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MODUL KUALIFIKASI LAS

(KL)

KUALIFIKASI PROSEDURE LAS


KUALIFIKASI TUKANG LAS

 A W S D1.1 : 2010

Disampaikan dalam
DIKLAT INSPEKTUR LAS
Di POLITEKNIK PERKAPALAN NEGERI SURABAYA

Condro Widiyarto
April 2012
A W S D1. 1 : 2010
4. QUALIFICATION
4.1 SCOPE
PART A: General Requirements
Untuk WPS & Performance qualification
PART B: WPS qualification
Yang terklasifikasi dalam section 3 – Prequalified
WPS.
PART C: Performance Qualification
Kualifikasi welder, Welding Operator or Tack
welder kemampuan untuk mengasilkan las-
lasan yang bagus (produce sound weld).
PART D: Requirements for CVN Testing - Jika
dipersyaratkan dalam dokumen kontrak.

PART A
GENERAL REQUIRMENTS
4.2 General requirements: Contain scope &
limitation
4.2.1 WPS: Kecuali untuk prequalified WPS clause
3, WPS harus terkualifikasi sesuai clause 4
PART B.
4.2.1.1 Qual. Responsibility: Setiap kontraktor atau
manufacturer (Fabrikator)
4.2.1.2 WPS Qual. To Other Standards: Acceptance
manjadi tanggung jawab Engineer’s sesuai
kondisi specific structure or service condition
atau keduanya.
AWS B2.1-X-XXX series standar WPS unitk
kondisi ini bisa diaccept untuk digunakan dalam
code ini.
4.2.1.3 CVN Test Requirements: Jika dipersyaratkan
dalam kontrak harus conform ke Part D.

4.2.2 Performance qualification of Welder


Personnel: See Part C.
4.2.2 .1 Pervious performance qualification:
Kualifikasi sebelumnya Welder, Welding operator
atau Tack welder bisa dipakai dengan
persetujuan Engineer’s.
4.2.2.2 Qualification Responsibility: Menjadi
tanggung jawab oleh setiap fabrikator atau
kontraktor.

4.2.3 Period Efectiveness:


4.2.3.1 Welder & Welding Operator:
(1) > 6 bulan tidak mengelas atau
(2) Karena alasan yang spesifik dipertanyakan
kemampuan mengelasnya.
4.2.3.2 Tack Welder: Qualified sesuai posisi dan
proses las kecuali Karena alasan yang spesifik
dipertanyakan kemampuan mengelasnya.
4.3 Common requirements for WPS & WPPQ:
4.3.1 Qualification to Earlier Edition: Kualifikasi
dengan edisi yang lalu boleh digunakan.
Kualifikasi yang baru harus menggunakan edisi
yang berjalan, terkecuali ada dalam kontrak.
4.3.2 Aging: Jika dibolehkan oleh filler metal
specification maka specimen las-lasan boleh di- Aged
pd temperature 95 – 105º C x 48 hour ± 2 hours.
4.3.3 Records: Disimpan di fabrikator/Contraktor.
4.3.4 Position of Welds: F, H, V, OH see Fig. 4.1 dan
Fig. 4.2. (hal 157-158)
Test Assembly seperti terlihat dalam gambar:
(1) Fig. 4.3: Groove weld untuk plate hal 159
(2) Fig. 4.4: Groove weld in pipe or tubing
(3) Fig. 4.5: Fillet weld
(4) Fig. 4.6: Fillet pipe or tubing hal 162

