1400 5

1200 4 mio t/Y


1000 kg per capita
800 3 World population

600 2
400
1
200
0 0
1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
year

Source: CementReview
FLSmidth 2008 all rights reserved.