PART B
WPS
4.4 Production welding position Qualified: See tabel
4.1
4.5 Type of qualification: Lihat tabel 4.2 (CJP) dan
Tabel 4.3 (PJP) or Table 4.4 (Fillet). Dengan detail
individual NDT dan mechanical test sbb:
(1)Visual Inspection (See 4.9.1)
(2)NDT (See 4.9.2)
(3)Face, root & side bend (See 4.9.3.1)
(4)Reduced Section Tension (See 4.9.3.4)
(5)All weld metal tension (4.9.3.6)
(6)Macro etch (See 4.9.4)
AWS D1.1 2010 EDITION - PART C WELDER OR WELDING OPERTOR PERFORMANCE QUALIFICATION
4.22 Prep. From WPQR 133 4.19.1 WELDER POSITION 4.21 WELD TYPES Welder & Welding Oprt. 133
Annex N 344 4.19.1.1 Tack Welders (1) CJP NT- See 4.24
4.19.1.2 Tack Welders (2) PJP NT- See 4.25
4.23 ESSENTIAL VARIABLE 133 4.19.2 Prod T and Dia. Qual. (3) FILLET - See 4.26
Table 4.12 155 4.19.2.1 Welder & W Oprt: Table 4.11 151 (4) CJP T- See 4.27
4.19.2.2 Welder & W Oprt: Table 4.12 155 (5) PJP T - See 4.28
4.20 TYPE QUAL.TEST TABLE-4.11 132 4.19.3 Welder & W Opr via WPS qual. (6) Fillet Weld T- Fig. 4.29 182
1. WELDER & WELDING OPRT. (7) Plug & Slot Welds T & NT - See 4.30
(1). VT - See 4.9.1 PART C
(2). F,R, S Bend - See 4.9.3.1 WELDER QUALIFICATION
(3) Macro - See 4.31.2 4.24 CJP NT-Table 4.10 150
(4) Fillet Weld Break - See 4.31.4 4.31 METHOD TEST & ACC CRITERIA (1) Fig. 4.21 - All position Unlimited 176
1.1 RT Subtitute Bend Test 4.31.1 Visual: Accept. criteria see 4.9.1 (2) 4.30 - Horz Position Unlimited 183
1.2 Bend Test 4.31.2 Macroetch (3) 4.31 - All Position Limited 184
Fig. 4.21, 4.30-4.34 4.31.2.1 Plug & Fillet weld Macro etch (4) 4.32 - Horz Position Limited 185
Test Specimen Fig. 4.32 4.31.2.2 Macroetch for T-, Y-, K- conn.
, 4.33 & 4.36 4.31.2.3 Macroetch Acceptance Criteria 4.27 CJP TUBULAR CONN.
2. TACK WELDER - 4.31.3 RT - In lieu bend test (1) CJP w/ Backing /Back Gouging Fig. 4.24(B) 178
Fig. 4.39 Fillet Weld Break 4.31.4 Fillet Weld Break Test. (2) CJP w/o Backing or Back gouging Fig. 4.24 (A) 178
2.1 Extent of Qualification 4.31.5 Root, Face and Side bend spcimen (3) T, Y, K Conn. - W/ Backing in Box
4.32 METHOD TEST & ACC CR. TACK WELDER Tubing Fig. 4.24 (B)
Force specimen per Fig. 4.35 (4) T, Y, K Conn. Welded from 1 Side w/
4.32.1 Visual Insp Acceptance Criteria Backing - Fig. 4.24B
4.32.2 DT Acceptance criteria (5) T, Y, K Conn. Welded from 1 side w/o
4.33 Re Test Backing Fig. 4.28 for NPS <6 " or Fig. 4.28 181
4.33.1 Welder and Welding Opr Retest requirement for NPS < 4"
4.33.1.1 Immediate Re-Test (6) T, Y, K Conn. Welded from 1 side
4.33.1.2 Retest after further training or Practice W/O Backing or Back Gouging in Box
4.33.1.3 Retest after Lapse of Qual Period. Tubing.The Option on the Following:
4.33.1.4. Exception Failure of Requalification Retest. (a) Fig. 4.27 pipe dia. Or Box Tubing
TABLE: + Fig. 4.29 Box Tubing
(b) Fig. 4.27 Box Tubing w/Macro
etch from location shown Fig. 4.29 182

See Table 4.11 Dia. and Thickness


NOTE:
a. All test plate, pipe or tube welds shall be visually
inspected (4.9.1)and subject to NDT (4.9.2) required for
each qualified position.
b. See fig. 4.11 & 4.12 for test plate requirements.
c. For square groove welds that are qualified w/o back
gouging, the maximum thickness qualified shall be
limited to the test plate thickness
d. CJP groove weld on any thickness or diameter shall
qualify any size of fillet or PJP groove welds for any
thickness or diameter (See 4.11.3)
e. Qualification with any pipe diameter shall qualify all box
section widths and depths.
f. CVN when specified shall conform to Sect 4 part D
g. See table 4.1 for the groove details required for
qualification of tubular butt and T-, Y-, K- connection
joints.
h. See fig 4.9 for plate requirements.
i. For 10 mm plate or a thickness, a side bend may be
substituted of each of required Face and Root bend test
required.
4.6 Weld types for WPS:
(1) CJP groove – Non Tubular Connection (NTC) (See
4.10)
(2) PJP groove weld – NTC (See 4.11)
(3) Fillet welds – TC & NTC ( See 4.12)
(4) CJP groove - TC (See 4.13)
(5) PJP groove - TC (See 4.14)
(6) Plug & Slot weld – TC & NTC (See 4.15)

4.7 Preparation of WPS: WPS reference in 4.8 spesifik


essential variable dengan data range variable
didapat dari PQR.
4.8 Essensial Variable:
4.8.1 Lihat table 4.5 & tabel 4.6 essensial veriable
untuk SMAW, SAW, GMAW, GTAW and FCAW
4.8.2 ESW & EGW: Lihat table 4.7
4.8.3 Base metal qualification: BM listed di-table 3.1
dg kualifikasi ke BM sesuai table 4.8 dan BM yg tdk
ada di T-3.1 maka gunakan table 4.9 dan harus
approve oleh Engineer’s.
4.8.4 Pre heat & Interpass Temperature: Lihat table
3.2 or annex I Lebih rendah dari itu harus approved
by Engineer’s atau dengan WPQT.
4.9 Method testing & Acc. criteria WPS qual: Weld test
sesuai 4.9.2 dg specimen test dipotong sesuai Fig. 4.7 – 4.11
sesuai yang dipakai dan diprepare untuk testing sesuai Fig.
4.12 s/d 4.14 dan 4.18 as applicable.

4.9.1 Visual Inspection, Acceptable shall meet:


4.9.1.1 VI of groove welds sbb:
(1) Free of cracks
(2) Craters filled to full cross section weld
(3) Reinf.Weld ≤ 3 mm, weld profile conform ke Fig 5.4
dan harus complete fusion.
(4) UC < 1 mm.
(5) Weld Root CJP hrs diinspeksi – No cracks, IF or IP
(6) CJP groove – one side w/o backing: Root
concavity atau melt trough hrs conform ke:
a) Max. Concave < 2 mm, provided t weld ≥ T
BM.
b) Max. Melt trough < 3 mm kecuali untuk
Tubular T-, Y- & K- connection maka melt
trough is not limited.

4.9.2 NDT (Before mechanical test): Sebelum melakukan


mechanical test hrs dilakukan NDT
4.9.2.1 RT & UT sbb:
Accord sect. 6 part E or F for test plate
Sect. 6 part C for tubular.
4.9.2.2 Acceptance criteria according section 6 part C
4.9.3 Mechanical Test
4.9.3.1. R -F and Side Bend
Specimen see fig.4.12 (Root & Face)
Specimen see fig.4.13 (Side Bend)
Bend test jig fig. 4.15 ≈ 4.17
4.9.3.2 Long Bend Specimen
In lieu of transferse R dan F, Bend, when material differ markedly
in mechanical bending.
Cutting untuk plate lihat Fig: 4.10 or 4.11
Specimens see Fig: 4.12.

4.9.3.3 Acceptance Criteria Bend Test


No discontinuities exceeding =
(1) 3 mm any direction of surface
(2) 10 mm sum all discontinuities > 1 mm and < 3 mm
(3) 6 mm max. Corner Crack, Except from SI or other fusion or
other discontinuities then corner crack 3 mm max. Corner
crack over > 6 mm without evidence SI shall be disregarded
and replacement test from the original weldment shall be
tested.

4.9.3.4 Reduction Section Tension Specimen:


Tensile specimen lihat Fig : 4.14
Ts = Max. Load / Cross sectional area
Cross Sectional area = Width x thickness

4.9.3.5 Acceptance Criteria:


Ts ≥ Ts min specified base metal

4.9.3.6 All weld metal tension specimen:


Fig = 4.18 & Test Accordance ASTM A 370

4.9.4 Macroetch
Etching for clear definition of weld

4.9.4.1 Acceptance Criteria


Visually inspection, shall conform;
(1) PJP = Actual weld size > specified weld size,(E)
(1) Fillet = Root fusion
(2) Min – leg size meet specified fillet
(3) PJP & fillet shall :
(a) No cracks
(b) Fusion between layers, WM & BM
(c) Weld profile → conform to specified detail
and acceptance fig. 5.4 fabrication
(d) UC ≤ 1 mm (undercut)
4.9.5 Re –test:
If one specimen failed: Two retest cut from
material same WPS qual. material. For material
> 1 ½” (38 mm): If fail required testing for all
specimen of the same type from two additional
locations in the test material.

4.10 CJP Groove welds for NTC:


Table 4.2 (1) qual WPS hal. 131
Fig 4.9 ≈ 4.11 For the appropriate test plate.

4.10.1 Corner or T Joint


Expect dept of groove ≤ 25 mm, specimen shall same
with configuration on construction
4.13 CJP Groove welds for Tubular Conn.
Classified as follows:
(1) See 4.12.1 with backing or back gouging
(2) See 4.12.2 without backing welded from one side only.
(3) See 4.12.3 T.Y.K - Connection with backing or back
gouging.
(4) see 4.12.4 T.Y.K - without backing from one side only

4.13.1 CJP for TC with backing or back gauging:


Shall be qualified using Fig: 4.25A with back gouging or
Fig: 4.25B with backing.

4.13.2 CJP for TC without backing/back gauging:


Shall be qualified using Fig: 4.25A without backing welded from
one side only

4.13.3 T-, Y-, or K- connection with backing or back


gauging: Shall qualify using:
(1) OD selected from table 4.2 (2)
(2) Fig. 4.25B joint detail or
(3) OD ≥ 24”, plate conform with 4.9 using fig. 4.25B

4.13.4 T-, Y-, or K- connection without backing from one


side only: Shall require qualification as follow:

4.13.4.1 WPS w/o Pre-qualified status:


When essential variable are outside Pre-qual. Range, Qual. Weld
shall require as follows:
(1) Fig. 4.27 for pipe with OD ≥ 4” (100 mm) & Fig. 4.29 for
box tubes.
Fig. 4.28 for pipe with OD < 4”(100 mm) or Fig. 4.28 &
4.29 for box tubes
(2) At least 1 macro-etch req. for each condition:
.
a) Groove combining to be used or greatest depth
with smaller groove angle, or combining the
groove to be used.
b) Narrowest root opening with groove angle 37.5°
test in flat (one) & OH (one) position.
c) Widest root opening used groove angle : 37,5°
and one test welded flat & overhead position.
d) Match box conn.only : min. groove angle, corner
dimension & corner radius comb.: One test in
horizontal position

(3) Macroetch in (1) & (2) above exam for discontinuities


& shall have:
a. No cracks
b. Fusion between layers, WM & BM
c. Weld profile → conform to specified detail and
accordance 5.24. Fabrication, Weld Profile.
d. No. undercut exceeding in 6.9 Visual Inspection
Table 6.1.
e. For P ≥ 1 mm → sum P ≤ ¼” (6 mm)
f. No. Accumulated slag → sumslag ≤ 6 mm
Those specimens not conform to:
(a) ∼(f) shall be considered un
acceptable
(b) ∼ (f) not applicable to back up weld

4.13.4.2 CJP for T-,Y-,K- Conn. WPS with ψ < 30°°:


Sample joint see 4.12.4.1 (2)
3 macro-etch cut from specimen & shall conform to
4.12.4.1 (3) and show req. theoretical weld see detail C,D
fig 3.8 ∼ 3.10 Fig. 4.26 for test detail.
4.13.4.3 CJP in T,Y,K Conn. using GMAW – S:
Shall conform sect.4
Detail in 3.13.5 (Fig.3.8 ∼ 3.11) 37.5° single bevel & shown
in Fig. 4.27.

4.13.4.4. Notch CVN Toughness: When req. butt long & circum with
0.5 D attach member (Tubular), charpy under 2.27.2.2
(hal.22) Absorb Energy = 20 ft – lb (27J) at last or at - 18°C (
0° F) whichever lowest

4.14 Welding Process Requiring Qualification

4.15 Plug &Slot weld for tubular & Non tubular


connection: in conformance with 4.30

4.16 Welding Process requiring qualification.

4.16.1 ESW, EGW, GTAW & GMAW –S: See annex A for GMAW-S)
and Table 4.5 for GMAW also apply to GMAW-S

4.16.2 Other Welding Process


Not covered by 3.2.1 or 4.16.1 may be used, provide WPS
are qual. by test with ess.var Developing WPS by contractor
and approved by Engineer

4.17 WPS requirements for GTAW


Shall prepare & quality each WPS Sect. 4

4.18 WPS requirements for ESW / EGW.


Shall prepare & quality each WPS Sect. 4
4.18.1 Previous qualification: Proper document & WPS
approved by Engineer → may be accepted

4.18.2 All weld TS requirements: Shall demonstrate Acc to


sect.4 prior to use that each combination of shielding and
filler metal meet latest edition AWS A5.26
PART C Performance Qualification
4.18 General – 4.18.1 Production welding position qualified:
See Tabl4 4.10 (Hal 147)
4.19 Type of Qualification Test required:
4.19.1 Welders & Welding Operators: Shall conform to table 4.11 with
the following sub clause:
1) VI (see 4.8.1) – Use WPS requirements
2) F, R & Side bend (See 4.8.3.1) (Use WPS requirements
3) Macroetch (See 4.30.2)
4) Fillet weld Break (See 4.30.4)

4.19.1.1 RT instead of bending test except GMAW-S: RT may be


made in lien of guided bend test as describe in 4.19.1.2 (See 4.30 for RT
req.) Qual. test assembly → RT by 15 in (380 mm) in the initial prod. Weld
T-Range Qual. Shown table 4.9
4.19.1.2 Guided Bend Test
Prepare specimen Acc. Fig 4.21, 4.29 ∼ 4.33 for welding operators
Fig 4.22, 4.32 or 4.35 prepare for testing Acc.fig. 4.12 ∼ 4.14 or
4.18 specimen
4.19.2 Tack welders
Make: 6 mm max. size tack weld x 50 mm long on fillet weld break
specimen see Fig. 4.38.
4.19.2.1 Extent of qual.
Who quality tack weld ⇒ by weld test qualified for tack weld all
joints, except CJP from on side w/o backing.

4.20 Weld Type for Welder & Operator


(1) CJP non tubular see 4.23 (hal.131)
(2) PJP non tubular see 4.24
(3) Fillet non tubular see 4.25
(4) CJP tubular se 4.26 (hal.132)
(5) PJP tubular see 4.27
(6) Fillet tubular see 4.28
(7) Plug & shot tubular & non tubular see 4.29

4.21 Preparation
 Use WPS with limitation of. 4.7 shall apply.
 Performance Ess. Val. 4.22 for WPQR with essential variable
table 4.11 (Hal 148) - From suggested in annex. N
AWS D1.1-2010 EDITION SECTION 4 WPS QUALIFICATION
4.7 PREP. WPS-PQR
4.9 METHOD TESTNG & 127 4.4 POSITION 126
ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA TABLE 4.1 138 4.8 ESSENTIAL VARIABLE 127
Fig. 4.7-4.11 Location specimen 1. Table 4.5 SMAW,SAW,GTAW, 141
1. VISUAL TEST- GMAW & FCAW
1.1 Groove PART B Table 4.6 CVN Test 145
1.2 Fillet WPS QUALIFICATION 2. Table 4.7 ESW & EGW 146

2. NDT RT/UT-Section 6 Part C 3. Table 3.1 BM-group Table 4.8 64, 147 Shall be qualified using:
TABLE 4.5 TYPE 4.6 WELD TYPE or Table 4.9 148 (1) OD Selected Table 4.2(2)
3. Mechanical Test QUAL. WPS QUAL. 4. Table 3.1 , 3.2 & annex I for (2) Joint Detail Fig. 4.25B or
3.1 Roof, Face & Side Bend 128 4.2 CJP (1) NT 4.10 PH & IP 352 (3) Pipe OD ≥ 24" (600mm) conformance
Fig. 4.12 (RB & FB), 4.13 (SB) 168 (4) T 4.13 to 4.9 using joint detail Fig. 4.25B
Fig. 4.15 - 4.17 Bend Test Jig 172 P139 4.10 CJP for NT 129
4.3 PJP (2) NT 4.11 Table 4.2 (1) 139 Shall require the following:
3.2 Long Bend Specimen (5) T 4.14-T,Y,K Fig. 4.9 - 4.11 Test Plate 165-167 (1) Fig. 4.27 for Pipe ≥4" OD or 180
3.3 Acceptance Criteria Bend Test P141 & Butt Weld Fig. 4.27 & 4.29 for Box tubes 181
3.4 Tensile Specimen Fig. 4.14 170 4.4 FILLET (3) T & NT-4.12 4.13 CJP Groove Weld 130 Fig. 4.28 for Pipe < 4" OD or
3.4.1 Acceptance criteria (6) Plug & Slot-4.15 1. CJP W Backing Fig. 4.25A 178 Fig. 4.28 and Fig 4.29 for box tubes
3.5 Acceptance Criteria TS P141 (W/ BG) or 4.25B (W/ backing) (2) Sample Joint & Tube Mock up
3.6 All Weld Tension specimen 2. CJP W/O Backing Fig. 4.25A (3) Macro etch req'd (1) and (2) above
4. Macro Etch Test 3. T, Y, K-Conn. W/ Backing/BG
4.1 Acceptance criteria Macro Etch 4. T, Y, K-Conn. W/O Backing
(1) PJP (2) Fillet Welds (3) (4) 4.1. WPS W/O pre qualified Status:
5. Re-Test 4.2 CJP T, Y, K Conn. For Y<30º
If 1 failed, 2 test may be performed Sample joint see 4.13.4.1(2) and Fig. . 121-123
T >1.5" (38mm) require re testing 3.8-3.10, Fig. 4.26 for test joint detail 179